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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. Foreign Policy Papers - South Asia


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest: Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
March 2002
Report
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Bangladesh

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
Asia-Pacific Center 15 $176,125 9 $110,391
EPIC 5 $18,415 7 $0
FMF 48 $80,000 0 $0
FMS 12 $0 0 $0
IMET 36 $525,162 34 $594,306
NESA 3 $27,770 6 $38,820
TOTAL 119 $827,472 57 $743,517

Primary U.S. interests in Bangladesh are economic prosperity and democracy. Sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction will maximize benefits for U.S. companies and decrease reliance on external assistance. Greater respect for human rights and the rule of law, and the strengthening of democratic institutions are essential to ensuring political stability and are basic foundations of economic growth. Other U.S. interests include environmental concerns, fighting trafficking of women and children, and combating terrorism and piracy.

IMET funds are used to facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assist in training exercises. Development of an apolitical, professional military contributes to political stability and allows for increased participation in peacekeeping exercises. Specifically, Bangladesh uses its IMET funding to send students to the Army, Air Force and Navy Command and Staff Colleges, the Army and Air War Colleges and various other officer training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of stability and democracy, and increase the Bangladeshi officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Bangladesh improves interoperability with U.S. forces through IMET-funded specialized English language training. Bangladeshi military personnel also take part in courses on military law, medical training, logistics and maintenance, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants.

The U.S. welcomes Bangladeshi participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. This is an effective means of strengthening defense ties with Bangladesh. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Bangladesh. The U.S. proposes Bangladeshi participation in Asia-Pacific Center executive courses in FY 2002 as well.

Bhutan

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 2 $18,256 2 $32,403
TOTAL 2 $18,256 2 $32,403

Bhutan is a very small country whose relations with the U.S. are limited but friendly. Traditionally an absolute monarchy, it is undergoing gradual transition to a constitutional monarchy. Some Indian separatist insurgent groups have been reported to use border areas of Bhutan as a safe haven. The government has asked them to leave, but has not yet been able to persuade them to do so.

Bhutan has a very small army and no navy or air force. We have no IMET program, but officers from Bhutan have begun to make use of courses at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS). It is in the U.S. interest to encourage Bhutan's transition to democracy, to help its military forces attain the ability to control the nation's borders and to encourage military professionalism and respect for human rights. Participating in seminars at the APCSS helps promote these goals.

India

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 20 $232,150 12 $147,188
IMET 25 $620,195 37 $740,308
NESA 4 $29,909 14 $71,826
TOTAL 49 $882,254 63 $959,322

India is the world's second most populous nation and the predominant military power in South Asia and the Indian Ocean. The Indian Government was among the first in the world to offer unstinting support to the global campaign against terror after the September 11 attacks. India faces serious terrorist challenges of its own, in part from groups aligned with those we have been fighting in Afghanistan. The October 1 attack on the State Assembly in Srinagar and the December 13 assault on the national Parliament in New Delhi intensified our bilateral cooperation, including a successful meeting in January of the Indo-U.S. Joint Working Group on Counterterrorism. The Indo-U.S. commercial relationship has been growing steadily, as has the bilateral diplomatic relationship.

President Bush's September 2001 decision to waive sanctions imposed on India following the May 1998 nuclear tests opened the way for full resumption of defense cooperation. The signing in January of a General Security of Military Information Agreement underscored the commitment of both governments to furthering cooperation in this sphere, as did visits to India by Defense Secretary Rumsfeld and to the U.S. by Defense Minister Fernandes. The U.S. continues to urge India to adhere to global nonproliferation norms and stem a South Asian arms race.

IMET funds are used to facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assist in training exercises. India has used IMET funding to send students to the Army, Air Force and Navy Command and Staff Colleges, the Army and Air War Colleges and various other officer training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of stability and democracy, and increase the Indian officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Indian military personnel also take part in courses on medical training, logistics and maintenance, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants.

As a means of strengthening defense ties with India, the U.S. welcomed Indian participation in FY 2001 in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from India. The U.S. proposes Indian participation in Asia-Pacific Center executive courses in FY 2002 as well.

Maldives

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 5 $60,982 3 $36,797
IMET 8 $114,517 71 $185,956
NESA 2 $19,350 11 $51,860
Service Academies 1 $46,791 0 $0
TOTAL 16 $241,640 85 $274,613

The Maldives provides important access for U.S. vessels and allows aircraft transit rights in its airspace. It provided airport access during Operation Desert Storm, and offered to do so again in Operation Enduring Freedom. It is in the U.S. national security interest to maintain stability in this small island nation by strengthening its democratic institutions. The USG is also working with the Maldivian Government to coordinate policies in international organizations, especially on such issues of shared interest as global warming, drug trafficking, nonproliferation, and international crime and terrorism. Because the U.S. has no resident Mission in Maldives, the U.S. will continue to pursue its national interests there through regular diplomatic exchanges managed by the U.S. Embassy in Colombo, through the IMET program and through Regional Democracy Fund programs.

U.S.-funded training facilitates U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assists in training exercises. Development of an apolitical, professional military contributes to political stability and allows for increased participation in peacekeeping exercises. The Maldives uses its IMET funding to send students to Officer Candidate School, defense management training and various other officer and technical training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of enhancing stability and democracy, and increase the Maldivian officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. The Maldives improves interoperability with U.S. forces through IMET-funded specialized English language training. Maldivian military personnel also take part in courses on maintenance and instructor training, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants. The Maldives had five students attend the Asia-Pacific Center in FY 2001, and is projected to have three more attending in FY 2002.

Nepal

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 11 $129,718 6 $73,594
EPIC 3 $11,049 0 $0
IMET 10 $200,799 18 $317,664
NESA 3 $26,886 11 $51,860
TOTAL 27 $368,452 35 $443,118

Nepal is a small, poor country, friendly to the United States, wedged between two vastly larger neighbors. We desire a stable, democratic and prosperous Nepal to maintain stability in the region, ensure security for large numbers of American visitors and continue to be a major troop contributor to UN peacekeeping missions.

Nepal's 12-year old democracy is challenged by a Maoist insurgency that seeks to replace the elected Parliament and constitutional monarchy with a communist dictatorship. The six-year-old Maoist insurgency has grown increasingly violent, and in November 2001 expanded its attacks on government facilities to include military installations. The Royal Nepal Army is now fully deployed against the Maoists. Our military training programs are part of a multi-track approach for assistance to Nepal that includes, among other things, the provision of non-lethal military equipment to improve the Army's ability to address the Maoist military threat.

Nepal uses IMET funding to send students to various officer training courses that familiarize the Nepalese officer corps' with U.S. values and military practices. The courses provide the opportunity for military-to-military professional contacts, and facilitate cooperation on training exercises and in peacekeeping operations. Nepali military personnel take courses on civil affairs, military police, infantry, ranger and special forces training, which significantly enhance their capabilities as peacekeeping participants and in maintaining domestic stability.

As a means of strengthening defense ties with Nepal, the U.S. welcomed Nepalese participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Nepal. The U.S. proposes increased Nepali participation in Asia-Pacific Center executive courses in FY 2002 as well as funding eleven students to attend the Near East South Asia Center.

Pakistan

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 20 $231,550 12 $147,188
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 2 $0 0 $0
NESA 4 $37,445 14 $71,826
PME Exchanges 4 $0 0 $0
Section 1004 0 $80,000 50 $150,000
Service Academies 2 $93,582 1 $46,791
TOTAL 32 $442,577 77 $415,805

Stability in South Asia, the promotion of Pakistani political and economic reform, and Indo-Pak normalization, particularly on Kashmir, are all priority USG foreign policy interests. None can be achieved without the support of the Pakistani military, which has and will retain broad political influence in Pakistan, even after the transition to civilian rule in October 2002. For democratization and economic growth to take root, the military must also become more open to transparency and accountability in budgeting and civilian decision-making. Pakistan's staunch support for the international War on Terrorism and Operation Enduring Freedom gives these interests added importance and potential.

The waiving in October 2001 of Section 508 sanctions against Pakistan has led to a renewed IMET program. In FY 2002, an initial IMET budget allocation of $500,000 was doubled in February to $1 million. Courses will focus on military-to-military professional contacts. Approximately $125,000 of this amount is earmarked for E-IMET courses taught by the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS), though specific training has yet to be determined. All three Pakistani services are reviewing their course requirements and priorities in light of the additional funds and non-availability of some courses.

The Asia-Pacific and NESA Centers' executive courses continue to emphasize the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build relationships with counterparts from Pakistan that will extend to the post-military government era.

Sri Lanka

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 15 $165,136 9 $110,391
IMET 57 $338,753 43 $299,545
NESA 5 $44,981 11 $51,860
Non-SA, Unified
Command
504 $443,000 0 $0
Service Academies 1 $46,791 1 $46,791
TOTAL 582 $1,038,661 64 $508,587

Sri Lanka has a long tradition of vigorous democracy. It was the first country in the region to liberalize its economy and has impressive social indicators. The primary U.S. national interests in Sri Lanka are strengthening democratic institutions, increasing respect for human rights and enhancing U.S.-Sri Lankan economic ties and cooperation. These goals not only reflect a U.S. humanitarian interest, but improved human rights performance would facilitate an end to Sri Lanka's 17-year civil war, thereby reducing the threat of terrorism and improving regional stability. An end to the war would also boost the economy, increasing opportunities for U.S. business. The United States and Sri Lanka also share interests in environmental protection and the suppression of international terrorism.

Training included funds to facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assist in training exercises. Development of an apolitical, professional military contributes to political stability and allows for increased participation in peacekeeping exercises. Specifically, Sri Lanka uses its IMET funding to send students to the Army, Air Force and Navy Command and Staff Colleges and various officer training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of enhancing stability and democracy, and increase the Sri Lankan officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Sri Lanka improves interoperability with U.S. forces through IMET-funded specialized English language training. Sri Lankan military personnel take part in courses on infantry training, defense management and maintenance, all of which enhance their value as a future peacekeeping participants. Sri Lanka had 15 students attend the Asia-Pacific Center in FY 2001. In FY 2002, there are nine students projected to attend the Asia-Pacific Center and eleven students projected to attend the Near East South Asia Center.



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