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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. Foreign Policy Papers - Newly Independent States


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest: Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
March 2002
Report
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Armenia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Marshall Center 22 $344,535 0 $0
TOTAL 22 $344,535 0 $0

The U.S. hopes to promote peace, stability and prosperity in the Caucasus. One of the best ways to serve U.S. national interests and promote these regional goals is through the establishment of a stable, prosperous and independent Armenia. Thus we seek increased engagement with Armenia's defense establishment, within U.S. policy guidelines. Section 907 of the Freedom Support Act prohibited most USG assistance to the Government of Azerbaijan and, as part of a policy of evenhandedness on security issues, the Administration extended this prohibition to security assistance to Armenia as well. Congress recently gave the President the authority to issue a renewable one-year waiver of the Section 907 restrictions on assistance to Azerbaijan. Waiving Section 907 will permit fuller cooperation between the U.S. and Armenia on a variety of fronts, including military. Over the past year, authorized exceptions to Section 907 restrictions have enabled the attendance of 22 Armenian officials from various services at conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center instructs representatives from throughout the former Soviet Union and Central Europe in the undertakings necessary for defense reform in states undergoing democratic transition. It has been estimated that approximately 104 students are expected to receive some form of instruction during FY02.

The U.S. hopes to expand contacts and cooperation in accordance with U.S. legislation and policy. In addition, we urge Armenia to continue to expand its cooperation in NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and the Partnership for Peace (PfP).

Azerbaijan

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
DOT/USCG Activities 83 $0 0 $0
Marshall Center 67 $513,227 0 $0
TOTAL 150 $513,227 0 $0

Azerbaijan has supported Operation Enduring Freedom and our broader efforts against terrorism. U.S. national interests also are furthered by the continued development of a stable, prosperous and independent Azerbaijan. We seek to encourage Azerbaijan's increased involvement in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) and participation in PfP activities as a means to promote democratic reform and to cement Azerbaijan's participation in Euro-Atlantic institutions.

U.S. policy regarding the Caucasus is designed to promote peace, stability and prosperity in the region. Section 907 of the Freedom Support Act prohibited most USG assistance to the Government of Azerbaijan. Congress recently gave the President the authority to issue a renewable one-year waiver of the Section 907 restrictions on assistance to Azerbaijan. Waiving Section 907 will permit fuller cooperation between the U.S. and Azerbaijan on a variety of fronts, including military. In FY 2001, 67 Azerbaijani officials participated in Marshall Center conferences and courses (including democratic defense management, the role of the military in a democracy, civilian control over the military, and the like). It has been estimated that approximately 108 students will receive instruction of some form at the Marshall Center during FY02.

We anticipate that these kinds of engagement activities will promote the reform of the Azerbaijani military along Western lines and further the development of Azerbaijan.

Belarus

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Marshall Center 23 $240,000 0 $0
TOTAL 23 $240,000 0 $0

The U.S. has an interest in seeing Belarus evolve into a state characterized by democratic rule and respect for human rights. Conditional on significant progress in these areas, the U.S. also would like Belarus to reinvigorate its participation in NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and the Partnership for Peace (PfP), as well as improve its bilateral and multilateral foreign policy cooperation in non-proliferation and other areas. As part of the U.S. Selective Engagement Policy, adopted after the illegal electoral referendum in Belarus in 1996, the U.S. has strictly focused its aid to Belarus on democratization and civil society development as well as humanitarian and health assistance. Accordingly, the Belarusian military does not receive training under the U.S. International Military Education and Training (IMET) or Foreign Military Financing (FMF) programs.

However, military officers and officials from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are being nominated and sent to attend Marshall Center courses. This is being done in order to expose potential future leadership of the respective ministries to democratic ideals and educate them on the proper interaction of the various power structures in a democracy. Post also intends to send representatives from civil society and the democratic opposition to ensure the entire spectrum of political society is represented, trained and offered the opportunity to exchange ideas and points of view.

Georgia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
FMF 123 $2,089,632 39 $346,641
IMET 159 $246,033 150 $631,305
Marshall Center 83 $679,845 0 $0
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 95 $73,827 150 $104,006
Non-SA, Unified
Command
8 $29,000 0 $0
TOTAL 468 $3,118,337 340 $1,081,952

Georgia occupies a strategic position in the South Caucasus astride the Trans-Caspian energy corridor and bordering Chechnya. It is in the U.S. national security interest to support Georgia's sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as continued democratic, free-market and military reforms. U.S. support for the continuation of a stable, independent Georgia will reduce the chances of the spread of military conflict, international crime and weapons of mass destruction in a region that lies at the crossroads of Russia, Turkey and Iran.

U.S. military training efforts are a very important part of this overall approach. In FY 2001, Georgia used security assistance received under the Foreign Military Finance (FMF) program to purchase aviation-related training. Using assistance funded through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program, members of the Georgian military received military training, English language instruction and courses in civil-military relations. These programs have helped Georgian soldiers develop the skills necessary to augment Georgia's participation in the Partnership for Peace and its interoperability with NATO. U.S.-funded training also has improved Georgia's ability to control its borders and provide for its self-defense.

Training purchased by Georgia for pilots and aviation maintenance technicians will help Georgia operate and maintain the UH-1H helicopters the U.S. Government delivered in October 2001.

To augment Georgia's self-defense capability by maximizing its ability to use all of its terrain, FMF-funded U.S. training efforts have included high-altitude mountain training. Georgia also has used FMF for English-language training, critical for enhancing Georgia's ability to participate in PfP activities and operate alongside NATO forces.

English language and language instructor training has been an important part of Georgia's IMET curriculum. Other Georgian IMET classes on subjects essential for the implementation of broad defense reform efforts have included legal training, civil-military relations and defense resource management. However, given Georgia's challenging regional security situation, many Georgian soldiers' IMET classes have had more of an operational bent to them. Georgian troops have taken infantry, ranger, signal officer and maritime courses, among others.

The U.S. also funded the attendance of more than 80 Georgian civilian and uniformed defense officials at conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center instructs representatives from throughout the former Soviet Union and Central Europe in the undertakings necessary for defense reform in states undergoing democratic transition. It has been estimated that approximately 108 students will receive instruction of some form at the Marshall Center during FY02.

To assist Georgia in strengthening its capability to deal with terrorism, a USEUCOM-lead Train and Equip Program will be executed in Georgia in FY02. The $64M requirement will be funded through a variety of sources, including Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and Military Drawdown Authority. Additional assistance to Georgia will be coordinated through FMF and other U.S. assistance programs. These will include, in particular, the Georgia Export Control/Border Security and Law Enforcement program funded by the Department of State and implemented by the U.S. Customs Service.

Kazakhstan

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
IMET 24 $607,080 26 $605,518
Marshall Center 50 $422,872 0 $0
Service Academies 2 $120,286 0 $0
TOTAL 76 $1,150,238 26 $605,518

Kazakhstan is a vast, resource rich, Central Asian country that has advanced U.S. national security interests in Central Asia through its support for Operation Enduring Freedom. Other U.S. interests include pursuing further dismantling of Kazakhstan's inherited weapons of mass destruction infrastructure; a peaceful role for its weapons scientists; the safe and secure storage of nuclear materials and spent fuels, and nonproliferation cooperation; promoting Kazakhstan's long-term political stability by developing democratic institutions and respect for human rights; and encouraging the development of both the Caspian basin's hydrocarbon resources and the means for their secure access to international markets.

Building on a mutually beneficial bilateral military relationship with Kazakhstan, our military-to-military goals include deepening Kazakhstan's participation in the Partnership for Peace and enhancing the capabilities of Kazakhstan's peacekeeping battalion (KAZBAT), as well as the country's participation in USCENTCOM regional exercises.

Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and International Military and Education and Training (IMET) will enhance regional cooperation by deepening Kazakhstan's cooperation in Partnership for Peace (PfP), supporting KAZBAT and USCENTCOM regional exercises, and enhancing Kazakhstan's military interoperability with NATO forces in the context of PfP exercises. They will also facilitate armed forces reform and promote a better understanding of the role of the military in developing democracies and the development of appropriate civil-military relations and human rights practices.

Military training with Kazakhstan has focused in particular on leadership and professional military education and civil-military relations. Courses related to international staff officer training contribute to PfP goals, as well as to the development of the Central Asia Battalions (which also contribute to PfP interoperability efforts). Operational leadership courses for junior infantry, engineer and signal officers further the U.S. goal of developing interoperable forces capable of coalition undertakings. Medical and logistics management courses contribute directly to Kazakhstan's ability to meet specified PfP and coalition interoperability goals, as do English language-training courses.

Kyrgyzstan

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
IMET 18 $394,227 49 $488,869
Marshall Center 77 $531,577 0 $0
Service Academies 1 $60,143 0 $0
TOTAL 96 $985,947 49 $488,869

U.S. national interests are furthered by the continued development of a stable, prosperous and independent Kyrgyz Republic, as well as by Kyrgyzstan's support for Operation Enduring Freedom. Bilateral relations, including those related to military training, aim at helping the Kyrgyz Republic contribute to security and regional cooperation in Central Asia, a region that borders on Russia, China, Iran and Afghanistan. We also encourage the Kyrgyz Republic to continue to take steps to reform its military along democratic lines, including the areas of civil-military relations and defense management. To further these goals, the U.S. also has sought to encourage and facilitate active participation by the Kyrgyz Republic in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities.

U.S. training, therefore, has focused on helping to provide the basics to enable members of the Kyrgyz military to participate effectively in IMET and PfP programs and to expose Kyrgyz officers to U.S. and other democratic military processes. Courses in English language training, as well as courses on civil-military relations, joint planning, military operations other than war, and Marshall Center seminars, have given Kyrgyz military personnel opportunities to interact with U.S., NATO, and PfP counterparts, including others from Central Asia. In FY 2001, nine Kyrgyz military officers received a full year of English language instruction and follow-on military training. Other Kyrgyz military and civilian officials participated in an expanded IMET (E-IMET) seminar on civil-military relations held in Florida. IMET-funded English language laboratories have been established. Finally, books and audio-visual materials were ordered in FY 2001 to supplement the English language training programs.

In order to provide basic officer training that would allow greater interoperability within PfP, efforts also have focused on the summer and winter mountain leaders' course, infantry officer basic training and training officers as leaders of airborne and related units. Additionally military medical and training courses also contribute to enhanced skills and greater interoperability with the U.S. and NATO.

Moldova

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
IMET 32 $244,696 98 $473,245
Marshall Center 98 $561,541 0 $0
TOTAL 132 $806,237 98 $473,245

Moldova has developed a cooperative security relationship with the U.S., both bilaterally in such areas as non-proliferation and multilaterally through such avenues as NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). Moldova's military is active in Partnership for Peace (PfP) activities, despite being short on resources as the country's economy continues to struggle. Finally, the Moldovan Government has made a good-faith effort to peacefully settle its dispute with the Transnistrian separatists in eastern Moldova.

The fundamental U.S. goal in Moldova is to support the continued development of Chisinau's reformist political and economic leanings and its pragmatic, foreign and security policy. U.S.-funded military training comprises an important part of the strategy employed to meet that goal. In particular, U.S. military training through the IMET program helps Moldovan soldiers acquire the skills necessary to operate alongside NATO forces and to participate more actively in PfP activities.

In FY 2001, over thirty Moldovan officers received training under the International Military and Education and Training (IMET) program. This training concentrated on developing the operational skills of officers in a wide range of specialization. Moldovan signal officers, engineering officers, field artillery captains and infantry captains have received specialized training under the IMET program. Moldovan IMET attendees also have taken more universally applicable classes in such areas as English language and language instruction, civil-military relations and defense management.

Chisinau used FY 2001 FMF grants to purchase and refurbish supplies and equipment. All five IMET-funded English language laboratories were upgraded. Moldovan civilian and uniformed defense officials attended the Marshall Center in Germany in FY 2001 for U.S.-funded training. The Marshall Center instructs defense officials from throughout Central Europe and the former Soviet Union in various aspects of the implementation of defense reforms in states undergoing democratic transition.

Russia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 8 $100,071 6 $73,594
FMS 0 $0 0 $0
IMET 94 $166,577 0 $0
Marshall Center 292 $1,125,618 0 $0
TOTAL 394 $1,392,266 6 $73,594

The U.S. has an overriding national security interest in furthering Russia's development as a democratic civil society ruled by law with respect for human rights - particularly in the context of military affairs and civil-military relations. We also have a strong interest in preventing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

Russia has a significant role in Europe, Asia and the Middle East, as well as in the UN Security Council. President Putin has consciously re-oriented Russian foreign policy in the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, viewing further integration with the West as in Russia's interests. Russia has been a key and early ally since that time in the War on Terrorism. In addition, has been forward-leaning in attempting to forge closer links with NATO rather than stand in opposition to it. We should respond positively to this change in Russia's direction, seeking to further integrate Russia into the Euro-Atlantic community.

Presidents Bush and Putin announced in Washington in November, 2001 that they would work, together with NATO members, to improve the relationship between NATO and Russia and develop new, effective mechanisms for consultation, cooperation, joint decision and coordinated/joint action. Following up, NATO Allies agreed at the NAC Ministerials in December 2001 to establish a new NATO-Russia Council (NRC). Russia endorsed the Allied consensus and agreed to work to have the new body in place by the time of the Reykjavik Ministerial May 14-15, 2002. NATO and Russia are allied against terrorism, regional instability and other contemporary threats, and the NATO-Russia relationship should evolve accordingly.

The U.S. continues to discuss with Russian interlocutors U.S. concerns about the conduct of Russian forces in Chechnya, GOR actions against the independent media (which are not reflective of our values) and occasional Russian strong-arm tactics with neighbors such as Georgia. Russian proliferation to Iran also continues to be of major concern, as are occasional Russian pressure tactics with neighbors such as Georgia. Active diplomacy has been able to manage our differences on these issues.

Warsaw Initiative funding for Partnership for Peace exercises provide opportunities for Russian officers to interact with U.S. and NATO counterparts. Russian officers can develop greater understanding of NATO doctrine and concepts of coalition contingency operations and the role of the military in a democracy, which aims to increase cooperation between NATO and Russia and to reduce Russian fears that the admission of new members to NATO threatens Russian security. It also furthers the goal of interoperability with NATO, with implications for Russian participation in Stabilization Force (SFOR) operations in Bosnia and in Kosovo Force (KFOR) operations in Kosovo.

As of May 24, 2001, the State Department suspended International Military Education and Training (IMET) programs for Russia. This action was a result of legal limitation on assistance due to Russian arms transfers to nations sponsoring international terrorism. Subsequently, of the $800,000 in IMET funding allocated to Russia for FY 2001, approximately $600,000 was not spent. In FY 2001, prior to the suspension date, DoD expended approximately $200,000 to fund the participation of Russians from the Ministries of Defense, Foreign Affairs and other agencies in IMET training programs. After the program's suspension, Russia elected to keep two of its students in the U.S. to continue their education.

Although IMET remains suspended, prior military training with Russia, though limited, focused on several key areas, particularly professional military education (PME), consisting of leadership training and courses aimed at developing expertise in the tasks of international military staff officers. PME-type training has supported our efforts to ensure that the Russian military contributes to the development of civil society by reinforcing concepts of appropriate civil-military relations, defense management in democratic societies and professionalism in the conduct of military affairs.

Courses aimed at international military activities, including legal considerations in peace operations and English language training, have contributed to our efforts to encourage the Russian military to participate in NATO/PfP activities and expose Russian officers to NATO and U.S. civil-military relations standards and practices.

Tajikistan

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Marshall Center 37 $383,687 0 $0
TOTAL 37 $383,687 0 $0

The U.S.-Tajikistan bilateral military relationship continues to develop in a mutually beneficial way, building on our joint efforts in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. U.S. goals in Tajikistan remain the promotion of the development of a stable civil society, a market economy and democratic rule with full respect for human rights. The U.S. also would like to see Dushanbe strengthen its recently re-integrated military to be able to guard its own borders and play a more active, constructive role in Euro-Atlantic security affairs, now that is has become an active participant in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP).

In FY 2001, facilitating internal political stability and overall regional stability was the focus. Thirty-seven Tajik military personnel and government officials of all ranks attended courses at the George C. Marshall Center for Security Studies, Marshall Center conferences, and PfP conferences in Kyrgyz Republic and Russia. Conference topics included: civil and military administration, cooperative security, crisis management and promoting stability in Central Asia.

Additionally, FY 2001 military programs included such activities as DoD/FBI/Customs Counter-Proliferation programs, initiatives to increase border security, Cooperative Threat Reduction and funding to finance military-to-military contacts. Such programs are instrumental in establishing a U.S.-Tajik partnership and assisting Tajikistan in developing the ability to defend its own border and combat terrorism and narcotics trafficking.

Turkmenistan

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
IMET 14 $434,175 12 $302,141
Marshall Center 14 $87,552 0 $0
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 60 $0 0 $0
Section 1004 50 $350,000 50 $175,000
TOTAL 138 $871,727 62 $477,141

The U.S. seeks a stable, independent Turkmenistan that contributes to regional stability and prosperity and enhances U.S. national security. The U.S. also has an interest in the unencumbered delivery of Turkmenistan's significant energy resources to key markets in Turkey and in ensuring that those resources do not pass through Iran. There is still a great deal that needs to be done in Turkmenistan on both democratic and economic reform. At the same time, U.S. interest in regional stability benefits from Turkmenistan's ability to cooperate with its neighbors militarily and to participate further in Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities. We seek Turkmen assistance in the War on Terrorism, counterdrug efforts and preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and associated delivery systems, materials, technologies and expertise.

Warsaw Initiative Funding for participation in PfP activities furthers on-the-ground-experience, including regional cooperation, interoperability with NATO forces and reform of the Turkmen military along Western, democratic lines. These activities also increase Turkmenistan's engagement with Euro-Atlantic security institutions.

In FY 2001, Turkmenistan used IMET funds to send military personnel to the U.S. for English language training, professional military education and other courses, particularly in the area of civil-military relations, which supports Turkmen military reform by exposing officers to our democratic standards and values. The IMET program for Turkmenistan is focused on professional officer development for junior officers from all branches of service. The goal of the program is to further Turkmenistan's military professionalization and to enhance the ability of Turkmen forces to participate in PfP activities and/or any future coalition contingencies.

Ukraine

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
DOT/USCG Activities 1 $30,600 0 $0
EPIC 7 $0 0 $0
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
FMF 109 $147,618 92 $210,663
IMET 545 $504,579 94 $788,176
Marshall Center 115 $932,450 0 $0
Service Academies 1 $46,791 1 $46,791
TOTAL 780 $1,662,038 187 $1,045,630

Ukraine is an important partner in Euro-Atlantic security affairs. Ukraine's relationships with the U.S. and NATO continue to grow. Ukraine and NATO have strengthened their relationship through the continued development of the NATO-Ukraine Commission established in 1997 on the basis of the NATO-Ukraine Charter. Ukraine plays a valuable peacekeeping role in the U.S. sector of the Kosovo Force (KFOR) mission in Kosovo; was a valued participant in Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina; and is active in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP). It also occupied a seat on the UN Security Council from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001. Parliamentary elections in March 2002 will be an important indicator of democratic progress. General Skhidchenko, the recently appointed Defense Minister, has reaffirmed Ukraine's commitment to military reform.

The U.S. continues to work for the development of an independent, democratic and non-nuclear Ukraine with a market-oriented economy. Along these lines, U.S. goals for engaging Ukraine's military include strengthening civilian control, military reform and restructuring, and an increasing integration of Ukraine into the security institutions of the larger Euro-Atlantic community. U.S.-funded military training efforts are a crucial part of this effort. Training received through the IMET, FMF, and other U.S. military assistance programs contributes to that goal by augmenting Ukraine's ability to participate alongside NATO forces in crisis response operations, in PfP exercises and other activities.

Ukraine makes extensive use of the IMET program to improve Ukrainian military readiness in a broad range of functional areas. Areas of concentration include military legal training, English language instruction, supply officer training, classes in civil-military relations and defense resources management, military engineering and military police instruction, and military air traffic control training. Ukrainians also have received specialized officer training in courses for signal officers and field artillery captains. In addition, top Ukrainian officers have been trained at the Air and Naval Command and Staff Colleges, Air and Army War Colleges, and the U.S. Marines' amphibious warfare school.

The Expanded IMET (E-IMET) program has trained Ukrainian military and civilian officials, including civilian personnel from non-defense ministries and the legislative branch who work on military-related issues. E-IMET training focuses on managing and administering military establishments and budgets, promoting civilian control of the military, and creating and maintaining effective military justice systems and military codes of conduct.

As mentioned above, Ukraine also has purchased U.S. military training using FMF grant funds, to advance its NATO interoperability and PfP participation. English language has been a focus, as have health and medical training and vehicle maintenance. FMF has helped to fund Ukraine's participation in KFOR, which has led to critical, practical training through real-world peacekeeping experience for Ukrainian troops. Furthermore, U.S. funding has paid for Ukrainians to attend conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center trains Central and Eastern European militaries on civil-military relations and democratic control of the military.

Uzbekistan

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
IMET 13 $601,080 180 $559,800
Marshall Center 40 $479,912 0 $0
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 30 $0 0 $0
Section 1004 50 $150,000 100 $265,000
TOTAL 133 $1,230,992 281 $824,800

The U.S.-Uzbekistan military relationship continues to develop in a mutually beneficial way, building on our joint efforts in support of Operation Enduring Freedom and the War on Terrorism. The U.S. looks for Uzbekistan to play a stabilizing and increasingly cooperative role among its neighbors and to assist in bringing about a solution, under UN leadership, to the conflict in Afghanistan. Uzbekistan remains an authoritarian state. U.S. interests are to see it evolve democratically, with respect for human rights and democratic values. We seek Uzbek assistance in preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and associated delivery systems, materials, technologies and expertise.

Uzbekistan sees itself in a leading role in Central Asia. The U.S. seeks to orient Uzbekistan's sizeable military towards greater cooperation with its own neighbors, NATO and the United States. Uzbekistan's active participation in Partnership for Peace (PfP) and the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalions (CENTRASBAT) will enhance this cooperation. Training has focused on international staff officer and defense management capabilities, English language, and such operational subjects as basic infantry officer, air traffic control, airborne and personnel officer courses, which foster interoperability in both operations and tactics.

Participation in Marshall Center activities focusing on civil-military relations, improving military justice systems and defense resource management contribute to the U.S. effort to foster a greater understanding of the principle of effective civilian control.



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