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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. Foreign Policy Objectives -- Newly Independent States (NIS) Region


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest: Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
May 2003
Report
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Armenia


  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
FMF 0 $0 2 $42,220
IMET 1 $75,000 100 $519,084
IMET Multi-Year 1 $15,080 5 $156,712
Marshall Center 100 $242,085 63 $255,418
Non-SA, Unified Command 48 $1,140,740 0 $0
TOTAL 150 $1,472,905 170 $973,434

The U.S. hopes to promote peace, stability and prosperity in the Caucasus, as a potential gateway for energy and trade between Europe and Eurasia. A stable, prosperous and independent Armenia is critical to advancing U.S. national interests and promoting regional goals. U.S. objectives are also served by assisting Armenia in the reform of its military technology and armed forces, and by providing Armenia an alternative to military cooperation that is limited to Russia and Iran. Thus, we seek increased engagement with Armenia's defense establishment in ways that advance our objectives and do not disturb the military balance with Azerbaijan.

The recent waiver of section 907 of the Freedom Support Act has permitted the expansion of this is kind of cooperation. Section 907 previously prohibited most USG assistance to the Government of Azerbaijan, and as part of a policy of evenhandedness, the Administration extended this prohibition to security assistance to Armenia as well. Congress recently gave the President the authority to issue a renewable one-year waiver of the Section 907 restrictions on assistance to Azerbaijan, which the Administration has used to permit fuller cooperation between the U.S. and Armenia. Over the past year, authorized exceptions to Section 907 restrictions have enabled the attendance of 100 Armenian officials from various services at conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center instructs representatives from throughout the former Soviet Union and Central Europe in the undertakings necessary for defense reform in states undergoing democratic transition. It has been projected that at least 65 students will receive some form of instruction during FY 2003. We believe the first step to military reform and expanded cooperation is exposure to U.S. professional military education. Our policy will hold, however, that no assistance be provided which disturbs regional stability or the military balance between Armenia and Azerbaijan.

The U.S. hopes to expand contacts and cooperation with Armenia further, in line with U.S. and Armenian national security objectives. As one facet of our strategic objectives, we continue to urge Armenia to continue to expand its cooperation in NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and the Partnership for Peace (PfP).

Azerbaijan

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
IMET 4 $165,628 306 $983,715
Marshall Center 56 $258,545 110 $497,681
Non-SA, Unified Command 107 $1,690,005 0 $0
TOTAL 167 $2,114,178 416 $1,481,396

Azerbaijan has supported Operation Enduring Freedom and our broader efforts against terrorism in many ways. Azerbaijan promises to be a key partner of the United States. Azerbaijan's strategic location on the Caspian Sea makes it a critical element in a fully-connected Europe and Eurasia, and the continued development of a stable, prosperous and independent Azerbaijan does much to further U.S. interests in the region. We seek to work with Azerbaijan to do a better job to secure its territory and promote stability through the region by protecting its energy resources and preventing the flow of terrorists, narcotics and weapons across its borders and through the region. Further we seek to promote the reform of Azerbaijan's armed forces, and particularly its participation in key peacekeeping missions. We encourage Azerbaijan's increased involvement in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) and participation in PfP activities as a means to promote democratic reform and to cement Azerbaijan's participation in Euro-Atlantic institutions.

Prior to 9/11, Section 907 of the Freedom Support Act prohibited most USG assistance to the Government of Azerbaijan. Congress recently gave the President the authority to issue a renewable one-year waiver of the Section 907 restrictions on assistance to Azerbaijan. Waiving Section 907 will permit fuller cooperation between the U.S. and Azerbaijan on a variety of fronts, including military. In FY 2002, 56 Azerbaijani officials participated in Marshall Center conferences and courses (including democratic defense management, the role of the military in a democracy, civilian control over the military, and the like). It has been estimated that approximately 110 students will receive instruction of some form at the Marshall Center during FY 2003. Azerbaijan will send forces to ISAF with a Turkish peacekeeping unit.

We anticipate that these kinds of engagement activities will promote the reform of the Azerbaijani military along Western lines and further the development of Azerbaijan, in line with U.S. objectives.

Belarus

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
IMET 1 $7,228 6 $118,207
Marshall Center 29 $116,594 44 $153,546
TOTAL 30 $123,822 50 $271,753

The U.S. has an interest in seeing Belarus evolve into a state characterized by democratic rule and respect for human rights. Conditional on significant progress in these areas, the U.S. also would like Belarus to reinvigorate its participation in NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and the Partnership for Peace (PfP), as well as improve its bilateral and multilateral foreign policy cooperation in nonproliferation and other areas. As part of the U.S. Selective Engagement Policy, adopted after the illegal electoral referendum in Belarus in 1996, the U.S. has strictly focused its aid to Belarus on democratization and civil society development as well as humanitarian and health assistance.

However, military officers and officials from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are being nominated and sent to attend Marshall Center courses. This is being done in order to expose potential future leadership of the respective ministries to democratic ideals and educate them on the proper interaction of the various power structures in a democracy. The Department of State also intends to send representatives from civil society and the democratic opposition to ensure the entire spectrum of political society is represented, trained and offered the opportunity to exchange ideas and points of view.

Georgia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 2 $5,688 2 $16,621
FMF 69 $726,122 15 $555,642
FMS 60 $174,384 83 $167,239
IMET 122 $768,333 132 $1,267,443
Marshall Center 117 $435,033 70 $354,646
TOTAL 370 $2,109,560 302 $2,361,591

Georgia occupies a strategic position in the South Caucasus astride the Trans-Caspian energy corridor and bordering Chechnya. It is in the U.S. national security interest to support Georgia's sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as continued democratic, free-market and military reforms. U.S. support for the continuation of a stable, independent Georgia will reduce the chances of the spread of military conflict, international crime and weapons of mass destruction in a region that lies at the crossroads of Russia, Turkey and Iran. More importantly, current political climate makes it more critical than ever that Georgia be able to control its own territory and refuse it as a safe haven to terrorists. It is at the forefront of U.S. policy to enhance Georgia's capability to combat terrorist, secure its energy resources, prevent transit of illicit materials across borders and protect its sovereignty. This cannot happen without U.S. military training efforts and broad military reforms. The Georgia Train and Equip Program is a cornerstone piece of our efforts in this area.

The Georgia Train and Equip Program (GTEP) was designed to assist Georgia in strengthening its capability to deal with terrorism. The program was led and executed by USEUCOM in Georgia in FY 2002. The $64M requirement was funded through a variety of sources, including Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and Military Drawdown Authority. Additional assistance was coordinated through FMF and other U.S. assistance programs to focus on the border control and law enforcement components of the terrorist threat. This was specifically the Georgia Export Control/Border Security and Law Enforcement program funded by the Department of State and implemented by the U.S. Customs Service. Under this program, the Georgian Border Guard received full communications requirements, interoperable with the Ministry of Defense, as well as training and infrastructure for maritime security.

In FY 2002, Georgia also used security assistance received under the Foreign Military Finance (FMF) program to sustain aviation-related training which has been used to support both border patrols in the region and the Georgia Train and Equip Program. Training purchased by Georgia for pilots and aviation maintenance technicians help Georgia operate and maintain the UH-1H helicopters the U.S. Government delivered in October 2001. FMF-funded training has also improved Georgia's ability to control its border and provide for its self-defense. To augment Georgia's self-defense capability by maximizing its ability to use all of its terrain, U.S. training efforts have included high-altitude mountain training.

Using assistance funded through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program, members of the Georgian military also received military training, English language instruction and courses in civil-military relations. These programs have helped Georgian soldiers develop the skills necessary to augment Georgia's participation in the Partnership for Peace and operate alongside NATO. Classes on subjects essential for the implementation of broad defense reform efforts have included legal training, civil-military relations and defense resource management. However, given Georgia's challenging regional security situation, many Georgian soldiers' IMET classes have had more of an operational bent to them with Georgian troops taking infantry, ranger, signal officer and maritime courses, among others.

The U.S. also funded the attendance of Georgian civilian and uniformed defense officials at conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center instructs representatives from throughout the former Soviet Union and Central Europe in the undertakings necessary for defense reform in states undergoing democratic transition. Approximately 117 students received instruction of some form at the Marshall Center during FY 2002 and it is projected that 187 will participate in FY 2003.

All of this training has been critical to the implementation of the GTEP in Georgia. In FY 2003, it is expected that training will be sustained in the area of international military education, and reforms will continue to be promoted through a sustained Train and Equip Program. However, continued provision of assistance in FY 2004 in key areas of military cooperation will depend on key reforms that we have outlined for the Georgian government.

Kazakhstan

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
IMET 97 $938,840 101 $1,780,167
Marshall Center 31 $98,496 45 $237,801
Section 1004 1 $8,194 0 $0
Service Academies 2 $93,582 2 $93,582
TOTAL 131 $1,139,112 149 $2,111,550

Kazakhstan is a vast, resource rich country that has advanced U.S. national security interests in Central Asia through its support for Operation Enduring Freedom. Other U.S. interests include further dismantling of Kazakhstan's inherited weapons of mass destruction infrastructure; a peaceful role for its weapons scientists; the safe and secure storage of nuclear materials and spent fuels, and nonproliferation cooperation; promoting Kazakhstan's long-term political stability by developing democratic institutions and respect for human rights; and encouraging the development of both the Caspian basin's hydrocarbon resources and the means for their secure access to international markets. A new objective, in light of the War on Terrorism, is enhancing Kazakhstan's capability to combat terrorist insurgents, eliminate internal terrorist cells and foster regional cooperation in the area of counterterrorism. In addition, building on a mutually beneficial bilateral military relationship with Kazakhstan, our military-to-military goals include deepening Kazakhstan's participation in the Partnership for Peace and enhancing the capabilities of Kazakhstan's peacekeeping battalion (KAZBAT), as well as the country's participation in USCENTCOM regional exercises. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and International Military and Education and Training (IMET) enhance regional cooperation by deepening Kazakhstan's cooperation in Partnership for Peace (PfP), supporting KAZBAT and USCENTCOM regional exercises, and enhancing Kazakhstan's military interoperability with NATO forces in the context of PfP exercises. They also facilitate armed forces reform and promote a better understanding of the role of the military in developing democracies and the development of appropriate civil-military relations and human rights practices.

Military training with Kazakhstan focuses in particular on leadership and professional military education and civil-military relations. Courses related to international staff officer training contribute to PfP goals, as well as to the development of the Central Asia Battalions (which also contribute to PfP interoperability efforts). Operational leadership courses for junior infantry, engineer and signal officers further the U.S. goal of developing interoperable forces capable of coalition undertakings. Medical and logistics management courses contribute directly to Kazakhstan's ability to meet specified PfP and coalition interoperability goals, as do English language-training courses.

A key component of FY 2002 FMF assistance included reconstruction at the maritime base in Atyrau. In FY 2003, we seek to use the basics provided in previous years and build on future years in ways more reflective of our current goals post 9/11. The project at Atyrau has been tailored to development of a Special Forces Training Center for Counterterrorism. This will allow for increased joint exercises and will also support the work we have done with KAZBAT. It will also provide the means and a venue for other cooperative exercises between Kazakhstan and its neighbors, something that is also a key objective of U.S. strategy in the region.

Kyrgyzstan

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
IMET 22 $672,071 64 $930,758
Marshall Center 47 $179,863 46 $238,591
Service Academies 1 $46,791 0 $0
TOTAL 70 $898,725 110 $1,169,349

U.S. national interests are furthered by the continued development of a stable, prosperous and independent Kyrgyz Republic, as well as by Kyrgyzstan's support for Operation Enduring Freedom. Bilateral relations, including those related to military training, aim at helping the Kyrgyz Republic contribute to security and regional cooperation in Central Asia, a region that borders on Russia, China, Iran and Afghanistan. While seeking to enhance Kyrgyzstan's capabilities to combat terrorist cells and secure its borders, our security cooperation encourages the Kyrgyz Republic to reform its military along democratic lines, including the areas of civil-military relations and defense management. To further these goals, the U.S. also has sought expanded assistance for international military education. Another key component of U.S. policy is to encourage and facilitate active participation by the Kyrgyz Republic in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities.

U.S. training has focused on helping to provide the basics to enable members of the Kyrgyz military to participate effectively in IMET and PfP programs and to expose Kyrgyz officers to U.S. and other democratic military processes. Courses on civil-military relations, joint planning, military operations other than war, and Marshall Center seminars, have given Kyrgyz military personnel opportunities to interact with U.S., NATO, and PfP counterparts as well as others from Central Asia. In order to provide basic officer training that would allow greater interoperability within PfP, efforts also have focused on the mountain survival course, command and general staff college and training officers as leaders of airborne and related units.

In FY 2002, 15 Kyrgyz military officers received a full year of English language instruction and follow-on military training. Others have received specialized training as English language instructors. IMET-funded English language laboratories have been established and books and other audio-visual materials are being acquired using IMET funds to supplement the language training programs.

Moldova

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
IMET 111 $956,101 189 $1,279,866
Marshall Center 48 $197,771 42 $210,237
TOTAL 159 $1,153,872 231 $1,490,103

Moldova has developed a cooperative security relationship with the U.S., both bilaterally in such areas as nonproliferation and multilaterally through such avenues as NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). Moldova's military is active in Partnership for Peace (PfP) activities, despite being short on resources as the country's economy continues to struggle. Finally, the Moldovan Government has made a good-faith effort to peacefully settle its dispute with the Transnistrian separatists in eastern Moldova.

The fundamental U.S. goal in Moldova is to support the continued development of Chisinau's reformist political and economic leanings and its pragmatic foreign and security policy. U.S.-funded military training comprises an important part of the strategy employed to meet that goal. In particular, U.S. military training through the IMET program helps Moldovan soldiers acquire the skills necessary to operate alongside NATO forces and to participate more actively in PfP activities.

In FY 2002, over 140 Moldovan officers received training under the International Military and Education and Training (IMET) program. This training concentrated on developing the operational skills of officers in a wide range of specialization. Moldovan signal officers, engineering officers, field artillery, adjutant general and infantry captains have received specialized training under the IMET program. Moldovan IMET attendees also have taken more universally applicable classes in such areas as English language and language instruction, civil-military relations and defense management. U.S. IMET funds were also used to upgrade English language laboratories.

Forty-eight Moldovan civilian and uniformed defense officials attended the Marshall Center in Germany in FY 2002. The Marshall Center instructs defense officials from throughout Central Europe and the former Soviet Union in various aspects of the implementation of defense reforms in states undergoing democratic transition.

Russia

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 9 $111,759 11 $140,915
IMET 8 $73,744 136 $1,070,162
Marshall Center 77 $304,001 108 $579,189
TOTAL 94 $489,504 255 $1,790,266

The U.S. has an overriding national security interest in furthering Russia's development as a democratic civil society ruled by law with respect for human rights - particularly in the fields of military affairs and civil-military relations. We also have a strong interest in preventing arms proliferation to terrorists and state sponsors of terror.

Russia has a significant role in Europe, Asia and the Middle East, as well as in the UN Security Council. President Putin has consciously re-oriented Russian foreign policy in the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, viewing further integration with the West as being in Russia's interests. Since the attacks, Russia has been a key and early Coalition partner in the War on Terrorism. In addition, Russia has forged closer links with NATO. We should have and have responded positively to President Putin's initiatives, and have forged a new strategic partnership with Russia, and seek to further integrate Russia into the Euro-Atlantic community.

Presidents Bush and Putin announced in Washington in November, 2001 that they would work, together with NATO members, to improve the relationship between NATO and Russia and develop new, effective mechanisms for consultation, cooperation, joint decision-making and coordinated/joint action. Following up, the NATO Allies agreed at the NAC Ministerials in December 2001 to establish a new NATO-Russia Council (NRC). Russia endorsed the Allied consensus and agreed to work to have the new body in place by the time of the Reykjavik Ministerial in May 2002. NATO and Russia are allied against terrorism, regional instability and other contemporary threats, and the NATO-Russia relationship should evolve accordingly.

The U.S. continues to discuss with Russian interlocutors U.S. concerns about the conduct of Russian forces in Chechnya, GOR actions against the independent media (which are not reflective of our values) and occasional Russian strong-arm tactics with neighbors such as Georgia. We continue to raise with Russian officials at all levels our view of the importance of nonproliferation to state sponsors or terror, including Iran. Active diplomacy has been able to manage our differences on these issues.

Warsaw Initiative funding for Partnership for Peace exercises provide opportunities for Russian officers to interact with U.S. and NATO counterparts. Russian officers can develop greater understanding of NATO doctrine and concepts of coalition contingency operations and the role of the military in a democracy, which aims to increase cooperation between NATO and Russia and to reduce Russian fears that the admission of new members to NATO threatens Russian security. It also furthers the goal of interoperability with NATO, with implications for Russian participation in Stabilization Force (SFOR) operations in Bosnia and in Kosovo Force (KFOR) operations in Kosovo.

As of May 24, 2001, the State Department suspended International Military Education and Training (IMET) programs for Russia. This action was a result of legal limitation on assistance due to Russian arms transfers to nations sponsoring international terrorism. Since then U.S. funded security assistance has been limited to English language training and equipment. The U.S. is currently creating a program plan for Russia, geared to developing a military that plays a constructive role in a democratic civil-society and in integrating Russian defense institutions into Euro-Atlantic structures. The major focuses of military training with Russia, particularly Professional Military Education (PME) will consist of leadership training and courses aimed at developing expertise in the tasks of international military staff officers. PME-type training will support our efforts to ensure that the Russian military contributes to the development of civil society by reinforcing concepts of appropriate civil-military relations, defense management in democratic societies and professionalism in the conduct of military affairs.

Courses aimed at international military activities, including legal considerations in peace operations and English language training, will contribute to our efforts to encourage the Russian military to participate in NATO/PfP activities and expose Russian officers to NATO and U.S. civil-military relations standards and practices.

Tajikistan

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
IMET 31 $58,540 127 $226,162
Marshall Center 33 $141,394 87 $331,293
TOTAL 64 $199,934 214 $557,455

The U.S.-Tajikistan bilateral military relationship continues to develop in a mutually beneficial way, building on our joint efforts in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Tajikistan borders Afghanistan, Pakistan, China and Kyrgyzstan. Its porous borders make it highly vulnerable as a transit point for the movement of terrorist insurgents, narcotics and weapons that can destabilize other parts of the region. U.S. goals in Tajikistan remain the promotion of the development of a stable civil society, a market economy and democratic rule with full respect for human rights. The U.S. would like to see Dushanbe strengthen its recently re-integrated military to be able to interoperate with an independent Tajik Border Guard to secure its own borders and play a more active, constructive role in Euro-Atlantic security affairs, now that is has become an active participant in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP).

In FY 2002, facilitating internal political stability and overall regional stability was the focus. Thirty-three Tajik military personnel and government officials of all ranks attended courses at the George C. Marshall Center for Security Studies, Marshall Center conferences, and PfP conferences in Kyrgyz Republic and Russia. Conference topics included: civil and military administration, cooperative security, crisis management and promoting stability in Central Asia.

Additionally, FY 2002 military programs included English language training and such activities as DoD/FBI/Customs Counter-Proliferation programs, initiatives to increase border security, Cooperative Threat Reduction and funding to finance military-to-military contacts. In FY 2002, Tajikistan has begun to see the initial tranches of a large assistance package for border security under the Export Control and Related Border Security (EXBS) program. Such programs are instrumental in establishing a U.S.-Tajik partnership and assisting Tajikistan in developing the ability to defend its own border and combat terrorism and narcotics trafficking.

Turkmenistan

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
IMET 17 $373,954 51 $718,553
Marshall Center 11 $23,946 23 $57,840
Section 1004 0 $0 0 $143,000
TOTAL 28 $397,900 75 $919,393

The U.S. seeks a stable, independent Turkmenistan that contributes to regional stability and prosperity and enhances U.S. national security. A key U.S. interest focuses on the unencumbered delivery of Turkmenistan's significant energy resources to key markets in Turkey and ensuring those resources do not pass through Iran. Maritime and pipeline security is a key component of this objective. Further, the U.S. seeks to enhance Turkmenistan's ability to secure its borders as yet another key potential transit state in Central Asia for the movement of narcotics, weapons and terrorists. We seek Turkmen assistance in the War on Terrorism, counterdrug efforts and preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and associated delivery systems, materials, technologies and expertise. While there is still a great deal that needs to be done in Turkmenistan on both democratic and economic reform to deter the roots of terrorism, U.S. interests in regional stability benefit from Turkmenistan's ability to cooperate with its neighbors on border security, counterterrorism and in regional military exercises. We seek to encourage Turkmenistan's participation further in Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities as part of our overall goal of introducing Turkmenistan to military cooperation regionally - and fostering greater exposure.

Warsaw Initiative Funding for participation in PfP activities furthers on-the-ground-experience, including regional cooperation, interoperability with NATO forces and reform of the Turkmen military along Western, democratic lines. These activities also increase Turkmenistan's engagement with Euro-Atlantic security institutions.

In FY 2002, Turkmenistan used IMET funds to send military personnel to the U.S. for English language training, professional military education and other courses, particularly in the area of civil-military relations, which supports Turkmen military reform by exposing officers to our democratic standards and values. The IMET program for Turkmenistan is focused on professional officer development for junior officers from all branches of service. The goal of the program is to further Turkmenistan's military professionalization and to enhance the ability of Turkmen forces to participate in PfP activities and/or any future coalition contingencies.

Ukraine

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
EIPC 6 $27,360 3 $0
FMF 268 $251,628 31 $2,069
IMET 275 $1,813,034 160 $2,271,223
Marshall Center 63 $293,214 129 $518,991
Non-SA, Unified Command 20 $31,000 0 $0
PME Exchanges 22 $13,869 0 $0
Service Academies 1 $50,085 0 $0
TOTAL 655 $2,480,190 323 $2,792,283

Ukraine and NATO have strengthened their relationship through the continued development of the NATO-Ukraine Commission established in 1997 on the basis of the NATO-Ukraine Charter. Ukraine plays a valuable peacekeeping role in the U.S. sector of the Kosovo Force (KFOR) mission in Kosovo; was a valued participant in Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia and Herzegovinia; is active in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP); and is a contributing member in the War on Terrorism. It also occupied a seat on the UN Security Council from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001. Parliamentary elections in March 2002 were an important indicator of democratic progress. General Skhidchenko has affirmed Ukraine's commitment to military reform.

The U.S. continues to work for the development of an independent, democratic Ukraine with a market-oriented economy. Along these lines, U.S. goals for engaging Ukraine's military include strengthening civilian control, military reform and restructuring, and an increasing integration of Ukraine into the security institutions of the larger Euro-Atlantic community. U.S.-funded military training efforts are a crucial part of this effort. Training received through IMET, FMF and other U.S. military assistance programs contributes to that goal by augmenting Ukraine's ability to participate alongside NATO forces in crisis response operations, in PfP exercises and other activities.

Ukraine makes extensive use of the IMET program to improve Ukrainian military readiness in a broad range of functional areas. Areas of concentration include military legal training, English language instruction, supply officer training, classes in civil-military relations and defense resources management, military engineering and military police instruction, and military airfield operations. Ukrainians also have received specialized officer training in courses for signal officers, adjutant general and chemical corps captains. In addition, top Ukrainian officers have been trained at the Air and Naval Command and Staff Colleges, Air and Army War Colleges, and the National Defense University.

The Expanded IMET (E-IMET) program has trained Ukrainian military and civilian officials, including civilian personnel from non-defense ministries and the legislative branch who work on military-related issues. E-IMET training focuses on managing and administering military establishments and budgets, promoting civilian control of the military, and creating and maintaining effective military justice systems and military codes of conduct.

As mentioned above, Ukraine also has purchased U.S. military training using FMF grant funds, to advance its NATO interoperability and PfP participation. English language has been a focus, as have health and medical training and vehicle maintenance. Equipment purchased with FMF has aided Ukraine's participation in KFOR, which has led to critical, practical training through real-world peacekeeping experience for Ukrainian troops. Furthermore, U.S. funding has paid for Ukrainians to attend conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center trains Central and Eastern European militaries on civil-military relations and democratic control of the military.

Uzbekistan

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 2 $6,118 4 $25,017
IMET 79 $366,691 76 $1,603,712
Marshall Center 43 $160,289 50 $295,546
Section 1004 100 $193,000 100 $304,000
TOTAL 224 $726,098 230 $2,228,275

The U.S.-Uzbekistan military relationship continues to develop in a mutually beneficial way, having expanding greatly to build on our joint efforts in support of Operation Enduring Freedom and the War on Terrorism. The U.S. looks for Uzbekistan to play a stabilizing and increasingly cooperative role among its neighbors and in the region. Promoting regional cooperation is a key U.S. objective in Central Asia, though we seek to establish defined bilateral relationships with each country based on their own security objectives and priorities for reform. Uzbekistan remains an authoritarian state; another key U.S. interests is to see it evolve democratically, with respect for human rights and democratic values. We seek to advance U.S. objectives in the region by enhancing Uzbekistan's capability to combat terrorist insurgents and cells in Central Asia. Our FMF military assistance in FY 2002 is key to realizing this goal. FY 2003 funds will also focus on this objective. We seek to promote the interoperability of Uzbekistan's Ministry of Defense and Border Guard as part of this goal. U.S. policy goals focus on enhancing Uzbekistan's capability to advance U.S. objectives by preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and associated delivery systems, materials, technologies and expertise across borders, as well as interdicting narcotics and terrorists. All of these call for specific military reforms and Uzbekistan has been an enthusiastic partner in this area during FY 2002.

Uzbekistan sees itself in a leading role in Central Asia. The U.S. seeks to orient Uzbekistan's sizeable military towards greater cooperation with its own neighbors, NATO and the United States. Uzbekistan's active participation in Partnership for Peace (PfP) and the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalions (CENTRASBAT) will enhance this cooperation. Training focuses on defense resource management capabilities, command and general staff and war college courses, English language, and such operational subjects as infantry, signal and field artillery officer, airborne and ranger, special forces and mountain leaders courses, which foster interoperability in both operations and tactics.

Participation in Marshall Center activities focusing on civil-military relations, improving military justice systems and defense resource management contribute to the U.S. effort to foster a greater understanding of the principle of effective civilian control.



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