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Diplomacy in Action

III. Foreign Policy Papers - East Asia and Pacific (P-Z)


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest: Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
March 2002
Report
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Palau

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
DOT/USCG Activities 1 $30,600 0 $0
TOTAL 1 $30,600 0 $0

As a means of strengthening defense ties with Palau, the U.S. welcomed the admission of a Palauan student into the U.S. Coast Guard Academy in FY 2000. That student continues his studies and will graduate in FY 2003. No additional students are contemplated for FY 2002.

Papua New Guinea

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 9 $106,399 6 $73,594
IMET 80 $159,552 64 $164,169
TOTAL 89 $265,951 70 $237,763

U.S. national interests in Papua New Guinea (PNG) derive from our overarching interest in regional stability and from PNG's status as home to one of the world's greatest remaining tropical rain forests and biodiversity reservoirs. PNG is the largest and most populous island nation in the South Pacific and neighbor to the troubled Indonesian province of Irian Jaya. U.S. interests include strengthening democratic institutions, assisting with development of disaster relief capabilities, supporting peaceful transition from civil strife to rule of law in Bougainville, supporting the nation's pursuit of a free enterprise tradition and fostering stewardship of diverse natural resources. The benefits of a stable, lawful and prosperous PNG include reduced prospects of human rights violations, environmental degradation and international organized crime.

On Bougainville, the former belligerents are working to establish a government of reconciliation. The PNG Armed Forces retain a small presence on Bougainville and their cooperation will be necessary for any lasting settlement on the island.

FY 2001 IMET programs on civil-military relations, interdiction, maritime issues, command and general staff officer and defense management have focussed on building a more professional and better-disciplined PNG Defense Force (PNGDF), which will be important to an appropriate military role in a lasting settlement. Courses also aimed at improving PNGDF capability to monitor and detect illegal fishing and apprehending persons and vessels engaged in such fishing. IMET provided training emphasized human rights, civilian control over the military and military justice. Courses with international staff officer and legal emphasis seek to increase PNG's ability to engage in cooperative international military-related efforts, including peacekeeping. English language training contributes to the latter goal and offers increased ability and opportunities for fruitful interaction with the U.S. military.

FY 2002 IMET will continue to focus on professional military education for the PNGDF.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation of Papua New Guinea in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Papua New Guinea.

Philippines

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 15 $168,153 9 $110,391
Credit 37 $104,341 2 $10,964
FMF 14 $36,811 15 $17,122
IMET 142 $1,563,347 170 $1,907,360
Non-SA, Unified
Command
573 $611,000 0 $0
Section 1004 0 $0 120 $280,000
Service Academies 5 $237,264 0 $0
TOTAL 786 $2,720,916 316 $2,325,837

The Philippines is a key player in the global counterterrorism campaign. The Abu Sayyaf Group, whose now-deceased founder had direct links to al-Qaida, continues to hold hostages in Mindanao, including two Americans. Building on already longstanding bilateral counterterrorism cooperation and stemming from commitments made during Philippine President Arroyo's November 2001 visit to the U.S., the U.S. and the Philippines have embarked on a comprehensive military-to-military program to enhance the Armed Forces of the Philippines' (AFP) capabilities to combat terrorism. As U.S. military cooperation under this counterterrorism program grows, IMET funds have become an even more important part of our effort to maintain and enhance the professionalization of the AFP.

In addition to our counterterrorism cooperation with the Philippines, the United States has important security, commercial and political interests in the Philippines, a treaty ally that straddles important air and sea-lanes. As a nation-state committed to democratic political principles and confident in its exercise of regional leadership, a stable Philippines is an important force for stability in Southeast Asia. The Philippines is committed to close relations with the U.S. in support of regional peace and security in Southeast Asia. It seeks to promote regional economic and political cooperation through the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the ASEAN Regional Forum and APEC.

IMET funds have aimed at contributing to overall regional stability. Specifically, training in FY 2001 and FY 2002 focuses on positively influencing the Philippine military's professionalism and discipline. IMET training also helped further strengthen civilian control over the military, contributing to a decline in the number of reported incidents of human rights abuses. The steady advancement of IMET graduates helps ensure the continued understanding and cooperation of the Government of the Philippines on U.S. views toward regional issues. The IMET graduates who populate the top ranks of the AFP contributed to building the close professional military-to-military relations that exist between the U.S. military and the AFP. Now that the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA) has entered into force, the U.S. military is actively engaged in ship visits and joint training exercises with the AFP.

These cooperative bilateral military activities constitute important steps toward normalizing our military-to-military ties and increasing inter-operability and standardization with the AFP. It also enables the AFP to defend the national borders against external aggression, counter the Communist and Muslim separatist insurgencies, participate in international and regional peacekeeping operations and combat terrorism. In support of these goals, and in keeping with our treaty ally relationship, Philippine officers have participated in a range of operational, officer training and leadership courses. These include courses related to military medicine, aviation, aircraft maintenance, amphibious training, engineering and electricity, fire control systems repair, field artillery leadership, maritime and coast guard training, mine warfare, mechanics, psychological operations, radio communications, ranger operations, signals, supply, service and maintenance, search and rescue and related courses.

Officer professionalization and leadership development are the aims of staff/command college and military law courses. Such training increases Philippine military exposure to the U.S. system of civil-military relations and respect for human rights. International staff officer and related courses are aimed at increasing Philippine officers' ability to participate effectively with the U.S. in international peacekeeping and related operations.

DoD has also funded Philippines participation in training related to joint exercises, and a military training team assessment of defense needs and requirements. These also increase interoperability and provide the Philippines with a realistic assessment of how to shape their defense strategy.

As another means of strengthening our defense cooperation with the Philippines, the U.S. welcomes continued Philippine participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from the Philippines.

Samoa

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 0 $0 1 $16,348
IMET 26 $98,929 37 $128,856
TOTAL 26 $98,929 38 $145,204

U.S. interests in Samoa grow out of our national security interest in regional stability. The U.S. strives to maintain close ties with Samoa, which is a consistent supporter of U.S. positions internationally. Samoa is also a close neighbor of the U.S. territory of American Samoa, with which it has long-standing family and cultural ties. Other interests include encouraging broad-based economic growth, supporting improved capacity to protect the island's environment and natural resources and educating the public on health issues.

The most important use of IMET is to support the U.S. objective of helping Samoa develop an effective maritime law enforcement and surveillance capability. Training in basic coastal surveillance and seaborne law enforcement skills is carried out in accordance with U.S. leadership doctrines, emphasizing civilian control. DoD/Coast Guard resources contribute to broad-based economic growth in Samoa by assisting Samoa's maritime police patrol to strengthen enforcement of their exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and to improve safety in Samoa's fishing fleet. FY 2002 IMET will continue to focus on law enforcement and professional military education training.

Two dozen Samoan police officers have helped to maintain order in East Timor since March 2000 as part of a UN peacekeeping force. This is the first time that Samoa has made a contribution to a peacekeeping force. There is no doubt that the training provided under IMET helped contribute to Samoa's readiness to take on a peacekeeping role in such a difficult environment.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation of Samoa in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Samoa.

Singapore

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 5 $4,528 3 $2,553
FMS 1589 $41,032,646 740 $45,366,336
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 1 $7,675 3 $14,976
Non-SA, Unified
Command
130 $80,000 0 $0
Service Academies 7 $120,286 2 $0
TOTAL 1732 $41,245,135 748 $45,383,865

Singapore's dynamic economy and extensive cooperation on a broad range of issues have made it an important U.S. security partner and an important force for stability and economic progress in Southeast Asia. As of January 2002, it is halfway through a two-year term as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Singapore has been unfailing in its support for continued U.S. forward deployment in the region, including the provision of low-cost access to its military facilities following closure of U.S. bases in the Philippines. For example, Singapore has given the U.S. Navy priority access to a U.S. carrier-capable pier that was inaugurated in March 2001 -- the only pier outside the U.S. at which U.S. carriers can dock. Singapore has also provided staunch military support for the War on Terrorism since the September 11, 2001 attacks, including blanket overflight clearance and tanker fueling to form an air bridge in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Approximately 150 U.S. logistics personnel stationed in Singapore support bimonthly combined air exercises and up to 100 U.S. ship visits per year. Singapore turns to the U.S. for approximately 85 percent of its total imports of military equipment. Strengthening our defense ties with Singapore in FY 2001 and earlier has included FMS training, participation at U.S. Service Academies and improved interoperability through combined exercises with U.S. forces. The U.S. proposes further strengthening of our ties with Singapore in all these areas in FY 2002.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation by Singapore in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Singapore.

Solomon Islands

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 3 $42,313 3 $36,797
IMET 33 $55,073 64 $135,337
TOTAL 36 $97,386 67 $172,134

U.S. national interests in the Solomon Islands emphasize strengthening the nation's capabilities to secure its maritime borders, encouraging its democratic institutions and preserving its biodiversity. In response to the civil unrest experienced during mid-2000 in and around the capital of Honiara, engagement in the Solomons is all the more important to shore up weakened security capabilities.

Continued IMET training will assist the Solomons to develop an effective maritime reconnaissance force. Training in basic coastal surveillance and seaborne law enforcement skills help guarantee that the 1997 Solomons-Papua New Guinea border agreement continues to be honored. It also increases the country's ability to maintain control of its own fishery resources. To these ends, IMET courses have focussed mainly on maritime issues, port safety, information systems, combating terrorism, outboard motor maintenance, fire protection and international staff officers training, including inter-Pacific cooperation as well as civil affairs.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation of the Solomon Islands in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from these islands.

Taiwan

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 379 $11,371,732 311 $7,012,073
INL 0 $0 60 $2,497,851
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 30 $0 0 $0
Service Academies 2 $0 1 $0
TOTAL 411 $11,371,732 372 $9,509,924

Consistent with the Taiwan Relations Act of 1979, it has been long-standing U.S. policy to make available to Taiwan defense articles, services, and training, to enable Taiwan to maintain a sufficient self-defense capability. This policy also seeks to reinforce regional stability. Training of Taiwan Armed Forces personnel can play a major role in the enhancement of Taiwan's security.

The U.S. welcomes the pending participation in FY 2002 of Taiwan in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses will also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Taiwan.

Thailand

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 17 $175,097 12 $147,188
EPIC 5 $19,885 30 $0
FMS 111 $1,001,473 27 $686,207
IMET 153 $1,831,345 151 $2,288,290
Non-SA, Unified
Command
854 $1,531,000 0 $0
Section 1004 2065 $1,825,000 1045 $1,760,000
Service Academies 6 $210,559 2 $93,582
TOTAL 3211 $6,594,359 1267 $4,975,267

One of five treaty allies in Asia and a major trading partner, Thailand hosts our largest joint military exercise in Asia (Cobra Gold), and provides crucial access to Thai facilities when needed, such as during Operation Enduring Freedom. The U.S. views Thailand as a model of democratic development as well as a regional leader in promoting stability. Thirty years of effective counternarcotics cooperation has led to the establishment in Bangkok of our second International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA).

Thailand plays a significant role in fostering regional stability in Southeast Asia. Continuing joint exercises and IMET help develop and maintain a professional Thai military committed to respecting and fostering democratic principles and capable of participating in international peacekeeping operations. Thailand has put these exercises and IMET courses to work in East Timor, where a Thai commander oversees nearly 1,000 Thai peacekeeping troops. Thailand's Prime Minister has also committed his country to providing a support battalion to the reconstruction effort in Afghanistan. Courses which contribute to these goals include training at command and general staff and service colleges, civil affairs, international defense management, international officer preparation and related training, manpower management, information management, English language and instructor training, accounting, financial and personnel officer training.

U.S. training for Thailand's military also concentrates on developing operational interoperability and officer leadership in specific disciplines. These courses include weather forecasting, weapons tactics, airborne, aviation and aircraft maintenance, basic officer training, engineering, field artillery captains career and basic courses, medical and related courses, mine warfare, intelligence, ranger, sergeant major, munitions and Marine Corps courses.

Our mine action program was launched in Thailand in FY 1999 with the establishment of the Thai Demining Action Center (TMAC). NADR funds provided equipment and DoD's ODHACA funds provided the initial trainers. FY 2002 funds will complete the effort to fully train the Thai demining trainers and fill out the canine units, setting the stage for mutual cooperation within the Asian demining community.

In addition, DoD has funded training to enhance Thailand's participation in our joint exercise program. Several Thai officers also attend U.S. service academies, which provide an invaluable means to foster long-standing ties with the Thai military and to provide in-depth exposure to the U.S. system of civil-military relations, military law and related issues.

Thai participation in programs sponsored by the Asia-Pacific Center reinforces our defense cooperation and fosters links with other regional partners and neighbors. The U.S. welcomes the continued participation by Thailand in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Thailand.

Tonga

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 5 $59,678 3 $36,797
IMET 6 $99,685 38 $140,180
TOTAL 11 $159,363 41 $176,977

The Kingdom of Tonga, a highly traditional society where the King and nobles dominate political life, interacts with the U.S. mainly in such Pacific organizations as the Pacific Community, the Forum Fisheries Agency and the South Pacific Regional Environment Program. U.S. interests in Tonga include encouraging democratic institutions and assisting in environmental protection efforts. IMET is an important vehicle for pursuing U.S. interests.

Tonga joined other regional nations in 1999 (New Zealand, Australia, Vanuatu and Fiji) in providing unarmed peace monitors once a truce was achieved in Papua New Guinea's Bougainville. IMET provides professional education and training for Tonga's Defense Force with emphasis on respect for human rights, civilian control over the military and military justice. Courses on international defense management, officer indoctrination, NCO, command and general staff officer training, international officer preparation and naval staff college courses contribute to this goal. IMET also helps to support Tonga's ability to contribute to regional peacekeeping endeavors and contributes to Tonga's development of an effective maritime law and surveillance capability through training in international maritime search and rescue, information systems and bridge officer training. DoD-funded combat rubber raider craft training also contributes to this effort. FY 2002 IMET will continue to focus on professional military education training for its defense forces.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation of Tonga in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Tonga.

Tuvalu

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 2 $26,242 2 $32,403
TOTAL 2 $26,242 2 $32,403

Tuvalu is a consistent supporter of U.S. positions internationally. For example, as the UN's newest member, Tuvalu was one of only four countries to join the U.S. and Israel in voting against the October 2000 UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution condemning Israel. At the 2001 UNGA, it voted in support of U.S. candidates for the UN's Joint Inspection Unit and the International Law Commission.

As is true for many other Pacific countries, Tuvalu interacts with the U.S. mainly in such Pacific organizations as the Pacific Community, the Forum Fisheries Agency and the South Pacific Regional Environment Program. Environmental protection efforts are especially critical in Tuvalu, which is vulnerable to rising sea levels due to very low elevations throughout the country.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation of Tuvalu in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Tuvalu.

Vanuatu

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 5 $56,424 3 $36,797
IMET 27 $61,129 33 $107,858
TOTAL 32 $117,553 36 $144,655

U.S. national interests in Vanuatu center on strengthening the nation's democratic institutions. Other interests include building Vanuatu's capacity to secure its maritime borders and encouraging programs that protect the island's environment and fragile natural resources.

The small Vanuatu Mobile Force (VMF) must patrol a vast area of ocean. U.S. Coast Guard training in maritime law-enforcement supplements Australian and New Zealand programs and upgrades VMF capabilities. Continued IMET funding for civil affairs, combating terrorism, international maritime officer/leadership and psychological operations courses also help improve force discipline and enhance its effectiveness in regional peacekeeping and disaster relief efforts.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation of Vanuatu in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Vanuatu.

Viet Nam

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 9 $100,137 6 $73,594
IMET 0 $0 2 $59,013
TOTAL 9 $100,137 8 $132,607

U.S. national security will be served by a stable, fully integrated Vietnam with increasing economic prosperity and trade relations with the U.S.

The U.S. seeks to enhance Vietnam's ability to be a constructive regional player by encouraging Hanoi's active participation in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and the ASEAN Regional Forum and in other strategic dialogues and cooperation. The U.S. can also improve trust through incremental expansion of military-to-military contacts. The Vietnamese military has been increasingly interested in attending conferences and confidence building meetings hosted by the Pacific Commands Commander.

A team of U.S. Pacific Command-sponsored trainers visited Vietnam in FY 2001 to provide instruction on the use of U.S.-provided demining equipment. The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) has identified Vietnamese counternarcotic requirements that could be addressed by USCG training courses. However, INL will not fund any bilateral counternarcotic assistance for Vietnam until the Vietnamese government signs a letter of agreement. Vietnam's FY 2001 IMET funding was reprogrammed into other country accounts due to the Vietnamese government's failure to conclude a FAA Section 505 agreement on end-user assurances.

The Asia-Pacific Center will continue to invite representatives from Vietnam to reinforce our defense cooperation and foster links with other regional partners and neighbors. The executive courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations and increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Vietnam.



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