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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. Foreign Policy Papers - Africa (M-Z)


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest: Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
March 2002
Report
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Madagascar

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $8,587 4 $10,808
Asia-Pacific Center 5 $65,667 3 $36,797
IMET 7 $99,441 42 $249,375
TOTAL 14 $173,695 49 $296,980

After the failure of its socialist experiment (1975-91), Madagascar continues its transition to democracy and economic liberalization, showing much greater openness towards the U.S. and the West. Throughout the political turmoil of the early and mid-90's, the military remained disciplined, apolitical and respectful of civilian authority, despite calls for it to intervene. The resolve of their apolitical posture was again tested in early 2002 during the political standoff over disputed presidential election results. The world's fourth-largest island, but one of the poorest countries on Earth, Madagascar lacks the capability to protect its 5,000-km. maritime border against threats of smuggling, both in and out. This inability deprives the government of significant revenues, contributes to the endangerment of many rare species found nowhere else and creates an unintended permissive environment for transnational terrorists.

The Malagasy are traditionally inward-looking, but the current government seeks to play a more active role in regional and international affairs. For instance, it hosted an Organization of African Unity (OAU) conference in April 1999 that sought to bring reconciliation to the Comoros and has expressed willingness to participate in peacekeeping operations under UN or OAU auspices. IMET-funded training for Madagascar has enabled Malagasy officers to learn: the legal aspects of PKO, law of the sea, port security and legal and operational aspects of boarding ships at sea, etc. It has also trained English language instructors at the basic and advanced levels. Madagascar is a French-speaking country and mastery of English is a prerequisite for U.S. military training courses.

IMET serves the U.S. strategic goals of counterterrorism and combating international crime, as well as reinforcing democracy. With a substantial increase in IMET, we will be able to provide a mobile training team on peacekeeping operations and perhaps assist with the maintenance and repair of equipment.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Madagascar by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Malawi

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACRI 726 $775,000 0 $0
ACSS 2 $8,365 9 $14,478
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
IMET 69 $359,611 120 $523,550
Non-SA, Unified
Command
32 $34,000 0 $0
TOTAL 829 $1,176,976 130 $538,028

Security assistance, particularly Expanded-IMET programs, is an important component in U.S. efforts to strengthen Malawi's fledgling democracy and to promote economic development in one of the poorest and most densely populated countries on the planet. After three decades of autocratic rule, Malawi held its second free and fair national multi-party elections in June 1999 and its first-ever local multi-party election in November 2000. The country, whose only significant external threat is transnational crime, has steadily improved relations with its neighbors since its democratic transition and has sought to play a stabilizing role in the region and the continent.

Close military-to-military cooperation is an essential pillar in the strong U.S.-Malawi bilateral relationship. Malawi has a small and under-funded, yet apolitical and highly professional military. The Army has been an exemplary participant in a very active slate of programs. One of the first countries to join the program, Malawi was the only ACRI country (and advocate) in southern Africa. It is committed to participating in ACRI's successor institution. The Army joins the equally resource-strapped national police force in select operations to fight crime and has distinguished itself in peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance missions. Malawi was the first country in the region to provide flood relief (helicopters and supplies) to Mozambique. Currently it has ACRI-trained observers in Kosovo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

In addition to traditional professional military skills training, IMET and other security assistance programs are allowing the Malawi Army to bring significant resources to bear on key issues, including HIV/AIDS, structural reform, civilian-military relations, human rights and anti-corruption. For example, Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS)-organized seminars provide a venue for members of the Army, Malawi Government, parliamentarians, judiciary, academia, the media and NGOs to work together on issues including rule of law, human rights and peacekeeping. (Restricted interaction between these groups has been a carry-over from the pre-democracy era.) An orientation visit to Washington under the auspices of DIILS provided the impetus for Parliamentary Defense & Security Committee members to meet with the Malawi Army Commander for the first time. The Committee and Army subsequently worked together on procurement issues and the preparation of annual defense budgets.

The Defense Resource Management Institute (DRMI) is developing Mobile Education Training for the Army and budget directors and planners from every ministry to strengthen the Malawi Government's ability to use its scarce resources more efficiently. This will help the GOM re-assert control over expenditures and meet the conditions of economic structural adjustment reforms prescribed by the IMF and World Bank. (Malawi has failed over the last twenty years to comply consistently with IFI programs.) The Malawians used their participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) to help draft their first national strategic plan.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Malawi by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Security assistance programs and military exercises provide excellent opportunities and resources in post's efforts to assist in the battle against HIV/AIDS in Malawi. All in-country training includes a session on some aspect of the disease. We have called on the International Health Resources Management Program to help the Ministry of Health, other ministries, the Army and donors implement an ambitious comprehensive National AIDS Strategic Plan.

Mali

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACRI 1068 $985,000 54 $25,000
ACSS 9 $13,519 4 $10,808
FMF 90 $377,800 60 $205,000
IMET 54 $399,608 43 $310,782
TOTAL 1221 $1,775,927 161 $551,590

Over the past decade the Malian Armed Forces have evolved from an instrument of government control to a professional organization which supports human rights, economic development and conflict resolution. U.S. security assistance programs in Mali serve to institutionalize these changes, providing training in civil-military affairs, coordinating ongoing peacekeeping training and conducting seminars on the role of the armed forces in a democracy. U.S. sponsored training of senior- and mid-level officers contributes to the professional development of current and future Malian military leaders to reinforce and perpetuate the subordinate, depoliticized role of the military. Additionally, military justice and defense management courses fortify the Government of Mali (GOM)'s efforts to fight corruption and instill good governance.

Mali has been an effective interlocutor and mediator on regional security issues, such as those in Sierra Leone and within the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), and as a buffer against the intentions of Libya and extreme Islamic fundamentalists active in the region. ACRI training provides critical skills to enable the GOM to exercise its prominent regional peacekeeping role. Malian leaders seek a greater role for Mali as a force for regional stability and peace. Also, Mali has one of the largest IMET programs in Africa on a per capita basis. Increased security assistance and training support from ACRI and other State and DoD programs will be necessary to permit Mali to be more effective as it continues to play a constructive role in these areas.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Mali by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Mauritania

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 8 $14,092 4 $10,808
IMET 30 $122,517 60 $85,000
TOTAL 38 $136,609 64 $95,808

In FY 2001, IMET and other military-to-military programs began after a hiatus of several years. Military engagement programs are providing a vehicle to enhance the Armed Forces' positive role within civil society and to assist the country in its continued democratic transition. Toward these ends, civil-military and military justice training teams deployed to Mauritania and a language lab was installed at the Joint Military School.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Mauritania by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Mauritius

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $8,896 8 $14,478
Asia-Pacific Center 4 $48,296 4 $48,740
IMET 44 $40,210 9 $164,477
TOTAL 50 $97,402 21 $227,695

Located 600 miles east of Madagascar, Mauritius is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. The economy relies heavily on exports of sugar and textiles, but services like tourism and offshore businesses are growing in Mauritius, which has one of the strongest economies and highest standards of living in Africa. While Mauritius has no military as such, under the command of the Commissioner of Police, there are approximately 10,000 active duty personnel divided into the National Police, a VIP Protection Unit, a Police Helicopter Squadron, a Special Mobile Force and a National Coast Guard. Currently, officers on loan from India head up the Coast Guard and the Police Helicopter Squadron.

U.S. military training assistance has focused on the Coast Guard. Through U.S. assistance, it is hoped that the National Coast Guard, created in 1989, will grow into a Mauritian-led organization capable of effectively patrolling territorial waters, stemming narcotics trafficking and illegal fishing, and mounting successful search and rescue operations. Another U.S. foreign policy goal in this area is to improve protection of Mauritius' fragile coastal environment.

Officers from the Special Mobile Force, Coast Guard and Police took executive courses in crisis management, military justice and international maritime law at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies in Honolulu, Hawaii. These courses provide a strong overview of all the Coast Guard mission areas, including maritime law enforcement, fisheries protection, pollution control, and search and rescue. Junior officers and enlisted members of the Coast Guard have also attended U.S-based training. A U.S. Coast Guard Mobile Training Team visited Mauritius during this period and conducted a Port Environmental Safety course. The course involved approximately 40 students from the military, government and private organizations and was extremely successful. In FY 2001, representatives from the Defense Institute for International Legal Studies and the International Health Resources Program conducted a study to identify needs and plan future training programs for Mauritius. Mauritius has expressed an interest in participating in peacekeeping operation exercises and training.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Mauritius by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Mozambique

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 0 $0 9 $14,478
IMET 5 $181,804 93 $197,798
TOTAL 5 $181,804 102 $212,276

In the nine years since Mozambique ended its 16-year civil war, U.S. policy has been to encourage democratic consolidation and socio-economic reform. Success in achieving these goals is essential for lasting peace and prosperity for the Mozambican people and for regional stability. Mozambique has developed into one of Africa's fastest growing economies and has become a regional leader in conflict resolution efforts such as those involving the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Holding the chair of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Mozambique potentially could play a role in a SADC peacekeeping mission in DRC and has been involved in Lusophone initiatives elsewhere on the continent, such as Guinea-Bissau. The inability of the country to cope with floods in May 2000 has underlined the country's need to continue developing its crisis response capacity. We hope to enhance Mozambique's response capacity with bilateral and possibly sub-regional engagement programs.

The consolidation of democracy in the post-war period requires that the military play a constructive role by becoming an apolitical and professional defense force that respects human rights. The IMET program and other training activities facilitate this transition by providing civil-military relations courses to inculcate a respect for civilian control of the defense force. IMET also trains students in basic technical skills, such as ordnance maintenance to ensure the proper handling of the army's equipment, and coast guard management to help Mozambique protect the resources along its lengthy ocean border.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Mozambique by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Namibia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $9,467 9 $14,478
IMET 14 $222,177 69 $263,711
TOTAL 16 $231,644 78 $278,189

The primary U.S. national interests in Namibia are democracy and humanitarian assistance. Independent since 1989, Namibia has made significant strides in developing a stable, democratic political system and free-market economy. Assisting Namibia in its efforts to address the HIV/AIDS crisis and overcome the legacy of apartheid provides a basis for enhanced regional stability, economic development, trade and investment opportunities and advancement of U.S. global interests.

International Military Education and Training (IMET) funds support the training of Namibia Defense Force (NDF) personnel in democratic values, logistics and respect for civilian institutions. Namibia's program focuses on training for all strata of the NDF from senior level Ministry of Defense officials down to non-commissioned officers. In FY 2001, IMET funds were used to conduct civil-military relations seminars, train military police, improve English language instruction and support senior-level attendance at the Naval Staff College.

In FY 2002, courses will continue in civil-military relations and military medical operations to strengthen the NDF's capacity to conduct peacekeeping and humanitarian operations. Funds will also be used to improve the understanding of the impact of HIV/AIDS upon the military and extend education efforts throughout the services. Namibia became eligible in FY 2002 to receive Excess Defense Articles (EDA) on a grant basis under Section 516 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended. Grant EDA will support Namibia's peacekeeping and demining activities.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Namibia by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Niger

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 8 $14,104 3 $10,808
IMET 8 $89,140 62 $122,009
TOTAL 16 $103,244 65 $132,817

In FY 2001, IMET and other military-to-military programs revived in Niger after the country returned to democratic governance in 1999 and Section 508 sanctions were lifted. Military engagement programs provided a vehicle to enhance the Armed Forces' positive role within civil society and to assist the country in its continued democratic transition.

To assist on the road to professionalization, we provided IMET courses in civil-military relations and defense resources management to key leaders in the Nigerian military. In addition, the French-speaking Nigerian military received language instruction and labs to assist with training using English language materials and equipment.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Niger by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Nigeria

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 13 $13,005 11 $10,808
IMET 66 $659,457 196 $1,082,324
TOTAL 79 $672,462 207 $1,093,132

As Africa's most populous nation, a key source of U.S. oil imports, and a country emerging from 15 years of military rule, Nigeria is vital to the stability and prosperity of West Africa and the Continent. Nigerian Armed Forces have played key roles in ending the civil war in Liberia and in creating conditions for a peace settlement in Sierra Leone.

Military rule decimated Nigeria's Armed Forces as successive military governments ignored professional training and equipment for soldiers, and allowed infrastructure and equipment to decay. A nation of Nigeria's size and importance, however, needs a credible and professional military force that respects civilian control and fulfills its constitutional role of protecting the nation. It is therefore vital for the U.S. government to engage with Nigeria's military as part of an overall effort to consolidate democracy, rebuild institutions and encourage investment and economic growth in Nigeria.

Until the inauguration of an elected, civilian government on May 29, 1999, the U.S. government had embargoed the export of military goods and services to Nigeria. The lifting of these sanctions permitted the resumption of IMET and other military training for Nigeria. IMET training in FY 2001 trained over 60 Nigerian military personnel, in many cases with courses lasting up to a year in the U.S. This intensive type of training is exactly what is needed to turn around the attitudes and trends in Nigerian military thinking after years of military rule.

Nigeria's democracy is fragile and the Government of Nigeria must address many challenges to ensure that elected, civilian control becomes consolidated and entrenched. The need to restructure, train and professionalize the military is a key challenge that the U.S. government can help Nigeria meet by providing training opportunities in the U.S. for officers and others. An ambitious training program for this fiscal year focused on defense resources management, military health care, civil-military relations, military justice and professional training for mid to senior-level officers. After years of a severed relationship, this training seeks to slowly change the mindset of a military force toward a democratic, rights-based civilian government. In time, this programmatic approach, mixing professional training with courses on military justice and civil-military relations, will help to inculcate the values which can make the largest African military a positive force for change in the region and on the continent. Our train and equip efforts in Operation Focus Relief (OFR), which began in late August 2000 and ended in December 2001, played a major role in professionalizing the Nigerian Army and enhancing its ability to plan an effective regional peacekeeping role with the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL).

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Nigeria by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Rwanda

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $8,933 2 $5,404
TOTAL 2 $8,933 2 $5,404

U.S. programs in Rwanda aim at preventing the recurrence of genocide (which claimed some 800,000 lives in 1994) by helping to create the political, economic and social conditions that will lead to a prosperous civil society that embraces democratic governance and respect for human rights. To achieve these goals, the U.S. implements a variety of political, humanitarian and economic assistance programs that support U.S. interests in aiding Rwanda's transition to sustainable development while securing regional peace and stability in Africa's Great Lakes Region.

IMET cooperation with Rwanda was suspended in June 2000 after clashes between Rwandan and Ugandan forces in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). IMET remains suspended due to Rwanda's continued occupation of the Eastern DRC. Progress on the Lusaka Peace Process and an eventual withdrawal of Rwandan troops from the DRC would bring about conditions more favorable to reinstatement of the IMET program.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Rwanda by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The USG continues to fund a humanitarian demining program in Rwanda. This program, which has achieved significant reductions in the number of deaths and injuries due to landmines, is funded through NADR and has strict end-user agreements for all USG-provided supplies.

Sao Tome and Principe

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $7,517 2 $5,404
IMET 2 $75,929 33 $102,460
TOTAL 4 $83,446 35 $107,864

Sao Tome and Principe (STP) is a politically stable multi-party democracy. This attribute played an important role in the U.S. decision to build a $55 million Voice of America relay station there. STP is only in the first decade of transition to a multi-party democracy. As one of the world's poorest countries, STP's economic plight undermines its long-term stability and democratic institutions. The joint exploration with Nigeria of oil deposits in the Gulf of Guinea, along the lines of an agreement signed in 2001, offers hope for improved economic development.

IMET in FY 2001 focused on improving the English language capability of STP military personnel, thereby enhancing STP's military efficiency and effectiveness. This emphasis will continue in FY 2002. IMET facilitates the building of effective relations between the STP and the U.S. militaries and the exposure of trainee-participants to U.S. professional military organizations, procedures and the manner in which the U.S. military functions under civilian control. In addition, participation in Africa Center for Strategic Studies supports our democratic aims in STP by reinforcing the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in STP by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Senegal

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACRI 1432 $2,595,500 30 $574,862
ACSS 8 $14,444 7 $10,808
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
FMF 30 $250,000 30 $2,000,000
FMS 30 $50,000 0 $0
IMET 65 $473,935 30 $366,382
TOTAL 1565 $3,383,879 98 $2,952,052

Senegal is our most important Francophone partner in sub-Saharan Africa, a supporter of key U.S. foreign policy initiatives and a consistent voice for moderation and compromise in multilateral and Islamic organizations. Senegal plays a key role in ensuring a vital U.S. interest: regional stability. Senegal is a participant in the ACRI and participated in Operation Focus Relief (OFR) last year. It hosted the first Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminar in November 1999, and the first Brigade-level ACRI training in October 2000. Senegal is committed to economic reform and has initiated an ambitious privatization program. The Senegalese military has distinguished itself in peacekeeping operations in Bosnia, Liberia, Rwanda, the Sinai and Lebanon. Senegal was the first sub-Saharan country to offer troops to OPERATION DESERT SHIELD. The continuing development of a cadre of professional officers through the IMET program is in the interest of the U.S. and will reinforce Senegal as a full partner with its neighbors in peacekeeping operations in the sub-region. Reinforcing the traditions of a professional civilian-controlled military that emphasizes respect for democratic principles, human rights and the rule of law will set an example for other nations in the sub-region. By working with Senegal to further democracy and economic liberalization, the U.S. helps strengthen the democratic foundation of a country whose growth and success are extremely important.

IMET training and ACSS programs have supplemented training with ACRI and OFR to strengthen the levels of professionalization within the Senegalese officer and NCO corps.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Senegal by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

A complicating factor in providing military training to Senegal is the smoldering rebellion in the Casamance region, the area between Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. The Casamance is Senegal's richest agricultural area and had a thriving tourist industry until problems developed in 1982. Ethnic and economic factors fuel the rebellion as local groups allege discrimination and unfair exploitation by Dakar. The previous President, Diouf, visited the region in January 1999 and opened a dialogue with the dominant separatist group, the Movement of Casamance Democratic Forces (MFDC). A cease-fire accord was signed in December 1999, and several meetings were held in Banjul between MFDC representatives and GOS Ministers. President Wade, who pledged to resolve the Casamance conflict after his inauguration in April 2000, has yet to delineate a plan of action. Meanwhile, sporadic reports of violence in the Casamance Region continue between the MFDC and Senegalese military.

Seychelles

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $8,128 5 $3,670
FMF 30 $0 0 $0
IMET 1 $37,840 60 $55,000
Non-SA, Unified
Command
20 $65,000 0 $0
TOTAL 53 $110,968 65 $58,670

Located in the western Indian Ocean with an economic exclusion zone (EEZ) of 1.2 million square kilometers, Seychelles struggles with sluggish economic growth and is attempting, with some success, to diversify its economy and move away from its heavy reliance on tourism. Revenues from fishing rights and fish processing have grown sharply in recent years and have surpassed tourism as the most important economic activity. President France Albert Rene, as Minister of Defense, has complete control over the one hundred-member Seychelles People's Defense Force (SPDF), consisting of an Army and a Coast Guard. Prior to 1993, the SPDF had included an Army, Navy, Air Force and Militia, but a shift towards fisheries protection led to the creation of a Coast Guard in place of the Navy and Air Force. The Coast Guard has evolved into an effective, highly professional force and U.S. military training funds have been focused exclusively on the Seychelles Coast Guard.

Given Seychelles' reliance on tourism and fishing and its large EEZ, one of the primary U.S. foreign policy goals for military training in the Seychelles focuses on assisting the Coast Guard in developing the skills necessary to enforce maritime law and to protect the fragile marine environment and fisheries. Other goals include reinforcing the concept of a nonpolitical and apolitical military organization that respects human rights and promotes self-sufficiency and self-management, particularly with respect to in-house training. The IMET program for the Seychelles, which is administered by the Kenya-U.S. Liaison Office in Nairobi, addressed these goals in several ways in FY 2001. The modest IMET investment in Seychelles buys a lot of goodwill, which helps in the wake of the closing of the U.S. Embassy and the U.S. Air Force tracking station there.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Seychelles by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Sierra Leone

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 7 $14,651 2 $5,404
IMET 9 $92,403 43 $249,063
TOTAL 16 $107,054 45 $254,467

The security situation in Sierra Leone has improved greatly. The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) is deployed in former rebel-held areas. The Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF) has benefited greatly from British training and has deployed to the borders with Liberia and Guinea. Over 45,000 combatants were disarmed in an UNAMSIL-supervised disarmament program that was declared complete on January 17, 2002. A January 16, 2002 agreement between the UN and the Government of Sierra Leone established a Special Court to investigate, indict and try those bearing the greatest responsibility for violations of international humanitarian law and related Sierra Leonean law. Parliamentary and presidential elections are scheduled for May 14, 2002.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Sierra Leone by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

South Africa

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 1 $8,624 13 $19,882
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
EPIC 9 $36,426 0 $0
IMET 673 $788,840 410 $973,106
Marshall Center 1 $850 0 $0
TOTAL 684 $834,740 424 $992,988

After South Africa's first democratic elections in May 1994, the new government undertook a sweeping transformation of its military, the South African Defense Force (SADF), which had provided internal security under the apartheid regime, in addition to undertaking cross border operations in the southern African region. The transformation has included incorporating 11 former homeland militaries and anti-apartheid militant groups into what is now known as the South African National Defense Force (SANDF). The new SANDF leadership struggles with issues of racial representation within the military; differences in levels of training, education and promotion criteria among the various groups; and limited resources as the new government focuses on providing services to the historically disadvantaged majority.

The South African Government is also struggling with defining an appropriate mission for the SANDF and structuring the force to accomplish that mission. In recent years, SANDF forces have been deployed for border control, police support and peacekeeping operations in Burundi, DRC, Lesotho and elsewhere in Africa. A controversial multi-billion dollar defense acquisition program will add corvettes, submarines and jet fighters to the SANDF arsenal. At the same time, downsizing efforts are expected to bring SANDF forces from a peak of 100,000 to around 60,000.

U.S. interests are served by assisting South Africa with transforming its military into a professional, apolitical, human rights-respecting force capable and willing to undertake a regional leadership role commensurate with the country's size, population and level of development. A successful transformation will serve as a model for other African countries with which the United States can cooperate on conflict resolution and peacekeeping.

To advance the SANDF's transformation and pursue a strong security assistance partnership, the IMET program focuses on civil-military relations training and seminars to assist the SANDF as it reorients its mission in the post-apartheid environment. IMET also provides training (such as command and staff college) for officers who may not have received formal leadership training, logistics training to facilitate administrative efficiency and military law to provide a mechanism for respecting human rights and discipline. IMET has also allowed our militaries to exchange expertise in the area of equal opportunity. IMET has assisted the SANDF with minimal technical training, such as flight safety training, to enable to the SANDF to maintain the relatively high-tech military it inherited. Additional training has focused on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, and on peacekeeping operations.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in South Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Swaziland

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 1 $8,843 9 $14,478
IMET 34 $87,921 98 $149,448
Non-SA, Unified
Command
40 $82,000 0 $0
TOTAL 75 $178,764 107 $163,926

Efforts to promote the professionalization of the Swazi military directly support our primary goal of advancing democracy and human rights, and bolster our goals of supporting regional stability and humanitarian assistance. A professional, apolitical military will support the development of democracy and human rights and play a productive role in regional conflict resolution.

IMET funds support military assistance programs that promote the professionalization of the Swazi defense forces through education in the role of the military in a democracy and in respect for human rights. This could become increasingly important amid mounting domestic and international pressure to move from absolute monarchy toward democracy. IMET programs that support peacekeeping training also advance broader U.S. peacekeeping goals for the southern African region.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Swaziland by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Tanzania

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 3 $8,329 10 $14,478
IMET 9 $62,421 17 $103,780
TOTAL 12 $70,750 27 $118,258

Tanzania is located in a critically important location in Africa, with its port in Dar es Salaam serving as the entry point for shipments of goods to other parts of Africa. Porous borders and easy access into Tanzania from neighboring countries and overseas make Tanzania a prime target of terrorist threats, as demonstrated by the tragic bombing of the Embassy in August 1998. It is also the main reception point for refugees fleeing instability in neighboring countries, most notably Burundi and the DRC. Indeed, Tanzania has the most refugees of any African country, over 850,000. The economic, criminal and possible military problems of such a large refugee group present serious security issues for Tanzania.

Tanzania also serves a crucial political role, serving as the seat for the Arusha peace talks aimed at ending the ethnic bloodshed in Burundi, and for the International Criminal Court for Rwanda. The GOT is frequently called upon to mediate between its neighbors. Tanzania also serves as an important partner to Uganda and Kenya in the development of the East Africa Community (EAC), which is aimed at integrating the markets and economic policies of these three countries. The EAC is also envisioned to facilitate security cooperation among the three nations, and there is now a military liaison office. This can form the basis for expanding regional economic integration and stimulating economic development on the continent. The Tanzanian government's human rights record is, relative to other African states, good. It is moving forward to establish democratic institutions and held national multi-party parliamentary and presidential elections in October 2001. The national government has made efforts to resolve conflict within semi-autonomous Zanzibar and promote ethnic cooperation, a contentious issue in other African countries. There have been, however, problems with special paramilitary police units being used to put down political dissidence.

Tanzania is a relatively stable country, favorably disposed to U.S.-led initiatives and training programs. It seeks close cooperation with the U.S. as underscored by their cooperation with the U.S. in the War on Terrorism. Tanzania has offered assistance including intelligence information to the war effort. Also, as Tanzania continues to play host to large numbers of refugees from neighboring countries, its security services play an important, if underdeveloped role in enhancing regional security.

The IMET program is crucial to Tanzania-U.S. relations because it helps professionalize its Armed Forces and enables Tanzania's force to look closely at cooperation at the regional level in organizations like African Center for Strategic Studies. Furthermore, through training activities provided by the U.S., Tanzania will be better equipped and trained to patrol its own borders and limit infiltration by potential terrorists and criminal activities. The existence of Islamic extremists in Tanzania makes this effort critical for the protection of American interests in the area. The program thus far has proven beneficial to Tanzania and has also helped to enhance U.S.-Tanzanian relations.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Tanzania by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Togo

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 9 $13,074 4 $10,808
IMET 9 $19,254 6 $6,880
TOTAL 18 $32,328 10 $17,688

Parliamentary elections were postponed in 2001 and those scheduled for March 2002 have been postposed as well. President Eyadema has pledged to leave office in 2003, upon the completion of his current term. With the civilian political institutions weak and in danger of further marginalization, military training will be used to promote professionalism and subordination to civilian control.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Togo by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Uganda

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 3 $9,282 5 $10,808
TOTAL 3 $9,282 5 $10,808

Critically situated at the intersection of the troubled regions of East Africa and the Great Lakes, Uganda is a country still in recovery from many years of despotic misrule, often at the hands of rulers with a military background such as Idi Amin. The Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF), as the armed forces are called, has a better record of military effectiveness and conduct under the current government of President Yoweri Museveni. It continues, however, to face threats in the north from the terrorist Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The ongoing professional improvement of the UPDF is important to Uganda's national security and stability. It is also important to the fulfillment of Uganda's promise to be a force for peace in Africa.

A complicating factor in providing military training to Uganda is the presence of the UPDF in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Until May 2000, the importance of working with the UPDF to improve its professional qualities, including its awareness and observance of human rights, had been considered sufficiently substantial to warrant continuing limited training programs, such as IMET and participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies. In May 2000, UPDF and Rwandan forces fought a bloody battle for the DRC City of Kisangani and IMET was suspended indefinitely. Other activities had also been suspended, including follow-up training under the Africa Crisis Response Initiative, for which initial training was provided in mid-1997. We continue to review this policy and would like to resume E-IMET with a limited focus on human rights, civil-military relations and non-combat professionalization of the UPDF.

IMET once fostered close cooperation between the U.S. and Uganda, which served our national interest as we sought to create stability in the region, advance closer military-to-military relations, professionalize the UPDF and promote human rights. Several UPDF officers trained under IMET programs have proven to be positive actors in the Ugandan military scene. A resumption of focused E-IMET will prevent us from losing ground in our relationship with the Ugandan military while continuing to signal that a full resumption of that relationship will depend on Ugandan withdrawal from the conflict in the DRC.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Uganda by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Zambia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $8,471 9 $14,478
IMET 14 $165,346 10 $192,334
Non-SA, Unified
Command
120 $82,000 0 $0
TOTAL 136 $255,817 19 $206,812

Zambia has been a commendable example of peace and stability in southern Africa. Not only has Zambia avoided involvement in the civil conflicts of two of its neighbors, Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), it has played a leading role in efforts to broker and implement a cease-fire agreement for DRC.

Zambia must deal with a host of domestic political and economic challenges. The economy stagnated under decades of extensive state control, but the government, having already divested itself of more than three-quarters of all state-owned enterprises, is committed to privatization. Zambia returned to a multi-party democracy in 1991 after nearly two decades of one-party rule, although the political situation remains volatile. Zambia held its third multiparty national elections in late 2001, an important event in efforts to consolidate a pluralistic democracy. The U.S. and other donor countries are working with the public and private sectors in Zambia to address these issues. A more prosperous, democratic Zambia can act as a catalyst in a region of increasing economic and political importance to the U.S.

The Zambian Defence Force (ZDF) suffers from a lack of resources which severely hampers its training and professional development. U.S. military training assistance has greatly benefitted the Zambian military and would continue to do so. IMET instruction in, for example, tactical armor, infantry, logistics and advanced leadership training and military education has helped improve the professional capability of the ZDF. Continued IMET training in these and other military professional development courses would build on this progress. The Judge Advocate General officer courses support the overall U.S. interest in consolidating democracy and rule of law in Zambia - especially important issues as Zambia prepares for national elections. Continued participation by Zambian military personnel in Africa Center for Strategic Studies seminars help develop the senior leadership necessary to sustain and improve the ZDF. Similarly, U.S. military training programs further bilateral relations and provide continued access and influence with the military and its political leadership in Zambia, a pivotal country in a region key to stability and prosperity on the continent.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Zambia by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Zimbabwe

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 0 $0 8 $14,478
TOTAL 0 $0 8 $14,478

USG military cooperation through IMET has served to reinforce the Zimbabwe Defense Forces (ZDF) commitment to professionalism and civilian control. These programs of professional training for senior ZDF officers and non-commissioned officers will foster the military's respect for the human rights and basic freedoms of all its citizens.

Despite the ongoing political and economic crisis created by the present government, Zimbabwe has often played a pivotal role in regional stability. Zimbabwe established a reputation as an activist leader of the Front Line States' struggle against apartheid in the 1980's. Zimbabwe provided troops and training to the governments of Samora Machel and Joachim Chissano in Mozambique. In the 1990's, Zimbabwe served as chairman of the Southern African Development Community's Organ for Defense, Politics and Security. Zimbabwean troops have served with distinction in various peacekeeping operations. They are also involved in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

There was no IMET program with Zimbabwe in FY 2001. Once circumstances allow us to re-engage through the IMET program, IMET training could strengthen the ZDF's ability to carry out peacekeeping functions, to include those envisioned in the Lusaka Peace Agreement for DRC, in a more professional manner. The ZDF's willingness and proven ability to deploy outside of its borders could help project the enhanced professionalism provided by IMET training to a wider audience.

IMET training and other contacts between the U.S. military and the ZDF could reinforce the ZDF's commitment to civilian control in Zimbabwe. The Zimbabwean military's respect for civilian control, in the past, has been key to stability in Zimbabwe, where an economic crisis has eroded citizens' income and provoked unprecedented political dissent.

Demining activity has been a resounding success in Zimbabwe, providing a concrete example of the military's capacity to improve civilians' lives. The ZDF has obtained valuable experience in demining efforts that have opened up parts of the country to increased commerce, travel and tourism.



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