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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. Foreign Policy Objectives -- Europe Region


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest: Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
May 2003
Report
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Albania


  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 31 $1,282 0 $0
IMET 123 $1,051,584 176 $1,373,669
IMET 2-Year 53 $176,293 1 $12,868
Marshall Center 40 $151,521 38 $185,210
Non-SA, Unified Command 0 $33,655 0 $0
TOTAL 247 $1,414,335 215 $1,571,747

Albania is a very cooperative and rapidly emerging security partner of the U.S. and NATO in Southeastern Europe. Its security relationship with the U.S. and Allied forces has continued to grow over the past year in the aftermath of the Kosovo crisis. A primary U.S. goal in Albania is to employ the current atmosphere of cooperation in a manner that helps to lead to long-lasting stability in Albania and the region as a whole.

U.S. military training efforts in Albania are a crucial means to this end. In particular, training under the IMET program is consistent with U.S. goals of assisting in Albanian defense restructuring efforts and in fostering an Albanian ability to patrol its land and sea borders. More fundamentally, U.S. training is helping Albania to reconstitute a national military decimated by the country's 1997 internal strife. These efforts will help bring Albania more firmly into the Euro-Atlantic community, to increase Albania's ability to participate in PfP exercises and activities and, particularly given Albania's status as an aspirant for eventual Alliance membership, to augment its interoperability with NATO forces.

Albanian soldiers have taken IMET courses in FY 2002 and are projected to continue courses in FY 2003 that help to meet those broad goals. Courses in English language, air traffic control, logistics and other career specialties, and non-commissioned officer development, are cases in point. Albanian officers also have received advanced training at the Naval Staff and Command College, the Air Command and Staff College and the National War College.

Historically, Albania uses its Foreign Military Financing (FMF) grants more for the purchasing and refurbishing of U.S.-origin equipment than to buy additional military training. Albania now uses a large percentage of its FMF funds for U.S. advisory assistance with defense reforms (including resource and personnel management), and civic emergency response training, in addition to acquiring needed communications equipment expertise. In order to increase the number of officers qualified to attend IMET training, Albania has designated a portion of FY 2003 FMF funds for an English language advisor from the Defense Language Institute. Albania is also an active recipient of U.S.-funded training at the Marshall Center in Germany. Uniformed and civilian Albanian defense officials participate in conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center. Discussions at the center focus on augmenting civilian control of the military and on the other key military reforms needed in the states of Central Europe and the former Soviet Union during their various stages of democratic transition.

Austria

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Exchange Training 3 $0 0 $0
FMS 17 $123,448 18 $134,652
Marshall Center 10 $0 17 $0
TOTAL 30 $123,448 35 $134,652

Many of our European non-NATO Allies are committed to a broad approach to security that recognizes the importance of political, economic, social and environmental factors in addition to the indispensable defense dimension. Our collective aim should be to build a European security architecture in which the security and stability of the Euro-Atlantic area are complementary and mutually reinforcing. Professional military education helps to develop an important political dimension to our military-to-military relationships and improves understanding of the mutual social and economic factors that affect our relationship. In addition, professional military education develops professional skills with an understanding of our strategy, doctrine and tactics in the employment of Allied resources across the entire spectrum of conflict. Exposure to U.S. military education is vital in Europe to counter-balance the "go-it-alone" forces on the continent. Much of the technical training provided is in direct support of U.S. equipment sales to Austria. As a friendly nation that supports U.S. efforts in Europe, the U.S. must support Austria in all types of training, both professional and specialty skill training, and develop educational opportunities to broaden and deepen our mutually beneficial relationship. All FMS training is fully funded by Austrian national funds.

Bosnia & Herzegovina

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 2 $3,901 4 $1,386
IMET 112 $865,810 141 $1,415,226
IMET 2-Year 35 $158,209 2 $9,132
Marshall Center 35 $134,084 42 $184,149
Service Academies 1 $50,085 0 $0
TOTAL 185 $1,212,089 189 $1,609,893

The 1992-95 conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina threatened both European stability and NATO's cohesion. The United States led the negotiations that culminated in the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995, which successfully ended fighting in Bosnia. The Dayton agreement and subsequent regional arms control agreements provided a structural basis for addressing the fundamental military imbalances that made Bosnian Muslims ("Bosniaks") so vulnerable during the war. These agreements did not, however, provide Bosniaks the wherewithal to take advantage of the new structure. The U.S. therefore committed itself to leading an international effort to train and equip the defense forces of the Muslim-Croat Federation. After nearly seven years, the Train and Equip program for the Federation has been completed. All equipment items have been delivered, and U.S. and international donor funds that animated the program will be fully expended by the end of this year.

Together with the continued presence of the NATO-led stabilization force, Train and Equip has enhanced military stability in Bosnia to the point that both entities' armies are voluntarily downsizing. In addition, strategic-level improvements in regional politics have ended or reduced interference in Bosnia's internal affairs from Zagreb and Belgrade, opening significant opportunities to reform and restructure the two entity armies. U.S. security cooperation with Bosnia, therefore, will be adjusted to focus on building defense institutions at the national (i.e., "state") level which promote security for all of Bosnia's people. This effort will help Bosnia and Herzegovina meet conditions for eventual entry into NATO's Partnership for Peace. This also will help create the conditions necessary to drawdown NATO's military presence in Bosnia.

Training of Bosnian forces under the IMET program will emphasize the professional development of junior officers (army basic and advanced courses), staff training for mid-level officers (service staff colleges), and E-IMET courses for mid- to upper-level officials in the defense sector. Training activities will support the continued development of the Standing Committee on Military Matters (SCMM), the SCMM Secretariat, and other state-level defense structures. Bosnian soldiers and defense sector civilians who receive IMET training, whether through CONUS-based courses or through mobile education teams, will be required to work for a minimum of two years at the SCMM or in some other state-level defense capacity. In no case will IMET funds be used to train units of the Bosnian Serb Army (VRS) or the VRS as an institution.

In addition, Bosnia has requested and accepted a Foreign Military Sales case (funded through Foreign Military Financing) for contractor-provided mentoring, advice and assistance to the SCMM and the SCMM Secretariat in the areas of: organization and manning; development of a NATO-compatible training, doctrine and procedures; and longer-term work plans, all with the objective of preparing Bosnia for PfP membership.

Bulgaria

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 3 $3,191 0 $0
EIPC 3 $13,002 0 $0
FMF 7 $31,643 3 $25,126
FMS 1 $11,514 0 $0
IMET 201 $1,219,986 139 $1,431,942
IMET 2-Year 11 $366,339 0 $0
Marshall Center 188 $409,684 67 $310,858
Service Academies 5 $243,837 2 $93,582
TOTAL 419 $2,299,196 211 $1,861,508

Bulgaria received an invitation to join NATO and will be working on the accession process for membership through spring of 2003. Bulgaria is very important to U.S. foreign policy goals for Southeast Europe and has emerged as a regional leader in promoting political, military and economic stability and strengthening democratic institutions. The country is also undertaking a major reorganization of its defense establishment. The United States supports Bulgaria's continued efforts to strengthen democracy and the rule of law and to move toward fuller integration with the greater Euro-Atlantic community.

Professional military training is reaching a critical stage for the Bulgarian armed forces as the Government proceeds with the significant military reorganization plan outlined in the Defense Reform 2004 project. The IMET program has been a key aspect of the reorganization so far and will be in the future. Current security assistance training program objectives in Bulgaria are continued exposure to Western models of force structure, tactical doctrine, resource management, and providing professional military education (PME) to military and civilian personnel expected to occupy key positions in a defense reform environment.

The IMET program is also targeting improvement of English language skills. IMET provides specialized English language training in CONUS for selected Bulgarian English language instructors, as well as in-country language laboratories and instructional materials critical to the English language learning process. The Bulgarian MoD has requested a DLIELC specialist to assist with the country's English Language Training Program under IMET.

Future IMET objectives and program requirements will focus on the importance of NATO-compatible C4I systems for the Bulgarian armed forces which will necessitate training of Bulgarian information specialists in U.S. schools. Bulgaria has requested more courses for computer and information specialists and officers, information managers, air traffic controllers and intelligence officers. The defense reform plan also calls for more people trained in Defense Resource Management and the general area of Defense Acquisition, Military Law and Peacekeeping.

The Bulgarian MoD has taken the first step towards utilizing the $1.1 million U.S. provided Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) grant through signing a $150,000 blanket-order training case with the Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR), Monterey, CA. The case is for train-the-trainer type of instruction, and the first three Bulgarian students completed the Phase II Instructor course in June 2002. A CCMR team is expected to visit Bulgaria in the spring of 2003 to conduct a site-visit and discuss the Bulgarian peacekeeping concept.

Bulgarian soldiers and civilian defense officials also have received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Easter Europe. This support will help keep Bulgaria focused on the practical steps of NATO integration now that it has been given an invitation to join the Alliance.

Croatia

    FY 2002 Actual  FY 2003 Planned 
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
IMET 153 $613,403 165 $679,533
IMET 2-Year 5 $280,825 0 $0
Marshall Center 17 $119,860 193 $368,012
Non-SA, Unified Command 186 $75,000 0 $0
Service Academies 5 $182,036 2 $88,700
TOTAL 366 $1,271,124 360 $1,136,245

Helping Croatia in its democratic transition and integration into Euro-Atlantic institutions is vital to ensuring the long-term stability of Croatia and the stability of the entire Balkan region. It is in the U.S. interest to support the democratic changes that the citizens of Croatia overwhelmingly voted for in January 2000. These democratic changes in Croatia helped promote similar changes in Bosnia and Yugoslavia. Our goal is to ensure that Croatia sheds its destructive, nationalist past, fully embraces human and civil rights and continues on its path of becoming a fully reliable partner in Europe. Our military training efforts are a valuable tool in pursuing these objectives.

Since coming to power in January 2000, the Croatian government has joined, and has made increasing use of, its membership in NATO's PfP program. Croatia entered NATO's Membership Action Plan at the May 2002 NATO Summit in Reykjavik, formalizing its NATO candidacy. IMET programs have supported Croatia's NATO ambitions and fostered appreciation among Croatian military officials for the proper role of the armed forces in a democracy. IMET continues to be one of the more successful elements of U.S. engagement strategy. IMET-trained officers helped to initiate implementation of basic defense reforms, including enhanced civilian control of the military.

In FY 2002, the IMET program continued to focus on the professionalization and democratization of the Croatian armed forces. Croatia's development and adoption of a National Security Strategy was a clear demonstration of progress in these areas. The main focus of the IMET program remained establishing a solid base of trained personnel, using U.S. training facilities from the Basic NCO level to the Senior Service College level. ODC continued several initiatives supported through E-IMET. Security cooperation programs assisted in the development of a programmed modernization strategy with the MOD. Humanitarian assistance programs continued to support the overall Embassy goal of assisting in refugee returns and reintegration in war devastated regions. This was accomplished through reconstruction and renovation projects and through the delivery of HA excess property to those areas. In FY 2002, an Acquisition and Cross Servicing Agreement (ACSA) was signed with the MOD.

During FY 2003, IMET programs will continue to focus on these core functions. Efforts will continue to enhance the professionalization and democratization of the armed forces through IMET and E-IMET programs, but will begin to focus more resources on assisting the MOD in meeting its goals in NATO's Membership Action Plan (MAP). The focus of these efforts will be to address specific MAP goals such as increasing civilian control of the military. IMET programs will use FMS and DCS to enhance NATO compatible communications (through the continued purchase of tactical radios), expand support for English language training and initiate air traffic control/airspace management procedures through integration into the Regional Airspace initiative. Croatia became eligible for Grant Excess Defense Articles (EDA) in FY 2002. Grant EDA may provide alternative sources of non-lethal equipment to assist in meeting some interim needs for the Croatian armed forces. IMET programs will continue its focus on professional military education. Focus will shift toward IMET/E-IMET courses to enhance training for Peace Support Operations, management of international crises and to build on existing efforts to improve interagency cooperation.

Estonia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMF 64 $77,617 30 $155,696
IMET 142 $1,064,375 191 $1,395,453
Marshall Center 35 $135,228 45 $181,475
Non-SA, Unified Command 22 $28,000 0 $0
Service Academies 2 $96,876 2 $96,876
TOTAL 265 $1,402,096 268 $1,829,500

Estonia received an invitation to join NATO and will be working on the accession process for membership through spring of 2003. Primary U.S. objectives in Estonia are to strengthen civil society, bolster democratic and market institutions, assist in the integration of non-citizens into Estonian society and encourage civilian-controlled, NATO-compatible defense forces. Estonia is currently working on its national military strategic plan. After completion of this cornerstone document, it is likely that there will be a shift of defense-related priorities. U.S. security assistance objectives currently improve Estonian defense capabilities and force readiness through training and procurement. The goal is to achieve deterrence and defensive capability. The training portion focuses on Western leadership models and staff procedures with a goal of more efficient staffs that can cooperate with each other. The main procurement goals are strategic/operational and tactical level communications equipment, airspace monitoring and control, air defense and anti-armor defense systems, and other equipment and training to enable a flexible defense doctrine.

NATO compatible training for Estonian defense forces will open the door to Estonia's continued participation in missions beyond their current involvement in the Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia, Kosovo Force (KFOR) and Operating Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan.

Participation in professional military education helps to develop professional skills for Estonian soldiers. Courses in English language, command and general staff, and advanced management courses help Estonia and the U.S. develop a common perspective on leadership and management. Specialty training in logistics, intelligence, medicine, logistical information management, air traffic control, amphibious warfare, infantry and maritime boarding help develop critical skills necessary to enhance regional security initiatives and will help Estonia carry out crisis response operations, including those involving NATO forces.

As Estonia prioritizes resources for its own legitimate defense needs and for its contribution to the overall security in Europe, IMET has a significant multiplier effect. It "trains trainers" and gives more junior officers the leadership and administrative skills to take over from a previous generation of officers that operated under Soviet-era guidelines. This support will help keep Estonia focused on the practical steps of NATO integration now that it has been given an invitation to join the Alliance.

Finland

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 41 $942,179 28 $133,835
Marshall Center 6 $0 14 $0
Non-SA, Unified Command 8 $36,000 0 $0
TOTAL 55 $978,179 42 $133,835

Although, not a NATO member, Finland is an active participant in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and a solid partner with the United States in many areas of national security concern. It has been actively engaged in the Balkans and has been a mainstay of other international peacekeeping efforts, e.g. UNIFIL in south Lebanon, a mission that after 20 years ended in December 2001. Finland also provided support to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operations in Afghanistan. Finland actively assists the three Baltic countries to achieve military interoperability with the West. Geographically, Finland shares a border with Russia, giving it strategic importance beyond its size. With respect to the European Security Defense Identity (ESDI), Finland supports a strong EU crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged and which does not duplicate NATO structures. It is a great proponent of interoperability; while in defense trade matters, it supports the trans-Atlantic link. Most U.S. assistance is designed to promote interoperability, an essential element to increasingly close cooperation on defense matters, not only with Finland, but also with Europe in general. For these reasons the U.S. continues to support the relatively small program of Foreign Military Sales purchased training which is fully funded by national funds.

Ireland

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Exchange Training 3 $0 0 $0
FMS 3 $26,263 2 $15,574
Marshall Center 3 $0 1 $0
TOTAL 9 $26,263 3 $15,574

Since 1958, Ireland has consistently provided professional military personnel for UN peacekeeping and humanitarian operations supported by the United States. Ireland is currently providing troop units for operations in Ethiopia, East Timor, Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia and Kosovo Force (KFOR) where they work with U.S. and other NATO troops. Ireland has also recently become a member of NATO's PfP Program and will contribute to the European Union's headline goal in accord with the European Security and Defense Policy. The training provided to Ireland is intended to strengthen the capabilities of the Irish Defense Forces in carrying out these duties and responsibilities. All FMS purchased training is fully funded by Ireland's national funds.

Latvia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
FMF 36 $868,028 31 $379,598
FMS 6 $1,369 0 $0
IMET 139 $944,679 113 $1,390,064
Marshall Center 38 $153,699 47 $184,614
Non-SA, Unified Command 22 $45,000 0 $0
Service Academies 3 $155,756 1 $60,650
TOTAL 244 $2,168,531 193 $2,014,926

Latvia received an invitation to join NATO and will be working on the accession process for membership through spring of 2003. Current U.S. security assistance objectives in Latvia are to: restructure and modernize the Latvian Defense Ministry and headquarters of the National Armed Forces; modernize their C4 systems; continue support for the U.S.-sponsored Regional Airspace Initiative; and improve Latvian defense capabilities and force readiness through the procurement of, and training in, anti-tank systems, NBC individual and unit equipment, and tactical and combat vehicles.

NATO compatible training for Latvian Defense Forces will open the door to Latvia's continued participation in international peacekeeping missions in Bosnia (SFOR) and Kosovo (KFOR) and keeps the door open for Latvia's efforts to enhance regional security by improving relations with all neighboring countries. Such training helps Latvia play an active role in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) and other Euro-Atlantic institutions.

Latvia's participation in professional military education helps to develop the professional skills of senior officers. Courses in English language, command and general staff, and advanced management help us to develop a common perspective with Latvian officers on leadership and management. Specialty training in strategic intelligence, air traffic control, physical security, explosive ordnance disposal and infantry tactics help develop the critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and improve the capabilities of the Latvian armed forces in both the internal self-defense and multinational crisis response arenas.

As Latvia prioritizes its resources for its own legitimate defense needs and for its contribution to overall security in Europe, IMET has a significant multiplier effect by "training the trainers" and giving more junior officers the leadership and administrative skills to take over from officers who operated under Soviet guidelines. Latvia puts its IMET graduates to work: many officers in command or chiefs of staff of the individual services are U.S. IMET graduates. This support will help keep Latvia focused on the practical steps of NATO integration now that it has been given an invitation to join the Alliance.

Lithuania

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 3 $3,285 2 $836
FMF 30 $0 0 $0
IMET 175 $1,052,947 249 $1,492,353
Marshall Center 43 $193,636 55 $243,242
Non-SA, Unified Command 100 $41,000 0 $0
Service Academies 6 $311,512 4 $214,882
TOTAL 357 $1,602,380 310 $1,951,313

Lithuania received an invitation to join NATO and will be working on the accession process for membership through spring of 2003. Northern Europe's security depends on Baltic stability and proper Baltic-Russian relations. Lithuania looks to the United States as its primary guide while it works to enhance its security. Our security assistance objectives will improve Lithuanian defense capabilities and force readiness through procurement of, and training in, tactical communications equipment, NBC individual and unit equipment, English language training, air surveillance equipment maintenance and support, air defense and cartography. These objectives also fulfill NATO Planning and Review Process (PARP) interoperability objectives and partnership goals of NATO integration.

As Lithuania prioritizes resources for its own legitimate defense needs and for its contribution to the overall security of Europe, training has a significant multiplier effect by training trainers and by giving more junior officers leadership and administrative skills. This will help them take over from the previous generation of officers who trained and operated under the Soviet-era system. NATO-compatible training for Lithuanian defense forces will assist Lithuania in its efforts to enhance security in the region. With the help of such training, Lithuania will be able to play an even more active role in international and Euro-Atlantic institutions, thereby enhancing regional stability.

Lithuania's participation in professional military education helps to develop the professional skills of senior officers. Courses in English language, command and general staff and financial management courses help Lithuania and the U.S. to develop a common perspective on leadership and management.

NATO-compatible training for Lithuanian Defense Forces will open the door for Lithuania's continued participation in such international peacekeeping missions in Bosnia (SFOR) and Kosovo (KFOR), as well as International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan.

Specialty training in logistics, military police, engineering, medicine, maritime crises and infantry tactics help to develop critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and to improve the internal self-defense capabilities of Lithuanian armed forces. This support will help keep Lithuania focused on the practical steps of NATO integration now that it has been given an invitation to join the Alliance.

Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMF 29 $108,207 36 $118,470
IMET 100 $825,751 217 $987,944
IMET 2-Year 4 $48,070 1 $11,208
Marshall Center 38 $147,920 84 $300,486
TOTAL 171 $1,129,948 338 $1,418,108

The U.S. has a vital strategic interest in preserving peace and stability in the area of former Yugoslavia. Macedonia, one of its former constituent republics, suffered an ethnic Albanian insurgency during 2001. The insurgency, fueled in part by outside ethnic Albanian support, quickly spread and assumed an indigenous character. Neither the insurgents nor the government were able to achieve military victory. The U.S. and European Union (EU) jointly facilitated peace negotiations, resulting in a cease-fire, and in August, a peace agreement among political parties. The August 2001 Framework Agreement (FWA) laid the groundwork for Macedonia's peace and stability in a context of improved civil rights for minority groups. Among other provisions, the FWA calls for strengthening the State's democratic institutions - particularly the police - by making them more inclusive. With international assistance, Macedonia's political leaders took significant steps toward implementation of the FWA and restoration of state authority in the former conflict areas.

Macedonia's relations with its neighbors remain generally friendly and constructive. Although the government invited NATO to conduct weapons collection and monitoring missions following the cease-fire, the public mood toward NATO deteriorated, reflecting the stance of some of the political leadership. Efforts at NATO-oriented military reform suffered a setback in 2001 as the military concentrated on combating (with outdated doctrine) the insurgents and pursued acquisition of inappropriate heavy weaponry. Macedonian public support for NATO improved in 2002 in response to the excellent job done by NATO's Task Force Fox. September 15, 2001, elections, which largely conformed to international standards, ushered in a new, multiethnic government with a pro-Euro-Atlantic platform, committed to FWA implementation and reforms on the path to eventual EU and NATO membership.

The U.S. is committed to helping Macedonia progress toward Euro-Atlantic integration. USG military training, through FMF and IMET, of Macedonian officers and NCOs is essential to building support for and implementing much needed reforms. Training in areas such as defense resource management, information systems and dog-handler training is consistent with the U.S. and NATO goal of supporting Macedonia's border security and counter-insurgency capabilities. Continued USG educational programs can be expected to increase support for broad military reforms within the officer corps.

The FY 2002 FMF program will reflect priorities set down by a pending Macedonian Ministry of Defense (MOD) Statement of Work, and developed in cooperation with a DoD team, which is working with the new government to finalize a bilateral defense assessment. Under a new contract, U.S. defense consultant Booz Allen Hamilton has begun defense reform work with the Macedonian government and military. Current indications are that the bulk of FY 2003 FMF funds will be directed toward reform consultants and communications equipment.

Scheduled FY 2003 IMET training focuses on professional military education, special operations training for commissioned and non-commissioned officers, signals, intelligence, and counter-insurgency warfare. Among these priorities, resource management is foremost. Among the professional military education courses projected for FY 2003 are: U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force Command and General Staff Colleges, Army and Air War Colleges, U.S. Army Sergeant Major's Academy, and Mobile Education Teams providing civil-military relations training. This IMET training is improving Macedonia's potential for NATO inter-operability and is enhancing its ability to participate in PfP exercises. FMF also continues to be used for English language and equipment maintenance training.

The Marshall Center in Germany continues to provide U.S.-funded training to civilian and uniformed Macedonian defense officials. Through seminars and conferences, the Marshall Center instructs Central and Eastern European students in civil-military relations, ethnic conflict prevention, anticorruption measures, and defense economics.

Finally, as a NATO aspirant and PfP participant, Macedonia's MOD continues to use NATO Kosovo Force's presence to familiarize military officers with NATO procedures.

Malta

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
IMET 87 $329,025 126 $413,382
Service Academies 1 $58,880 1 $60,650
TOTAL 88 $387,905 127 $474,032

Malta is strategically located in the Mediterranean, in close proximity to Italy and Libya. U.S. national interests in Malta include maintaining Malta's pro-Western orientation and checking Libyan influence. U.S. assistance to Malta in money and training enhances its ability to participate in regional security activities of importance to the United States, including matters involving counternarcotics, counterterrorism, interdiction of embargoed goods to restricted countries and interdiction of weapons of mass destruction materials in transit through Malta's waters. Professional military education fosters better understanding and enhances military-to-military relationships.

Romania

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 1 $198 3 $836
FMF 781 $1,312,500 422 $605,885
IMET 247 $1,467,603 143 $1,804,237
IMET 2-Year 9 $97,128 2 $30,744
Marshall Center 111 $383,572 125 $505,169
Non-SA, Unified Command 103 $289,712 0 $0
Service Academies 4 $193,752 2 $93,582
TOTAL 1256 $3,744,465 697 $3,040,453

Romania received an invitation to join NATO and will be working on the accession process for membership through spring of 2003. As the largest country in size and population in southeast Europe, Romania contributes significantly to peace and security in a troubled region. In 1997, Presidents Clinton and Constantinescu declared a "Strategic Partnership" between the U.S. and Romania, and U.S. training of the Romanian military is a clear demonstration of that partnership.

U.S. bilateral military assistance is helping Romania develop an efficient military under civilian control. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) assistance is helping develop a modern NCO corps with NATO standards. To support the Defense Ministry's Reform Plan, we also provide advice and assistance to downsize and professionalize the Romanian military, making it more NATO-interoperable.

The GOR seeks U.S. military training for as many officers as possible and the IMET program's wide range of training for the Romanian military has helped to improve military readiness in all sectors. In FY 2002, officers took classes on such subjects as: amphibious warfare, field artillery, infantry, engineer, military police, civil-military relations, defense resource management, logistics and English language. Romanian students have also attended U.S. Army and Naval Command and Staff Colleges, and the U.S. Army War College.

Romanian soldiers and civilian defense officials also receive U.S.-funded training at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Center concentrates on providing courses, conferences and seminars on civil-military relations in the developing democracies of Central Europe and the Newly Independent States. This support will help keep Romania focused on the practical steps of NATO integration now that it has been given an invitation to join the Alliance.

Slovakia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
EIPC 4 $18,480 9 $4,620
FMF 125 $668,099 0 $0
IMET 82 $1,026,884 179 $1,565,585
IMET 2-Year 9 $130,738 1 $5,243
Marshall Center 38 $121,121 39 $191,587
PME Exchanges 10 $19,276 30 $0
TOTAL 268 $1,984,598 259 $1,767,035

Slovakia received an invitation to join NATO and will be working on the accession process for membership through spring of 2003. The U.S. supports Slovakia's continued economic and political reform and the continued development of its candidacy for European institutions. IMET and other types of training and education help Slovakia to play an increasingly active role as a regional defense and security partner and to prepare the country for NATO integration. Training and education will also enhance Slovakia's interoperability in NATO by providing appropriate training.

Slovakia's participation in professional military education helps to develop the professional skills of senior officers, respect for the rule of law and human rights, and a greater understanding of the concept of civilian control of the military. Courses in English language, information systems management, defense management and senior staff courses help Slovakia and the U.S. to develop a shared perspective on leadership and management.

Specialty training in air traffic control, strategic intelligence and infantry training help to develop critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and improve the capabilities of the Slovak military. This support will also help keep Slovakia focused on the practical steps of NATO integration now that it has been given an invitation to join the Alliance.

Slovenia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMF 400 $383,800 0 $90,762
IMET 526 $915,367 157 $1,096,739
IMET 2-Year 229 $199,652 0 $0
Marshall Center 36 $113,709 40 $173,957
Non-SA, Unified Command 20 $328,562 0 $0
Service Academies 1 $46,791 0 $0
TOTAL 1212 $1,987,881 197 $1,361,458

Slovenia received an invitation to join NATO and will be working on the accession process for membership through spring of 2003. As a bridge between Central Europe and the Balkans, Slovenia has increasingly displayed the ability to positively influence Southeast European countries at differing stages of reform and integration. A Slovenia that is actively engaged in addressing regional security problems and a Slovenian military force that is stable, strong, well-administered and closely tied to Euro-Atlantic institutions serves U.S. national security interests.

International Military Training and Education (IMET) programs foster development of a strong bilateral military-to-military relationship and assist Slovenia in preparing its forces for entry into NATO. It also deepens Slovenian engagement in regional security arrangements, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and peacekeeping in the nearby area's zone of instability.

Slovenia's participation in IMET-sponsored senior professional military education, officer development courses and non-commissioned officer training helps to develop the professional skills of senior- and mid-level officers and NCOs and increases interoperability of the Slovene military with U.S. and NATO forces. Further, Expanded-IMET courses on civil-military relations, international defense resource management and military justice foster respect for the rule of law and human rights, and a greater understanding of the concept of civilian control of the military. Specialty training in courses such as airfield operations, ranger training, peacekeeping, logistics, and acquisition management, help develop critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and interoperability, while at the same time improving the internal self-defense capabilities of the Slovenian armed forces. Slovenia has also undertaken a robust English language-training program with its Foreign Military Financing. Mobile training teams and the employment of a longer-term English language training coordinator have resulted in great success in this area, with a significant percentage of the Slovenian military speaking English. Continued training support will help keep Slovenia focused on NATO integration now that it has been given an invitation to join the Alliance.

Sweden

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMS 51 $804,815 33 $273,199
Marshall Center 1 $0 5 $0
Non-SA, Unified Command 25 $42,000 0 $0
TOTAL 77 $846,815 38 $273,199

Although Sweden is not a member of NATO, it is an active participant in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and a solid partner with the United States in many areas of national security concern. For example, Sweden is an energetic player in the Balkans, was one of the first with troops on the ground in Kosovo and provided support to the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan. Sweden is a staunch supporter of NATO's Open Door and actively assists the three Baltic countries to achieve military interoperability with the West. Sweden has donated equipment to outfit troops in the Baltics. Sweden has also expressed interest in engaging in joint military exercises with Russia, which is an effort we support. With respect to the European Security Defense Identity (ESDI), Sweden supports a strong European Union crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged and which does not duplicate NATO structures. It is a great proponent of interoperability and in defense trade matters, supports the trans-Atlantic link. It is therefore more important than ever to promote close cooperation on security issues between Sweden and the United States. All FMS-purchased training is fully funded by Swedish national funds.

Switzerland

     FY 2002 Actual  FY 2003 Planned 
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $15,941 1 $2,000
FMS 72 $669,141 63 $6,996,319
Marshall Center 22 $0 29 $0
TOTAL 96 $685,082 93 $6,998,319

The U.S. and Switzerland work closely to advance human rights, democracy, nonproliferation and other issues of global concern. A traditionally neutral democratic nation, Switzerland has focused on its ability to participate in democracy-building and peacekeeping exercises since joining NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) in 1996. Its PfP goals focus largely on enhancing interoperability of forces and capabilities that may be declared available for PfP activities, but within self-imposed limits on participation related to the Swiss concept of neutrality. In 2002 Switzerland had 33 partnership goals. There were 27 courses and exercises planned, 14 put on by Defense and 13 by the Foreign Ministry. The Swiss expect total participants to be somewhere between 500 and 700. These figures include activities of Switzerland's three centers: The Geneva Center for Humanitarian Demining, The Geneva Center for Security Policy, and the Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. All FMS-purchased training, such as flight, logistics and communications training are fully funded by Swiss national funds.

Yugoslavia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
IMET 0 $0 6 $178,656
Marshall Center 33 $166,209 75 $360,509
TOTAL 33 $166,209 81 $539,165

Yugoslavia is key to ensuring long-term stability in the Balkans. Following the democratic transition in Belgrade, our policy has been to encourage development of a professional military that is cooperative and compatible with Western standards, respects human rights and whose actions do not pose a threat to peace and stability in the Balkans. Given our concerns about a lack of military reform in Yugoslavia, U.S. efforts have been restricted to low-level relations in order to lay the groundwork for defense establishment reform.



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