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U.S. Department of State - Great Seal

U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. Foreign Policy Objectives -- East Asia and Pacific Region


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest: Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
May 2003
Report
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Australia


  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 2 $2,338 3 $4,440
Exchange Training 14 $0 0 $0
FMS 1160 $6,348,565 293 $4,586,472
IMET Multi-Year 0 $0 1 $36,750
Non-SA, Unified Command 50 $92,954 0 $0
TOTAL 1226 $6,443,857 297 $4,627,662

Australia represents the southern anchor of our Asia-Pacific alliance network. A high degree of interoperability between our forces is a hallmark of the U.S.-Australia alliance. This was demonstrated most recently in Australia's decision to invoke the ANZUS Treaty for the first time in its 50-year history and to provide troops, ships and aircraft in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. A robust schedule of combined military exercises and training are concrete examples of our enduring commitment to Australia's security and to our interoperability goals. In addition to sharing and promoting regional and international security goals, the U.S. and Australia work closely to advance human rights, democracy, nonproliferation and other global issues. To help strengthen Australia's combat capabilities and readiness, the U.S. provided air combat training in FY 2001 and FY 2002, and proposes to do so again in FY 2003.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation by Australia in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Australia.

Brunei

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 4 $4,674 3 $2,960
FMS 0 $0 2 $52,165
TOTAL 4 $4,674 5 $55,125

The Royal Bruneian armed forces (RBAF) consist of infantry, navy and air combat units. A British armed forces Ghurka battalion permanently stationed in Brunei near the center of the country's oil industry aids them. Because of their country's small size, Bruneians regard a continued U.S. presence in the region as critical to their long-term security and prosperity. Since the signing of a November 1994 Memorandum of Understanding on Defense Cooperation, the RBAF have engaged in joint exercises, training programs and other military exchanges with the U.S. RBAF personnel have participated in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses and benefited from FMS training. Their continued participation in the Center's courses and FMS training will enable the USG to help Brunei train future leaders for its armed forces. In addition, they will increase Bruneian awareness and understanding of U.S. policies and facilitate lasting relationships between Bruneian military leaders and their counterparts from the U.S. and the Asia-Pacific region.

Cambodia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 1 $9,179 0 $0
IMET 0 $0 2 $49,936
Non-SA, Unified Command 78 $318,539 0 $0
TOTAL 79 $327,718 2 $49,936

U.S. military assistance to the Cambodian military ceased in 1997 because of the July factional fighting. From then until mid-2002, the U.S. invited a few Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF) representatives to multilateral meetings on humanitarian issues; otherwise, support and interaction had been minimal. Resumption of military assistance to Cambodia in limited areas such as academic-based or humanitarian conferences remains under case-by-case review in the office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs.

The U.S. supported the attendance in FY 2002 by an RCAF officer at a topical seminar designed to focus on non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations hosted by the African Center for Strategic Studies.

In its Congressional Budget Justification for FY03, the State Department has proposed use of IMET funds for human rights and rule of law training to help professionalize the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces, if the political situation in the country allows and legal restrictions are lifted. Funds might also be used to provide training to officers that would help them contribute to regional stability and play an effective role in transnational issues (narcotics, human trafficking, and protection of land and natural resources). It is hoped that Expanded IMET (E-IMET) training in English Language, civil-military relations, military justice, and human rights would help younger officers better understand democratic concepts.

China (Peoples Republic of)

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 12 $123,659 4 $61,740
TOTAL 12 $123,659 4 $61,740

The United States seeks a candid, constructive, and cooperative relationship with China, which contributes to peace in Asia and elsewhere. We share common interests in a number of areas, such as the maintenance of stability in Asia - permitting the continuation of that region's economic development - the maintenance of peace on the Korean Peninsula and in South Asia, and stemming the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

Dialogue with the PRC is key to ensuring a clear understanding of one another's regional security interests and concerns and to helping promote behavior by the PRC which is in line with the norms of the international community. Although we have differences with China, dialogue allows us to address areas where we agree and to make clear where we do not.

As one element of a defense and security dialogue, the U.S. proposes the PRC's continued participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses in FY 2003, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. PRC participation in these courses will include members of Chinese "think tanks" and will be consistent with the guidelines set forth in Defense Authorization Act 2000 and OSD policy guidance.

Cook Islands

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 5 $56,080 3 $35,536
TOTAL 5 $56,080 3 $35,536

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation of the Cook Islands in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from these islands.

East Timor

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 0 $0 3 $35,536
IMET 0 $0 1 $17,419
TOTAL 0 $0 4 $52,955

East Timor is in the process of standing up a modest East Timor Defense Force (ETDF) of 1,500 active duty and 1,500 reserve personnel to meet East Timor's security needs. Although East Timor's security will ultimately depend on good relations with neighboring countries, the new nation still needs an ETDF with basic equipment for defense, support, communication, and transportation. The ETDF will also need training for its new officers and funds for a small International Military Education and Training (IMET) program have been included as well. The use of training funds and participating with institutions like the Asia-Pacific Center will support the U.S. objectives of East Timor's self-sufficiency, disaster management, and humanitarian assistance relief, as well as of developing a professional, effective defense force.

Fiji

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 8 $83,242 6 $71,072
IMET 0 $0 65 $100,146
TOTAL 8 $83,242 71 $171,218

IMET and other security assistance were suspended in July 2000 after nationalist Fijians, including some in the military, held the Prime Minister and much of his cabinet hostage in the parliament building for 56 days. Although parliamentary elections restored democratically elected government to Fiji in August 2001, questions about the constitutionality of the composition of the current cabinet remain to be resolved by Fiji's courts. Until that question is resolved, IMET funds will not be used to train members of the Fijian armed forces. Selective military-to-military engagement, under Title 10 funding, are currently being reviewed on a case by case bases to promote positive influence as Fiji continues to reestablish a democratic government.

Indonesia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 18 $195,530 12 $142,144
IMET 27 $244,783 21 $410,571
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 2 $54,174 41 $0
TOTAL 47 $494,487 74 $552,715

Indonesia is at a critical juncture in its democratic transition and its economic recovery and reform process remains fragile. Following the Bali bombing, the Government has begun to face the threat of international terrorism to Indonesia. With high rates of corruption and a weak judicial system to protect the rights of investors, it is uncertain whether Indonesia will achieve economic growth that will bring substantial improvements to the bulk of the population and, hence, increase the prospects for stability. As the fourth largest nation, with the world's largest Muslim population, determines its political and economic path, its choices will have profound implications for U.S. strategic interests: fighting terrorism, preserving regional stability in Southeast Asia, strengthening democracy and respect for human rights, and expanding access for U.S. exports and investment. Our IMET program and other normal military-to-military ties were suspended in 1999 because of human rights abuses in East Timor by pro-Indonesia militias and elements of the Indonesia military (TNI).

Language in the FY 2003 Foreign Appropriations bill authorizes unrestricted IMET. If passed, our goals include educating key military and civilians about civilian oversight of the military, including budget formulation, oversight and transparency, and human rights concerns. Professional military education would be reemphasized to produce Indonesian armed forces course graduates who have an understanding of modern military training concepts, U.S. foreign policy goals and the role of an armed force in a democracy.

Japan

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 3 $2,649 3 $2,960
FMS 4231 $16,184,557 2421 $17,599,262
Non-SA, Unified Command 15 $23,300 0 $0
TOTAL 4249 $16,210,506 2424 $17,602,222

Our security alliance with Japan is the linchpin of overall U.S. security policy in Asia. The alliance makes a fundamental and continuing contribution to the defense of Japan and to regional peace and stability, and, as demonstrated by Japan's response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, to our campaign against international terrorism. Our engagement with Japan in the Asia-Pacific region to promote mutual security extends beyond our military bases in Japan to encompass a comprehensive program of military-to-military contacts, combined training and exercises, and equipment interoperability. These efforts demonstrate our combined capabilities and commitments, improve readiness and promote burden sharing. Training contacts, whether in the field or in the classroom, also serve to foster and continually renew an understanding of the culture, values and habits of our most important Asian ally and vice versa.

As a means of maintaining the close defense ties outlined above, the U.S. welcomed Japanese participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses in FY 2002, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and in the U.S. Military Academy's semester exchange program. The U.S. proposes similar Japanese participation in Asia-Pacific Center courses in FY 2003.

Kiribati

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 5 $59,342 3 $35,536
TOTAL 5 $59,342 3 $35,536

As a means of strengthening defense ties with Kiribati, the U.S. welcomes its continued participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from Kiribati.

Korea - South (Republic of)

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 6 $7,013 3 $2,960
Exchange Training 8 $61,378 0 $0
FMS 936 $4,594,627 712 $3,365,574
IMET Multi-Year 1 $35,277 1 $30,217
Non-SA, Unified Command 198 $743,495 0 $0
Service Academies 8 $268,880 4 $197,046
TOTAL 1157 $5,710,670 720 $3,595,797

Since the Korean War, the Republic of Korea (ROK) has proven a strategically important and reliable defense treaty ally. While efforts to reduce tensions on the Korean Peninsula are underway, the U.S. and the ROK continue to maintain and strengthen the three major elements of our security alliance: the 1953 Mutual Defense Treaty, strong bilateral ties and combined military forces. U.S. and ROK forces unified under the Combined Forces Command continue to enhance their capabilities to deter and, if necessary, defeat aggression. To sharpen readiness, the Command is continually refining its vigorous program of training and exercises.

A key objective of U.S. training is maintaining the strong sense of shared values and purposes that underlies the U.S.-ROK alliance. Toward that end, the U.S. and the ROK signed a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for Professional Military Education (PME). Currently, the PME Reciprocal Exchange Program is for the USA and USMC Command and General Staff Colleges (CGSC). The ROKA is given two slots for the USA CGSC per year in accordance with the signed MOA. The USMC CGSC allows one ROKMC student to attend each year under the same agreement. In FY 2001, USAF and ROKAF signed a similar MOA. Beginning in FY 2002, one ROKAF officer will attend the United States Air Force Command Staff College (USAFCSC) and one USAF officer will attend the ROK Command Staff College each year under the reciprocal exchange program. In addition to the reciprocal exchange program, ROKAF gets an additional USAFCSC slot (total of two per year), the ROK services get one National Defense University slot each year and the ROKA and the ROKAF each get an annual War College slot. The ROKN receives one Naval Command College and one Naval Staff College slot per year. The ROKA also gets a slot to the Sergeant Major Academy and the ROKAF gets a slot to the Squadron Officer School.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation by ROK in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from the ROK.

Laos

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 2 $28,709 6 $71,072
TOTAL 2 $28,709 6 $71,072

U.S. military personnel have provided training to Lao civilians for humanitarian demining. Since the beginning of operations in FY 1994, over 815 Lao personnel have been trained as demining technicians, medics, community (mine) awareness experts, team leaders and instructors. In FY 1999, over 250 Lao participants were trained in an effort to enable Laos to develop a self-sustaining training capacity. Since 1999, the United States has continued to support Lao's demining efforts by providing FMF NADR/HD funds to the UN and NGOs.

Lao inclusion in military programs outside POW-MIA operations is decided on a case-by-case basis. Programs supporting our POW-MIA accounting and recovery missions will be given the highest priority. Beginning in FY 2001, we offered the GOL an E-IMET program to teach English in Laos to a small group of Lao military. The Lao have not accepted the offer. Representatives of the Lao government, however, did attend the executive course at the Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies in FY 2002 and will be invited to continue their participation in FY 2003.

The Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. They increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from Laos.

Malaysia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 15 $173,734 9 $106,608
FMS 79 $444,877 299 $189,798
IMET 46 $699,717 68 $1,156,470
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 4 $108,348 9 $0
Non-SA, Unified Command 50 $99,216 0 $0
Section 1004 75 $187,000 90 $380,000
TOTAL 269 $1,712,892 475 $1,832,876

The U.S. has important security interests in Malaysia, a key member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and an influential member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference. A public supporter of our forward-deployed presence in Asia and of our War on Terrorism since the September 11 attacks, Malaysia borders one of the world's most important maritime waterways. The U.S. military benefits from transit rights over Malaysian territory and access to Malaysian ports and airfields.

IMET contributes significantly to the strengthening of our military-to-military ties, and familiarizes the Malaysian military with U.S. doctrine, equipment and management techniques. IMET training also reinforces the Malaysian military's commitment to human rights and good civil-military relations, and helps expand our access to, and cooperation with, Malaysian military leaders. Malaysia is also active in multinational peacekeeping operations, which necessitate training that promotes interoperability, and has indicated willingness to send a battalion-sized force to participate in blue-helmet peacekeeping in Afghanistan. Malaysia is also engaged in training that will improve the military's ability to combat narcotics trafficking and money laundering operations.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation by Malaysia in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Malaysia.

Marshall Islands

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 4 $39,332 3 $35,536
TOTAL 4 $39,332 3 $35,536

As a means of strengthening ties with the Marshall Islands, the U.S. welcomes its continued participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from the Marshall Islands.

Micronesia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 5 $56,140 3 $35,536
TOTAL 5 $56,140 3 $35,536

As a means of strengthening ties with Micronesia, the U.S. welcomes its continued participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from Micronesia.

Mongolia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 10 $119,022 6 $71,072
FMF 2 $28,572 2 $29,986
IMET 215 $893,673 91 $725,757
Marshall Center 4 $0 14 $0
Non-SA, Unified Command 190 $71,700 0 $0
TOTAL 421 $1,112,967 113 $826,815

Continued support of Mongolia's transformation into a secure, democratic and stable country greatly serves the U.S. national interest in that it facilitates Mongolia's contribution to the security and prosperity of the Asia-Pacific region, participation in international peacekeeping and support for the War on Terrorism.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation by Mongolia in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Mongolia.

In FY 2002 Mongolia began participating in international peacekeeping operations with the deployment of military observers to the UN Mission in the Congo. With an EIPC-trained cadre and EIPC-provided training equipment, the Mongolian General Staff established a Department of Peacekeeping Operations that developed and trained the Mongolian peacekeeping battalion for participation in, and for the hosting of, multinational training events. Equipment and training requested in FY 2002 and projected for FY 2003 will provide additional peacekeeping experience and enhance interoperability as Mongolia prepares for unit-level deployments.

IMET training for Mongolia in FY 2002 promoted civilian control of the military, military justice and law and respect for international human rights standards. In FY 2002 IMET-funded language and professional military training not only strengthened U.S.-Mongolian military ties but also built a cadre of pro-U.S. reformers in the most critical leadership positions in the armed forces. Their coursework included training in infantry, engineer, civil affairs, military medicine, intelligence, defense and resource management, ranger and senior service education. FY 2003 IMET programs will continue this successful program and build on the knowledge and experiences of previous students.

In FY 2002, non-Security Assistance programs were initiated at the Mongolian Armed Forces Training Center, including training for Special Forces, peacekeeping, medical and civil affairs units. This training will be enhanced in FY 2003 with the greater involvement of U.S. forces from the Unified Command.

New Zealand

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 6 $33,567 6 $38,496
FMS 129 $433,222 53 $502,965
TOTAL 135 $466,789 59 $541,461

New Zealand remains a valuable contributor to regional stability and peacekeeping operations in the Pacific region, including in East Timor. It also has contributed troops to Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and shares U.S. goals in promoting democracy, human rights and political pluralism in the region. A New Zealand frigate also has participated with U.S. naval forces in enforcing the UN trade sanctions on Iraq. Allowing members of the New Zealand armed forces to attend professional military courses in the United States is consistent with U.S. policy following New Zealand's withdrawal from the ANZUS treaty.

The U.S. welcomes continued participation by New Zealand in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence.

Palau

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Service Academies 1 $58,880 1 $60,650
TOTAL 1 $58,880 1 $60,650

As a means of strengthening defense ties with Palau, the U.S. welcomed the admission of a Palauan student into the U.S. Coast Guard Academy in FY 2000. That student continues his studies and will graduate in FY 2004. No additional students are contemplated for FY 2003.

Papua New Guinea

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 10 $121,317 6 $71,072
IMET 35 $114,322 54 $295,703
TOTAL 45 $235,639 60 $366,775

U.S. national interests in Papua New Guinea (PNG) derive from our overarching interest in regional stability and from PNG's status as home to one of the world's greatest remaining tropical rain forests and biodiversity reservoirs. PNG is the largest and most populous island nation in the South Pacific and neighbor to the troubled Indonesian province of Irian Jaya. U.S. interests include strengthening democratic institutions, assisting with development of disaster relief capabilities, supporting peaceful transition from civil strife to rule of law in Bougainville, supporting the nation's pursuit of a free enterprise tradition and fostering stewardship of diverse natural resources. The benefits of a stable, lawful and prosperous PNG include reduced prospects of human rights violations, environmental degradation and international organized crime.

On Bougainville, the former belligerents are working to establish a government of reconciliation. The PNG armed forces retain a small presence on Bougainville and their cooperation will be necessary for any lasting settlement on the island.

FY 2002 IMET-funded MTTs on civil-military relations, interdiction, maritime issues, and naval staff college contributed to building a more professional and better-disciplined PNG Defense Force (PNGDF), which will be important to an appropriate military role in a lasting settlement. Training also aimed at improving PNGDF capability to monitor and detect illegal fishing and apprehending persons and vessels engaged in such fishing and to increase PNG's ability to engage in cooperative international military-related efforts, including peacekeeping. English language training contributes to the latter goal and offers increased ability and opportunities for fruitful interaction with the U.S. military. FY 2003 IMET will continue to focus on professional military education for the PNGDF.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation of Papua New Guinea in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Papua New Guinea.

Philippines

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
Asia-Pacific Center 18 $199,171 12 $142,144
Credit 8 $37,343 35 $42,674
EIPC 6 $0 6 $37,902
FMF 11 $13,266 6 $5,422
FMS 7 $57,867 18 $54,385
IMET 171 $2,462,061 254 $2,795,245
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 2 $54,174 10 $0
Non-SA, Unified Command 420 $1,932,648 0 $0
PME Exchanges 15 $60,458 0 $0
Service Academies 3 $143,667 3 $143,667
TOTAL 661 $4,960,655 345 $3,221,439

The Government of the Philippines is a key player in the War on Terrorism and has consistently supported USG policy in this area. Various terrorist groups including the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) and the Communist Party of the Philippines/New People's Army (CPP/NPA) are based in the Philippines and have targeted Philippine facilities, killing both Philippine U.S. citizens. On October 23 the United States Government designated the Jemaah Islamiya (JI) organization a Foreign Terrorist Organization. JI is an extremist group with cells operating throughout Southeast Asia, including the Philippines. JI members recently arrested in the region have revealed links with al-Qaeda, other regional terrorist groups and previous terrorist attacks in the region.

Building on already longstanding bilateral counterterrorism cooperation and stemming from commitments made during Philippine President Arroyo's November 2001 visit to the U.S., the U.S. and the Philippines have embarked on a comprehensive military-to-military program to enhance the Armed Forces of the Philippines' (AFP) capability to combat terrorism. As U.S. military cooperation under this counterterrorism program grows, IMET funds have become an even more important part of our effort to maintain and enhance the professionalization of the AFP.

In addition to our counterterrorism cooperation with the Philippines, the United States has important security, commercial and political interests in the Philippines, a treaty ally that straddles important air and sea-lanes. As a nation-state committed to democratic political principles and confident in its exercise of regional leadership, a stable Philippines is an important force for stability in Southeast Asia. The Philippines is committed to close relations with the U.S. in support of regional peace and security in Southeast Asia. It seeks to promote regional economic and political cooperation through the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the ASEAN Regional Forum and APEC.

IMET funds have contributed to overall regional stability. Specifically, training in FY 2002 and FY 2003 focuses on positively influencing the Philippine military's professionalism and discipline. IMET training also helped further strengthen civilian control over the military, contributing to a decline in the number of reported incidents of human rights abuses. The steady advancement of IMET graduates helps ensure the continued understanding and cooperation of the Government of the Philippines on U.S. views toward regional issues. IMET graduates who populate the top ranks of the AFP contributed to building the close professional military-to-military relations that exist between the U.S. military and the AFP. Now that the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA) has entered into force, the U.S. military is actively engaged in ship visits and joint training exercises with the AFP.

These cooperative bilateral military activities constitute important steps toward normalizing our military-to-military ties and increasing inter-operability and standardization with the AFP. It also enables the AFP to defend the national borders against external aggression, counter the Communist and Muslim separatist insurgencies, participate in international and regional peacekeeping operations and combat terrorism. In support of these goals, and in keeping with our treaty ally relationship, Philippine officers have participated in a range of operational, officer training and leadership courses. These include courses related to military medicine, aviation, aircraft maintenance, amphibious training, engineering and electrical training, field artillery, maritime and coast guard training, psychological operations, radio communications, ranger operations, signals, supply, service and maintenance and related courses.

Officer professionalization and leadership development are the aims of staff/command college and military law courses. Such training increases Philippine military exposure to the U.S. system of civil-military relations and respect for human rights. International staff officer and related courses are aimed at increasing Philippine officers' ability to participate effectively with the U.S. in international peacekeeping and related operations.

DoD has also funded Philippines participation in training related to joint exercises and a military training team assessment of defense needs and requirements. These also increase interoperability and provide the Philippines with a realistic assessment of how to shape their defense strategy.

As another means of strengthening our defense cooperation with the Philippines, the U.S. welcomes continued Philippine participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from the Philippines.

Samoa

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 3 $30,719 3 $35,536
IMET 17 $121,946 18 $97,474
TOTAL 20 $152,665 21 $133,010

U.S. interests in Samoa grow out of our national security interest in regional stability. The U.S. strives to maintain close ties with Samoa, which is a consistent supporter of U.S. positions internationally. Samoa is also a close neighbor of the U.S. territory of American Samoa, with which it has long-standing family and cultural ties. Other interests include encouraging broad-based economic growth, supporting improved capacity to protect the island's environment and natural resources and educating the public on health issues.

The most important use of IMET is to support the U.S. objective of helping Samoa develop an effective maritime law enforcement and surveillance capability. Training in basic coastal surveillance and seaborne law enforcement skills is carried out in accordance with U.S. leadership doctrines, emphasizing civilian control. DoD/Coast Guard resources contribute to broad-based economic growth in Samoa by assisting Samoa's maritime police patrol to strengthen enforcement of their exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and to improve safety in Samoa's fishing fleet. FY 2003 IMET will continue to focus on law enforcement and professional military education training.

Two dozen Samoan police officers have helped to maintain order in East Timor since March 2000 as part of a UN peacekeeping force. This is the first time that Samoa has made a contribution to a peacekeeping force. There is no doubt that the training provided under IMET helped contribute to Samoa's readiness to take on a peacekeeping role in such a difficult environment.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation of Samoa in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from Samoa.

Singapore

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 2 $2,336 3 $16,915
FMS 1459 $53,725,103 696 $49,190,140
Non-SA, Unified Command 40 $68,000 0 $0
Service Academies 8 $243,837 5 $243,837
TOTAL 1509 $54,039,276 704 $49,450,892

Singapore's prosperous economy and extensive cooperation on a broad range of issues have made it an important U.S. security partner and an important force for stability and economic progress in Southeast Asia. Singapore will finish its two-year term as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council at the end of 2002. Singapore has been unfailing in its support for continued U.S. forward deployment in the region, including the provision of ready access to its military facilities following closure of U.S. bases in the Philippines. In March 2001, Singapore inaugurated a pier at its new Changi Naval Base, which was augmented at Singapore's expense to accommodate U.S. carriers. Singapore has provided staunch military support for the War on Terrorism since the September 11, 2001 attacks, including blanket overflight clearance and tanker fueling to form an air bridge in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Approximately 150 U.S. logistics personnel stationed in Singapore support regular combined air exercises and up to 100 U.S. ship visits in a typical year (however, naval and air transits surged after 9/11, and still run above previous rates). Singapore turns to the U.S. for approximately 85 percent of its total imports of military equipment. Strengthening our defense ties with Singapore in FY 2002 and earlier has included FMS training, participation at U.S. Service Academies and the National Defense University and improved interoperability through combined exercises with U.S. forces. The U.S. proposes further strengthening of our ties with Singapore in all these areas in FY 2003.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation by Singapore in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Singapore.

Solomon Islands

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 3 $33,690 3 $35,536
IMET 29 $125,721 30 $86,356
TOTAL 32 $159,411 33 $121,892

U.S. national interests in the Solomon Islands emphasize strengthening the nation's capabilities to secure its maritime borders, encouraging its democratic institutions and preserving its biodiversity. In response to the civil unrest experienced during mid-2000 in and around the capital of Honiara, engagement in the Solomons is all the more important to shore up weakened security capabilities.

Continued IMET training will assist the Solomons to develop an effective maritime reconnaissance force. Training in basic coastal surveillance and seaborne law enforcement skills help guarantee that the 1997 Solomons-Papua New Guinea border agreement continues to be honored. It also increases the country's ability to maintain control of its own fishery resources. To these ends, IMET courses have focussed mainly on maritime issues, port safety, information systems and engine maintenance as well as psychological operations and civil affairs.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation of the Solomon Islands in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from these islands.

Taiwan

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 3 $3,507 4 $2,960
FMS 342 $15,228,012 317 $4,500,522
Service Academies 5 $96,876 3 $96,876
TOTAL 350 $15,328,395 324 $4,600,358

Consistent with the Taiwan Relations Act of 1979, it has been long-standing U.S. policy to make available to Taiwan defense articles, services, and training, to enable Taiwan to maintain a sufficient self-defense capability. This policy also seeks to reinforce regional stability. Training of Taiwan armed forces personnel can play a major role in the enhancement of Taiwan's security.

Taiwan participated in FY 2002 executive courses at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies in Honolulu, Hawaii. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. They also increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence.

Thailand

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 10 $0
Asia-Pacific Center 20 $219,645 12 $142,144
EIPC 3 $13,860 0 $0
FMF 0 $0 60 $172,504
FMS 409 $2,639,762 85 $263,211
IMET 196 $2,059,512 157 $2,494,944
Non-SA, Unified Command 929 $843,642 0 $0
PME Exchanges 62 $47,776 0 $0
Section 1004 572 $1,265,000 585 $1,895,000
Service Academies 5 $250,425 2 $100,170
TOTAL 2196 $7,339,622 911 $5,067,973

One of five treaty allies in Asia and a major trading partner, Thailand hosts our largest joint military exercise in Asia (Cobra Gold), and provides crucial access to Thai facilities when needed, such as during Operation Enduring Freedom. The U.S. views Thailand as a model of democratic development. Thirty years of effective counternarcotics cooperation has led to the establishment in Bangkok of our second International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA).

Thailand plays a significant role in fostering regional stability in Southeast Asia. Continuing joint exercises and IMET help develop and maintain a professional Thai military committed to respecting and fostering democratic principles and capable of participating in international peacekeeping operations. Thailand has put these exercises and IMET courses to work in East Timor, where a Thai commander oversees nearly 1,000 Thai peacekeeping troops. Thailand's Prime Minister has also committed his country to providing a support battalion to the reconstruction effort in Afghanistan. Courses which contribute to these goals include training at command and general staff and service colleges, civil affairs, defense management, manpower management, information management, English language and instructor training, accounting, financial and personnel officer training.

U.S. training for Thailand's military also concentrates on developing operational interoperability and officer leadership in specific disciplines. These courses include tactics, airborne, aviation and aircraft maintenance, engineering, field artillery courses, medical and dental courses, intelligence, ranger, sergeant major, munitions and Marine Corps courses.

Our mine action program was launched in Thailand in FY 1999 with the establishment of the Thai Demining Action Center (TMAC). NADR funds provided equipment and DoD's ODHACA funds provided the initial trainers. FY 2002 funds will complete the effort to fully train the Thai demining trainers and fill out the canine units, setting the stage for mutual cooperation within the Asian demining community.

In addition, DoD has funded training to enhance Thailand's participation in our joint exercise program. Several Thai officers also attend U.S. service academies, which provide an invaluable means to foster long-standing ties with the Thai military and to provide in-depth exposure to the U.S. system of civil-military relations, military law and related issues.

Thai participation in programs sponsored by the Asia-Pacific Center reinforces our defense cooperation and fosters links with other regional partners and neighbors. The U.S. welcomes the continued participation by Thailand in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Thailand.

Tonga

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 5 $57,964 3 $35,536
IMET 48 $153,074 8 $119,217
Non-SA, Unified Command 0 $26,000 0 $0
TOTAL 53 $237,038 11 $154,753

The Kingdom of Tonga, a highly traditional society where the King and nobles dominate political life, interacts with the U.S. mainly in such Pacific organizations as the Pacific Community, the Forum Fisheries Agency and the South Pacific Regional Environment Program. U.S. interests in Tonga include encouraging democratic institutions and assisting in environmental protection efforts. IMET is an important vehicle for pursuing U.S. interests.

Tonga joined other regional nations in 1999 (New Zealand, Australia, Vanuatu and Fiji) in providing unarmed peace monitors once a truce was achieved in Papua New Guinea's Bougainville. IMET provides professional education and training for Tonga's Defense Force with emphasis on respect for human rights, civilian control over the military and military justice. Courses on officer and NCO development, command and general staff officer training and defense management contribute to this goal. IMET also helps to support Tonga's ability to contribute to regional peacekeeping endeavors and contributes to Tonga's development of an effective maritime law and surveillance capability through training in international maritime search and rescue and information systems. FY 2003 IMET will continue to focus on professional military education training for its defense forces.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation of Tonga in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from Tonga.

Tuvalu

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 3 $32,954 2 $20,101
TOTAL 3 $32,954 2 $20,101

Tuvalu is a consistent supporter of U.S. positions internationally. For example, as the UN's newest member, Tuvalu was one of only four countries to join the U.S. and Israel in voting against the October 2000 UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution condemning Israel. At the 2001 UNGA, it voted in support of U.S. candidates for the UN's Joint Inspection Unit and the International Law Commission.

As is true for many other Pacific countries, Tuvalu interacts with the U.S. mainly in such Pacific organizations as the Pacific Community, the Forum Fisheries Agency and the South Pacific Regional Environment Program. Environmental protection efforts are especially critical in Tuvalu, which is vulnerable to rising sea levels due to very low elevations throughout the country.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation of Tuvalu in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from Tuvalu.

Vanuatu

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 3 $43,152 2 $20,101
FMS 0 $0 4 $25,392
IMET 18 $90,400 6 $37,208
Non-SA, Unified Command 0 $24,000 0 $0
TOTAL 21 $157,552 12 $82,701

U.S. national interests in Vanuatu center on strengthening the nation's democratic institutions. Other interests include building Vanuatu's capacity to secure its maritime borders and encouraging programs that protect the island's environment and fragile natural resources.

The small Vanuatu Mobile Force (VMF) must patrol a vast area of ocean. U.S. Coast Guard training in maritime law-enforcement supplements Australian and New Zealand programs and upgrades VMF capabilities. Continued IMET funding for civil affairs, intelligence, combating terrorism and maritime officer training also help improve force discipline and enhance its effectiveness in regional peacekeeping and disaster relief efforts.

The U.S. welcomes the continued participation of Vanuatu in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from Vanuatu.

Vietnam

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 10 $112,757 6 $71,072
IMET 0 $0 3 $18,844
Non-SA, Unified Command 26 $100,000 0 $0
TOTAL 36 $212,757 9 $89,916

U.S. national security will be served by a stable, fully integrated Vietnam with increasing economic prosperity and trade relations with the United States. The U.S. seeks to enhance Vietnam's ability to be a constructive regional player by encouraging Hanoi's active participation in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and the ASEAN Regional Forum and in other strategic dialogues and cooperation. The U.S. can also improve trust through incremental expansion of military-to-military contacts. The Vietnamese military has been increasingly interested in attending conferences and confidence building meetings hosted by the Pacific Command Commander.

A team of U.S. Pacific Command-sponsored trainers visited Vietnam in FY 2001 to provide instruction on the use of U.S.-provided demining equipment. The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) has identified Vietnamese counternarcotic requirements that could be addressed by USCG training courses. However, INL will not fund any bilateral counternarcotic assistance for Vietnam until the Vietnamese government signs a letter of agreement. Vietnam's FY 2002 IMET funding was reprogrammed into other country accounts due to the Vietnamese government's failure to conclude a FAA Section 505 agreement on end-user assurances.

The Asia-Pacific Center will continue to invite representatives from Vietnam to reinforce our defense cooperation and foster links with other regional partners and neighbors. The executive courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations and increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Vietnam.



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