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Diplomacy in Action

III. Foreign Policy Papers - Western Hemispheric Region (G-Z)


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest: Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
March 2002
Report
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Grenada

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
IMET 7 $48,272 40 $117,456
Section 1004 0 $0 90 $130,000
TOTAL 7 $48,272 130 $247,456

Grenada is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. We have been encouraging the Government of Grenada to participate more actively in counternarcotic efforts and other multilateral security activities. The planned training will assist in the development of a more professional and efficient security force that will be able to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotic operations, search and rescue operations and other bilateral and multilateral operations. Joint training and exercises with U.S. forces will contribute to greater interoperability and baseline understanding of U.S. counterdrug operations.

Guatemala

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
CHDS 11 $81,477 13 $97,500
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
IMET 44 $331,299 85 $292,437
Section 1004 95 $230,000 145 $269,000
TOTAL 152 $642,776 244 $658,937

Guatemala is a democratic nation with a traditionally cooperative relationship with the United States. This relationship, however, has been strained by continuing impunity in cases involving military participation in human rights abuses that occurred during Guatemala's 36-year civil conflict. Because of continuing concerns regarding past human rights cases, Guatemala is restricted by Congressional mandate to receiving Expanded IMET only.

Participation in Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies activities, and training in civil-military relations, rule of law and discipline in military operations and democratic sustainment help reinforce the goal of civilian control of the military and human rights principles. Also, training in company-grade officer and command and general staff college courses assists Guatemala's efforts to professionalize its Armed Forces. Other training activities help Guatemalan forces strengthen their drug enforcement capabilities, conduct interdiction and eradication activities and improve their ability to integrate their planning and execution with U.S. entities in regional counternarcotic, disaster relief or humanitarian operations.

Guyana

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
CHDS 6 $44,442 5 $37,500
DOT/USCG Activities 2 $15,300 0 $0
FMS 30 $0 0 $0
IMET 18 $217,151 12 $235,435
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 120 $0 0 $0
TOTAL 176 $276,893 17 $272,935

The United States has friendly relations with Guyana, a small, poor, heavily indebted country with a wealth of natural resources. Guyana is making a slow transition to a free-market system and has held several free and fair elections over the past five years. Guyana has an unresolved border dispute with neighboring Suriname. Venezuela also has a long-standing claim to approximately two thirds of Guyana's territory. Neither border controversy is likely to lead to armed conflict in the immediate future.

Although Guyana has not been identified as a major drug-transit or producing country, narcotics trafficking is increasingly a concern. Guyana does not have the capacity to patrol its borders adequately. We have been encouraging the GOG to participate more actively in counternarcotic and other multilateral security activities. IMET training in professional military education, a variety of maritime related courses and those which support counternarcotic efforts, as well as participation in the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies, assist in the development of a more professional and efficient security force. Participating in joint exercises and training in maritime search and rescue increases Guyana's ability to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotic operations and other bilateral and multilateral operations. A Maritime Law Enforcement Agreement is awaiting ratification from the Guyanese Parliament.

In 2001, Guyana received four U.S. Coast Guard patrol boats under the Excess Defense Article program, and a minesweeper was obtained from Great Britain.

Haiti

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
CHDS 7 $51,849 7 $52,500
Section 1004 0 $0 100 $90,000
TOTAL 7 $51,849 107 $142,500

Restrictions on assistance to the central Government of Haiti in the FY 2001 Foreign Appropriations Act negatively affected our ability to assist the Government of Haiti. However, the absence of restrictions on such assistance in the FY 2002 Foreign Appropriations Act now enables us to resume needed training and support for the Haitian Coast Guard. When the Government of Haiti takes steps to improve drug cooperation and respect for human rights, resolves flawed elections and addresses security and migration issues, we will consider assistance to reinforce the rule of law. Renewed engagement with the Haitian Coast Guard will help to counter the deterioration they experienced in 2001 by increasing their professionalism and respect for human rights and reinforcing the rule of law in Haiti. USG training and support also will enable Haiti to cooperate more fully with the U.S. Coast Guard and other U.S. law enforcement agencies working to control narcotics trafficking, illegal migration and alien smuggling, all of which have increased in the past year. Additional resources will allow the Haitian Coast Guard to expand their presence on the north and south coasts of the country and to demonstrate independent initiative in areas of concern.

Honduras

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
CHDS 7 $51,849 7 $52,500
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
IMET 132 $599,508 136 $587,388
INL 0 $0 30 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
300 $361,000 0 $0
Section 1004 0 $0 50 $70,000
Section 506 30 $0 0 $0
Service Academies 4 $200,516 1 $46,791
TOTAL 475 $1,212,873 225 $756,679

Honduras is a democratic country and a close ally in the Central American region. Although Honduras is not designated as a major drug-transiting country, narcotic trafficking is a growing concern. Because of its geographic location, Honduras has become a transshipment point for narcotics entering the United States.

Participation in Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and IMET-funded training is geared towards professional training programs that will sustain the dramatic improvement in civil-military relations and consequent improvement in the democratic climate and regional stability. Officer training at all levels, from NCO training up to command and staff colleges, and courses in civil-military relations and democratic sustainment help reinforce the notion of civilian control of the military and reinforce the principles of human rights. Prior-year FMF funds provided assistance in logistics management and support related to a 44' boat transferred under the Excess Defense Articles program. Training in counternarcotic operations, resource management, logistics and equipment maintenance, and participation in exercises with U.S. forces provide opportunities needed to professionalize and modernize the Honduran military and encourage its continued cooperation with U.S. counternarcotic efforts.

Jamaica

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
CHDS 5 $37,035 5 $37,500
IMET 85 $548,707 171 $659,707
Section 1004 225 $333,548 95 $286,000
Service Academies 1 $46,791 0 $0
TOTAL 316 $966,081 271 $983,207

Jamaica is a stable democracy and the GOJ cooperates with the U.S. on a variety of international and regional issues, to include contributing troops to the U.S.-led multinational force that intervened in Haiti in 1994. Although Jamaica is a major transit country for cocaine and the largest Caribbean producer and exporter of marijuana, the GOJ's cooperation with U.S. counternarcotic goals has been fully certified. Jamaica has no serious external threats to its security and maintains a very small military.

Training in the rules of law and discipline in military operations and mid- to senior-level officer professional development help maintain a professional military force subject to civilian control. Additionally, training in aircraft repairs, information systems, logistics and maritime operations assists in maintaining the technical proficiencies of the Jamaican military, while continued U.S. counternarcotics training enhances Jamaica's ability to combat narcotics traffickers. U.S. Government training and exercises have enabled Jamaica to improve its participation in bilateral counterdrug initiatives, strengthen its drug enforcement, money laundering and anti-corruption laws, and improve its counternarcotic enforcement capabilities.

Mexico

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
CHDS 12 $88,884 21 $157,500
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
IMET 111 $674,393 98 $929,439
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 130 $0 0 $0
Section 1004 591 $1,356,846 748 $1,883,500
Section 506 11 $11,180 0 $0
TOTAL 857 $2,131,303 867 $2,970,439

Mexico, now our second largest trading partner, shares with the U.S. a 2,000 mile border and growing cooperation over a wide range of common interests. The Mexican military is focused primarily on internal security, but plays a significant role in counternarcotic activities. Despite being fully certified as cooperating with U.S. counternarcotics policy, much of the illicit drugs intended for the U.S. market pass through or originate in Mexico. Counternarcotics cooperation is coordinated through the High Level Contact Group (HLCG) and other fora. The administration of President Vicente Fox has taken a courageous stand against transnational crime and the level of coordination and cooperation in counternarcotic efforts is at an unprecedented level.

Participation at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and IMET funded training in the rule of law and discipline in military operations provides additional expertise in civilian control of the military and the principles of human rights. Mid- to senior-level officer training helps maintain the professionalism of the Mexican military. Resource management and equipment repairs help modernize Mexico's Armed Forces, and enhance their proficiency. The U.S. conducts extensive training in the counternarcotics area, with special focus in helicopter repair and maintenance of aircraft. Technical assistance covering a broad range of counterdrug capabilities and assets help enhance Mexico's ability to combat narcotic traffickers and continue its cooperation with U.S. counterdrug efforts.

Nicaragua

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
CHDS 5 $37,035 7 $52,500
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
IMET 76 $229,029 130 $460,005
Service Academies 2 $120,286 0 $0
TOTAL 85 $386,350 137 $512,505

The primary national interests of the United States in Nicaragua are to support and strengthen democratic institutions, foster regional security, interdict international crime and to promote broad-based economic growth and post-Hurricane Mitch recovery. Since the return of a democratically elected government in 1990, Nicaragua has made great strides in opening its economy and in establishing legitimate, responsive democratic institutions. In particular, the Nicaraguan National Army (EN), once the political tool of the Sandinistas (FSLN), has undergone a dramatic transformation and has become a respected democratic institution. Continued engagement will further contribute to this process. Training activities promote regional security and strengthen democratic institutions.

Indicative of the EN's evolution from merely an armed instrument of the FSLN Party to a professional, apolitical institution was the complete support offered by the Commander of the Nicaraguan Army for passage of the Nicaraguan Counterdrug Maritime Agreement, enacted in November 2001. The Counterdrug Maritime Agreement allows Coast Guard/law enforcement elements to conduct joint interdiction operations against narcotraffickers in Nicaraguan waters. Embassy Managua has made a concerted effort to cross-train elements of the Nicaraguan Military and Nicaraguan National Police in ship boarding, interdiction techniques and drug enforcement operations. In 2001, seven such courses were held.

IMET-funded training, such as civil-military relations and leadership training, have helped the EN make great progress in professionalizing its officer corps and supporting the leadership of a civilian president and a civilian Minister of Defense. The IMET program contains a significant English language component, as well as courses in military resource management and maritime operations. Participation at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies helps to stress the importance of human rights and the role of a modern military within a democratic framework.

Panama

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
CHDS 3 $22,221 7 $60,000
FMF 20 $37,850 0 $0
IMET 16 $127,767 18 $155,675
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 1 $1,459 1 $4,635
TOTAL 40 $189,297 26 $220,310

Panama remains important to U.S. national interests following the transfer of the Panama Canal. Approximately 60% of Canal traffic originates in, or is destined for the United States. Panama's strategic location between South and North America makes it a crossroads for international commerce, and also a center for illegal activity such as drug trafficking, money laundering, arms trafficking and illegal immigration. As Panama is one of three Latin American nations without a standing military, the U.S. will need to continue cooperative efforts with Panamanian security forces to counter transnational crime, increase border security and address other threats. U.S. security engagement with Panama will become more crucial as Plan Colombia and the Andean Regional Initiative are implemented and Panama deals with the spillover of the Colombian conflict along its porous border with Colombia. Currently, the U.S. has an ad hoc agreement in place to provide legal coverage to members of the U.S. Armed Forces temporarily in Panama providing training or other assistance to the Government of Panama. The GOP has invited U.S. Army South to conduct a "New Horizons" engineering exercise in Panama in 2003.

Paraguay

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
CHDS 8 $59,256 18 $135,000
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
IMET 33 $188,575 55 $356,139
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 1 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
223 $559,450 0 $0
Section 1004 0 $0 100 $70,000
Section 506 30 $0 0 $0
TOTAL 297 $807,281 174 $561,139

Eleven years after the overthrow of the Alfredo Stroessner dictatorship, the consolidation of a democratic society and state continues. Bilateral relations between the U.S. and Paraguay are strong, with Paraguay providing excellent cooperation in the fight against terrorism. There is no external threat to Paraguay's security, and the Paraguayan military is struggling to define its modern mission.

Participation at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and IMET-funded U.S. training in civil-military affairs, democratic sustainment and the rule of law and discipline in military operations will help instill civilian control of the military and support the principles of human rights. Training of NCOs, field-grade and flag officers assists in professionalizing Paraguay's military, while training in logistics, maintenance and aircraft repairs help to maintain the technical proficiencies of Paraguay's armed forces and help Paraguay's counternarcotic efforts.

Peru

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
CHDS 10 $74,070 13 $97,500
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
FMS 12 $93,208 0 $0
IMET 67 $407,794 101 $607,155
INL 7 $23,793 0 $0
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 2 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
120 $412,999 0 $0
Section 1004 175 $1,053,398 895 $4,718,478
Section 506 30 $0 0 $0
Service Academies 2 $93,582 1 $46,791
TOTAL 427 $2,158,844 1010 $5,469,924

Peru is one of the largest countries in South America and has a strong bilateral relationship with the United States. The U.S. seeks to strengthen democratic institutions in Peru and to strengthen the GOP's ability to interdict and disrupt narcotics production and distribution. The U.S. has enjoyed excellent cooperation from the GOP in counternarcotic activities.

Training in human rights and the rule of law, and discipline in military operations helps reinforce the notion of civilian control of the military and reinforces support for the principles of human rights. Training in counternarcotic operations, professional military education, resource management, logistics and equipment maintenance provide training needed to professionalize and modernize Peru's military and enhance its capabilities in air operations, search and rescue and demining operations. This training is particularly important to the demining efforts along Peru's border with Ecuador in support of the 1998 peace settlement. Finally, significant training efforts in the area of counterdrug operations are underway. These activities include training to improve helicopter and other aircraft capabilities, as well as participation in training exercises with U.S. forces to improve interoperability.

St. Kitts and Nevis

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
IMET 11 $70,613 9 $78,229
Section 1004 0 $0 50 $90,000
TOTAL 11 $70,613 59 $168,229

St. Kitts and Nevis is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. We have been encouraging the Government of St. Kitts and Nevis to participate more actively in counternarcotic efforts and other multilateral security activities. The planned training will assist St. Kitts and Nevis in the development of a more professional and efficient security force which will be able to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotic operations, search and rescue operations and other bilateral and multilateral operations. Participation in training exercises with U.S. forces augments counterdrug capabilities and enhances interoperability.

St. Lucia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
DOT/USCG Activities 2 $61,200 0 $0
IMET 3 $36,774 13 $93,117
Section 1004 0 $0 100 $80,000
TOTAL 5 $97,974 113 $173,117

St. Lucia is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. We have been encouraging the Government of St. Lucia to participate more actively in counternarcotic efforts and other multilateral security activities. The planned training will assist in the development of a more professional and efficient security force which will be able to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotic operations, search and rescue operations and other bilateral and multilateral operations. Joint training exercises with U.S. forces improve counterdrug capabilities and enhance interoperability.

St. Vincent and Grenadines

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
DOT/USCG Activities 1 $30,600 0 $0
IMET 8 $71,861 13 $118,820
Section 1004 0 $0 35 $80,000
TOTAL 9 $102,461 48 $198,820

St. Vincent and the Grenadines is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. We have been encouraging the Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines to participate more actively in counternarcotic efforts and other multilateral security activities. The planned training will assist St. Vincent and the Grenadines in the development of a more professional and efficient security force which will be able to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotic operations, search and rescue operations and other bilateral and multilateral operations. Joint training exercises with U.S. forces improve counterdrug capabilities and interoperability.

Suriname

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
CHDS 3 $22,221 6 $45,000
IMET 86 $106,755 9 $115,435
TOTAL 89 $128,976 15 $160,435

The U.S. security assistance objective in Suriname is to assist the GOS in reforming its Armed Forces by helping mold it into a professional, apolitical body subordinate to civilian control as the country continues consolidating its democratic system. Also, the U.S. will aggressively work to help the GOS professionally develop and sustain its newly acquired counterdrug capability. Recently they have purchased eight new patrol boats from Spain, in essence a "new fleet," as well as two new CASA 212 aircraft.

Trinidad - Tobago

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
CHDS 0 $0 1 $7,500
FMS 13 $14,326 0 $0
IMET 10 $170,731 21 $324,912
Non-SA, Unified
Command
80 $410,000 0 $0
Section 1004 287 $150,000 100 $142,000
TOTAL 390 $745,057 122 $474,412

Trinidad and Tobago is a democratic nation that enjoys strong bilateral relations with the United States. We have been encouraging the GOTT to participate more actively in counternarcotic efforts and other multilateral security activities. U.S. training in civil-military affairs helps reinforce civilian control of the military and the principles of human rights. Officer training assists in professionalizing the military, while training in logistics, maintenance and equipment repairs helps maintain the technical proficiencies of the Armed Forces of Trinidad and Tobago. Training in ship handling and maritime control operations helps strengthen Trinidad and Tobago's counternarcotic efforts.

Trinidad and Tobago continues to support its interagency coordination center that gathers narcotics related information from multiple sources and disseminates it to military and enforcement agencies involved in drug interdiction operations. U.S. government training and support have enabled Trinidad and Tobago to improve its ability to interdict illegal drug shipments, strengthen anti-drug trafficking laws and participate in bilateral maritime exercises.

Uruguay

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
CHDS 7 $51,849 13 $97,500
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
FMS 0 $0 4 $2,430
IMET 125 $396,995 118 $565,699
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 2 $0 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
93 $113,000 0 $0
Section 506 30 $0 0 $0
TOTAL 259 $561,844 135 $665,629

Though often overlooked due to its small size, Uruguay is a model of stability and democracy in Latin America. The U.S. maintains strong bilateral relations with the Government of Uruguay, especially under current President Jorge Batlle who has publicly pushed for closer economic and political cooperation. The military is unequivocally subordinate to the control of the civilian political leadership. Uruguay's relations with neighbors Brazil and Argentina are excellent. The Armed Forces conduct a robust program of confidence and security building exercises and professional exchanges with the Brazilian and Argentine militaries that make the Southern Cone one of the least conflictive regions of the world. Among Latin American nations, the Uruguayan Armed Forces has been the largest per capita contributor of personnel for international peacekeeping missions, having deployed over 10,000 troops over the past decade. As of February 2002, Uruguay will have approximately 1,200 soldiers deployed on 11 peacekeeping mission. The Uruguayan government also is a consistent contributor of humanitarian assistance to other Latin American countries during natural disasters. The Uruguayan Air Force has flown water purification equipment, medicine and other emergency supplies to Colombia, Venezuela and Central America over the past four years. The Armed Forces also provide all logistical and operational support for the Uruguayan scientific research base in Antarctica that is performing valuable research on depletion of the ozone layer.

Civilians and military officers attending the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and participating in IMET-funded training will help improve civil-military relations, rationalize the defense policy planning process and make it increasingly transparent, build civilian expertise in defense matters and inculcate the principals of human rights in future leaders. Mid- to senior-grade officers and noncommissioned officers attending professional development courses will facilitate the modernization and professionalization of the Armed Forces. Technical and logistics training will help Uruguay maintain and manage its defense resources, improving their ability to operate with U.S. and international forces in peacekeeping operations, disaster relief missions and other joint operations.

Venezuela

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
CHDS 7 $51,849 7 $52,500
Exchange Training 2 $0 0 $0
FMS 214 $1,811,655 44 $100,165
IMET 133 $565,822 159 $650,123
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 1 $1,121 0 $0
Non-SA, Unified
Command
10 $25,000 0 $0
Section 1004 190 $498,000 838 $2,392,000
TOTAL 557 $2,953,447 1048 $3,194,788

Venezuela stands at a dramatic juncture in its 44-year democratic history. Increasing political confrontation has polarized Venezuelan society and heightened the possibility for a major political crisis. The military's long-term institutional commitment to constitutional government and democracy is vital to the maintenance of democratic and constitutional order in Venezuela. Counternarcotics and counterterrorism cooperation are important Venezuelan military missions and areas of significant cooperation with the United States. The Venezuelan military's important role supporting democracy, as well as cooperating in counternarcotic efforts and potentially in counterterrorism efforts, argues for expansion of our military engagement with the GOV.

Participation at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and programs funded by IMET in civil-military affairs training help instill civilian control of the military and the principles of human rights. Training of NCOs, field-grade and flag officers assists in professionalizing the Venezuelan military. Schooling in logistics, equipment maintenance and repairs helps maintain the technical proficiencies of Venezuela's Armed Forces. Extensive training in counternarcotic operations is conducted with the Venezuelan military, including joint training exercises with U.S. forces and training in maritime interdiction operations.



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