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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. Foreign Policy Objectives -- South Asia Region


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest: Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
May 2003
Report
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Afghanistan


  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
IMET 0 $0 129 $243,995
NESA 0 $0 13 $73,500
TOTAL 0 $0 142 $317,495

The OEF Coalition has successfully destroyed the Al Qaida infrastructure and Taliban regime in Afghanistan. An important goal of the U.S. military and diplomatic presence in Afghanistan is to set the conditions that will permit the new government in Afghanistan to establish a secure and stable environment that will prevent Afghanistan from again becoming the host for terrorist organizations and operations. Key in this endeavor is the establishment of an Afghan National Army (ANA) that is truly representative of the population, subject to central civilian authority and supportive of human rights, rule of law and democracy.

A stable and secure Afghanistan is also important for regional security. A strong military to support the central government will prevent dissension, regional rifts, and ethnic feuds that have often split over Afghanistan's borders to neighboring countries. A weak security sector could re-ignite support for the Taliban and reinvigorate al Qaida support along the Afghan-Pakistan border. This would have a significant impact on the Pakistan government's (GOP) efforts to uproot fundamentalism along the Afghan border. GOPs failure in this endeavor could have serious repercussions on stability in Kashmir and Indo-Pak tensions. Likewise, a weak central authority in Kabul will embolden poppy growers and narcotics smugglers. This scourge impacts on all of Afghanistan's neighbors and is a significant trans-national threat to the region. A long-term and well-rounded program to build and train the ANA is essential to the USG's objects in Afghanistan and the region.

To achieve long-term stability in Afghanistan, U.S. and French forces have begun training and equipping the ANA. Five battalions have completed basic training and have begun sustainment training. Embedded trainers for all battalions are planned for the near future. Brigade headquarters will be formed in the near future and there are plans to reform and provide trainers to the MoD and General Staff. The ANA program will continue to train light infantry battalions through mid-2004, and start training for Combat Support (CS) and Combat Service Support (CSS) units. The goal is to have a strong Central Corps of approximately 8500 personnel and appropriate CSS elements in place prior to the Afghanistan's June 2004 elections.

The IMET program is an integral part of the long-term ANA training program. We have provided sufficient funds for English language labs, their installation and training MTT, which should be sufficient to develop the ANA's English language program. Five Afghan officers recently participated in the Near East South Asia (NESA) Center Regional Seminar. The NESA Center is also developing a mid-level officer course for up to 25 Afghan officers to visit the Center twice a year to assist the ANA in developing functional expertise and regenerate institutional training programs. For the immediate future most of the ANA training needs will be met by MTTs. However, the IMET program will continue to grow as the capacity of the ANA allows for increased participation in CONUS based classes and as an integral part of our efforts to introduce military leadership to civilian control, a professional military ethos and recognition of internationally accepted human rights.

Bangladesh

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 1 $8,173 4 $15,778
Asia-Pacific Center 15 $174,590 9 $106,608
EIPC 5 $37,390 5 $0
IMET 48 $598,820 79 $1,063,442
NESA 9 $52,642 9 $55,800
Non-SA, Unified Command 185 $76,828 0 $0
PME Exchanges 4 $24,912 0 $0
TOTAL 267 $973,355 106 $1,241,628

The country team's first priority is combating terrorism. Primary U.S. interests in Bangladesh are economic prosperity and democracy. Sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction will maximize benefits for U.S. companies and decrease reliance on external assistance. Greater respect for human rights and the rule of law, and the strengthening of democratic institutions are essential to ensuring political stability and are basic foundations of economic growth. Other U.S. interests include environmental concerns, fighting the trafficking of women and children, and combating piracy.

IMET funds are used to facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assist in training exercises. Development of an apolitical, professional military contributes to political stability and allows for increased participation in peacekeeping exercises. Specifically, Bangladesh uses its IMET funding to send students to the Army, Air Force and Navy Command and Staff Colleges, the Army War College, the National Defense University and various other officer training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of peaceful relations with other states and respect for human dignity, and increase the Bangladeshi officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Bangladesh improves interoperability with U.S. forces through IMET-funded specialized English language training. Bangladeshi military personnel also take part in courses on military law, medical training, logistics and maintenance, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants.

The U.S. welcomes Bangladeshi participation in executive courses at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at NDU's Near East-South Asia (NESA) Center for Security Studies, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. This is an effective means of strengthening defense ties with Bangladesh. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Bangladesh. The U.S. proposes Bangladeshi participation in Asia-Pacific Center and the NESA Center executive courses in FY 2003 as well.

Bhutan

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 5 $62,558 3 $35,536
TOTAL 5 $62,558 3 $35,536

Bhutan is a very small country whose relations with the U.S. are limited but friendly. Traditionally an absolute monarchy, it is undergoing gradual transition to a constitutional monarchy. The Bhutanese army has been actively involved in trying to limit the activities of the Indian insurgents within Bhutan. The Bhutanese government has asked the rebels to leave, and in the last years two camps were dismantled, but more remain.

There are approximately 8000 members of the Bhutan army - no navy or air force. We have no IMET program, but officers from Bhutan have begun to make use of courses at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS). It is in the U.S. interest to encourage Bhutan's transition to democracy, to help its military forces attain the ability to control the nation's borders and to encourage military professionalism and respect for human rights. Participating in seminars at the APCSS helps promote these goals.

India

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 20 $234,366 12 $142,144
IMET 81 $1,101,274 63 $1,407,621
NESA 9 $50,386 10 $56,800
Non-SA, Unified Command 125 $433,783 0 $0
TOTAL 235 $1,819,809 85 $1,606,565

India is the world's second most populous nation and the predominant military power in South Asia and the Indian Ocean. The Indian Government was among the first in the world to offer unstinting support to the War on Terrorism after the September 11 attacks. It remains a firm supporter, as evidenced by its decision to send naval escort vessels to the Strait of Malacca, where they helped to protect high value shipping. India faces serious terrorist challenges of its own, in part from groups aligned with those we have been fighting in Afghanistan. In May 2002, a terrorist attack against military family housing in Kashmir heightened tension between India and Pakistan. An attack against a Hindu temple in September also caused numerous civilian casualties. The U.S. and India continue to work closely together in the fight against terrorism, as evidenced by two meetings in 2002 of the Indo-U.S. Joint Working Group on Counterterrorism. The Indo-U.S. commercial relationship has been growing steadily also, as has the bilateral diplomatic relationship.

President Bush's September 2001 decision to waive sanctions imposed on India following the May 1998 nuclear tests opened the way for full resumption of defense cooperation. The signing in January 2002 of a General Security of Military Information Agreement underscored the commitment of both governments to furthering cooperation in this sphere, as did visits to India by Defense Secretary Rumsfeld and to the U.S. by Defense Minister Fernandes. The U.S. continues to urge India to adhere to global nonproliferation norms and stem a South Asian arms race.

IMET funds are used to facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assist in training exercises. India has used IMET funding to send students to the Army, Air Force and Navy Command and Staff Colleges, the Army, Navy and Air War Colleges and various other officer training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of stability and democracy, and increase the Indian officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Indian military personnel also take part in courses on medical training, logistics and maintenance, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants.

As a means of strengthening defense ties with India, the U.S. and India held four joint exercises, including several in India where U.S. forces participated, and in the U.S., where Indian forces took part. The U.S. welcomed Indian participation in FY 2002 in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from India. The U.S. proposes Indian participation in Asia-Pacific Center executive courses in FY 2003 as well.

Maldives

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 5 $63,643 3 $35,536
IMET 20 $137,762 11 $160,806
NESA 4 $22,153 8 $48,000
TOTAL 29 $223,558 22 $244,342

The Maldives provides important access for U.S. vessels and allows aircraft transit rights in its airspace. This moderate Muslim nation provided airport access during Operation Desert Storm, and offered to do so again in Operation Enduring Freedom. It is in the U.S. national security interest to maintain stability in this small island nation by strengthening its democratic institutions. The USG is also working with the Maldivian Government to coordinate policies in international organizations, especially on such issues of shared interest as global warming, drug trafficking, nonproliferation and international crime and terrorism. Because the U.S. has no resident Mission in Maldives, the U.S. will continue to pursue its national interests there through regular diplomatic exchanges managed by the U.S. Embassy in Colombia, through the IMET program and through Regional Democracy Fund programs.

U.S.-funded training facilitates U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assists in training exercises. Development of an apolitical, professional military contributes to political stability and allows for increased participation in peacekeeping exercises. The Maldives uses its IMET funding to send students to Officer Candidate School, information management training and various other officer and technical training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of enhancing stability and democracy, and increase the Maldivian officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Maldivian military personnel also take part in courses on maintenance and instructor training, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants. The Maldives had five students attend the Asia-Pacific Center in FY 2002, and is projected to have three more attending in FY 2003.

Nepal

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 10 $115,697 6 $71,072
FMF 1 $6,228 0 $0
IMET 75 $282,930 82 $522,101
NESA 9 $41,960 10 $58,000
Non-SA, Unified Command 30 $123,621 0 $0
TOTAL 125 $570,436 98 $651,173

Nepal is a small, poor country, friendly to the United States, wedged between two vastly larger neighbors. We desire a stable, democratic and prosperous Nepal in order to maintain stability in the region, ensure security for resident and visiting Americans and enable Nepal to continue to be a major troop contributor to UN peacekeeping missions.

Nepal's 12-year old democracy is challenged by a Maoist insurgency that seeks to replace the multi-party democracy and constitutional monarchy with a Maoist dictatorship. The six-year-old insurgency has grown increasingly violent and destructive and in November 2001 expanded its attacks on government facilities to include military installations. The Royal Nepal Army (RNA) is now fully deployed against the Maoists. Our military training programs are part of a multi-track program of economic and security assistance to Nepal that includes, among other things, the provision of light infantry equipment to improve the Army's ability to address the Maoist military threat.

Nepal uses IMET funding to send students to various officer training courses that familiarize the Nepali officer corps with U.S. values and military practices. The courses provide the opportunity for military-to-military professional contacts, and facilitate cooperation on training exercises and in peacekeeping operations. We have specifically tailored our IMET program to address the most pressing needs of the RNA with respect to quelling the Maoist insurgency. Additionally, these courses reinforce our FMF-funded training efforts. Nepali military personnel take courses on civil affairs, military police, infantry, ranger, and special forces training, with a special emphasis on human rights, which significantly enhance their capabilities as peacekeepers and in maintaining domestic stability.

EIPC funding has focused on equipment needs in the past. The RNA continues to participate in peacekeeping operations (PKO) even though it is stretched thin with the domestic operations. The Peacekeeping Training Center established in Panchkal provided excellent predeployment training for units participating in upcoming PKOs. We have requested additional funding thru EIPC to improve the RNA Peacekeeping Training Center's capacity and quality of instruction.

As a means of strengthening defense ties with Nepal, the U.S. welcomed Nepali participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Nepal. The U.S. proposes increased Nepali participation in Asia-Pacific Center executive courses in FY 2003, as well as continuing to fund students to attend the Near East South Asia Center.

Pakistan

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
Asia-Pacific Center 35 $234,976 12 $142,144
FMF 0 $0 150 $4,986,800
IMET 25 $633,834 147 $1,469,778
Misc DOS/DOD Non-SA 13 $0 0 $0
NESA 18 $68,716 10 $52,800
Service Academies 1 $50,085 0 $0
TOTAL 92 $987,611 320 $6,651,522

Continued strong support from Pakistan's military in fighting the War on Terrorism, promoting stability in nuclear-armed South Asia and advancing Pakistani political and economic reforms are all priority USG foreign policy interests. None can be achieved without the support of the Pakistani military, which has and will retain broad political influence in Pakistan, even after the transition to civilian rule in October 2002. Pakistan's support to Operation Enduring Freedom remains crucial to rooting out terrorists operating in Pakistan's border areas with Afghanistan. Pakistan also is playing a key role in Afghanistan's reconstruction process. For democratization and economic growth to take root, the military must also become more open to transparency and accountability in budgeting and civilian decision-making. Pakistan's IMET program was renewed in October 2001 after Section 508 sanctions against Pakistan were waived. In FY 2002, an initial IMET budget allocation of $500,000 was doubled in February to $1 million. Courses will focus on military-to-military professional contacts. Approximately $125,000 of this amount is earmarked for E-IMET courses taught by the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS), though specific training has yet to be determined. All three Pakistani services are reviewing their course requirements and priorities in light of the additional funds and non-availability of some courses.

The Asia-Pacific and NESA Centers' executive courses continue to emphasize the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build relationships with counterparts from Pakistan that will extend to the post-military government era.

Sri Lanka

  FY 2002 Actual FY 2003 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
Asia-Pacific Center 15 $167,655 9 $106,608
IMET 71 $288,989 14 $272,583
NESA 8 $42,121 10 $54,800
Non-SA, Unified Command 392 $455,337 0 $0
Service Academies 1 $50,085 0 $0
TOTAL 487 $1,004,187 33 $433,991

Sri Lanka has a long tradition of vigorous democracy. It was the first country in the region to liberalize its economy and has impressive social indicators. Sri Lanka is a strategically located island in the Indian Ocean, which if its peace process progresses, could serve as an anchor of stability in the troubled South Asian region. Our top priority remains as before, to wit, the protection of the lives, rights and property of American citizens. The ceasefire, the subsequent drop in violence and relaxation of restrictions on movement, and the imminent commencement of peace talks have greatly reduced the risk of travel to Sri Lanka. Other US national interests in Sri Lanka are strengthening democratic institutions, increasing respect for human rights, enhancing U.S.-Sri Lankan economic ties and cooperation, and supporting regional stability. The United States and Sri Lanka also share interests in environmental protection and the suppression of international terrorism. Sri Lanka has been completely cooperative in allowing passage of airspace, husbanding of ships and aircraft and supporting operational missions such as DESERT STORM, DESERT SHIELD and more recently, OEF.

Training included funds to facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assist in training exercises. Development of an apolitical, professional military contributes to political stability and allows for increased participation in peacekeeping exercises. Specifically, Sri Lanka uses its IMET funding to send students to the Army, Air Force and Navy Command and Staff Colleges and various officer training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of enhancing stability and democracy, and increase the Sri Lankan officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Sri Lanka improves interoperability with U.S. forces through IMET-funded specialized English language training. Three U.S. Department of Defense assessment teams looking at Sri Lanka's military from top-to-bottom in September and October of 2002 recommended increases in IMET funding for professional schools and Mobile Training Teams. Sri Lankan military personnel currently take part in career courses for field artillery, signal and intelligence, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants and increase professionalism within the force. Sri Lanka had 15 students attend the Asia-Pacific Center in FY 2002. In FY 2003, students are projected to attend the Asia-Pacific Center in Honolulu Hawaii and the Near East South Asia Center in Washington DC.



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