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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. Foreign Policy Papers - Europe (A-K)


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest: Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
March 2002
Report
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Albania

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
IMET 127 $674,550 58 $946,446
IMET 2-Year 2 $81,291 5 $115,346
Marshall Center 35 $394,539 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
30 $32,976 0 $0
Section 506 60 $0 0 $0
TOTAL 254 $1,183,356 63 $1,061,792

Albania is a very cooperative and rapidly emerging security partner of the U.S. and NATO in Southeastern Europe. Its security relationship with the U.S. and Allied forces has continued to grow over the past year in the aftermath of the Kosovo crisis. A primary U.S. goal in Albania is to employ the current atmosphere of cooperation in a manner that helps to lead to long-lasting stability in Albania and the region as a whole.

U.S. military training efforts in Albania are a crucial means to this end. In particular, training under the IMET program is consistent with U.S. goals of assisting in Albanian defense restructuring efforts and in fostering an Albanian ability to patrol its land and sea borders. More fundamentally, U.S. training is helping Albania to reconstitute a national military decimated by the country's 1997 internal strife. These efforts will help bring Albania more firmly into the Euro-Atlantic community, to increase Albania's ability to participate in PfP exercises and activities and, particularly given Albania's status as an aspirant for eventual Alliance membership, to augment its interoperability with NATO forces.

Albanian soldiers have taken IMET courses in FY 2001 and are projected to continue courses in FY 2002 that help to meet those broad goals. Courses in civil-military relations, military law, English language, topographic analysis and logistics are cases in point. Albanian officers also have received advanced training at the Naval Staff and Command College, the Air Command and Staff College, the National Defense University and the Joint/Combined Staff Officer School.

Historically, Albania uses its Foreign Military Financing (FMF) grants more for the purchasing and refurbishing of U.S.-origin equipment than to buy additional military training. The use of future FMF funds for assistance with defense reforms (including resource and personnel management) and civic emergency response training, in addition to needed equipment, is anticipated. Albania is also an active recipient of U.S.-funded training at the Marshall Center in Germany. Uniformed and civilian Albanian defense officials participate in conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center. Discussions at the center focus on augmenting civilian control of the military and on the other key military reforms needed in the states of Central Europe and the former Soviet Union during their various stages of democratic transition.

Austria

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 24 $183,906 54 $2,797,304
Marshall Center 9 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
24 $88,960 0 $0
PME Exchanges 1 $0 0 $0
TOTAL 58 $272,866 54 $2,797,304

Many of our European non-NATO Allies are committed to a broad approach to security that recognizes the importance of political, economic, social and environmental factors in addition to the indispensable defense dimension. Our collective aim should be to build a European security architecture in which the security and stability of the Euro-Atlantic area are complementary and mutually reinforcing. Professional military education helps to develop an important political dimension to our military-to-military relationships and improves understanding of the mutual social and economic factors that affect our relationship. In addition, professional military education develops professional skills with an understanding of our strategy, doctrine and tactics in the employment of Allied resources across the entire spectrum of conflict. Exposure to U.S. military education is vital in Europe to counter-balance the "go-it-alone" forces on the continent. Much of the technical training provided is in direct support of U.S. equipment sales to Austria. As a friendly nation that supports U.S. efforts in Europe, the U.S. must support Austria in all types of training, both professional and specialty skill training, and develop educational opportunities to broaden and deepen our mutually beneficial relationship. All FMS training is fully funded by Austrian national funds.

Belgium

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $9,712 3 $14,478
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
FMS 266 $3,737,228 191 $207,315
Marshall Center 1 $0 0 $0
PME Exchanges 6 $0 3 $0
TOTAL 277 $3,746,940 197 $221,793

Belgium maintains a steady level of participation in FMS-funded training programs. With the exception of the Belgian Navy, officers and enlisted personnel of all Belgian armed services receive academic or technical training in the United States or in Belgium. Belgian military personnel attended FMS-funded classes valued at over USD 3 million during FY 2001. The Belgians plan to purchase a similar level of training in FY 2002. The purposes are: 1) to ensure successful operation and maintenance of weapons systems and other military equipment purchased from the U.S. and, 2) to gain familiarity with U.S. operational concepts, tactics, techniques and procedures. This training contributes significantly to the interoperability of Belgian and U.S. military forces. All training, to include participation by its military officers in selected Marshall Center programs, is fully funded by Belgian national funds.

Belgium has been an active and important participant in U.S. initiatives to shape the political and military environment in Africa. Through its participation in the African Crisis Response Initiative and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Belgium has reaffirmed its role in the multilateral commitment to assist African political and military leadership in democratic evolution and to regional peacekeeping capabilities. As is the case with other developed nations, Belgium funds the bulk of the cost of its participation in the program.

With respect to future training opportunities, Belgium has expressed a strong interest in continuing the participation of one Belgian student every two years in the National War College program.

Bosnia & Herzegovina

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
FMS 0 $0 7 $34,980
IMET 98 $416,916 98 $481,319
Marshall Center 47 $363,821 0 $0
Service Academies 1 $46,791 1 $46,791
TOTAL 146 $827,528 107 $563,090

The 1992-95 conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina threatened both European stability and NATO's cohesion. The United States led the negotiations that led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995, which successfully ended the fighting in Bosnia. The U.S. plays the lead role in the Dayton peace implementation process -- the first real test for post-Cold War European security. Implementing the Dayton Accords, and thereby securing peace and stability in Bosnia and the region, is a crucial element in the maintenance of peace and stability in Europe. A key aspect of that implementation is the training of the Bosnian Federation's military, largely conducted as part of the U.S.-led Train and Equip program. This training helps to develop and maintain a stabilizing military balance in Bosnia and Herzegovina and fosters increased understanding of, and respect for, human rights and civilian control of the military.

A peaceful, democratic and stable Bosnia and Herzegovina that respects international human rights standards is a key part of maintaining peace and stability in Europe and promoting U.S. national security. U.S. government policy in Bosnia, and therefore U. S. government assistance, including its assistance in military training, is targeted to full implementation of the peace accords and the development of democratic institutions and respect for human rights. In addition, U.S. assistance helps to leverage funding from other donors.

Under the Train and Equip program, the U.S. has supplied defense services, including training, to the Federation entity's military since 1996, to help establish military stability in Bosnia and Herzegovina and prevent renewed hostilities. It is crucial that we protect the investment we have made since the Dayton peace accords by ensuring that the equipment delivered does not deteriorate because of a lack of training or other resources. As a result, FMF funding will continue to assist the Bosnian Federation military in sustaining USG-supplied equipment, including training Federation soldiers in its use. For instance, in FY 2001, the Federation used $550,000 for specialized aviation training courses (e.g., flight surgeon and maintenance test pilot training) in the U.S. that are not available through the IMET program.

Training of Federation forces under the IMET program will continue to contribute to regional stability, helping to foster the eventual withdrawal of U.S. forces currently serving as part of the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In FY 2001, IMET funds were used to supplement the training provided through the Train and Equip program, with emphasis on junior officer professional development (Army basic and advanced courses), staff training for mid-level officers (service staff colleges), and E-IMET courses for mid- to upper-level officials in the defense sector.

In addition, separate Unified Command engagement activities have funded the training of Federation and Republika Srpska forces in humanitarian demining techniques and the establishment of military demining training centers. Bosnian officials also have received training through courses at the Marshall Center, which provides instruction in democratic processes and civil-military relations for civilian and uniformed defense personnel throughout Central Europe and the Newly Independent States.

Bulgaria

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
FMF 60 $330,743 4 $11,079
IMET 51 $783,523 196 $1,494,147
INL 42 $0 0 $0
Marshall Center 74 $543,892 0 $0
Section 506 30 $0 0 $0
Service Academies 4 $213,868 1 $46,791
TOTAL 261 $1,872,026 202 $1,552,017

Bulgaria is very important to U.S. foreign policy goals for Southeast Europe and has emerged as a regional leader in promoting political, military and economic stability and strengthening democratic institutions. Bulgaria is undertaking a major reorganization of its defense establishment and is actively pursuing NATO membership. The United States supports Bulgaria's continued efforts to strengthen democracy and the rule of law and to move toward fuller integration with the greater Euro-Atlantic community.

Professional military training is reaching a critical stage for the Bulgarian Armed Forces as the Government proceeds with the massive military reorganization outlined in the Defense Reform 2004 project. The IMET program has been a key aspect of the reorganization so far and will be crucial for the ultimate success of the reform. U.S.-trained officers are in positions of responsibility. NCO training will continue to be a key feature of the U.S. training effort, reflecting the crucial importance of creating a more Western-style NCO corps for the overall success of the reorganization plan.

Specific IMET training courses taken by Bulgarian officers in FY 2001 and projected for FY 2002 focus on several key areas. Bulgarian soldiers have taken classes in resource and financial management, English language instruction and psychological operations, among other areas, and are attending the staff and war colleges. IMET courses in FY 2002 also will continue to concentrate on professional military education, civil-military relations, and national security affairs.

Training under Foreign Military Financing (FMF) also continues to be important for fostering the Bulgarian military's interoperability with NATO, as it aspires to Alliance membership and increasingly contributes to regional stability. Mobile training teams trained Bulgaria in the use of its Air Sovereignty Operations Center, which helps to provide integrated radar coverage of Bulgarian airspace, including distinguishing between civilian and military aircraft.

Bulgarian soldiers and civilian defense officials also have received U.S.-funded instruction at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

Croatia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
DOT/USCG Activities 2 $44,900 0 $0
IMET 186 $700,913 199 $951,732
IMET 2-Year 6 $61,217 0 $0
Marshall Center 27 $327,706 0 $0
Section 506 121 $0 0 $0
Service Academies 5 $153,724 2 $46,791
TOTAL 347 $1,288,460 201 $998,523

Helping Croatia in its democratic transition and integration into Euro-Atlantic institutions is vital to ensuring the long-term stability of Croatia and the stability of the entire Balkan region. It is in the U.S. interest to support the democratic changes that the citizens of Croatia overwhelmingly voted for in January 2000. These democratic changes in Croatia helped promote similar changes in Bosnia and Yugoslavia. Our goal is to ensure that Croatia sheds its destructive, nationalist past, fully embraces human and civil rights and continues on its path of becoming a fully reliable partner in Europe. Our military training efforts are a valuable tool in pursuing these objectives.

Since coming to power in January 2000, the Croatian government has joined, and has made increasing use of, its membership in NATO's PfP program. Croatia now is seeking to join NATO's Membership Action Plan and become a formal candidate for eventual NATO membership. IMET programs have supported Croatia's NATO ambitions and fostered appreciation among Croatian military officials for the proper role of the armed forces in a democracy. IMET continues to be one of the more successful elements of U.S. engagement strategy. IMET-trained officers helped to initiate implementation of basic defense reforms, including enhanced civilian control of the military.

In FY 2001, the IMET program continued to focus on the professionalization and democratization of the Croatian Armed Forces. The core objective of which is to establish a solid base of trained personnel from the NCO level to the senior service college level. IMET also assists the MoD to develop its national security, defense and military strategy documents, key requirements for increased Croatian integration with NATO. Other IMET initiatives included improving maritime interagency cooperation, enhancing GoC crisis management and disaster planning and providing defense resource management seminars. IMET programs have also improved the English language skills of the Croatian Armed Forces.

In FY 2002, IMET programs will continue to focus on these core functions. By the end of 2002, we hope to see substantial progress, including the adoption of a set of national security strategy and planning documents. As IMET tasks are completed, our assistance plan will begin to shift to enhanced training to support Croatian participation in peace support operations, international crisis management initiatives and enhance interagency cooperation. Croatian government personnel have received U.S. funding for Marshall Center training. The Center is also organizing regional conferences on security and defense planning issues. Five students attended U.S. service academies in FY 2001. Two are currently scheduled to attend in FY 2002.

Czech Republic

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 314 $855,654 8 $15,680
IMET 290 $2,259,435 195 $1,881,606
Marshall Center 17 $19,303 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
63 $75,000 0 $0
TOTAL 684 $3,209,392 203 $1,897,286

Our primary interests in the Czech Republic are to foster a bilateral relationship aimed at fighting terrorism and strengthening the security of the Euro-Atlantic region, to promote the fundamental economic reforms needed to ensure prosperity and provide an environment in which American business interests can thrive, and to foster a healthy and vibrant democratic society. With regard to the first point, national security, the Czechs have offered and the U.S. has accepted the deployment of a chemical defense unit as part of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF); the U.S. is also considering the Czech offer to send a field hospital to the OEF theater of operations. The British initially accepted the Czech offer to provide a company of special forces to the UN-mandated international security force in Afghanistan, but later determined that the Czech special forces were not needed for a smaller International Security Assistance Force. Czech forces have been deployed in significant numbers to every NATO mission in the Balkans, including Implementation Force, Stabilization Force (SFOR), Kosovo Force (KFOR), and Operation Essential Harvest.

The Czech Ministry of Defense has adopted an ambitious plan to reform the military and create a fully professional army by 2006. Helping the Czech Republic identify, target and rectify defense shortcomings will maximize its contribution to the War on Terrorism, strengthen its contribution to NATO and help lay the groundwork for future NATO enlargement. Exercises and training programs are essential to helping the Czechs operate as part of a coalition, as they are doing in Operation Enduring Freedom, and to quickly becoming full, contributing members of NATO, thereby hastening the day when the Czechs can stand on their own without need for U.S. assistance. Despite a politically difficult commitment of domestic resources to defense, many important NATO-integration needs would remain unmet in 2002 without outside assistance.

Denmark

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 168 $4,542,254 120 $3,894,714
Marshall Center 5 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
8 $16,000 0 $0
TOTAL 181 $4,558,254 120 $3,894,714

Denmark is an important NATO Ally and a strong supporter of the trans-Atlantic link. The Danes contributed to peacekeeping operations in the Balkans, with forces on the ground in Macedonia, Kosovo and Bosnia. Denmark also supported U.S. efforts in Operation Enduring Freedom and International Security Assistance Force operations by deploying personnel and equipment to Afghanistan. Danish peacekeepers contribute to stability in regional conflicts elsewhere on the globe as well. The Danish territory of Greenland remains crucial to North Atlantic National Missile Defense. Like the United States, Denmark supports a strong European crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged, and provided that it does not duplicate NATO structures. Allowing Denmark to participate in U.S. professional military education programs fosters closer ties with this NATO Ally and expands their understanding of Allied strategy, doctrine and tactics.

Estonia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMF 30 $404,629 64 $268,857
FMS 0 $0 1 $14,270
IMET 58 $795,757 71 $1,073,254
Marshall Center 36 $368,732 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
54 $170,170 0 $0
Service Academies 3 $130,330 0 $0
TOTAL 181 $1,869,618 136 $1,356,381

Primary U.S. objectives in Estonia are to strengthen civil society, bolster democratic and market institutions, assist in the integration of non-citizens into Estonian society and encourage civilian-controlled, NATO-compatible defense forces. Estonia is currently working on its national military strategic plan. After completion of this cornerstone document, it is likely that there will be a shift of defense-related priorities. U.S. security assistance objectives currently improve Estonian defense capabilities and force readiness through training and procurement. The goal is to achieve deterrence and defensive capability. The training portion focuses on Western leadership models and staff procedures with a goal of more efficient staffs that can cooperate with each other. The main procurement goals are strategic/operational and tactical level communications equipment, airspace monitoring and control, air defense and anti-armor defense systems, and other equipment and training to enable a flexible defense doctrine.

NATO compatible training for Estonian defense forces will open the door to Estonia's continued participation in missions beyond their current involvement in the Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia and the United Nations Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL).

Participation in professional military education helps to develop professional skills for Estonian soldiers. Courses in English language, command and general staff, security assistance, and advanced management courses help Estonia and the U.S. develop a common perspective on leadership and management. Specialty training in logistics, intelligence, field artillery, maintenance, explosive ordnance disposal, amphibious warfare, infantry and maritime boarding help develop critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and improve Partnership for Peace (PfP) initiatives and will help Estonia carry out crisis response operations, including those involving NATO forces.

As Estonia prioritizes resources for its own legitimate defense needs and for its contribution to the overall security in Europe, IMET has a significant multiplier effect. It "trains trainers" and gives more junior officers the leadership and administrative skills to take over from a previous generation of officers that operated under Soviet-era guidelines. This support will help keep Estonia focused on the practical steps necessary to continue to improve its NATO candidacy, support Estonia's participation in the full range of PfP exercises, and allow Estonian forces to integrate with NATO equipment and standards.

Finland

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 63 $1,199,914 24 $118,726
Marshall Center 6 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
40 $81,988 0 $0
TOTAL 109 $1,281,902 24 $118,726

Although, not a NATO member, Finland is an active participant in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and a solid partner with the United States in many areas of national security concern. It has been actively engaged in the Balkans and has been a mainstay of other international peacekeeping efforts, e.g. UNIFIL in south Lebanon, a mission that after 20 years just ended in December 2001. Finland also provided support to the International Security Assistance Force operations in Afghanistan. Finland actively assists the three Baltic countries to achieve military interoperability with the West. Geographically, Finland shares a border with Russia, giving it strategic importance beyond its size. With respect to the European Security Defense Identity (ESDI), Finland supports a strong EU crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged and which does not duplicate NATO structures. It is a great proponent of interoperability; while in defense trade matters, it supports the trans-Atlantic link. Most U.S. assistance is designed to promote interoperability, an essential element to increasingly close cooperation on defense matters, not only with Finland, but also with Europe in general. For these reasons the U.S. should continue to support the relatively small program of Foreign Military Sales purchased training which is fully funded by national funds.

France

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $13,192 3 $14,478
Exchange Training 10 $40,000 8 $40,000
FMS 361 $10,758,167 642 $5,645,259
Marshall Center 26 $0 0 $0
NESA 2 $0 9 $0
PME Exchanges 4 $33,582 0 $0
TOTAL 405 $10,844,941 662 $5,699,737

As a NATO Ally, France plays an important role in the Alliance's ability to guarantee European security and to meet the challenges of the 21st century around the world. Although France withdrew from NATO's combined force planning structures in 1966, it remains an extremely active player in political work at NATO, has put thousands of its troops under SACEUR's command in the Balkans, and has sought in recent years to improve coordination with Allies. The elimination of conscription at the end of 2001 marked the completion of France's transition to a professional military, as well as the end of the first phase of a multi-year military restructuring project. The primary goal of the next phase (2003-2007) will be equipment modernization. It is in the U.S. interest to support France's efforts to create a more modern and capable military, better equipped to cooperate with the U.S. and other NATO allies. Military training provides the necessary mechanism to improve interoperability, increase French understanding of U.S. tactics and procedures, and promote commonality of equipment. The evolving nature of European security and the global threat environment make this a particularly crucial time to engage with France.

Germany

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 0 $0 2 $9,074
Exchange Training 4 $10,000 2 $10,000
FMS 910 $15,493,061 994 $18,187,838
Marshall Center 20 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
72 $47,092 0 $0
TOTAL 1006 $15,550,153 998 $18,206,912

Germany's military capabilities and its commitment to NATO are essential for the ability of the Alliance to adapt and successfully address the challenges of the 21st Century. Germany, in spring 2000, began planning to adapt its military forces to enable them to respond more fully to NATO's Defense Capabilities Initiative and fulfill the EU's headline goal. Professional military education helps to develop an important political dimension of military-to-military relationships and improve understanding of social and economic factors affecting the Alliance. In addition, professional military education develops common understanding of common strategy, doctrine and tactics in the employment of allied resources across the entire spectrum of conflict. As a key member of NATO, it is in our interest to support all types of training and professional military education opportunities for Germany. Such activities further broaden and deepen the Trans-Atlantic relationship. This training will also serve to enhance Germany's ability to assume a greater leadership role within the Alliance, commensurate with its size and importance within Europe. Germany's FMS purchased training is fully funded by German national funds.

Greece

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Credit 117 $1,107,339 19 $876,386
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
FMF 34 $201,206 183 $1,145,408
FMS 1157 $14,383,613 1156 $15,173,684
IMET 2 $49,681 1 $25,570
Marshall Center 7 $0 0 $0
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 60 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
45 $113,032 0 $0
Section 1004 70 $96,000 0 $0
TOTAL 1494 $15,950,871 1359 $17,221,048

Greece is a key NATO Ally strategically located in the Balkans, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. Greece is generally viewed as essential to NATO's ability to respond to Southern European contingencies. As a member of NATO and the European Union, Greece is a key participant in international efforts to promote stability, development and democracy in the Balkans. Greece is central to U.S. efforts to encourage the peaceful resolution of disputes in the Aegean region and for a settlement in Cyprus. The U.S. also seeks to assist Greece in fulfilling its responsibilities to the NATO Alliance, to strengthen cooperation on counterterrorism, including the War on Terrorism, and to promote U.S. business interests in Greece and in Southeast Europe.

Greece has worked closely with NATO on peacekeeping efforts in the Balkans, and plans to contribute over $500 million to Balkan reconstruction over a five-year period. By training Greek officers in the U.S. and establishing cooperative ties with U.S. personnel, International Military Education and Training (IMET) contributes to the professional development and strategic awareness of the Greek military and thus to U.S. interests. Joint Greek and Turkish training under IMET is designed to promote better understanding among their respective personnel and to further efforts to promote stability in the Aegean.

Hungary

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMF 82 $194,005 6 $5,490
IMET 103 $472,197 348 $1,065,290
Marshall Center 37 $492,756 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
165 $346,932 0 $0
TOTAL 387 $1,505,890 354 $1,070,780

The U.S. primary national security interest in Hungary is the promotion of a stable, democratic, market-oriented NATO Ally, which actively participates in the War on Terrorism and enhances the security of a troubled region while preparing to participate in Alliance operations. Hungary is in the initial stages of an effort to reform its Warsaw Pact-era armed forces into a NATO-interoperable force. It has made some strides forward, particularly in the areas of personnel reform and base closures, but lags behind in many other areas. On its last two NATO defense reviews, Hungary received a "poor" rating in meeting NATO force goals.

Improved capabilities for Hungary has a relatively high payoff for U.S. interests because of its location on the border of the Balkans and as a potential contributor to peacekeeping operations. Two weeks after joining NATO, Hungary provided airbases for NATO operations in Kosovo and later provided shelter for more than 20,000 refugees from Yugoslavia. Hungary has maintained an engineer battalion in Bosnia for several years and has deployed a combat battalion to Kosovo Force (KFOR) since the start of the operation in the summer of 1999. The Kosovo operation demonstrated the importance of our cooperative programs to promote interoperability and enhance Hungary's capabilities.

Through FMF, IMET and other training programs, the United States is able to participate directly in Hungary's modernization efforts, building habits of cooperation while at the same time improving Hungary's capabilities. Hungarian participation in IMET in FY 2001 and FY 2002 is focused on English language instruction, senior level staff schools and mid-level leadership and intelligence courses. These courses are producing officers that are capable of functioning in NATO staff jobs and that can contribute in multinational peacekeeping missions, while also applying Western doctrine, strategy and tactics to the reform of the Hungarian Armed Forces. Hungary is also a recipient of U.S. training at the Marshall Center, whose courses have been most effective at strengthening civil-military relations. Hungary has also used FMF to fill in gaps in training with specialty courses.

Ireland

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 1 $32,999 6 $26,263
TOTAL 1 $32,999 6 $26,263

Since 1958, Ireland has consistently provided professional military personnel for UN peacekeeping and humanitarian operations supported by the United States. Ireland is currently providing troop units for operations in Ethiopia, East Timor, Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia, and Kosovo Force (KFOR) where they work with U.S. and other NATO troops. Ireland has also recently become a member of NATO's PfP Program and will contribute to the European Union's headline goal in accord with the European Security and Defense Policy. The training provided to Ireland is intended to strengthen the capabilities of the Irish Defense Forces in carrying out these duties and responsibilities. All FMS purchased training is fully funded by Ireland's national funds.

Italy

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 1368 $43,119,736 1051 $28,411,316
Marshall Center 1 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
20 $25,000 0 $0
PME Exchanges 4 $0 0 $0
TOTAL 1393 $43,144,736 1051 $28,411,316

Italy plays host to seven major U.S. military installations and has participated in numerous combined operations with NATO. The past and potential future conflicts in the Balkans have emphasized Italy's strategic role as a U.S. Ally and a committed NATO member. Professional military education programs have strengthened military-to-military relations by building coordinated approaches to devising common strategies for using Allied resources. These ties have fostered inter-operability and have encouraged Italy to continue to purchase U.S. equipment. As part of a recent drive to modernize its military forces, Italy is increasing its purchases through the Foreign Military Sales program, which to date exceed $2 billion. Our cooperative training and education programs with Italy fortify the Trans-Atlantic partnership and promote effective coordination with a valued ally and important member of the NATO Alliance.



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