printable banner

U.S. Department of State - Great Seal

U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. Foreign Policy Objectives -- Africa Region


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest: Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
May 2003
Report
Share

Angola


  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 6 $66,435 4 $18,116
IMET 0 $0 37 $148,726
TOTAL 6 $66,435 41 $166,842

With the end of the Angolan civil war in April 2002, United States' goals in Angola focus on consolidating peace, while at the same time encouraging democracy, social justice, economic growth and addressing the pressing humanitarian repercussions of the country's conflict. Modest military training and engagement activities are a part of this program.

DoD funding in FY 2002 enabled six Angolan government officials to participate in conferences sponsored by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies. The Center was established to foster exchanges in Africa on military thinking similar to those carried on for years in Europe by the Marshall Center. The Angolans found this experience valuable and it was important in allowing them to hear disparate views and break out of an isolated mentality borne of years of war. Interaction with U.S. personnel involved in these conferences not only strengthened ties but also allowed for Angolan exposure to U.S. notions of civil-military relations.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Angola by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Benin

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 10 $81,282 8 $35,156
FMS 30 $19,500 0 $0
IMET 54 $440,423 147 $651,595
TOTAL 94 $541,205 155 $686,751

Since the transition from a Marxist military regime after a National Conference in 1990, Benin has become an admirable, model of democracy in the region. Free and fair presidential elections in 1991 led to the peaceful hand-over of government to civilian authorities, and the country since then has had a lively and crowded political landscape. The Beninese military has returned to a lesser role in Beninese society, although President Kerekou, as a former military man, remains attentive to the military's needs. At present, Benin faces no external threat to its stability and the armed forces have increasingly looked to international peacekeeping as a potential future mission.

The Beninese have been enthusiastic participants in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) training. However, to date, Benin's armed forces (BAF) have played only a limited role in regional peacekeeping. We continue to encourage the Beninese to be more engaged in the region, both on a political and military/peacekeeping level. We seek to strengthen the capabilities of the BAF to provide international humanitarian relief. Programs such as IMET, the Africa Center for Strategic Studies and ACRI will aid in increasing both the BAF's readiness and participation in international peacekeeping as well as buttressing democratic government and good governance. Benin's robust IMET program has played a key role in keeping the Beninese military in the barracks. The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Benin by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Botswana

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 7 $48,076 10 $42,033
ALP 2 $2,957 1 $836
EIPC 1 $4,620 0 $0
FMS 30 $0 35 $30,384
IMET 149 $931,432 113 $936,657
Non-SA, Unified Command 90 $191,039 0 $0
PME Exchanges 60 $3,364 30 $0
TOTAL 339 $1,181,488 189 $1,009,910

Botswana has one of the longest-running democracies and most fiscally prudent economic regimes on the continent. Our efforts focus on helping Botswana confront one of the highest per capita HIV/AIDS infection rates in the world, supporting Botswana's stable democracy, expanding U.S. business opportunities and advocating Botswana's leadership in the region. On the security side, Botswana has one of the region's most professional and responsible military establishments and offers a model for civilian-military relations for the rest of southern Africa.

Botswana has provided a venue for regional military exchanges that have been well received and that have fostered a spirit of regional cooperation. Through our IMET program and other regional initiatives, we seek to expand our connections with Botswana's military leaders and support their interest in contributing to efforts to strengthen both regional civil-military ties and regional military-military relations. The IMET program trained Botswana Defense Force (BDF) personnel in the United States and through in-country mobile training teams during FY 2002. BDF personnel will continue taking courses in senior military leadership (officer and enlisted), financial management, combat and combat support arms and medical specialties. These courses not only support individual professional development, but also prepare the BDF to better execute PKO and humanitarian support operations on the continent. IMET training includes components on HIV/AIDS.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Botswana by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Burkina Faso

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 4 $30,976 9 $40,414
IMET 0 $0 2 $20,000
TOTAL 4 $30,976 11 $60,414

In response to the Burkinabe government's links to support for destabilizing activities in Sierra Leone and other parts of Africa, we have halted almost all forms of military assistance. Burkina Faso was permitted to participate in Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminars in FY 2002. The Department of Defense determined that it was in the USG's best interests to include Burkina Faso in ACSS events in order to promote peace and stability across the African continent. ACSS provides an exceptional forum for engaging senior-level military and civilian officials in African countries. The Africa Center program promotes democratic governance in the defense and security sectors by addressing the very problems that get many sanctioned countries in trouble in the first place. The ACSS program also fosters critical partnerships with African nations. It keeps open lines of communication at the appropriate military and defense levels, laying the foundation for future military-to-military relations when conditions improve in the country.

Burundi

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 5 $43,964 4 $19,444
IMET 0 $0 4 $62,523
TOTAL 5 $43,964 8 $81,967

We have suspended almost all forms of military-to-military engagement with Burundi because of its ongoing civil conflict. In FY 2002, however, DoD invited Burundi to participate in Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) events given developments in the Burundi peace process. In addition, Burundi was one of eleven countries invited to participate in Operation Golden Spear and Operation Neon Spear, continuing programs designed to develop a regional response mechanism for crisis prevention and disaster management in East Africa. The Department of State concurred with the DoD decision to include Burundi to help promote peace and stability in central Africa. The ACSS program for Burundi will continue in FY 2003.

The DoD policy is to include all African nations, except those under UN or USG sanction, in ACSS engagement activities. ACSS is a DoD-funded program that is separate from State's security assistance programs. It provides an exceptional forum for engaging senior-level military and civilian officials in African countries on issues of democratic governance.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Burundi by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Cameroon

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 4 $33,214 4 $21,618
IMET 13 $251,283 50 $380,931
Service Academies 5 $240,543 3 $140,373
TOTAL 22 $525,040 57 $542,922

U.S. goals in Cameroon support the successful transformation of Cameroonian society into a democratic, pluralistic community, with a market-based economy integrated into the world economy. Cameroon's political stability and relative economic development make it a leading sub-regional power. Construction of the Chad-Cameroon pipeline further integrates Cameroon into the regional petroleum economy. Cameroon's status as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council in 2002 and 2003 underlines the importance of a strong military-to-military relationship, particularly on peacekeeping issues.

Cameroon's military can play an important role in supporting regional peacekeeping initiatives and promoting peaceful resolution of border disputes with neighboring countries, particularly in the case of the Bakassi peninsula and Cameroon's maritime borders with Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria. Moreover, it is crucial to have military participation and cooperation as Cameroon undertakes additional political and economic reforms.

Military training provided to Cameroon is designed to encourage good military-to-military relationships and increased understanding of the constructive role the military can play in promoting civilian programs. IMET-funded training on the subject of civilian control of defense resources has been equally helpful.

Other IMET programs in FY 2002 have targeted building professionalism within the Cameroonian armed forces through technical training for junior- to mid-level military officers. As part of this training, U.S.-Cameroonian military-to-military contacts increase and the U.S. is assured greater access to Cameroonian air and port facilities. Cameroon's political stability, strategic location and excellent airport facilities make it ideal as a staging area for humanitarian assistance programs in the region, or for evacuation operations necessitated by conflict in the region.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Cameroon by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Cape Verde, Republic Of

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 3 $21,686 8 $36,816
IMET 6 $101,601 103 $226,724
TOTAL 9 $123,287 111 $263,540

Since gaining independence in 1975, Cape Verde has been at peace with itself and its neighbors, and its military has consistently played a constructive role in civil society. The country's physical isolation, poverty, and limited number of educational institutions make it heavily reliant on training from other countries to develop appropriate technical proficiencies. The IMET program provides English language training to the military's officer and mid-level NCO corps to enhance their ability to provide effective cooperation in maritime patrols and other military and Coast Guard-related activities. IMET also will be used to support Cape Verde's plan for a professional police unit within the military. Participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) also provides a low-cost investment to help ensure the continued professionalism of Cape Verde's military under civilian, democratic leadership.

With greater English-language proficiency, Cape Verde's military could access training programs specifically designed to increase its ability to patrol territorial waters, and so address more effectively the environmental threats of overfishing and reduced biodiversity. Effective coastal patrols also would improve Cape Verde's drug interdiction, counter-terrorism, search and rescue, and disaster preparedness programs.

ACSS supports democratic governance in Cape Verde by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Central African Republic

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 8 $67,306 5 $23,418
IMET 8 $143,852 9 $201,471
TOTAL 16 $211,158 14 $224,889

The Central African Republic (CAR) has suffered great upheaval in the last few years, caused largely by government mismanagement and serious arrears in military and civil service salaries. These salary arrears, as well as inequities in treatment among the various parts of the armed forces, helped provoke a series of mutinies in CAR in 1996 and 1997 and coup attempts in 2001and 2002. International peacekeepers guaranteed security in the CAR from 1997 to February 2000, at which time local military and police forces took on their security responsibilities. In May 2001, the Libyans sent a military contingent to help provide security for the president. The principal U.S. interests in the CAR are to support international efforts to maintain peace in the CAR, and hence the region, while encouraging the implementation of economic, political and military reforms that will prevent a recurrence of the military mutinies and civil strife of 1996, 1997, 2001 and 2002. Restructuring and demobilization of some of the CAR armed forces are crucial to these efforts. The ability of armed forces personnel to accept and understand the military's role under a civilian government and to promote respect for human rights and democratic principles will be key to the success of the post-peacekeeping transition.

IMET funds for English language training programs focusing on managing defense resources and civil-military relations, and mid-level professional development for CAR military personnel have laid the groundwork for further exposure of CAR military officers to the U.S. system for civilian control of the military. The importance of democratic values, rule of law and respect for individuals' civil and human rights are reinforced in these courses, while U.S. and CAR military personnel develop important professional and personal relationships. An added benefit of IMET training is the chance for U.S. officials to encourage the CAR military to promote regional stability by maintaining CAR neutrality with regard to conflicts in the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo and tensions between CAR and Chad. This is also a key element of CAR participation in the African Center for Strategic Studies. These results constitute substantial returns on a modest investment.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in CAR by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Chad

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 3 $23,871 7 $33,888
FMF 64 $55,103 21 $282,924
IMET 7 $163,015 71 $156,390
Non-SA, Unified Command 0 $34,200 0 $0
TOTAL 74 $276,189 99 $473,202

Occupying a strategic position at an historic crossroads, Chad is particularly vulnerable to neighbors like Libya and Sudan. U.S. assistance provides a counter-balance by promoting a stable and democratic society able to constructively contribute to regional conflict resolution and fully participate in the global economy. Restructured within the last six years, the Chadian armed forces have a key role to play in resolving armed conflicts within Chad as well as within the region, where they have participated in several peacekeeping operations. Their support for democratic rule and civilian control and direction of the armed forces is crucial to Chad's, and the region's, future stability.

U.S. IMET training on rule of law and human rights addresses key objectives of promoting democracy and appropriate civilian management of the armed forces. It also enables U.S. trainers to build important military-to-military contacts that help combat anti-U.S. influence in Chad and serve as a basis for future international peacekeeping efforts in the region. FY 2002 IMET funds helped pay for training in peacekeeping operations, as well as professional mid-level training to improve the Chadian military's non-lethal technical capacity. FMF funds were used to support humanitarian demining operations. U.S. humanitarian demining training assistance has significantly strengthened the Chad's abilities to resolve the serious problem of mines throughout Chad. Injuries, deaths and the inability to use large areas of land have a direct impact on the country's economic development.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Chad by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Comoros

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 6 $48,322 4 $18,026
TOTAL 6 $48,322 4 $18,026

A small island nation in the Indian Ocean, the Comoros has a history of political instability and military intervention in politics. This background has given particular importance to U.S. efforts to promote democracy and stability in the Comoros and to strengthen the professionalism of the Comorian Defense Force, including respect for civilian control. A modest IMET program for the Comoros in the past had been an important element in U.S. policy toward and bilateral relations with the Comorian government.

In April 1999, Comoros experienced a military coup that overthrew the civilian government elected in March 1996. Section 508 of the FY 2001 Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act suspended bilateral assistance to Comoros. Although some regional humanitarian programs will continue, all military cooperation is presently discontinued, except for the Africa Center for Strategic Studies. This includes IMET, E-IMET, ACRI, JCET and most other military-to-military contact. In December 2001, Comoros held a referendum that overwhelmingly approved a new constitution that instituted a system of shared autonomy between a national government and the island governments that make up Comoros. An election was held in April 2002 that confirmed Azali Assoumani, as president. Future cooperation should focus on separation between civilian and military authority.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Comoros by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Cote d'Ivoire

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 7 $51,111 8 $36,154
IMET 0 $0 277 $213,373
TOTAL 7 $51,111 285 $249,527

With the third largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa, Cote d'Ivoire plays an influential role in West Africa. Until the late 1990's, the country had deservedly built a reputation for political stability and economic growth that made it a model for its neighbors. The Ivorian armed forces had begun to participate in the African Crisis Response Initiative, and Cote d'Ivoire had served as a key center for regional peacekeeping training.

However, on December 24, 1999, a military coup ousted the duly elected government of President Henri Konan Bedie. Elections were subsequently held, however, they were determined to be deeply flawed and, under Section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act for FY 2000, bilateral assistance to Cote d'Ivoire was suspended. Although some regional humanitarian programs and Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) participation continued, all military cooperation was suspended. These sanctions will remain in place until the President of the United States either waives them under provisions of the Act or a democratically elected government has taken office. An armed rebellion erupted in Cote d'Ivoire on September 19, 2002. At this writing a restoration of constitutional rule throughout the country appears unlikely in the short term. The situation makes a resumption of military training programs even more inappropriate.

Cote d'Ivoire participation in FY 2003 programs of the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) will be reviewed as those programs are scheduled, taking into consideration if and how the rebellion is resolved. The ACSS supports democratic governance throughout the region by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo - Kinshasa)

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 8 $62,143 5 $21,550
IMET 0 $0 3 $30,818
TOTAL 8 $62,143 8 $52,368

Internal instability throughout most of the country has prevented the USG from using most military training programs to gain influence with the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The one exception to this state of affairs is the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) program.

ACSS supports democratic governance in the DRC by offering senior government civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Djibouti

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 5 $46,625 4 $18,884
IMET 37 $256,091 77 $426,725
TOTAL 42 $302,716 81 $445,609

Djibouti, strategically located at the entrance to the Red Sea, next to Somalia and facing Yemen, is the only country in Sub-Saharan Africa supporting a U.S. military camp. It also hosts France's largest military base overseas. Djibouti has played a strategic role in the War on Terrorism (GWOT) and currently has forces from five countries (Germany, United Kingdom, France, Spain and the U.S.) participating in the coalition effort against terrorism. It also serves as the main seaport for Ethiopia - which has also been a staunch ally in the War on Terrorism. In 2002, urgently needed emergency food aid from the U.S. passed through the Port of Djibouti to Ethiopia.

Djibouti has become an important refueling point for U.S. military aircraft and a training area for U.S. military personnel as well as ships and aircraft. Bouffard French military hospital is a key trauma care center in the area and helped stabilize victims after the terrorist attack on the USS Cole in October 2000.

IMET training is our core program for Djibouti and has been one of the most successful programs in the region. Graduates now hold key policy and operational positions within the Djiboutian military, including chief of staff and major command positions. Djiboutian junior and mid-grade officers have attended the Command and General Staff College. This year, a Djiboutian officer graduated as an International Fellow from the National Defense University at Ft. McNair.

Access to this highly supportive Arab League nation and critical base of support for the U.S. military merits our serious commitment to the continuation and expansion of the IMET program. IMET helps U.S. strategic interests by expanding relations and our influence in a Frontline state in the GWOT. The Djiboutians benefit from the training in meeting their core objectives of creating a professional and well-trained force with shared commitments to democratic values and security objectives.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) has become an important complement to IMET in exposing senior Djiboutian leaders to core U.S. values on civil-military relations and national security and defense concerns. This program also enhances interaction between our countries and expansion of this program will promote closer bilateral cooperation and trust.

Equatorial Guinea

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 0 $0 2 $12,614
IMET 0 $0 1 $19,133
TOTAL 0 $0 3 $31,747

Due to concerns about the Equatorial Guinea Government's poor human rights record, serious governance problems, the lack of significant progress on democratic reform, and because the country's leadership remains in the hands of a small clique whose legitimacy remains questionable, we continue to suspend almost all forms of official military-to-military engagement in Equatorial Guinea, except for participation at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS).

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Equatorial Guinea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Eritrea

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 4 $27,450 4 $18,884
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
IMET 66 $221,355 83 $610,399
TOTAL 70 $248,805 88 $629,283

Democratic institutions in Eritrea, including professional, non-political armed forces, are not well established and the slow pace of democratization and the recent government crackdown on the political opposition, independent press, and religious freedom is discouraging. Nevertheless, U.S. assistance could play a key role in building a professional Eritrean military sensitive to the separation between civilian and military authority and to the concept of a nonpolitical and apolitical military organization that respects human rights and promotes self-management.

A good bilateral relationship is critical to maintaining access to the Red Sea, via the longest seacoast on the Horn. Eritrea is also a key player in maintaining regional stability in the Horn of Africa, particularly in our efforts to consolidate the Ethiopia-Eritrea peace process and to stem the presence and influence of terrorism in the Horn. Modern, well-trained Eritrean armed forces would be an asset to our national security interests in the region.

U.S. IMET and other training activities are key to supporting Eritrea's efforts to professionalize its force, downsize military personnel and ensure they remain under civilian control. Training included civilian military support, drug prevention and military justice. We expect to substantially expand this training in all phases of military professional courses.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Eritrea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Ethiopia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 3 $21,982 5 $24,498
IMET 7 $254,865 29 $679,676
TOTAL 10 $276,847 34 $704,174

Ethiopia has historically been the key to U.S. security interests in the Horn of Africa, a turbulent region threatened by Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism. This point has been reinforced several times since the outbreak of the War on Terrorism. Ethiopia has been a staunch ally in this war and the Ethiopian military has been our most effective partner in the counter-terrorist fight within the region. Ethiopia's internal stability and its role as a salient regional and international leader remain critical for the stability of the Horn as a whole. The long-term goal of transforming the Ethiopian military into a professional, apolitical modern force remains important.

Ethiopia has one of, if not the most capable military force in sub-Sahara Africa and has clearly established itself as the dominant military power within the Horn of Africa sub-region. Further, the Ethiopians have a long history of successful participation in United Nations military efforts, dating back to the Korean War, and including their most recent stint combating genocide in Rwanda (1996-97). In FY 2003, we hope to restart the training process for two Ethiopian battalions and a brigade headquarters in the African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) program. Once trained, these units will be able to provide significant credibility to future African-led peacekeeping endeavors.

However, despite its capabilities on the battlefield, the Ethiopian military lacks strong organic training institutions - a deficiency the Ethiopian senior leadership is painfully aware of and is working hard to correct. Not only does this lack of formal military schooling hinder the professional growth of the military; it drastically reduces proper use of defense resources, which is critical to a poor nation like Ethiopia. During the past two years, the Ethiopians have increasingly turned to the United States military for assistance in addressing both of these shortcomings.

IMET assistance will assist in increasing the professionalism of the Ethiopian military and in strengthening the U.S.-Ethiopian military relationship. The focus of the IMET program in Ethiopia is on building host nation training institutions. This will be done by increasing the English-speaking capability of the military (to take advantage of training opportunities in the U.S. as well as with U.S. forces in Ethiopia, and to exploit of the enormous amount of military reference military available freely via the internet) and by training instructors for company-level courses at U.S. military training institutions. Participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminars will provide the Ethiopian military with useful strategies for improving civil-military relations. These programs will be vital in our future relationship with an Ethiopia where defense considerations will continue to be of great importance.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Ethiopia by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Gabon

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 4 $32,638 4 $22,580
FMF 0 $0 30 $68,292
IMET 7 $165,060 13 $334,354
Non-SA, Unified Command 0 $17,500 0 $0
TOTAL 11 $215,198 47 $425,226

Gabon is a politically stable and influential regional leader. President Bongo has led mediation efforts in several neighboring conflicts and is currently leading one of two regional efforts to mediate tensions between Chad and the Central African Republic. On several occasions Gabon has served as a safe haven in times of conflict in the region and has authorized the U.S. to use its facilities as a staging area for evacuations of Americans and other Westerners. Revenues from oil production, the basis of the national economy, are declining. If social indicators remain skewed, stability and democratic progress could be undermined.

IMET in FY 2002 focused on improving the English language capability of Gabonese military personnel and providing training on appropriate civil-military relations. By fostering effective relations between the Gabonese and the U.S. military, and by exposing the Gabonese participants to U.S. professional military organizations, procedures and the manner in which the U.S. military functions under civilian control, Gabon's military efficiency and effectiveness will be enhanced. This in turn will support the goal of regional stability, particularly in peacekeeping operations in which the Gabonese participate. Participation in the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) also supports democratic aims in Gabon by reinforcing the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders. In addition, creating military-to-military contacts will increase the likelihood that Gabon will remain willing to serve as a staging area for evacuation operations in the region.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Gabon by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Gambia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 6 $49,893 8 $42,720
IMET 2 $10,720 86 $149,060
TOTAL 8 $60,613 94 $191,780

The U.S. government has lifted Section 508 sanctions on the Gambia in recognition of successful democratic presidential and legislative elections in October 2001 and January 2002. Until the lifting of the Section 508 sanctions, the only military-to-military contact between the two countries was through the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) program.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Gambia by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

In FY 2003, we plan to move beyond participation at ACSS and recommence a modest IMET program to expose the next generation of Gambian military officers to U.S. military organizations and procedures, civil-military relations, and the role of the military in democracy.

Ghana

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACOTA 30 $48,458 0 $0
ACSS 7 $61,233 11 $50,695
FMF 13 $13,634 0 $0
IMET 47 $406,578 117 $980,106
Non-SA, Unified Command 0 $33,000 0 $0
TOTAL 97 $562,903 128 $1,030,801

The Ghanaian armed forces (GAF) have a long and commendable record in peacekeeping operations, particularly in Liberia and Sierra Leone. With its history of political stability and English as its official language, Ghana provides an ideal platform for staging humanitarian operations (e.g. Feb-Apr 2000 flood relief for Mozambique; Sept 2002 EUCOM operation to extract Americans from civil unrest in Cote d'Ivoire) and regional peacekeeping training activities.

Military cooperation under IMET, the Africa Center for Strategic Studies and ACRI reinforce the GAF's ability to contribute to peacekeeping efforts in the region and beyond, and to play a constructive role in the development of Ghana as a democratic society. Ghana continues to fulfill its pledge to UNAMSIL, sending Operation Focus Relief-trained battalions in six-month rotations to Sierra Leone. Additionally, the GAF deployed two battalions to the UN peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

IMET will also help the GAF play a key role in the country's development through civic action and humanitarian assistance projects. In addition to the figures cited above, the USG is providing $800,000 for the upgrade of the Kofi Annan Peacekeeping Center, where military units from throughout the region train together for future peacekeeping missions.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Ghana by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Guinea

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 6 $40,575 8 $37,124
FMS 880 $1,829,157 0 $0
IMET 157 $168,831 43 $372,162
Non-SA, Unified Command 0 $5,700 0 $0
TOTAL 1043 $2,044,263 51 $409,286

U.S. diplomatic efforts in Guinea are primarily directed towards reinforcing Guinea's ability to play a more effective role in regional conflict-resolution and peacekeeping efforts, including the protection of refugees. The armed forces play a critical role in Guinean society. Assisting the Government of Guinea to continue to reform its military institutions by engaging in closer military-to-military cooperation and by increasing appropriate military assistance serves U.S. interests in two ways.

Military assistance aimed at improving the Guinean military's professionalism, obedience to civilian leadership and ability to conduct humanitarian operations helps to strengthen the institution to maintain its role in a democratic society. Military assistance and cooperation aimed at improving the Guinean military's planning, organizational and basic skills will increase its ability to participate in regional conflict-resolution and peacekeeping activities that, if successful, would permit current refugee populations to be repatriated and preclude further refugee emergencies. Through JCET and IMET training in FY 2001, a more professional Guinean Army was able to respond more ably to internal instability and humanitarian crises provoked by Liberian President Charles Taylor and the irregular armed insurgents of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF). In 2002, the United States provided $3 million of military training to a Guinean battalion of 800. The training emphasized the role of the military in the protection of human rights and rights of civilians.

Guinea is playing an important role in providing troops for the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and United Nations peacekeeping efforts in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL). It is imperative to the peace and stability of the sub-region that Guinea remains stable. The military plays a key role in Guinea's stability. Furthermore, E-IMET training and participation at the African Center for Strategic Studies enables attendees to develop an appreciation for the role of a civilian controlled military in a democracy. It also heightens their awareness and observance of human rights and the rule of law, and encourages them to continue their support for peacekeeping operations in the sub-region.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Guinea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Guinea - Bissau

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 4 $30,557 8 $36,864
IMET 4 $69,040 8 $192,097
TOTAL 8 $99,597 16 $228,961

Re-emerging as a democratic society following eleven months of internal conflict in 1998-9, Guinea-Bissau still faces the challenge of reconstruction, including the need for significant demining, with very limited government resources. Prior to the conflict, the military traditionally contributed positively to the country's development under the leadership of a civilian government. Now however, budgetary constraints, a sharp increase in the size of the military during the fighting, and soldier salary arrearages pose significant challenges to the civilian government as it seeks to return the military to its traditional non-political role. Accusations of arms shipments from Guinea-Bissau to rebels in the Casamance region in neighboring Senegal have recently receded as the Government of Guinea-Bissau has worked to restrict this trade and so reduce tensions along the border.

A modest reintroduction of the IMET program has encouraged the efforts of the military leadership and the country's civilian, democratic government to trim the size of the military and to return the military to its traditionally constructive role through civic action and humanitarian projects. IMET also provides training in defense resources management. In addition, IMET training and African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) participation will reinforce military cooperation efforts between Guinea-Bissau and neighboring countries so as to reduce border tensions and enhance regional stability.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Guinea-Bissau by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Kenya

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 5 $43,477 4 $18,502
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
IMET 139 $520,457 172 $506,983
TOTAL 144 $563,934 177 $525,485

Military training assistance to Kenya is a crucial component in a broader U.S. military engagement program with the Kenyan armed forces. Provision of U.S. military assistance, including training, is grounded in several objectives important to our foreign policy goals in Kenya and in the region.

First, U.S. engagement with the Kenyan military is based on maintaining access to sea and air facilities that may facilitate friendly military operations. This has assumed particular importance in the context of Operation Enduring Freedom, where access to Kenyan facilities has been essential in undertaking allied operations in the Horn of Africa region and the Eastern Indian Ocean. In the African context, such access has been critical to U.S. response to recent humanitarian and political emergencies in Congo and Somalia, and to the ongoing emergency in Sudan.

Second, U.S. assistance to the Kenyan military is intended to reinforce Kenya's willingness and ability to continue its contributions to international peacekeeping operations. U.S. military training assistance, including the ACRI exercises initiated in Kenya in October 2000 and ACRI's successor, the ACOTA program, are predominantly geared toward bolstering Kenya's capacity to carry out peacekeeping operations. Kenya was the first nation to establish a substantial ACOTA program. In addition, most other U.S. military assistance, such as excess defense articles, has application in the peacekeeping arena. Kenya's peacekeeping capabilities are a derivative function of its abilities to maintain peace and security of its own border with Somalia, from where a serious terrorist threat has emerged. Increased U.S. assistance for Kenyan border and coastal security counters this threat, and helps protect U.S. facilities in Kenya, a hub for civilian and business activities throughout eastern Africa. Joint exercises, such as Operation Edged Mallet, build confidence and capability for Kenyan peacekeeping both abroad and on its own borders.

Third, Kenya's armed forces remain one of the important examples of an apolitical military in Africa. The military's distance from politics is a key to maintaining Kenya's stability, particularly given the turbulence and civil unrest experienced across Kenya's borders, for example in Somalia, Ethiopia and Sudan. This is particularly true, as Kenya, for the first time in 39 years of independence, will undergo a democratic transition from one President to another. National elections are scheduled for December 27, 2002. Kenyan military professionalism, built on British military traditions, contributes greatly to the ease of cooperation and joint planning with the U.S. military. U.S. military training assistance reinforces the Kenyan military's understanding of its professional, apolitical role, while bolstering its capabilities to protect its sometimes-troubled borders.

Overall, the military training provided to Kenya encourages the continuation of good military-to-military relationships, as well as participation in regional peacekeeping operations. Additionally, U.S. training assistance has helped give the Kenyan military the confidence to participate in current UN peacekeeping operations in Sierra Leone, East Timor and the Ethiopia-Eritrea border. Kenyan forces may also be able to play a constructive role in peacekeeping in the Great Lakes region. Other IMET funds target developing future leadership and building professionalism through professional military education and technical training for junior- to mid-level Kenyan military officers.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Kenya by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Lesotho

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 9 $61,027 4 $17,738
IMET 53 $105,667 337 $239,469
TOTAL 62 $166,694 341 $257,207

Historically, Lesotho's army has been a highly politicized force, vulnerable to partisan influence by political parties. Involvement of the army in political destabilization and coups d'�tat has been a problem since independence in 1966. The political/security crisis of 1998, for example, included an army mutiny and junior officer complicity in an unconstitutional attempt to overthrow the elected government. The crisis demonstrated that a significant segment of the Lesotho Defense Forces (LDF) neither understood nor accepted the subordinate role of the military in a democracy.

Lesotho's current government has therefore undertaken a comprehensive program to reform and professionalize the LDF and other security services. The U.S. has an interest in supporting this program because it advances our foreign policy goals of promoting democracy and human rights as well as humanitarian response skills.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Lesotho by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Madagascar

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 4 $31,292 2 $11,838
Asia-Pacific Center 5 $68,411 3 $35,536
IMET 69 $123,793 42 $243,568
TOTAL 78 $223,496 47 $290,942

After the failure of its socialist experiment (1975-91), Madagascar continues its transition to democracy and economic liberalization, showing much greater openness towards the U.S. and the West. Throughout the political turmoil of the early and mid-90's, the military remained disciplined, apolitical and respectful of civilian authority, despite calls for it to intervene. The resolve of their apolitical posture was again tested in early 2002 during the political standoff over disputed presidential election results. The world's fourth-largest island, but one of the poorest countries on Earth, Madagascar lacks the capability to protect its 5,000-km. maritime border against threats of smuggling, both in and out. This inability deprives the government of significant revenues, contributes to the endangerment of many rare species found nowhere else and creates an unintended permissive environment for transnational terrorists.

The Malagasy are traditionally inward looking, but have sought to play a more active role in regional and international affairs in the past. In 1999 the Malagasy hosted an Organization of African Unity (OAU) conference that sought to bring reconciliation to the Comoros and has expressed willingness to participate in peacekeeping operations under UN or OAU auspices. IMET-funded training for Madagascar has enabled Malagasy officers to learn: the legal aspects of PKO, law of the sea, port security and legal and operational aspects of boarding ships at sea, etc. It has also trained English language instructors at the basic and advanced levels. Madagascar is a French-speaking country and mastery of English is a prerequisite for U.S. military training courses.

IMET serves the U.S. strategic goals of counterterrorism and combating international crime, as well as reinforcing democracy. With a substantial increase in IMET, we will be able to provide a mobile training team on peacekeeping operations and perhaps assist with the maintenance and repair of equipment.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Madagascar by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Malawi

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 8 $57,357 4 $17,708
ALP 2 $3,340 2 $836
IMET 76 $478,219 57 $395,775
Non-SA, Unified Command 30 $112,008 0 $0
TOTAL 116 $650,924 63 $414,319

Security assistance, particularly Expanded-IMET programs, is an important component in U.S. efforts to strengthen Malawi's fledgling democracy and to promote economic development in one of the world's poorest and most densely populated countries. After three decades of autocratic rule, Malawi held its second free and fair national multi-party elections in June 1999 and its first-ever local multi-party election in November 2000. The country, whose only significant external threat is transnational crime, has steadily improved relations with its neighbors since its democratic transition and has sought to play a stabilizing role in the region and the continent.

Close military-to-military cooperation is an essential pillar in the strong U.S.-Malawi bilateral relationship. Malawi has a small and under-funded, yet apolitical and highly professional military. The Army has been an exemplary participant in a very active slate of programs. One of the first countries to join the program, Malawi was the only ACRI country (and advocate) in southern Africa. It is committed to participating in African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA), the successor institution to ACRI. The Army joins the equally resource-strapped national police force in select operations to fight crime and has distinguished itself in peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance missions. Malawi was the first country in the region to provide flood relief (helicopters and supplies) to Mozambique. Currently it has ACRI-trained observers in Kosovo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

In addition to traditional professional military skills training, IMET and other security assistance programs are allowing the Malawi Army to bring significant resources to bear on key issues, including HIV/AIDS, structural reform, civilian-military relations, human rights and anti-corruption. For example, Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS)-organized seminars provide a venue for members of the Army, Malawi Government, parliamentarians, judiciary, academia, the media and NGOs to work together on issues including rule of law, human rights and peacekeeping. (Restricted interaction between these groups has been a carry-over from the pre-democracy era.) An orientation visit to Washington under the auspices of DIILS provided the impetus for Parliamentary Defense & Security Committee members to meet with the Malawi Army Commander for the first time. The Committee and Army subsequently worked together on procurement issues and the preparation of annual defense budgets.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Malawi by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Security assistance programs and military exercises provide excellent opportunities and resources in post's efforts to assist in the battle against HIV/AIDS in Malawi. All in-country training includes a session on some aspect of the disease. We have called on the International Health Resources Management Program to help the Ministry of Health, other ministries, the Army and donors implement an ambitious comprehensive National AIDS Strategic Plan.

Mali

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACOTA 0 $0 30 $125,000
ACSS 5 $38,331 21 $81,107
FMF 565 $31,341 0 $0
IMET 20 $436,498 258 $495,011
Non-SA, Unified Command 70 $52,800 0 $0
TOTAL 660 $558,970 309 $701,118

Over the past decade the Malian armed forces have evolved from an instrument of government control to a professional organization which supports human rights, economic development and conflict resolution. U.S. security assistance programs in Mali serve to institutionalize these changes, providing training in civil-military affairs, coordinating ongoing peacekeeping training and conducting seminars on the role of the armed forces in a democracy. U.S. sponsored training of senior- and mid-level officers contributes to the professional development of current and future Malian military leaders to reinforce and perpetuate the subordinate, depoliticized role of the military. Additionally, military justice and defense management courses fortify the Government of Mali (GOM)'s efforts to fight corruption and instill good governance.

Mali has been an effective interlocutor and mediator on regional security issues, such as those in Sierra Leone and within the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), and as a buffer against the intentions of Libya and extreme Islamic fundamentalists active in the region. African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) training provides critical skills to enable Mali to exercise its prominent regional peacekeeping role. Malian leaders seek a greater role for Mali as a force for regional stability and peace. Also, Mali has one of the largest IMET programs in Africa on a per capita basis. Increased security assistance and training support from ACOTA and other State and DoD programs would permit Mali to be more effective as it continues to play a constructive role in these areas.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Mali by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Mauritania

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 5 $35,966 11 $58,362
IMET 94 $117,371 233 $186,568
NESA 10 $50,250 10 $58,000
Non-SA, Unified Command 45 $661,480 0 $0
TOTAL 154 $865,067 254 $302,930

In FY 2002, IMET and other military-to-military programs continued after having been renewed in FY 2001. As democratic and economic institutions continue to develop in the country, the military engagement programs promote a positive role for the armed forces in civil society. Towards this end, training classes in FY 2002 focused on civil-military relationships and natural resource (especially fisheries) management.

Senior African civilian and military leaders benefit from the efforts of the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). ACSS offers a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. Additionally, ACSS helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants by offering exchanges, research opportunities and seminars in the United States, Africa and Europe.

Mauritius

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 7 $43,812 4 $18,434
Asia-Pacific Center 5 $59,238 3 $35,536
FMS 30 $19,226 0 $0
IMET 43 $124,222 65 $111,848
TOTAL 85 $246,498 72 $165,818

Located 600 miles east of Madagascar, Mauritius is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. The economy relies heavily on exports of sugar and textiles as well as tourism and offshore businesses. Mauritius has one of the strongest economies and highest per capita income in Sub-Sahara Africa. While Mauritius has no military as such, under the command of the Commissioner of Police, there are approximately 10,000 active duty personnel divided into the National Police, a VIP Protection Unit, a Police Helicopter Squadron, a Special Mobile Force and a National Coast Guard. Currently, officers on loan from India head up the Coast Guard and the Police Helicopter Squadron.

U.S. military training assistance has focused on the Coast Guard. Through U.S. assistance, it is hoped that the National Coast Guard, created in 1989, will grow into a Mauritian-led organization capable of effectively patrolling territorial waters, stemming narcotics trafficking and illegal fishing, and mounting successful search and rescue operations. Another U.S. foreign policy goal in this area is to improve protection of Mauritius' fragile coastal environment.

Officers from the Special Mobile Force, Coast Guard and Police took executive courses in crisis management, military justice and international maritime law at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies in Honolulu, Hawaii. These courses provide a strong overview of all the Coast Guard mission areas, including maritime law enforcement, fisheries protection, pollution control and search and rescue. Junior officers and enlisted members of the Coast Guard have also attended U.S.-based training. Mauritius has expressed an interest in participating in peacekeeping operation exercises and training.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Mauritius by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Mozambique

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 12 $67,341 5 $17,756
IMET 85 $124,880 98 $235,776
Non-SA, Unified Command 47 $94,154 0 $0
TOTAL 144 $286,375 103 $253,532

In the ten years since Mozambique ended its 16-year civil war, U.S. policy has been to encourage democratic consolidation and socio-economic reform. Success in achieving these goals is essential for lasting peace and prosperity for the Mozambican people and for regional stability. Mozambique has developed into one of Africa's fastest growing economies and has become a regional leader in conflict resolution efforts such as those involving the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Mozambique has also been involved in Lusophone initiatives elsewhere on the continent. The inability of the country to cope with floods in May 2000 underlined its need to continue developing its crisis response capacity. We hope to help build this response capacity with bilateral and possibly sub-regional engagement programs.

The consolidation of democracy in the post-war period requires that the military play a constructive role by becoming an apolitical and professional defense force that respects human rights. The IMET program and other training activities facilitate this transition by providing civil-military relations courses to inculcate a respect for civilian control of the defense force. IMET also trains students in basic technical skills, such as ordnance maintenance to ensure the proper handling of the army's equipment, and coast guard management to help Mozambique protect the resources along its lengthy ocean border. The lack of qualified candidates in Mozambique is a restraint on the impact of the IMET program.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Mozambique by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. In September 2002, ACSS hosted with the Mozambican Government, a weeklong conference for southern African countries focused on security cooperation. This was the first Lusophone venue for ACSS. The event, which attracted high-level military, political and civilian officials from the region, greatly enhanced senior-level U.S.-Mozambican defense relationships.

Namibia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 6 $44,081 4 $17,356
IMET 22 $225,601 108 $379,732
Non-SA, Unified Command 40 $78,290 0 $0
TOTAL 68 $347,972 112 $397,088

The primary U.S. national interests in Namibia are democracy and humanitarian assistance. Independent since 1989, Namibia has made significant strides in developing a stable, democratic political system and free-market economy. Assisting Namibia in its efforts to address the HIV/AIDS crisis and overcome the legacy of apartheid provides a basis for enhanced regional stability, economic development, trade and investment opportunities and advancement of U.S. global interests.

International Military Education and Training (IMET) funds support the training of Namibia Defense Force (NDF) personnel in democratic values, logistics and respect for civilian institutions. Namibia's program focuses on training for all strata of the NDF from senior level Ministry of Defense officials down to non-commissioned officers.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports Namibia's young democracy by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a program in national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Niger

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 4 $33,752 11 $49,164
IMET 113 $145,207 98 $194,477
TOTAL 117 $178,959 109 $243,641

In FY 2002, IMET and other military-to-military programs continued aggressive engagement after being suspended as a result of the early 1999 coup; Section 508 sanctions were lifted in early 2000 after the country returned to democratic governance in late 1999. Military assistance programs provide a vehicle to enhance the armed forces' positive role within civil society and to assist the country in its continued democratic transition.

To assist on the road to professionalization, we provided IMET courses in civil-military relations, peace operations and defense resources management to key leaders in the Nigerien military. In addition, the French-speaking Nigerien military received language instruction and labs to assist with training using English language materials and equipment.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Niger by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Nigeria

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 4 $32,437 12 $53,216
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
CHDS 2 $15,998 0 $0
FMS 66 $856,010 93 $1,173,150
IMET 213 $937,526 148 $1,029,328
TOTAL 285 $1,841,971 254 $2,255,694

As Africa's most populous nation, a key source of U.S. oil imports, and a country emerging from 15 years of military rule, Nigeria is vital to the stability and prosperity of West Africa and the Continent. Nigerian armed forces have played key roles in ending the civil war in Liberia and in creating conditions for a peace settlement in Sierra Leone.

Until the inauguration of an elected, civilian government on May 29, 1999, the U.S. government had embargoed the export of military goods and services to Nigeria. The lifting of these sanctions permitted the resumption of IMET and other military training for Nigeria. IMET training in FY 2001 trained over 60 Nigerian military personnel, in many cases with courses lasting up to a year in the United States. This intensive training is exactly what is needed to turn around the attitudes and trends in Nigerian military thinking after years of military rule. Instilling in the Nigerian military a sense of its role within a civilian democracy is a key component of our strategy to help consolidate democratic gains in the country. Inherent in our engagement with the Nigerian military is the intention to impart a sense of responsibility, accountability and respect for human rights and rule of law.

The FY 2002 training program focused on defense resources management, military health care, civil-military relations, military justice and professional training for mid- to senior-level officers. After years of a severed relationship, this training seeks to slowly change the mindset of the military force toward a democratic, rights-based civilian government. In time, this programmatic approach, mixing professional training with courses on military justice and civil-military relations, will help to inculcate the values which can make the largest African military a positive force for change in the region and on the continent. Our train and equip efforts in Operation Focus Relief (OFR), which began in late August 2000 and ended in December 2001, played a major role in professionalizing the Nigerian Army and enhancing its ability to plan an effective regional peacekeeping role with the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL).

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Nigeria by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Republic of Congo (Congo - Brazzaville)

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 6 $46,711 5 $21,550
IMET 8 $124,339 123 $161,785
TOTAL 14 $171,050 128 $183,335

Emerging from a three-year civil war, the Republic of Congo has made progress in consolidating peace throughout its territory, disarming and demobilizing militia forces and creating a dialogue on national transition. Elections were held in early 2002, and efforts are being made to restore the infrastructure destroyed during the war. The U.S. supports the peace and reconciliation process, particularly as it contributes to regional stability and strengthens efforts to return the country to a more democratic path. During this period, there were no U.S. military training activities with Congo's armed forces, with the exception of participation at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies.

During FY 2002, Congo-Brazzaville's fledgling English language IMET programming was designed to provide the basis for future mid-level professional training and instruction in civilian control of the restructured Congolese armed forces. Participation in the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Congo by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. Both IMET and ACSS activities provide the U.S. military with the opportunity to develop effective military-to-military relationships with their Congolese counterparts, instilling greater understanding for the need of the military to play a productive role in the country's recovery from civil war.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in the Republic of Congo by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Rwanda

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 5 $47,384 5 $20,030
IMET 0 $0 41 $357,866
TOTAL 5 $47,384 46 $377,896

U.S. programs in Rwanda aim at preventing the recurrence of genocide (which claimed some 800,000 lives in 1994) by helping to create the political, economic and social conditions that will lead to a prosperous civil society that embraces democratic governance and respect for human rights. To achieve these goals, the U.S. implements a variety of political, humanitarian and economic assistance programs that support U.S. interests in aiding Rwanda's transition to sustainable development while securing regional peace and stability in Africa's Great Lakes Region.

IMET cooperation with Rwanda was suspended in June 2000 after clashes between Rwandan and Ugandan forces in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In response to the Rwandan withdrawal from the DRC in October 2002, the USG has announced that it will consider reviving the IMET program for Rwanda.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Rwanda by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The USG continues to fund a humanitarian demining program in Rwanda. This program, which has resulted in significant reductions in the numbers of deaths and injuries due to landmines, is funded through NADR and has strict end-user agreements for all USG-provided supplies.

Sao Tome and Principe

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 4 $32,810 4 $21,618
IMET 33 $125,351 4 $161,031
TOTAL 37 $158,161 8 $182,649

Sao Tome and Principe (STP) is a politically stable multi-party democracy. This attribute played an important role in the U.S. decision to build a $55 million Voice of America relay station there. STP is only in the first decade of transition to a multi-party democracy. As one of the world's poorest countries, STP's economic plight undermines its long-term stability and democratic institutions. The joint exploration with Nigeria of oil deposits in the Gulf of Guinea, along the lines of an agreement signed in 2001, offers hope for improved economic development.

IMET in FY 2002 focused on improving the English language capability of STP military personnel, thereby enhancing STP's military efficiency and effectiveness. This emphasis will continue in FY 2003. IMET facilitates the building of effective relations between the STP and the U.S. militaries and the exposure of trainee-participants to U.S. professional military organizations, procedures and the manner in which the U.S. military functions under civilian control. In addition, participation in Africa Center for Strategic Studies supports our democratic aims in STP by reinforcing the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in STP by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Senegal

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACOTA 30 $12,630 30 $250,000
ACSS 19 $133,170 22 $93,446
ALP 2 $4,074 2 $836
FMF 30 $17,074 30 $250,000
IMET 46 $1,069,311 258 $1,434,836
Non-SA, Unified Command 200 $147,694 0 $0
TOTAL 327 $1,383,953 342 $2,029,118

Senegal is our most important Francophone partner in sub-Saharan Africa, a supporter of key U.S. foreign policy initiatives and a consistent voice for moderation and compromise in multilateral and Islamic organizations. Senegal plays a key role in ensuring a vital U.S. interest: regional stability. Senegal is a participant in the African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) program and participated in Operation Focus Relief (OFR) last year. It hosted the first Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminar in November 1999, and the first Brigade-level ACOTA (known at that time as ACRI) training in October 2000. Senegal is committed to economic reform and has initiated an ambitious privatization program. The Senegalese military has distinguished itself in peacekeeping operations in Bosnia, Liberia, Rwanda, the Sinai and Lebanon. Senegal was the first sub-Saharan country to offer troops to OPERATION DESERT SHIELD. The continuing development of a cadre of professional officers through the IMET program is in the interest of the U.S. and will reinforce Senegal as a full partner with its neighbors in peacekeeping operations in the sub-region. Reinforcing the traditions of a professional civilian-controlled military that emphasizes respect for democratic principles, human rights and the rule of law will set an example for other nations in the sub-region. By working with Senegal to further democracy and economic liberalization, the U.S. helps strengthen the democratic foundation of a country whose growth and success are extremely important.

IMET training and ACSS programs have supplemented training with ACOTA and OFR to strengthen the levels of professionalization within the Senegalese officer and NCO corps.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Senegal by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

A complicating factor in providing military training to Senegal is the smoldering rebellion in the Casamance region, the area between Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. The Casamance is Senegal's richest agricultural area and had a thriving tourist industry until problems developed in 1982. Ethnic and economic factors fuel the rebellion as local groups allege discrimination and unfair exploitation by Dakar. The previous President, Diouf, visited the region in January 1999 and opened a dialogue with the dominant separatist group, the Movement of Casamance Democratic Forces (MFDC). A cease-fire accord was signed in December 1999, and several meetings were held in Banjul between MFDC representatives and GOS Ministers. President Wade, who pledged to resolve the Casamance conflict after his inauguration in April 2000, has yet to delineate a plan of action. Meanwhile, sporadic reports of violence in the Casamance Region continue between the MFDC and Senegalese military.

Seychelles

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 4 $29,227 2 $6,596
IMET 16 $39,502 80 $45,000
TOTAL 20 $68,729 82 $51,596

Located in the western Indian Ocean with an economic exclusion zone (EEZ) of 1.2 million square kilometers, Seychelles struggles with sluggish economic growth and is attempting, with limited success, to diversify its economy and move away from its heavy reliance on tourism. Even revenues from fishing rights and fish processing are stagnant. President France Albert Rene has complete control over the one hundred-member Seychelles People's Defense Force (SPDF), consisting of an Army and a Coast Guard. Prior to 1993, the SPDF had included an Army, Navy, Air Force and Militia, but a shift towards fisheries protection led to the creation of a Coast Guard in place of the Navy and Air Force. U.S. military training assistance has been focused exclusively on the Seychelles Coast Guard.

Given Seychelles' economic reliance on tourism and fishing and its large EEZ, one of the primary U.S. foreign policy goals for military training in the Seychelles focuses on assisting the Coast Guard in developing the skills necessary to enforce maritime law and to protect the fragile marine environment and fisheries. Other goals include reinforcing the concept of the separation between civilian and military authority and an apolitical military organization that respects human rights. The modest IMET program for the Seychelles, which is administered by the Kenya-U.S. Liaison Office in Nairobi, buys a lot of goodwill in the absence of an official American presence in the Seychelles.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Seychelles by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Sierra Leone

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 3 $21,903 8 $35,120
IMET 84 $181,318 104 $280,637
TOTAL 87 $203,221 112 $315,757

The security situation in Sierra Leone has improved greatly. The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) is deployed in former rebel-held areas. The Republic of Sierra Leone armed forces (RSLAF) has benefited greatly from British training and has deployed to the borders with Liberia and Guinea. Over 45,000 combatants were disarmed in an UNAMSIL-supervised disarmament program that was declared complete on January 17, 2002. Parliamentary and presidential elections took place on May 14 without any violence. President Kabbah was re-elected and his party, the Sierra Leone People's Party, won a strong majority in Parliament. The Revolutionary United Front Party, a party founded by the rebels, failed to win any seats. Although Kabbah and his party used their incumbency to influence the elections, the vote generally reflected the will of the Sierra Leonan people. A Special Court has been established to try those most responsible for crimes under international humanitarian law during the 11-year long civil war and a Truth and Reconciliation Commission has been set up.

Fifteen Sierra Leoneans traveled to the U.S. in FY 2002 to receive IMET training. Another 60 attended IMET-funded seminars in Sierra Leone on civilian/military cooperation. Twenty-five personnel are scheduled to travel to the U.S. in FY 2003, with similar seminars in Sierra Leone scheduled again in FY 2003.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Sierra Leone by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

South Africa

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 14 $76,649 4 $17,556
ALP 2 $1,034 2 $0
EIPC 0 $0 3 $18,951
FMF 36 $159,133 79 $378,838
IMET 511 $1,459,160 504 $1,832,280
PME Exchanges 30 $99,561 30 $0
TOTAL 593 $1,795,537 622 $2,247,625

After South Africa's first democratic elections in May 1994, the new government undertook a sweeping transformation of its military, the South African Defense Force (SADF), which had provided internal security under the apartheid regime, in addition to undertaking cross border operations in the southern African region. The transformation has included incorporating 11 former homeland militaries and anti-apartheid militant groups into what is now known as the South African National Defense Force (SANDF). The new SANDF leadership struggles with issues of racial representation within the military; differences in levels of training, education and promotion criteria among the various groups; and limited resources as the new government focuses on providing services to the historically disadvantaged majority.

The South African Government is also struggling with defining an appropriate mission for the SANDF and structuring the force to accomplish that mission. In recent years, SANDF forces have been deployed for border control, police support and peacekeeping operations in Burundi, DRC, Lesotho and elsewhere in Africa. A controversial multi-billion dollar defense acquisition program will add corvettes, submarines and jet fighters to the SANDF arsenal. At the same time, downsizing efforts are expected to bring SANDF forces from a peak of 100,000 to around 60,000.

U.S. interests are served by assisting South Africa with transforming its military into a professional, apolitical, human rights-respecting force capable and willing to undertake a regional leadership role commensurate with the country's size, population and level of development. A successful transformation will serve as a model for other African countries with which the United States can cooperate on conflict resolution and peacekeeping.

To advance the SANDF's transformation and pursue a strong security assistance partnership, the IMET program focuses on civil-military relations training and seminars to assist the SANDF as it reorients its mission in the post-apartheid environment. IMET also provides training (such as command and staff college) for officers who may not have received formal leadership training, logistics training to facilitate administrative efficiency and military law to provide a mechanism for respecting human rights and discipline. IMET has also allowed our militaries to exchange expertise in the area of equal opportunity. IMET has assisted the SANDF with minimal technical training, such as flight safety training, to enable to the SANDF to maintain the relatively high-tech military it inherited. Additional training has focused on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, and on peacekeeping operations.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in South Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Swaziland

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 6 $38,688 2 $11,838
IMET 13 $87,217 134 $221,187
TOTAL 19 $125,905 136 $233,025

Efforts to promote the professionalization of the Swazi military directly support our primary goal of advancing democracy and human rights, and bolster our goals of supporting regional stability and humanitarian assistance. A professional, apolitical military will support the development of democracy and human rights and play a productive role in regional conflict resolution.

IMET funds support military assistance programs that promote the professionalization of the Swazi defense forces through education in the role of the military in a democracy and in respect for human rights. This could become increasingly important amid mounting domestic and international pressure to move from absolute monarchy toward democracy. IMET programs that support peacekeeping training also advance broader U.S. peacekeeping goals for the southern African region.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Swaziland by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Tanzania

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 8 $62,818 5 $18,328
IMET 14 $232,731 58 $448,133
Non-SA, Unified Command 0 $17,400 0 $0
TOTAL 22 $312,949 63 $466,461

Tanzania is located in a critically important location in Africa, with its port in Dar es Salaam serving as the entry point for shipments of goods to other parts of Africa. Porous borders and easy accesses into Tanzania from neighboring countries and overseas make Tanzania a prime target of terrorist threats, as demonstrated by the tragic bombing of the Embassy in August 1998. It is also the main reception point for refugees fleeing instability in neighboring countries, most notably Burundi and the DRC. Indeed, Tanzania has the most refugees of any African country, over 850,000. The economic, criminal and possible military problems of such a large refugee group present serious security issues for Tanzania.

Tanzania also serves a crucial political role, serving as the seat for the Arusha peace talks aimed at ending the ethnic bloodshed in Burundi, and for the International Criminal Court for Rwanda. The Government of Tanzania is frequently called upon to mediate between its neighbors. Tanzania also serves as an important partner to Uganda and Kenya in the development of the East Africa Community (EAC), which is aimed at integrating the markets and economic policies of these three countries. The EAC is also envisioned to facilitate security cooperation among the three nations, and there is now a military liaison office. This can form the basis for expanding regional economic integration and stimulating economic development on the continent. The Tanzanian government's human rights record is, relative to other African states, good. It is moving forward to establish democratic institutions and held national multi-party parliamentary and presidential elections in October 2001. The national government has made efforts to resolve conflict within semi-autonomous Zanzibar and promote ethnic cooperation, a contentious issue in other African countries. There have been, however, problems with special paramilitary police units being used to put down political dissidence.

Tanzania is a relatively stable country, favorably disposed to U.S.-led initiatives and training programs. It seeks close cooperation with the U.S. as underscored by their cooperation with the U.S. in the War on Terrorism. Tanzania has offered assistance including intelligence information to the war effort. Also, as Tanzania continues to play host to large numbers of refugees from neighboring countries, its security services play an important, if underdeveloped role in enhancing regional security.

The IMET program is crucial to Tanzania-U.S. relations because it helps professionalize its armed forces and enables Tanzania's force to look closely at cooperation at the regional level in organizations like the African Center for Strategic Studies. Furthermore, through training activities provided by the U.S., Tanzania will be better equipped and trained to patrol its own borders and limit infiltration by potential terrorists and criminal activities. The existence of Islamic extremists in Tanzania makes this effort critical for the protection of American interests in the area. The program thus far has proven beneficial to Tanzania and has also helped to enhance U.S.-Tanzanian relations.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Tanzania by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Togo

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 7 $51,065 9 $38,069
FMF 1 $96,097 0 $0
IMET 72 $106,217 35 $74,152
TOTAL 80 $253,379 44 $112,221

President Eyadema, the longest serving African head of state, has pledged to leave power in 2003, upon completion of his current term. He has ruled Togo since 1967. Traditional opposition parties boycotted legislative elections held in October 2002, criticizing the Government's unilateral changes to the electoral code. In light of Togo's difficult democratic transition, we have focused military training, especially E-IMET funds, on the duties of a republican army, military subordination to civilian control, and an Africa-wide Code of Conduct.

Other E-IMET programs have included sending select military personnel to a Defense Department conference on developing strategies and policies to combat HIV/AIDS for military leaders. Other E-IMET-funded programs involved seminars sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School's Department of Civil-Military Relations. More than 90 civilian and military leaders attended these mobile training team workshops, which sought to help both groups understand the military's rights and responsibilities.

In spite of its political and economic problems, Togo has played a major role -- disproportionate to its small size -- in the sub-region to promote peace and stability. Togo led a recent UN peacekeeping mission in Guinea-Bissau and contributed to peacekeeping efforts in the Central African Republic and Rwanda. In 2000, President Eyadema helped broker a cease-fire in Sierra Leone and recently has worked to resolve successive crises in Cote d'Ivoire.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Togo by offering senior African civilians and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Uganda

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 6 $50,734 5 $18,854
IMET 1 $42,638 44 $194,526
TOTAL 7 $93,372 49 $213,380

Critically situated at the intersection of the troubled regions of East Africa and the Great Lakes, Uganda is a country still in recovery from many years of despotic misrule, often at the hands of rulers with a military background such as Idi Amin. The Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF) has a better record of military effectiveness and conduct under the current government of President Yoweri Museveni than it has had in the past. Uganda continues to face threats in the north from the terrorist Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The ongoing professional improvement of the UPDF is important to Uganda's national security and stability. It is also important to the fulfillment of Uganda's promise to be a force for peace in Africa.

A complicating factor in providing military training to Uganda is the presence of the UPDF in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Until May 2000, the importance of working with the UPDF to improve its professional qualities, including its awareness and observance of human rights, had been considered sufficiently substantial to warrant continuing limited training programs, such as IMET and participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies. In May 2000, UPDF and Rwandan forces fought a bloody battle for the DRC City of Kisangani and IMET was suspended indefinitely. Other activities had also been suspended, including follow-up training under the Africa Crisis Response Initiative, for which initial training was provided in mid-1997. We continue to review this policy and would like to resume E-IMET with a limited focus on human rights, civil-military relations and non-combat professionalization of the UPDF.

IMET once fostered close cooperation between the U.S. and Uganda, which served our national interest as we sought to create stability in the region, advance closer military-to-military relations, professionalize the UPDF and promote human rights. Several UPDF officers trained under IMET programs have proven to be positive actors in the Ugandan military scene. A resumption of focused E-IMET will prevent us from losing ground in our relationship with the Ugandan military while continuing to signal that a full resumption of that relationship will depend on Ugandan withdrawal from the conflict in the DRC.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Uganda by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Zambia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 7 $66,682 4 $17,968
IMET 14 $194,623 45 $244,433
Non-SA, Unified Command 105 $571,202 0 $0
TOTAL 126 $832,507 49 $262,401

Zambia has been a commendable example of peace and stability in southern Africa. Not only has Zambia avoided involvement in the civil conflicts of two of its neighbors, Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but it also has played a leading role in efforts to broker and implement a cease-fire agreement for DRC.

Zambia must deal with a host of domestic political and economic challenges. The economy stagnated under decades of extensive state control, but the government, having already divested itself of more than three-quarters of all state-owned enterprises, is committed to privatization. Zambia returned to a multi-party democracy in 1991 after nearly two decades of one-party rule, although the political situation remains volatile. Zambia held its third multiparty national elections in late 2001, an important event in efforts to consolidate a pluralistic democracy. The U.S. and other donor countries are working with the public and private sectors in Zambia to address these issues. A more prosperous, democratic Zambia can act as a catalyst in a region of increasing economic and political importance to the United States.

The Zambian Defense Force (ZDF) suffers from a lack of resources which severely hampers its training and professional development. U.S. military training assistance has greatly benefited the Zambian military and would continue to do so. IMET instruction in, for example, tactical armor, logistics and advanced leadership training and military education has helped improve the professional capability of the ZDF. Continued IMET training in these and other military professional development courses would build on this progress. The Judge Advocate General officer courses support the overall U.S. interest in consolidating democracy and rule of law in Zambia - especially important issues as Zambia prepares for national elections. Military training has also contributed to economic development. A ZDF demining unit trained with U.S. assistance removed unexploded ordnance that had hampered key infrastructure projects. Continued participation by Zambian military personnel in Africa Center for Strategic Studies seminars help develop the senior leadership necessary to sustain and improve the ZDF. Similarly, U.S. military training programs further bilateral relations and provide continued access and influence with the military and its political leadership in Zambia, a pivotal country in a region key to stability and prosperity on the continent.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Zambia by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Zimbabwe

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $34,156 2 $5,718
TOTAL 2 $34,156 2 $5,718

Zimbabwe is in the midst of inter-related political, economic and humanitarian crises in which the rule of law and human rights are under assault by the ruling party and its supporters. Due to these circumstances, there was no IMET program with Zimbabwe in FY 2002, nor is it likely that Zimbabwe will be allowed to participate in FY 2003. It is equally unlikely that the USG will seek to use any other form of military training activities to engage Zimbabwean military forces in FY 2003.



Back to Top
Sign-in

Do you already have an account on one of these sites? Click the logo to sign in and create your own customized State Department page. Want to learn more? Check out our FAQ!

OpenID is a service that allows you to sign in to many different websites using a single identity. Find out more about OpenID and how to get an OpenID-enabled account.