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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. Foreign Policy Papers - Near East


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest: Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
March 2002
Report
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Algeria

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $8,517 3 $10,808
IMET 14 $128,554 21 $328,670
NESA 3 $10,559 9 $59,452
TOTAL 19 $147,630 33 $398,930

The U.S. has a clear interest in increasing regional stability by promoting an open democracy, economic reform and peace and security in Algeria. Algeria's military, the second largest in Africa, is emerging from a decade of conflict with armed insurgents. The proposed plan is a cautious, measured approach intended to encourage reform within an Algerian military establishment gradually moving along a path toward greater pluralism and respect for civilian authority.

The IMET program helps Algerian military officers understand and increase their support for U.S. policy. These activities, as well as participation at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies and the Near East - South Asia Center, increase awareness of international norms of human rights and foster greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military. In FY 2002, IMET funds will be used for officer training and will finance the participation of Algerian officers in our Air War College, Army War College, Naval Command College, Naval Staff College, Air Command and Staff College, and Army Command and General Staff College. These officers will establish essential contacts with U.S. counterparts whose influence can encourage reform within the Algerian military. IMET-funded English language training will improve the Algerian military's interoperability with U.S. forces, facilitate interaction in potential future contingency operations such as peacekeeping missions, and prepare them for increased training opportunities.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Algeria by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Bahrain

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 531 $5,515,246 381 $3,855,497
IMET 28 $264,369 29 $251,240
NESA 5 $27,770 16 $84,100
Non-SA, Unified
Command
30 $8,000 0 $0
Section 506 30 $0 0 $0
Service Academies 1 $46,791 0 $0
TOTAL 625 $5,862,176 426 $4,190,837

The United States has a demonstrable and enduring national security interest in maintaining its access to Bahraini military facilities in order to maintain our influence in the Persian Gulf region. Bahrain has been a steadfast supporter of our foreign policy objectives in Iraq and Libya, not only as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council in 1997, but as a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Bahrain has also been a critical supporter of our containment of Iranian ambitions in the region and our efforts to combat international terrorism. Most recently, Bahrain has been a key supporter of the War on Terrorism.

The political and military relationship with Bahrain has continued to be strong and flexible. Bahrain has hosted an Air Expeditionary Force at Sheikh Isa Air Base (SIAB) and has hosted the U.S. Navy for more than 50 years. The relatively open access to facilities, land and airspace needed to support contingency operations, including joint task force, fleet and Multinational Interception Force operations, are critical to the U.S. presence in the region and the War on Terrorism. In addition, Bahrain annually hosts four major exercises that involve U.S. forces. We have a strong security relationship, institutionalized in the Defense Cooperation Agreement, last signed in 1991, and in the granting of major non-NATO Ally status in 2001.

Training activities under IMET, the continuation of Excess Defense Article (EDA) transfers and the approval of selected commercial arms sales will enable the Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF) to assume greater responsibility for regional defense, while promoting interoperability with existing U.S. and GCC forces in the region. Continued service academy attendance, military-to-military contacts, joint military exercises, and the U.S./Bahrain Military Consultative Commission (MCC) all contribute to Bahrain's invaluable support for U.S. force deployments and encourage the development of a professional military command committed to the principle of civilian control. Bahrain has a robust security assistance program with the U.S. and views grant EDA as an appropriate U.S. gesture of recognition and thanks for the longstanding relationship and the support Bahrain has generally provided the U.S. military.

Egypt

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 1 $10,371 3 $10,808
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
FMF 1780 $8,265,644 932 $6,896,806
IMET 74 $1,330,038 119 $1,948,839
NESA 4 $9,675 14 $71,826
TOTAL 1861 $9,615,728 1068 $8,928,279

Egypt is a pivotal country in the Arab world and a key U.S. ally in the Middle East. The U.S. seeks to promote regional peace and security by encouraging Egypt's continued participation and leadership in Middle East peace efforts. Egypt has been at peace with Israel for two decades, but has potentially hostile rivals in Sudan and Libya. Egypt faces challenges to maintaining sea lines of communication as well as to the protection of its territorial waters and Nile headwaters. Egypt's strategic location and control of the Suez Canal make it a critical transit point for petroleum and for U.S. forces in the Persian Gulf and Southwest Asia.

President Mubarak was the first head of an Arab state to make a public statement of support for the strikes on Afghanistan. Egypt has been extremely cooperative in working with the U.S. to crack down on financing activities of terrorist entities. The importance of Egypt's cooperation for Suez Canal access and security, as well as overflight clearances cannot be overstated. In 2001, Egypt granted clearances for over 6,250 military overflights and for 53 U.S. Navy ship passages.

As our principal Middle East coalition partner, Egypt participates in a number of annual joint military exercises, and biennially hosts Operation Bright Star, the largest U.S. military training exercise in the world. Last held in October-November 2001, Bright Star sends an important message to the region about U.S. and coalition capabilities to project forces into the region.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Egypt by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Egypt's replacement of outmoded Soviet-era equipment with smaller quantities of more capable and sustainable U.S. equipment is well underway. Increasing the amount of U.S.-origin equipment in the Egyptian inventory augments U.S. interoperability with Egypt, enhancing their value as a coalition partner. Egypt's U.S.-funded training program is exceptionally robust and vital to our relationship. Specifically, Egyptian training funded under the IMET and FMF programs enhances counterterrorism training, improves Egypt's maintenance and supply capabilities, increases English language skills of the Egyptian officer corps and improves pilot proficiency. Attendance at U.S. military command and staff colleges and service academies teaches advanced leadership skills and improves understanding between our militaries. All of these programs directly enhance joint training, as well as Egypt's value as a key coalition partner.

Iraq

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 74 $390,464 240 $1,521,684
TOTAL 74 $390,464 240 $1,521,684

The Iraq Liberation Act (ILA), P.L. 105-338, Section 4 (a) (2) provides the President authority "to direct the drawdown of defense articles from the stocks of the Department of Defense, defense services of the Department of Defense, and military education and training for [Iraqi opposition] organizations."

Such training focuses on helping the Iraqi opposition improve its ability to function as a democratic opposition and demonstrate to Iraqis that a credible alternative to Saddam Hussein's brutal regime exists. Training is offered in such areas as public affairs, strategic planning, humanitarian assistance, international law, logistics and civil reconstruction.

The Administration is continually engaged with the Iraqi National Congress, the primary umbrella organization for the Iraqi opposition, on the development of a comprehensive requirements-based training plan. The number of students who have already benefited from training is approximately 140. The Administration notified Congress in October 1999 (Presidential Determination 2000-05) that $5 million of the $97 million authorized by the ILA would be allocated for a first tranche of assistance, $3M of which will cover training expenses.

Israel

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMF 1035 $31,720,393 214 $1,413,988
FMS 362 $1,932,597 411 $4,335,617
NESA 4 $0 10 $0
TOTAL 1401 $33,652,990 635 $5,749,605

It is in the U.S. national interest to promote a stable, democratic and militarily strong Israel that is at peace with its neighbors. President Bush has reiterated the steadfast U.S. commitment to Israel's security, to the maintenance of its qualitative militarily edge and to strengthen Israel's ability to deter potential aggressors and defend itself. Maintaining Israel's qualitative military edge in the regional balance of power enhances Israel's security, helps prevent regional conflict. Israel remains one of the USG's most important allies in countering the threat of weapons of mass destruction in the region.

The U.S. has provided Israel with over $88 billion in economic and military assistance since 1949 and Israel continues to receive the largest share of U.S. security assistance worldwide. Foreign military training spending, both as a portion of U.S.-provided FMF and as DoD-funded non-security assistance, is an important element in maintaining Israel's qualitative military edge. Training for Israeli personnel during FY 2001 included Air, Naval, and Army War College courses, flight simulator training, and avionics systems and armament maintenance training, among other programs. By providing both technical expertise and exposure to U.S. military culture and personnel, these programs promote interoperability and contribute significantly to the strengthening of U.S.-Israel military ties.

Jordan

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
EPIC 5 $20,000 36 $0
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
FMF 152 $69,655 0 $0
IMET 184 $2,187,357 200 $2,166,087
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 30 $0 0 $0
NESA 4 $37,445 14 $71,826
Non-SA, Unified
Command
40 $110,000 0 $0
Service Academies 3 $153,725 2 $93,582
TOTAL 420 $2,578,182 252 $2,331,495

Stability and economic prosperity in the Middle East support U.S. national security objectives. As a moderate, pro-West state, Jordan is in a position to play a pivotal role as a stabilizing influence in the region by virture of its borders with Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Syria and Israel. Political stability and economic development in Jordan are necessary prerequisites to enhance Jordan's moderate influence in the region.

Peace in the Middle East is one of Jordan's highest priorities, especially in light of its majority Palestinian population and its peace treaty with Israel. Jordan is also in a position to contribute to collective regional security goals. The U.S. works with Jordan to assure adherence to the UN sanctions regime in Iraq, as well as strengthened border security. Jordan has been a strong supporter of the War on Terrorism and has deployed an airborne company, field hospital and demining unit to Afghanistan in support of coalition operations.

The U.S.-Jordan military-to-military relationship is excellent, and Jordan has been designated a major non-NATO Ally. FMF helps the Jordanian Armed Force address its readiness and sustainment requirements, and this program remains the only source of funds for Jordanian military modernization programs as outlined in their Five-Year Plan. FMF also supports counterterrorism and border security requirements. Jordan's successful efforts at border control are critical to prevent illicit trafficking of arms, explosives, drugs and equipment for use in the production of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. Improved security for Jordanian borders translates into enhanced domestic stability for Jordan, improved security for Israel and for the U.S. military based in Saudi Arabia, and increases the ability to hold the line on sanctions with Iraq.

Jordan has one of the largest IMET programs in the world and regularly sends officers to U.S. war colleges, command and staff schools, and other key professional military education (PME) and technical courses. IMET training reinforces democratic principles of civilian control of the military, enhances interoperability with U.S. forces, promotes professionalism and reinforces among core supporters of the regime the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. The exercise program is also robust, and Jordan participates in multiple bilateral and multilateral exercises annually.

Kuwait

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 639 $8,395,031 943 $8,630,162
NESA 5 $0 16 $0
Section 506 60 $0 0 $0
TOTAL 704 $8,395,031 959 $8,630,162

The United States has a demonstrable and enduring national security interest in maintaining its access to Kuwait. Located on the southern border of Iraq, Kuwait faces the difficult task of securing its borders from the principal threats in the region - Iran and Iraq. A critical part of Kuwait's national security posture in the region is its military relationship with the United States. A continuous U.S. presence has been key to Kuwait's security since the Gulf War. The last two years has seen Kuwait emerge as the defacto hub for U.S. military assets throughout the Gulf region, a trend that will continue for the foreseeable future.

Our political and military relationship with Kuwait is strong and flexible. Kuwait hosts the forward headquarters of CENTCOM's ground forces, a significant number of U.S. and coalition military personnel, and a large contingent of air forces in support of Operation Southern Watch and Operation Enduring Freedom. It has steadfastly supported U.S. initiatives in the region. Kuwait has been especially supportive of the Multinational Interception Force (MIF) and all efforts aimed at enforcing UN Security Council declared sanctions against the Saddam-led Iraqi government. The relatively open access to facilities, land and airspace needed to support contingency operations, including joint task force and fleet operations, are critical to the U.S. presence in the region and ongoing military operations there.

The continued participation of Kuwaitis in military-to-military training initiatives will enable Kuwait to assume greater responsibility for its own defense and regional security, while promoting interoperability with existing U.S. and Gulf Cooperation Council forces in the region. Continued military-to-military contacts and joint military exercises also recognize Kuwait's invaluable support for U.S. force deployments and encourage the development of its professional military command in ways that support U.S. objectives in the region.

Lebanon

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 4 $18,160 0 $0
IMET 84 $316,474 273 $904,775
INL 60 $0 30 $0
NESA 0 $0 12 $59,552
TOTAL 148 $334,634 315 $964,327

Lebanon is still emerging from the shadow of its 16-year civil war, which ended in 1991. The most significant development in this respect was the complete withdrawal of Israeli forces from south Lebanon in May 2000. The United Nations has recognized that Israel no longer occupies any Lebanese territory. However, Syria remains a ubiquitous presence and controlling power in Lebanon. The Government of Lebanon is making progress toward rebuilding its civil institutions, and reestablishing the rule of law. Still, armed militias — like Hizbollah — remain outside the control of the central government. The economy remains a serious question in Lebanon. As of mid-2002, many analysts predicted imminent economic collapse of the state. U.S. interests lie in a free and independent Lebanon at peace with its neighbors, particularly Israel. A secure and independent Lebanon will seriously weaken terrorism and contribute to the fight against illegal drugs and counterfeiting.

A comprehensive Middle East peace cannot be achieved absent peace between Lebanon and Israel. Although the Lebanon track is tied to the Syrian track, we continue to use every effort to support Lebanon in efforts to reach peace with Israel and to support the development of independent institutions minimizing the influence of external players, including Iran and Syria.

IMET funding was reinstated for Lebanon in 1993. The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) have taken full advantage of the opportunity for professional military education and technical training. The country team reports that IMET graduates are employed in positions of command and responsibility and achieve proportionally higher rank and influence than their non-IMET peers. In addition, USG assistance to the LAF reinforces progress towards deconfessionalization (that is, reduction of the tendency to break down society along strictly sectarian/confessional lines) in one of the country's major institutions. IMET training also provides an important alternative to military training with Syria and other countries. IMET training for the LAF in FY 2001 included courses at the Army and Air Force Command & Staff Colleges, English language training and maritime officer training, among others. In FY 2002, Lebanon will send students to the National Defense University, Army War College, Navy Command College, Navy Staff College and the Air Force Command and Staff College. Additionally, Lebanon will receive training in maritime environmental security, port security, and ordnance disposal. Lebanon also continues to benefit from non-security assistance humanitarian demining training, which will finance an on-going program to remove landmines throughout Lebanon, especially in southern Lebanon where we continue to encourage increased deployments of the Armed Forces in order to stabilize the border areas.

Morocco

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $8,647 1 $5,404
FMF 0 $0 2 $13,355
IMET 94 $958,774 109 $1,553,432
NESA 6 $55,540 12 $59,552
Non-SA, Unified
Command
74 $160,000 0 $0
Service Academies 1 $46,791 1 $46,791
TOTAL 177 $1,229,752 125 $1,678,534

A strategic anchor at the cusp of Africa, Europe and the Arab world, Morocco sits on the south side of the Straits of Gibraltar. In July 1999, Mohammed VI became King upon the death of his father, Hassan. From the start, King Mohammed has shown himself to be a progressive monarch. He has voiced strong support for human rights and economic and political reform. However, he has inherited a kingdom that is poor - a middle-ranked developing country - and a political system whose reform is real but far from complete. The United States seeks to support this democratic and free-market opening to encourage a Morocco that is stable, prosperous and free.

Morocco is pro-U.S. in its international orientation and is a strong supporter of the War on Terrorism. Morocco's moderate policies on the Arab-Israeli conflict have proved helpful to our regional peace efforts. It is strongly in the U.S. interest to support stability in Morocco and to support the continuance of Morocco's friendly foreign policy. As the dialogue between NATO and several Middle East states affirms, stability in Morocco and the Maghreb is of vital importance to our Southern European NATO allies.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Morocco by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The IMET program increases awareness of international norms of human rights, fosters greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military and helps Moroccan military officers understand U.S. foreign policies. Morocco sends students to professional military education (PME) courses including U.S. service war colleges, command and staff colleges and other key PME courses. Moroccan attendance at key PME courses fosters one-to-one relationships that pay invaluable rewards in the form of interoperability, coordination and mutual understanding. Also, IMET-funded maintenance and logistics, technical and specialist, as well as English language training enhances Morocco's value as a partner in multinational training exercises, peacekeeping missions and potential future coalition contingency actions.

Oman

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 2 $52,258 0 $0
IMET 41 $306,114 72 $374,488
NESA 5 $37,445 16 $84,100
Section 1004 150 $415,000 20 $150,000
Section 506 30 $0 0 $0
Service Academies 1 $46,791 1 $46,791
TOTAL 229 $857,608 109 $655,379

Oman's location on the southern shore of the Strait of Hormuz makes our relationship with the Sultanate critical to U.S. commitments to defend national, regional and global interests in the Gulf. Access to Oman's military bases through a bilateral agreement provides an important anchor for our regional political-military strategy. Security cooperation has been the bedrock upon which our bilateral relationship with Oman rests. Since 1980, Oman has provided access to the U.S. for bases (the first Gulf Cooperation Council State to do so) and permitted prepositioning of military assets. The U.S. should actively support the Omanization of the Sultan's Armed forces through professional military training (IMET) and Excess Defense Articles (EDA) transfers. Additionally, for the past twenty years, we have been able to count on Oman's support for U.S. regional policy initiatives, including peace efforts and U.S. Iraq policy. Oman has more recently been a strong supporter of U.S. objectives in the War on Terrorism, providing exceptional assistance in a wide variety of fields. The relatively open access to facilities, land and airspace are critical to the U.S. presence in the region and the War on Terrorism.

Oman's long-term domestic political stability improves prospects for continued policy support and military access. The USG is providing technical assistance for the Sultan's political and legal reform program. It is also working closely with Oman, both bilaterally and through the World Trade Organization (Oman became a member of the WTO in October 2000), to encourage a more transparent regulatory environment that will attract increased investment and trade.

Training provided to Oman covers a broad range of areas, including professional military education, English language, technical and logistics training, medical corps development, demining efforts and maritime operations. Oman has also participated in joint military exercises to improve team building and establish baseline knowledge of U.S. operations.

Qatar

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 27 $1,004,727 67 $1,221,106
NESA 5 $10,559 16 $12,940
Non-SA, Unified
Command
85 $220,000 0 $0
Section 506 19 $0 0 $0
TOTAL 136 $1,235,286 83 $1,234,046

Our military relationship with Qatar is strong and vital. Emir Hamad is pursuing democratic principals and working to strengthen the U.S. relationship, particularly military ties. The U.S.-Qatar Defense Cooperation Agreement, which was signed in 1992, established the basis for our growing military-to-military relationship. Over the last several years, Qatar has hosted a number of Air Expeditionary Forces (AEF) and P-3 deployments as well as the bed-down of tanker assets. Qatari support to Operation Enduring Freedom has been outstanding and vital to our efforts in the region. Qatar has, without question, the most impressive preposition infrastructure in the Middle East, if not the world, and has agreed to provide land for the pre-positioning of combat equipment that supports a heavy Army brigade, AEF and various munitions.

Strategically located in the Gulf, it is vital that the U.S. continues to support military-to-military initiatives to include joint training exercises. The relationships, principles and doctrine future leaders of Qatar's military develop in these training institutions will enhance future coalition warfare and interoperability.

Saudi Arabia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 2122 $90,582,050 1989 $42,470,494
NESA 5 $44,981 16 $84,100
Non-SA, Unified
Command
30 $44,000 0 $0
TOTAL 2157 $90,671,031 2005 $42,554,594

Saudi Arabia remains a valued partner of the U.S. and provides support to important initiatives like Operation Southern Watch. Military-to-military relations have been consistent through years of U.S. support to Saudi Arabia's military programs including training, joint exercises and FMS and commercial arms sales. Continued military-to-military contacts and joint military exercises will encourage the development of a professional military command and armed force. This will allow the Kingdom to assume a greater role in self-defense, assist the U.S. in achieving its policy goals in the region and support our efforts to promote security cooperation among the Gulf Cooperation Council members.

Tunisia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $8,292 3 $10,808
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
FMF 60 $0 0 $0
IMET 61 $1,198,883 112 $1,407,718
NESA 4 $19,350 12 $59,552
TOTAL 129 $1,226,525 128 $1,478,078

Tunisia is a stable democratic state in a troubled Middle East region, where the U.S. national interest in maintaining access to crucial energy supplies remains high. Located at the Africa-Sicily chokepoint of the Mediterranean, it is a natural economic and strategic bridge to Europe. A close regional ally of the United States, Tunisia considers the U.S. to be its closest military partner. Our interest is to ensure a strong, durable fabric of bilateral relations which include: active Tunisian participation in efforts to promote regional stability, particularly in Middle East peace efforts; bilateral military cooperation; peacekeeping operations; and continued access of U.S. forces to Tunisian facilities.

Joint training exercises are an important feature of our relationship, as Tunisian troops typically engage in 10-12 combined exercises with U.S. forces annually. With over 70% of the Tunisia military equipment of U.S.-origin, the Tunisian Army and Air Force have based their structure and operational doctrine on the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force. This greatly enhances the ability to integrate Tunisian forces into operations with U.S. forces. Tunisian training with U.S. forces enhances their value as a potential coalition partner and recently proved instrumental to Tunisia's participation in Kosovo in support of UN humanitarian efforts. In fact, Tunisia currently has almost 300 troops deployed in the UN peacekeeping missions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MUNOC), Eritrea (UNMEE), and Kosovo (UNMIK).

IMET provides basic and advanced English language training for Tunisian military officers and noncommissioned officers. Tunisian officers have attended U.S. service war colleges, staff colleges, major professional military education (PME) courses and have participated at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) programs in civil-military affairs and at the Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies. These opportunities promote U.S. goals of stability and democracy, and increase the Tunisian officer corps's familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. This reinforces the fact that the Tunisian military is a highly professional and totally apolitical force, a significant exception in Middle East and African countries. IMET-funded maintenance, logistics and specialist training will enhance Tunisia's value as a training partner and potential coalition partner.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Tunisia by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

United Arab Emirates

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 224 $14,688,585 194 $6,079,050
NESA 7 $0 16 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
47 $260,000 0 $0
TOTAL 278 $14,948,585 210 $6,079,050

The United States has an excellent security relationship with the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The UAE is a strong U.S. ally in the Gulf region and has supported U.S. policy initiatives in the Gulf. They are a major procurer of advanced U.S. military technology and strive toward interoperability with U.S. forces. Therefore, military-to-military education opportunities are a top priority for the UAE. At the same time, attendance at these schools by UAE officers supports the Central Command's objective of forward engagement and interoperability. Finally, the officers who attend these schools are the future leaders of the UAE military. It is to our utmost advantage if they understand U.S. military doctrine and policy perspectives.

Yemen

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
FMF 60 $130,892 2 $4,680
FMS 4 $9,200 18 $47,480
IMET 11 $198,940 13 $268,313
NESA 4 $20,234 16 $71,926
TOTAL 79 $359,266 50 $392,399

Yemen, the most populous and poorest nation on the Arabian Peninsula, is undergoing a slow process of political and social reform under President Saleh, aimed at making it the first fully functioning democracy in the region. Because of Yemen's location adjacent to the Bab-al-Mandab, one of the world's most important shipping routes, as well as its proximity to U.S. allies Saudi Arabia and Oman, Yemen can affect U.S. interests in the region. Yemen is also fighting a campaign against terrorist elements inside its borders. U.S. support for that campaign will help to ensure its success. Support for Yemen's democratic and economic reform programs, professional military training and a humanitarian demining program not only promote our national values in Yemen, but also further our national interests, particularly the international War on Terrorism. IMET will fund U.S. training and education for Yemeni military personnel as the military force shifts toward Western practices and doctrine. The IMET program will help military leaders in Yemen understand U.S. policies, increase awareness of international norms of human rights and foster greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military. Sending Yemenis to professional military education (PME) in the U.S. helps establish one-to-one relationships with counterparts that pay invaluable rewards later in the form of interoperability, coordination and mutual understanding. Increased IMET-funded English language training will also improve the Yemeni military's interoperability with U.S. forces and prepare them for increased training opportunities.



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