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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. Foreign Policy Papers - Europe (L-Z)


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest: Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
March 2002
Report
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Latvia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMF 106 $1,002,353 36 $568,875
IMET 130 $834,797 87 $1,105,257
Marshall Center 49 $499,880 0 $0
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 30 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
76 $510,448 0 $0
Service Academies 2 $106,934 1 $46,791
TOTAL 393 $2,954,412 124 $1,720,923

Current U.S. security assistance objectives in Latvia are to: restructure and modernize the Latvian Defense Ministry and headquarters of the National Armed Forces; modernize their C4 systems; continue support for the U.S.-sponsored Regional Airspace Initiative; and improve Latvian defense capabilities and force readiness through the procurement of, and training in, anti-tank systems, NBC individual and unit equipment, and tactical and combat vehicles.

NATO compatible training for Latvian Defense Forces will open the door to Latvia's continued participation in international peacekeeping missions in Bosnia (SFOR) and Kosovo (KFOR) and keeps the door open for Latvia's efforts to enhance regional security by improving relations with all neighboring countries. Such training helps Latvia play an active role in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) and other Euro-Atlantic institutions.

Latvia's participation in professional military education helps to develop the professional skills of senior officers. Courses in English language, command and general staff, security assistance, and advanced management help us to develop a common perspective with Latvian officers on leadership and management. Specialty training in logistics, maintenance, physical security, maritime boarding and infantry tactics help develop the critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and improve the capabilities of the Latvian Armed Forces in both the internal self-defense and multinational crisis response arenas.

As Latvia prioritizes its resources for its own legitimate defense needs and for its contribution to overall security in Europe, IMET has a significant multiplier effect by "training the trainers" and giving more junior officers the leadership and administrative skills to take over from officers who operated under Soviet guidelines. IMET will help keep Latvia focused on the practical steps toward NATO, support its participation in the full range of PfP exercises, and allow its Armed Forces to integrate further with NATO equipment and standards.

Lithuania

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
DOT/USCG Activities 1 $7,650 0 $0
FMF 61 $32,530 0 $0
IMET 40 $754,986 77 $907,495
Marshall Center 59 $549,132 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
66 $105,105 0 $0
Service Academies 4 $213,868 1 $46,791
TOTAL 231 $1,663,271 79 $954,286

Northern Europe's security depends on Baltic stability and proper Baltic-Russian relations. Lithuania looks to the United States as its primary guide while it works to enhance its security. Our security assistance objectives will improve Lithuanian defense capabilities and force readiness through procurement of, and training in, tactical communications equipment, NBC individual and unit equipment, English language training, air surveillance equipment maintenance and support, air defense and cartography. These objectives also fulfill NATO Planning and Review Process (PARP) interoperability objectives and partnership goals of NATO integration.

As Lithuania prioritizes resources for its own legitimate defense needs and for its contribution to the overall security of Europe, training has a significant multiplier effect by training trainers and by giving more junior officers leadership and administrative skills. This will help them take over from the previous generation of officers who trained and operated under the Soviet-era system. NATO-compatible training for Lithuanian defense forces will assist Lithuania in its efforts to enhance security in the region. With the help of such training, Lithuania will be able to play an even more active role in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) and other international and Euro-Atlantic institutions, thereby enhancing regional stability.

Lithuania's participation in professional military education helps to develop the professional skills of senior officers. Courses in English language, command and general staff, security assistance and advanced management courses help Lithuania and the U.S. to develop a common perspective on leadership and management.

NATO compatible training for Lithuanian Defense Forces will open the door for Lithuania's continued participation in international peacekeeping missions in Bosnia (SFOR) and Kosovo (Eurocorps), as well as in the joint peacekeeping battalion with Poland (LITPOBAT) slated for eventual UN deployment outside Europe.

Specialty training in logistics, explosive ordnance disposal, maintenance, physical security, maritime boarding and infantry tactics help to develop critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and to improve the internal self-defense capabilities of Lithuanian Armed Forces. This support will also help Lithuania focus on the practical steps toward further advancing its NATO candidacy, supporting its participation in the full range of PfP and "in the spirit of PfP" exercises, and allowing its Armed Forces to integrate further with NATO equipment and standards.

Macedonia (FYROM)

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMF 90 $146,524 30 $57,339
IMET 39 $199,841 76 $400,397
Marshall Center 31 $357,794 0 $0
Service Academies 2 $93,582 1 $46,791
TOTAL 162 $797,741 107 $504,527

The U.S. has a vital strategic interest in preserving peace and stability in the area of former Yugoslavia. Macedonia, one of its former constituent republics, suffered an ethnic Albanian insurgency during 2001. The insurgency, fueled in part by outside ethnic Albanian support, quickly spread and assumed an indigenous character. Neither the insurgents nor the government were able to achieve military victory. The U.S. and European Union (EU) jointly facilitated peace negotiations, resulting in a cease-fire, and in August, a peace agreement among political parties. The August Framework Agreement (FWA) laid the groundwork for Macedonia's return to peace and stability in a context of improved civil rights for minority groups. Among other provisions, the FWA calls for strengthening the State's democratic institutions - particularly the police - by making them more inclusive.

Macedonia's relations with its neighbors remained friendly throughout the course of the conflict, but neighbors were concerned by the prospect of Macedonia's insurgency becoming a source of broader, regional instability. Although the government invited NATO to conduct weapons collection and monitoring missions following the cease-fire, the public mood toward NATO deteriorated, reflecting the stance of some of the political leadership. They later improved in response to the excellent job done by NATO's German-led Task Force Fox. Efforts at NATO-oriented military reform slowed as the military concentrated on combating (with outdated doctrine) the insurgents. Macedonia's acquisition of heavy weaponry inappropriate to the 2001 conflict lacked transparency.

Despite recent setbacks, Macedonia still aspires to EU and NATO membership. The U.S. is committed to helping Macedonia progress toward Euro-Atlantic integration over the long run. USG military training, through FMF and IMET, of Macedonian officers and NCOs is essential to building support for and implementing much needed reforms. Training in areas such as defense resource management, logistics and acquisition reform and self-defense training is consistent with the U.S. and NATO goal of supporting Macedonia's border security and counter-insurgency capabilities. Continued USG educational programs can be expected to increase support for broad military reforms within the officer corps.

The FY 2002 FMF program will reflect priorities set down by a pending Macedonian Ministry of Defense (MOD) Statement of Work, and developed in cooperation with a DoD assessment team. The MOD terminated U.S. defense consultant MPRI's contract in 2001, which had been the primary USG vehicle for the bilateral military-to-military relationship. However, the MOD has requested, a similar program under new guidelines. Current indications are that the bulk of FY 2002 FMF funds will be directed toward reform consultants and communications equipment.

Scheduled FY 2002 IMET training focuses on professional military education, special operations training for commissioned and non-commissioned officers, signals, intelligence, and counter-insurgency warfare. Among these priorities, resource management is foremost. Among the professional military education courses projected for FY 2002 are: U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force Command and General Staff Colleges, Army War College, U.S. Army Sergeant Major's Academy, and Mobile Education Teams providing civil-military relations training. This IMET training is improving Macedonia's potential for NATO inter-operability and is enhancing its ability to participate in PfP exercises. FMF also continues to be used for English language and equipment maintenance training.

The Marshall Center in Germany continues to provide U.S.-funded training to civilian and uniformed Macedonian defense officials. Through seminars and conferences, the Marshall Center instructs Central and Eastern European students in civil-military relations, ethnic conflict prevention, anticorruption measures, and defense economics.

Finally, as a NATO aspirant and PfP participant, Macedonia's MOD continues to use NATO Kosovo Force's presence to familiarize military officers with NATO procedures.

Malta

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
DOT/USCG Activities 1 $30,600 0 $0
FMF 90 $58,768 0 $0
IMET 39 $64,295 55 $224,974
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 30 $0 0 $0
TOTAL 160 $153,663 55 $224,974

Malta is strategically located in the Mediterranean, in close proximity to Italy and Libya. U.S. national interests in Malta include maintaining Malta's pro-Western orientation and checking Libyan influence. U.S. assistance to Malta in money and training enhances its ability to participate in regional security activities of importance to the United States, including matters involving counternarcotics, counterterrorism, interdiction of embargoed goods to restricted countries and interdiction of weapons of mass destruction materials in transit through Malta's waters. Professional military education fosters better understanding and enhances military-to-military relationships.

Netherlands

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 0 $0 1 $5,404
FMS 3845 $30,796,768 808 $18,408,416
Marshall Center 7 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
20 $146,850 0 $0
TOTAL 3872 $30,943,618 809 $18,413,820

The Netherlands is a mature democracy that is a long-time U.S. bilateral ally and a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the European Union (EU) and the United Nations (UN). As such, the U.S. provides no International Military Education and Training (IMET) to Dutch military forces.

Given the relatively small size of its forces, the Netherlands has joined or created a number of multinational units in order to better prepare for, and sustain, out-of-area deployments. The Netherlands place a premium on extensive and realistic training to serve as a multiplier on Dutch contributions to these formations. These units include the German/Netherlands Corps, the NATO Multinational Division (Central), a Dutch/Belgian deployable air task force, an integrated maritime headquarters with Belgium, and the UK/Netherlands Amphibious Force.

Accordingly, the primary goal of training purchased under Foreign Military Sales (FMS) for Dutch military forces is to increase overall NATO interoperability and to facilitate implementation of key aspects of the NATO Defense Capability Initiative (DCI), such as effective engagement and lift. These enhanced skills benefit NATO through more efficient and effective Dutch contributions to SFOR and KFOR in FY 2001 and FY 2002. This training has also developed Dutch crisis response capabilities, which they have tapped for use in peacekeeping in Africa and Cambodia. They used these enhanced skills in FY 2000-2001 in UN-sponsored regional stability efforts in Ethiopia/Eritrea (UNMEE), where they have a lead role, and in Cyprus (UNFICYP).

The vast bulk of U.S. training for the Dutch military is mobile training teams delivered through FMS and is primarily associated, in FY 2000 and FY 2001, with supporting Dutch operation of its F-16 multi-role fighters, AH-64 D attack helicopters and CH-47 lift helicopters. Additionally, FMS training supports Dutch deployment of HAWK and PATRIOT surface-to-air missiles and K/DC-10 tanker aircraft.

Norway

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 423 $22,283,589 206 $6,053,602
Marshall Center 2 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
142 $373,720 0 $0
PME Exchanges 5 $33,582 1 $21,175
TOTAL 572 $22,690,891 207 $6,074,777

Norway is an important NATO Ally and a strong supporter of the trans-Atlantic link. The Norwegians contribute to peacekeeping operations in the Balkans, and to U.S. efforts in Operation Enduring Freedom, deploying personnel and equipment to Afghanistan. Norway also supported International Security Assistance Force operations. Norway shares a land border with Russia and strongly believes that NATO membership is the best guarantee of its security interests. Norway occupies a strategic location along the North, Norwegian and Barents Seas. Maintaining strong defense links with Norway is vital to U.S. security interests in the region. Allowing Norway to participate in professional military education and such training as F-16 and P-3 flight and electronic warfare training fosters closer ties with this important friendly nation and expands their interoperability with, and understanding of, Allied strategy, doctrine and tactics.

Poland

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
DOT/USCG Activities 1 $20,400 0 $0
EPIC 62 $113,162 0 $0
FMF 56 $194,611 8 $72,560
IMET 117 $1,713,661 133 $1,708,498
IMET Multi-Year 65 $177,417 12 $51,307
Marshall Center 21 $389,354 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
95 $261,000 0 $0
TOTAL 417 $2,869,605 153 $1,832,365

Poland is the linchpin of U.S. efforts to stabilize transatlantic security through enlargement of NATO. Poland is playing a leading role in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, contributes to a broad range of multinational peacekeeping efforts and has become a close partner with the United States. Poland also contributed to our efforts in the Balkans by committing ground troops to Kosovo Force. Indeed, Poland has effectively integrated into the Alliance and is striving to meet its commitments as a NATO member. The Poles are fully engaged in the NATO defense planning process and are committed to providing the forces and resources that NATO is asking of them. Additionally, Poland supported U.S. efforts in Operation Enduring Freedom.

Military training with Poland focuses on several key areas: professional military education, including leadership training and other courses aimed at developing critical professional skills, English language, command and general staff courses, security assistance and advanced management courses to improve interoperability and develop a common perspective on leadership and management. Specialty training in logistics, intelligence, air traffic control, and field artillery help develop critical skills necessary to understand and operate Allied weapon systems while employing common doctrine, strategy and tactics in today's modern battlefield.

The greatest challenge Poland faces is dealing with the implementation of their NATO Force Goals - the forces and capabilities that each member is expected to contribute to the Alliance. The implementation of these goals, as part of the NATO defense planning process, is a long-term process that requires a long-term commitment. Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) has assessed that it will take several years for the Polish Armed Forces to achieve full integration within the military structures of the Alliance. Nevertheless, Poland is continuing to reform, restructure and modernize its military structures to make them more mobile and interoperable with other NATO militaries. Particular emphasis is being placed on personnel reform issues, such as reducing the size of their officer corps and developing their NCO corps, and on improving the capabilities of their rapid reaction and peacekeeping forces. The training support we provide is vital to Poland's efforts to achieve these goals.

Portugal

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $9,648 4 $14,478
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
IMET 107 $883,487 249 $1,077,994
Marshall Center 2 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
85 $194,000 0 $0
TOTAL 198 $1,087,135 253 $1,092,472

Portugal has been a steady ally in NATO and in support of U.S.-European Union defense cooperation. A cooperative security relationship with Portugal is also essential to continued U.S. access to Lajes Air Base in the Azores, which is a key component of U.S. force projection capabilities, particularly to the Balkans, the Middle East and, most recently, in South Asia, particularly Afghanistan. In addition, Portugal has committed itself to increase its defense capabilities and to make certain that they are fully NATO-compatible.

Portugal particularly values IMET training. The Portuguese see IMET as a valuable part of the cooperation specified in the Agreement on Cooperation and Defense, the agreement which assures continued U.S. military access to Lajes. In addition, military education and training helps develop military-to-military understanding and gives Portuguese soldiers the skills necessary to operate and maintain U.S.-origin equipment. Training at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies helps support Portuguese interest in promoting peace and stability in Africa.

Romania

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
FMF 171 $1,467,201 33 $86,496
IMET 291 $551,626 167 $863,477
Marshall Center 134 $776,895 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
108 $290,560 0 $0
Section 506 60 $0 0 $0
Service Academies 5 $213,868 1 $46,791
TOTAL 769 $3,300,150 202 $996,764

As the largest country in size and population in southeast Europe, Romania contributes significantly to peace and security in a troubled region. In 1997, Presidents Clinton and Constantinescu declared a "Strategic Partnership" between the U.S. and Romania, and U.S. training of the Romanian military is a clear demonstration of that partnership.

U.S. bilateral military assistance is helping Romania develop an efficient military under civilian control, enjoying a cooperative Partnership for Peace relationship with NATO. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) assistance has included a $2 million USMC program to help develop a modern NCO corps with NATO standards. To support the Defense Ministry's Reform Plan, we also provide advice and assistance to downsize and professionalize the Romanian military, making it more NATO-interoperable.

The GOR seeks U.S. military training for as many officers as possible and the IMET program's wide range of training for the Romanian military has helped to improve military readiness in all sectors. In FY 2001, officers took classes on such subjects as: amphibious warfare, field artillery, infantry, engineer, military police, civil-military relations, defense resource management, logistics and English language. Romanian students have also attended U.S. Army, Air Force and Naval Command and Staff Colleges, and U.S. Army and Air War Colleges.

Romanian soldiers and civilian defense officials also receive U.S.-funded training at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Center concentrates on providing courses, conferences and seminars on civil-military relations in the developing democracies of Central Europe and the Newly Independent States.

Slovakia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
EPIC 0 $0 64 $0
FMF 72 $494,939 4 $27,705
IMET 147 $959,267 74 $961,655
IMET 2-Year 3 $25,251 2 $38,736
Marshall Center 100 $420,676 0 $0
TOTAL 322 $1,900,133 144 $1,028,096

Slovakia is at Europe's geographic center, is nearly surrounded by the three new NATO member states, and has its own strong aspirations to join the Alliance. The U.S. supports Slovakia's continued economic and political reform and the continued development of its candidacy for Euro-Atlantic institutions, including NATO. IMET and other types of training and education help Slovakia to play an increasingly active role as a regional defense and security partner and to prepare the country for possible future NATO membership. Training and education will also enhance Slovakia's participation in Partnership for Peace (PfP) activities by providing U.S. and NATO-compatible training.

Slovakia's participation in professional military education helps to develop the professional skills of senior officers, respect for the rule of law and human rights, and a greater understanding of the concept of civilian control of the military. Courses in English language, advanced management and manpower and qualitative management help Slovakia and the U.S. to develop a shared perspective on leadership and management.

Specialty training in air traffic control, systems control, and infantry training help to develop critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and improve the capabilities of the Slovak military. This support will also help keep Slovakia focused on the practical steps toward NATO, support its already-active participation in the full range of PfP exercises, and allow its Armed Forces to integrate more completely with NATO equipment and standards.

Slovenia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMF 252 $408,723 32 $68,760
IMET 219 $531,003 208 $501,884
IMET 2-Year 30 $53,996 30 $31,445
Marshall Center 9 $201,000 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
10 $26,000 0 $0
Service Academies 3 $180,429 0 $0
TOTAL 523 $1,401,151 270 $602,089

As a bridge between Central Europe and the Balkans, Slovenia has increasingly displayed the ability to positively influence Southeast European countries at differing stages of reform and integration. A Slovenia that is actively engaged in addressing regional security problems and a Slovenian military force that is stable, strong, well-administered and closely tied to Euro-Atlantic institutions serves U.S. national security interests.

International Military Training and Education (IMET) programs foster development of a strong bilateral military-to-military relationship and assist Slovenia in preparing its forces for the possibility of entry into NATO in a future round of enlargement. It also deepens Slovenian engagement in regional security arrangements, Partnership for Peace (PfP), the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and peacekeeping in the nearby area's zone of instability.

Slovenia's participation in IMET-sponsored senior professional military education, officer development courses and non-commisioned officer training helps to develop the professional skills of senior- and mid-level officers and NCOs and increases interoperability of the Slovene military with U.S. and NATO forces. Further, Expanded-IMET courses on civil-military relations, international defense resource management and military justice foster respect for the rule of law and human rights, and a greater understanding of the concept of civilian control of the military. Specialty training in courses such as air traffic control, ranger training, peacekeeping, logistics, and acquisition management, help develop critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and interoperability, while at the same time improving the internal self-defense capabilities of the Slovenian Armed Forces. Slovenia has also undertaken a robust English language-training program with its Foreign Military Financing. Mobile training teams and the employment of a longer-term English language training coordinator have resulted in great success in this area, with a significant percentage of the Slovenian military speaking English.

Continued training support will help keep Slovenia focused on the practical steps for advancing its NATO candidacy, supporting its participation in the full range of PfP and "in the spirit of PfP" exercises, and allowing its Armed Forces to integrate more fully with NATO equipment and standards.

Spain

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Exchange Training 4 $10,000 2 $10,000
FMS 1162 $6,817,920 503 $6,285,750
Marshall Center 5 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
20 $74,000 0 $0
PME Exchanges 14 $0 2 $0
TOTAL 1205 $6,901,920 507 $6,295,750

Spain is an important NATO Ally. Spain contributes significantly to shared goals and objectives throughout Europe and the world, including through participation in peacekeeping operations in the Balkans (Stabilization Force and Kosovo Force) and most recently through staunch support for the U.S. in the War on Terrorism. Spain commands a significant geostrategic location. The U.S.'s use of the Spanish bases at Rota and Moron is essential to our power projection capability to the Middle East, the Balkans and Africa. Spain has consistently allowed our use of the bases for contingency operations. The U.S. currently has an average of 28,000 flights into or over these bases per year. The bases were used heavily during the Persian Gulf War and Operation Allied Force. The Spanish Government has made them available for use in Operation Enduring Freedom. The Spanish also continue to provide access to their best training areas at little or no cost to the U.S.

Military cooperation, from joint exercises to the sharing of lessons learned and support of unilateral U.S. activities is important to maintaining the strong bilateral relationship. With Spain joining the military arm of NATO only in 1998, such training and education are very useful in fostering Spain's increasing interoperability within NATO.

Sweden

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 0 $0 1 $5,404
FMS 188 $3,425,592 58 $2,169,970
Marshall Center 9 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
40 $412,164 0 $0
TOTAL 237 $3,837,756 59 $2,175,374

Although Sweden is not a member of NATO, it is an active participant in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and a solid partner with the United States in many areas of national security concern. For example, Sweden is an energetic player in the Balkans, was one of the first with troops on the ground in Kosovo and provided support to the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan. Sweden is a staunch supporter of NATO's Open Door and actively assists the three Baltic countries to achieve military interoperability with the West. Sweden has donated equipment to outfit troops in the Baltics. Sweden has also expressed interest in engaging in joint military exercises with Russia, which is an effort we support. With respect to the European Security Defense Identity (ESDI), Sweden supports a strong European Union crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged and which does not duplicate NATO structures. It is a great proponent of interoperability and in defense trade matters, supports the trans-Atlantic link. It is therefore more important than ever to promote close cooperation on security issues between Sweden and the United States. All FMS-purchased training is fully funded by Swedish national funds.

Switzerland

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 0 $0 1 $5,404
FMS 72 $993,389 38 $598,984
Marshall Center 15 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
5 $47,000 0 $0
TOTAL 92 $1,040,389 39 $604,388

The U.S. and Switzerland work closely to advance human rights, democracy, nonproliferation and other issues of global concern. A traditionally neutral democratic nation, Switzerland has focused on its ability to participate in democracy-building and peacekeeping exercises since joining NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) in 1996. Its PfP goals focus largely on enhancing interoperability of forces and capabilities that may be declared available for PfP activities, but within self-imposed limits on participation related to the Swiss concept of neutrality. The Swiss PfP program for 2001 had 35 partnership goals and offered PfP partners over 100 courses and exercise opportunities in Switzerland. Many of these were at three Swiss government-supported centers: The Geneva Center for Humanitarian Demining, The Geneva Center for Security Policy and the Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. All FMS-purchased training, such as flight, logistics and communications training, is fully funded by Swiss national funds.

Turkey

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Credit 206 $8,210,437 35 $102,072
DOT/USCG Activities 3 $48,476 0 $0
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
FMF 130 $1,587,305 23 $67,313
FMS 151 $3,418,553 36 $932,099
IMET 213 $1,762,901 354 $2,075,883
Marshall Center 3 $0 0 $0
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 1 $15,435 3 $4,082
NESA 2 $0 9 $12,940
Non-SA, Unified
Command
30 $34,447 0 $0
Section 506 30 $0 0 $0
Service Academies 10 $330,844 0 $0
TOTAL 781 $15,408,398 460 $3,194,389

Turkey has the second-largest army in NATO and the largest F-16 fleet outside of the United States. During ALLIED FORCE, Turkey provided NATO with air bases and participated in the air campaign over Kosovo. Through access to Incirlik Air Base, it provides the U.S. with critical power projection capability for an unstable region featured in 13 of 16 NATO Article V scenarios, and the majority of the most likely non-Article V scenarios. After 50 years of defending Europe's southern flank during the Cold War, Turkey's proximity to Iran, Iraq, Syria and the Caucasus/Central Asia has increased its strategic value to NATO and the United States.

Turkey is central to U.S. efforts to develop Caspian Basin oil and gas resources to reduce regional energy dependence on Russia and Iran. Through its offers to provide troops and aircraft/ships for the European Union Headline Goal and to host a High Readiness Force HQ for NATO's Southern Region, Turkey supports U.S. objectives to develop a European security defense architecture and to supplement NATO force restructuring. Turkey's geographic position and shared values make it a central player in U.S. efforts to contain the spread of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), prevent nuclear proliferation, develop a regional theater missile defense (TMD) program, fight terrorism, halt the flow of illegal drugs and provide a secular, democratic model to other predominately Islamic states in the region.

Many senior-level Turkish officers have received training in the U.S. that has paid off in terms of Turkish support for U.S. policy goals on defense modernization (DCI/interoperability), regional stability (Balkans, Caucasus, Middle East, Aegean) and democratization (human rights/EU accession). Turkey itself provides military training to a variety of countries in the Caucasus (especially Georgia) and Central Asia that supplement PfP training and help extend NATO's influence in the states of the former Soviet Union. Humanitarian/disaster relief training supports regional stability and domestic civilian-military relations to bolster Turkey's capacity to respond to natural disasters like the 1999 earthquakes. Peacekeeping training supported Turkey's participation in Stabilization Force (SFOR) and Kosovo Force (KFOR) deployments and regional Turkish confidence building initiatives like SEEBRIG and BLACKSEAFOR. By funding travel, lodging and per diem costs on its own, Turkey maximizes IMET funding and thus has tripled the number of students it sends to the United States.

United Kingdom

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 0 $0 3 $14,478
FMS 1090 $3,523,176 73 $4,368,281
Marshall Center 13 $0 0 $0
NESA 0 $0 9 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
50 $10,950 0 $0
TOTAL 1153 $3,534,126 85 $4,382,759

The United Kingdom remains one of our closest and most important allies, working in concert with the United States across a broad range of political and military issues both within NATO and bilaterally. A nuclear state with significant power projection capabilities, the UK brings not just a regional, but also a global orientation to our security relationship, with over 25,000 forces stationed abroad. The UK has been our closest ally in military actions in OEF, has provided aircraft, surface vessels and submarines, and extensive use of bases to contribute to the common effort. It took the lead on the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and has worked closely with the USG to ensure coordination/deconfliction between ISAF and Operation Enduring Freedom operations.

Professional military education is a critical element in the U.S.-UK defense relationship. It helps develop an important political dimension of military-to-military relationships and improves understanding of social and economic factors affecting the Alliance. The British are key NATO Allies, and it is in the U.S. interest to support all types of professional military education opportunities for the UK. Such training strengthens cooperation between U.S. and UK forces. Three current examples of such cooperation are: UK forces fly side-by-side with U.S. counterparts in enforcing the No-Fly Zones in Iraq, our forces are deployed together in the Balkans and we are cooperating on stabilizing Sierra Leone. Professional military education for UK personnel furthers our cooperative efforts in these and other areas of mutual concern.

Yugoslavia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Marshall Center 5 $4,253 0 $0
TOTAL 5 $4,253 0 $0

Yugoslavia is key to ensuring long-term stability in the Balkans. Following the democratic transition in Belgrade, our policy has been to encourage development of a professional military that is cooperative and compatible with Western standards, respects human rights and whose actions do not pose a threat to peace and stability in the Balkans. Given our concerns about a lack of military reform in Yugoslavia, U.S. efforts have been restricted to low-level relations in order to lay the groundwork for defense establishment reform.



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