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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. DOS Foreign Policy Objectives -- Africa Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2003 and 2004
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
June 2004
Report
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Angola

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

46

$69,468

69

$201,380

Regional Centers

2

$26,213

2

$28,000

TOTAL

48

$95,681

71

$229,380


With the end of the Angolan civil war in April 2002, United States' goals in Angola focus on democracy, economic development and growth, health and HIV/AIDS, and addressing the pressing humanitarian repercussions of the country's conflict. The Angolan Armed Forces are one of Africa's largest, most experienced and well-equipped militaries. Military training and engagement will help to ensure they play a constructive role in a peaceful, democratic Angola and in the region.

In FY 2003, the Department of State restarted the IMET program in Angola, which was suspended in 1997 following Angola's deployment of troops to the Republic of Congo. E-IMET funding of $100,000 was used to provide English language instruction and training on civil-military relations, maritime security, and defense resource management. FY 2004 funding will help to establish the armed forces' English language instruction capability and for additional civil-military relations courses.

DoD funding in FY 2003 enabled Angolan Armed Forces members to participate in conferences sponsored by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). The Center was established to foster exchanges in Africa on military thinking similar to those carried on for years in Europe by the Marshall Center. The African Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Angola by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Angola is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Benin

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

59

$441,387

85

$577,134

Regional Centers

5

$60,285

2

$28,000

TOTAL

64

$501,672

87

$605,134


Since the transition from a Marxist military regime after a National Conference in 1990, Benin has become a model, albeit imperfect, of democracy in the region. Free and fair presidential elections in 1991 led to a peaceful transition of government to civilian authorities. The country since that time has been characterized by a lively and crowded political landscape. The Beninese military has returned to a subordinate role in Beninese society, although President Kerekou, as a former military man, remains attentive to the military's needs. At present, Benin faces no external threat to its stability and the armed forces have played an increasing role in regional peacekeeping activities.

The Beninois were enthusiastic participants in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) training and military leaders hope to continue to benefit from training opportunities presented under the new Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program. Benin's armed forces (BAF) have played a limited role in regional peacekeeping activities and programs like ACOTA will help them enlarge that role. We continue to encourage the Beninese to be engaged in the region, both on a political and military/peacekeeping level. We seek to strengthen the capabilities of the BAF to provide international humanitarian relief.

Although Benin has not yet signed an Article 98 agreement with the United States, we continue to encourage the Government of Benin to do so and are hopeful that in fact, they will sign in the near term. Programs such as IMET, the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) and ACOTA will aid in increasing both the BAF's readiness and participation in international peacekeeping as well as buttressing democratic government and good governance. Benin's robust IMET program has played a key role in keeping the Beninese military in the barracks, and reinstating their aid after signature of an Article 98 agreement will help signal our support for their democratization efforts.

The African Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Benin by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Benin, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Botswana

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

2

$21,144

0

$0

FMF

6

$8,460

33

$43,003

FMS

30

$22,626

0

$0

IMET

52

$786,869

197

$1,158,769

PME Exchanges

60

$205,054

0

$0

Regional Centers

2

$24,662

2

$28,000

TOTAL

152

$1,068,815

232

$1,229,772


Botswana has one of the longest-running democracies and most fiscally prudent economic regimes on the continent. Our efforts focus on helping Botswana confront one of the highest per capita HIV/AIDS infection rates in the world, supporting Botswana's stable democracy, expanding U.S. business opportunities and advocating Botswana's leadership in the region. On the security side, Botswana has one of the region's most professional and responsible military establishments and offers a model for civilian-military relations for the rest of southern Africa.

Botswana has provided a venue for regional military exchanges that have been well received and that have fostered a spirit of regional cooperation. Through our IMET and other security assistance programs, we seek to expand our connections with Botswana's military leaders and support their interest in contributing to efforts to strengthen both regional civil-military ties and regional military-military relations. BDF personnel will continue taking courses in senior military leadership (officer and enlisted), combat and combat support arms, medical specialties, military justice, counter-terrorism intelligence and peace support operations. These courses not only support individual professional development, but also prepare the BDF to better execute Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) and humanitarian support operations while complementing other existing programs, such as the Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) program and the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program. Botswana also received over $100,000 in Expanded IMET in FY 2003. Expanded IMET training included components on HIV/AIDS, civil-military relations, peacekeeping and post-graduate studies.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Botswana by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Botswana, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Burkina Faso

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

0

$0

2

$50,385

Regional Centers

5

$64,060

2

$28,000

TOTAL

5

$64,060

4

$78,385


Military engagement with Burkina Faso has been limited for many years to participation in an occasional Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) event and infrequent contacts in the context of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) oriented regional training or development programs. However, Burkina Faso quietly embarked on a new policy in the region three years ago and has made concerted efforts to improve relations with the United States to include ratifying an Article 98 Agreement. The Government of Burkina Faso (GOBF) has also demonstrated a willingness to cooperate on important USG policy priorities such as the war on terrorism, support of the Linas-Marcoussis accords in Cote d'Ivoire and bringing Charles Taylor to justice.

As a result of the apparent shift in the GOBF's behavior, the Department of State is now examining the possibility of expanding bilateral military training efforts. Military engagement programs would provide a vehicle to enhance the Burkinabe Armed Forces' positive role within civil society and assist the country in its continued democratic transition. IMET funding is the obvious way to start; courses in civil-military relations and defense resources management would be good first steps. English language training would also be helpful to increase the interoperability of the Burkina military with Anglophone members of the Economic Community of West African States.

Burkina Faso sent five participants to various ACSS events in FY 2003. Spots for these events are coveted by military and civilians alike and participation is a mark of distinction. ACSS provides an exceptional forum for engaging senior-level military and civilian officials in African countries. The Africa Center program promotes democratic governance in the defense and security sectors and fosters critical partnerships with African nations.

As of the publication date of this report, Burkina Faso is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Burundi

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

0

$0

32

$68,083

Regional Centers

6

$80,851

12

$168,000

TOTAL

6

$80,851

44

$236,083


We have suspended almost all forms of military-to-military engagement with Burundi because of its ongoing civil conflict. Nevertheless, Burundi was one of nine African countries invited to participate in CENTCOM's Golden Spear Symposium - a continuing program designed to develop a regional response mechanism for crisis prevention and disaster management in East Africa. The Department of State concurred with the DoD decision to include Burundi to help promote peace and stability in central Africa.

Additionally, as a result of the promising recent developments in the Burundi peace process, DoD invited Burundi to participate in Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) events. The African Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Burundi by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. The ACSS program in Burundi will continue in FY 2004.

As of the publication date of this report, Burundi is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Cameroon

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

14

$229,107

54

$892,164

Regional Centers

2

$25,640

7

$88,000

Service Academies

10

$523,015

0

$0

TOTAL

26

$777,762

61

$980,164


United States' goals in Cameroon support the successful transformation of Cameroonian society into a democratic, pluralistic community, with a market-based economy integrated into the world economy. Cameroon's political stability and relative economic development make it a leading sub-regional power. Construction of the Chad-Cameroon pipeline further integrates Cameroon into the regional petroleum economy. Cameroon's status as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council in 2002 and 2003 underlines the importance of a strong military-to-military relationship, particularly on peacekeeping issues.

Cameroon's military can potentially play an important role in supporting regional peacekeeping initiatives and promoting peaceful resolution of border disputes with neighboring countries, particularly in the case of the Bakassi peninsula and Cameroon's maritime borders with Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria. Moreover, it is crucial to have military participation and cooperation as Cameroon undertakes additional political and economic reforms.

Military training provided to Cameroon is designed to encourage good military-to-military relationships and increased understanding of the constructive role the military can play in promoting civilian programs. The recent West Africa Training Cruise reinforced the role of the Navy in maritime security and humanitarian assistance. Cameroon values IMET courses and continues to fill every available course. Cameroon sent cadets to the U.S. Air Force Academy and to the U.S. Naval Academy this year and continues to seek additional training opportunities.

Other IMET programs in FY 2003 targeted building professionalism within the Cameroonian Armed Forces through English language and professional training for junior- to mid-level military officers. Senior level course are rarely offered, but highly sought after by the Cameroonian senior leadership.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Cameroon by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Cameroon is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Cape Verde, Republic Of

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

7

$130,086

70

$173,847

Regional Centers

4

$49,471

2

$28,000

TOTAL

11

$179,557

72

$201,847


Since gaining independence in 1975, Cape Verde has been at peace with itself and its neighbors, and its military has consistently played a constructive role in civil society. The country's physical isolation, poverty and limited number of educational institutions make it heavily reliant on training from other countries to develop appropriate technical proficiencies. The IMET program provides English language training to the military's officer and mid-level NCO corps to enhance their ability to provide effective cooperation in maritime patrols and other military and Coast Guard-related activities. IMET also will be used to support Cape Verde's plan for a professional police unit within the military. Participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) also provides a low-cost investment to help ensure the continued professionalism of Cape Verde's military under civilian, democratic leadership.

With greater English-language proficiency, Cape Verde's military could access training programs specifically designed to increase its ability to patrol territorial waters, and so address more effectively the environmental threats of overfishing and reduced biodiversity. Effective coastal patrols also would improve Cape Verde's drug interdiction, counter-terrorism, search and rescue and disaster preparedness programs.

ACSS supports democratic governance in Cape Verde by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Cape Verde is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Central African Republic

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

6

$59,114

11

$156,568

Regional Centers

0

$0

2

$28,000

TOTAL

6

$59,114

13

$184,568


On March 15, 2003, former military Chief of Staff General Francis Bozize seized power in a military coup from democratically elected President Ange-Felix Patasse. Bozize issued a decree suspending the constitution and other government institutions. Section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2003 (Div. E, P.L. 108-7) prohibits most direct assistance to the government of any country whose duly elected head of government is deposed by decree or military coup. In accordance with that provision, we have ended all military and other assistance covered by section 508, to the Central African Republic. Assistance related to the promotion of democratic elections is specifically excepted. The restriction in section 508 does not apply to assistance not provided directly to the government (such as humanitarian aid provided through non-government organizations). Military assistance cannot resume until such time as the President determines and certifies that a democratically elected government has taken office.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Central African Republic, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Chad

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

CTFP

0

$0

0

$0

FMF

18

$215,565

39

$51,896

IMET

17

$169,966

12

$168,431

Regional Centers

2

$30,691

13

$172,000

TOTAL

37

$416,222

64

$392,327


Chad occupies a strategic position west of Sudan and south of Libya, sharing borders with the Central African Republic, Cameroon, Nigeria and Niger. A well-disciplined, effective military under civilian control will reinforce Chad's role as a point of relative stability in a troubled region. In the course of the last ten years, all but one of Chad's neighbors have suffered a coup d'�tat or been named state supporters of terrorism.

U.S. assistance strengthens the leadership capabilities of the military, which over time will contribute to the development of a military force that supports civilian control and direction of the Armed Forces and whose members are cognizant of their duty with respect to human rights. Such a force would have an influence throughout the region and would be able to contribute constructively to regional conflict resolution and counter-terrorism initiatives. Chad is a committed member of the Pan-Sahel Initiative (PSI), has participated in several peacekeeping operations in the region and possesses the most operational airlift capability available among the four PSI countries. The Government of Chad (GOC) was among the first in Africa to sign an Article 98 agreement with the United States. Chad was a victim of terrorism in the bombing of UTA 772 and the GOC feels that it has a stake in preventing the use of Chadian territory by potential terrorist elements. It has been supportive in sharing anti-terrorism information. The process of restructuring the Chadian Armed Forces is ongoing, and the organization's support for the rule of law is crucial to preserving Chad's fragile democratic institutions, to the continued relative stability of Chad and to extending the positive influence of that stability to a troubled region. Without such stability in a framework of the rule of law, Chad will be unable to attract foreign investors and will not be able to make the most of the development opportunities opening up in the era of oil production.

IMET training on rule of law and human rights exposes students to a worldview supportive of democracy and appropriate civilian management of the armed forces. It also enables U.S. trainers to build serviceable military-to-military contacts that serve as a basis for future counter-terrorism and cooperative international peacekeeping efforts in the region. FY 2003 IMET funds helped pay for continued training in peacekeeping operations: the country is a willing participant in peacekeeping, and the ongoing training will help avoid the allegations of human rights violations that have dogged Chad's participation in previous operations. IMET also provided professional mid-level training and English language-training materials to improve the Chadian military's non-lethal technical capacity (e.g. resource management, civilian-military relations and international military law).

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) is an effective tool in support of democratic governance and effective participation in the War on Terrorism in Chad. For example, the ACSS conducted the North and West Africa Counter Terrorism Topical Seminar in Bamako, Mali, in October 2003. This seminar brought together military officers, civilian officials and civil society leaders from eight North and West African countries, Europe, the United States and various international organizations to assess the impact of terrorism on North and West Africa and identify practical measures to deal with it. Chadian participants said this seminar was a wake-up call for a threat they had not fully appreciated, and they returned fired with enthusiasm for reinforcing their services' commitment to excluding terrorists from Chad.

As of the publication date of this report, Chad is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Comoros

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

0

$0

1

$16,905

Regional Centers

4

$49,805

3

$32,910

TOTAL

4

$49,805

4

$49,815


A small island nation in the Indian Ocean, the Union of Comoros has a history of political instability and military intervention in politics. This background has given particular importance to U.S. efforts to promote democracy and stability in the Comoros and to strengthen the professionalism of the Comorian Defense Force, including respect for civilian control. A modest IMET program for the Comoros in the past had been an important element in U.S. policy toward, and bilateral relations with, the Comorian Government.

In April 1999, Comoros experienced a military coup that overthrew the civilian government elected in March 1996. Assistance to Comoros was suspended consistent with section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2001 (P.L. 106-429), which restricts direct assistance to the government of any country whose duly elected head of state is deposed by decree or military coup until such time as the President determines and certifies to Congress that a democratically elected government has taken office. Although some regional humanitarian programs continued, all military cooperation was discontinued, except for training events offered by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS).

In December 2001, Comoros held a referendum that overwhelmingly approved a new constitution that instituted a system of shared autonomy between a national government and the island governments that make up Comoros. An election was held in April 2002 that confirmed military strongman, Azali Assoumani, as president. With the recent lifting of the Section 508 sanctions, it is possible that Comoros will be allowed to participate in the FY 2004 IMET program and State included a $50,000 allocation request for this purpose in its FY 2004 Congressional Budget Justification document.

The African Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Comoros by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Comoros is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Cote d'Ivoire

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

0

$0

95

$214,582

TOTAL

0

$0

95

$214,582


Until late 1999, Cote d'Ivoire had experienced a level of political stability and economic growth that made it a model for its neighbors. With the third largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa, it was the economic engine for the sub-region. The Ivoirian Armed Forces had begun to participate in the African Crisis Response Initiative, and Cote d'Ivoire had established an important regional center for peacekeeping training. But the country's era of tranquility ended with a military coup in December 1999 that ousted the elected government of President Henri Konan Bedie. Since then, Cote d'Ivoire has been in a state of political upheaval. Ten months after the coup, scores of people died in violence associated with the deeply flawed elections that brought current President Laurent Gbagbo to power. On September 19, 2002, an armed rebellion erupted and, at this writing, half the country remains under rebel control. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and France have sent peacekeeping troops to help stabilize the situation and implement a peace agreement concluded in January 2003. Bilateral assistance to Cote d'Ivoire was suspended consistent with section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2000, (P.L. 106-113), which restricts direct assistance to the government of any country whose duly elected head of government is deposed by decree or military coup until such time as the President determines and certifies to Congress that a democratically elected government has taken office. Although some regional humanitarian programs (including the participation of two Ivoirian military doctors in a DoD HIV/AIDS Prevention Program seminar in Botswana) and Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) participation continued, all military cooperation was suspended. These sanctions will remain in place until the U.S. government either waives them under potentially available provisions or a democratically elected government has taken office.

Cote d'Ivoire's continued participation during FY 2004 in programs of the ACSS will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis as those seminars are scheduled, taking into consideration if and how the rebellion is resolved. The ACSS supports democratic governance throughout the region by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Cote d'Ivoire is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Djibouti

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

CTFP

30

$0

10

$200,000

IMET

67

$146,669

42

$423,350

Regional Centers

7

$95,718

7

$108,000

TOTAL

104

$242,387

59

$731,350


Djibouti, strategically located at the entrance to the Red Sea, next to Somalia and facing Yemen, is the home of the only U.S. military base in Sub-Saharan Africa. It also hosts France's largest military base overseas. Djibouti has played a strategic role in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) and currently has forces from five countries (Germany, United Kingdom, France, Spain and the U.S.) participating in the coalition effort against terrorism. It also serves as the main seaport for Ethiopia - which has also been a staunch ally in the war on terrorism. In 2003, urgently needed emergency food aid from the U.S. passed through the Port of Djibouti to Ethiopia.

Djibouti has become an important refueling point for U.S. military aircraft and a training area for U.S. military personnel as well as ships and aircraft. Bouffard French military hospital is a key trauma care center in the area and helped stabilize victims after the terrorist attack on the USS Cole in October 2000.

IMET training is our core program for Djibouti and has been one of the most successful programs in the region. Graduates now hold key policy and operational positions within the Djiboutian military, including chief of staff and major command positions. Djiboutian junior and mid-grade officers have attended the Command and General Staff College.

Access to this highly supportive Arab League nation and critical base of support for the U.S. military merits our serious commitment to the continuation and expansion of the IMET program. IMET helps U.S. strategic interests by expanding relations and our influence in a frontline state in the GWOT. The Djiboutians benefit from the training in meeting their core objectives of creating a professional and well-trained force with shared commitments to democratic values and security objectives.

Djibouti 's strategic position adjacent to the Bab el Mandeb strait provides the U.S. access, basing and over-flight rights. Djibouti works closely with the Combined Task Force - Horn of Africa (CTF-HOA) to prosecute the GWOT. The Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) continues to foster bilateral relations with Djiboutian Armed Forces and is an integral part of U.S. Central Command's Theater Security Cooperation Strategy. The CTFP helps to promote access, while serving overall U.S. strategic interests associated with this important littoral nation.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) has become an important complement to IMET in exposing senior Djiboutian leaders to core U.S. values on civil-military relations and national security and defense concerns. This program also enhances interaction between our countries and expansion of this program will promote closer bilateral cooperation and trust.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Djibouti, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Equatorial Guinea

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

0

$0

2

$28,000

TOTAL

0

$0

2

$28,000


All forms of military assistance to Equatorial Guinea are suspended. The Equato-Guinean Government's poor human rights record, governance problems and marginal progress on democratic reform improved during 2003. However, the country's leadership remains in the hands of a small clique whose legitimacy remains questionable. We continue to suspend almost all forms of official military-to-military engagement in Equatorial Guinea, except for participation on a case-by-case basis at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS).

The African Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Equatorial Guinea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Equatorial Guinea is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Eritrea

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

34

$106,884

86

$685,076

Regional Centers

0

$0

7

$88,000

TOTAL

34

$106,884

93

$773,076


Democratic institutions in Eritrea, including a non-political military, have yet to be established. This, together with the slow pace of political reform and the continued government suppression of the political opposition, independent media and religious freedom is discouraging. Nevertheless, U.S. assistance could play a key role in building a professional Eritrean military sensitive to the separation between civilian and military authority and to the concept of a non-political and a political military that respects human rights and promotes self-management.

A good bilateral relationship with Eritrea, which has the longest seacoast on the Red Sea, could be useful to U.S. interests in the region. Eritrea is an important factor for the overall regional stability in the Horn of Africa, particularly with respect to U.S. efforts to promote an enduring peace between Ethiopia and Eritrea, and to stem the presence and influence of terrorism in the Horn. A modern, well-trained Eritrean military could be an asset to U.S. national security interests in the region.

IMET and other training activities are key to supporting Eritrea's efforts to professionalize its military, downsize military personnel and promote respect for civilian control. Reflecting concerns for Eritrea's poor human rights and democratization records, the USG support for military training in FY 2003 was limited to E-IMET courses dealing with civil-military relations, drug prevention and military justice. In light of Eritrea's support for the Global War on Terrorism, the Department of State is considering expanding the IMET program to include all military professional education (PME) courses.

Eritrea was also invited to participate in several seminars hosted by the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) during FY 2003. ACSS supports democratic governance in Eritrea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. ACSS will continue to invite Eritrea to its program events in FY 2004.

As of the publication date of this report, Eritrea is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Ethiopia

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

1

$10,355

1

$16,154

CTFP

0

$0

10

$200,000

IMET

14

$355,967

17

$586,872

Regional Centers

8

$96,256

7

$108,000

TOTAL

23

$462,578

35

$911,026


Ethiopia is arguably the key to U.S. security interests in the Horn of Africa, a turbulent region threatened by Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism. Ethiopia has been a staunch ally in the war on terrorism and the Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) has been our most effective partner in the counter-terrorist fight within the region. Ethiopia's internal stability and its role as a regional and international leader remain critical for the stability of the Horn as a whole. The long-term goal of transforming the Ethiopian military into a professional, apolitical modern force remains important.

The ENDF is one of, if not the, most capable military forces in sub-Saharan Africa and has clearly established itself as the dominant military power within the Horn of Africa. Having identified three battalions in FY 2003 as their national combating terrorism force eventually to be deployed on the Somali border, we are proceeding with plans to train these ENDF units in border control and combating terrorism skills under FMF-funded training. This effort will pay dividends in controlling the region's volatile and porous borders and enabling the host nation to strike trans-national terrorist networks when and where they are found. Further, the Ethiopians have a long history of successful participation in United Nations military efforts, spanning the spectrum from the Korean War to combating genocide in Rwanda. Ethiopia currently has a reinforced battalion (900 soldiers) deployed to Burundi as peacekeepers in the African Union (AU) African Mission in Burundi (AMIB) force. This battalion was the first Ethiopian battalion trained under the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program. Affirming their commitment to international peacekeeping, Ethiopia has also pledged 2000 peacekeepers for the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), with deployment scheduled to begin in late December 2003. In FY 2003, we executed several training events under ACOTA; training battalion-level staff officers in peacekeeping command and staff skills, training the battalion now deployed to Burundi in soldier-level and junior leader-level peacekeeping skills, holding a training management workshop for senior officers, and a workshop which resulted in the ENDF drafting its first written training doctrine. In FY 2004 under ACOTA, we plan to conduct train-the-trainer training to build Ethiopia's own peacekeeping training capability, establish a permanent peacekeeping training facility complete with computer simulation exercises for commanders and staffs and train two more ENDF battalions in critical peacekeeping skills.

As principally a former-guerrilla army, the ENDF lacks strong organic training institutions - a deficiency the Ethiopian senior leadership is painfully aware of and is working hard to correct. Not only does this lack of formal military schooling hinder the professional growth of the military; it drastically reduces proper use of defense resources, which is critical to a poor nation like Ethiopia. During the past three years, the Ethiopians have increasingly turned to the U.S. military for assistance in addressing these shortcomings. IMET assists in increasing the professionalism of the Ethiopian military and in strengthening the U.S.-Ethiopian military relationship. The focus of the IMET program in Ethiopia is on building host nation training institutions. This is being done by increasing the English-speaking capability of the military, by training instructors at U.S. military training institutions, and by bringing U.S. military trainers to Ethiopia. In FY 2003, an Ethiopian colonel graduated from the U.S. Army War College and a major from the U.S. Army Command & General Staff College. The colonel is now assigned as the Commandant of the ENDF's Defense University College and the major is now assigned as a senior instructor at the ENDF Officer Basic Course, both excellent assignments utilizing these officers' training experiences in the United States. The ACOTA training management workshop and drafting of the ENDF training doctrine have also assisted greatly in specifically addressing the ENDF's training shortcomings. In FY04, the Ethiopians are requesting to use a portion of their FMF/IMET and East Africa Counter Terrorism Initiative funds to upgrade the level of instruction and capabilities of their Military Intelligence School. This would better position them for the future in the war on terrorism, and to establish their own Command and Staff College for professional military education of their mid-rank officers. Both endeavors will pay great dividends in the future for the U.S. military's inter-operability with the Ethiopians and the long-term professionalization of the ENDF.

The Ethiopian military is the most capable in the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia has proven itself to be a key ally in the war on terrorism. It has taken an aggressive stance against terrorism in Somalia and has supported the U.S. with operational access and invaluable intelligence sharing. Ethiopia's participation in the Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) strengthens U.S. and Ethiopian bilateral relations especially in areas of counter terrorism training and education.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Ethiopia by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. In FY 2003, the Ethiopian Ministries of National Defense (MOND) and Foreign Affairs (MOFA) hosted the ACSS Senior Leader Seminar (ACSS' capstone conference) in Addis Ababa. Senior Ethiopian civilian and military leaders will continue to benefit from participation in future ACSS events and conferences. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. On a regional scale, the Ethiopian MOND hosted U.S. Central Command's annual regional seminar, GOLDEN SPEAR, in Addis Ababa. GOLDEN SPEAR brings together senior military and civilian leaders from eleven east African countries focused on disaster preparedness and management.

The scourge of HIV/AIDS transcends political and geographic boundaries, making it more a global humanitarian issue rather than only a medical one. The training support provided through the U.S. DoD HIV/AIDS Prevention Program to ENDF medical personnel is not limited to the transfer of skills and knowledge during the duration of training. It has developed into a network of close person-to-person professional contacts, establishment of bilateral research studies and access to ENDF military hospitals. This has established an effective, tightly knit team of American and Ethiopian military health professionals working together on common issues. Under the program, Ethiopian military health professionals have been able to participate in international training, conferences and symposiums from the U.S. to Thailand, Spain and Botswana. Every indication is that the HIV prevalence rate within the Ethiopian military remains lower than that of the general population, a rare, if not unique, situation in sub-Saharan Africa.

As of the publication date of this report, Ethiopia is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Gabon

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMF

0

$0

30

$0

IMET

8

$126,907

13

$459,056

Regional Centers

2

$27,966

7

$88,000

TOTAL

10

$154,873

50

$547,056


Gabon is a politically stable and influential regional leader. President Bongo has led mediation efforts in several neighboring conflicts including the Central African Republic where Gabon leads the Economic and Monetary Community of Central African States (CEMAC) peacekeeping mission and whose troops comprise the majority of deployed forces. On several occasions Gabon has served as a safe haven in times of conflict in the region and has authorized the U.S. to use its facilities as a staging area for evacuations of Americans and other Westerners. Revenues from oil production, the basis of the national economy, are declining. If social indicators remain skewed, stability and democratic progress could be undermined.

IMET in FY 2003 focused on improving the English language capability of Gabonese military personnel and increasing the level of professionalism in the military. By fostering effective relations between the Gabonese and the U.S. military, and by exposing the Gabonese participants to U.S. professional military organizations, procedures and the manner in which the U.S. military functions under civilian control, Gabon's military efficiency and effectiveness will be enhanced. This in turn will support the goal of regional stability, particularly in peacekeeping operations in which the Gabonese participate.

Participation in the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) also supports democratic aims in Gabon by reinforcing the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders. In addition, creating military-to-military contacts will increase the likelihood that Gabon will remain willing to serve as a staging area for evacuation operations in the region.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Gabon, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Gambia

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

7

$55,976

43

$148,413

Regional Centers

5

$60,496

2

$28,000

TOTAL

12

$116,472

45

$176,413


In March 2002, the U.S. Government lifted restrictions under section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act that applied to The Gambia in recognition of the restoration of a democratically elected government following the successful presidential and legislative elections in October 2001 and January 2002, respectively. Until the lifting of section 508 sanctions, the only military-to-military cooperation between the U.S. and The Gambia was through the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) programs.

ACSS continues to support democratic governance in The Gambia by offering senior Gambian military and civilian leaders practical programs in civil-military relations, national security strategy, defense economics and related topics.

In FY 2003, following the lifting of sanctions, the U.S. recommenced a modest IMET program to expose the next generation of Gambian military officers to U.S. military organizations and procedures, civil-military relations and the role of the military in a democracy.

In FY 2004, we plan to continue The Gambia's participation in ACSS and IMET. In November 2004, U.S. and Gambian armed forces conducted joint military exercises within the context of the West Africa Training Cruise (WATC).

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to The Gambia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Ghana

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

2

$16,216

0

$0

CTFP

1

$12,000

0

$0

IMET

35

$592,506

70

$807,940

PME Exchanges

0

$0

3

$19,869

Regional Centers

5

$55,602

2

$28,000

TOTAL

43

$676,324

75

$855,809


The Ghanaian Armed Forces (GAF) have a long and commendable record in peacekeeping operations, participating in operations around the globe. For example, it has a battalion in Lebanon, and has had UN observers in the Western Sahara, East Timor, Angola, Tajikistan, Kuwait, and the Balkans. It has also played a key role in regional peacekeeping operations, particularly in Liberia and Sierra Leone. With its history of political stability and English as its official language, Ghana provides an ideal platform for staging humanitarian operations (e.g. Feb-Apr 2000 flood relief for Mozambique; Sep 2002 EUCOM operation to extract Americans from civil unrest in the Ivory Coast, summer 2003 EUCOM operations for U.S. troop deployment in Liberia) and regional peacekeeping training activities.

Military cooperation under IMET, the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) and the Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program reinforce the GAF's ability to contribute to peacekeeping efforts in the region and beyond, and to play a constructive role in the development of Ghana as a democratic society. Ghana continues to fulfill its pledge to the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNAMSIL), having sent an Operation Focus Relief-trained battalion to Sierra Leone, with additional battalions sent in six-month rotations. Additionally, the GAF deployed troops to the UN peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and has UN peacekeeping troops in Liberia and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sponsored deployment in Cote d'Ivoire.

IMET will also help the GAF play a key role in the country's development through civic action and humanitarian assistance projects. In addition to the figures cited above, the U.S. is providing $800,000 for the support of the Kofi Annan Peacekeeping Center, where military units from throughout the region train together for future peacekeeping missions.

One of the primary objectives of U.S. assistance programs for Ghana is to increase and improve the Ghana Armed Forces ability to support the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), project and support peacekeeping support forces, continue to provide a stabilizing influence in the region, and to strengthen our strong partnership with the GAF. This will enable Ghana to build a network of graduates from U.S. education and training programs who can pass along their knowledge and help Ghana build the institutions that can provide regional leadership and expertise to help resolve conflicts and maintain stability in West Africa.

The African Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Ghana by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The GAF were the first to be trained under the ACOTA program, the successor to ACRI. ACOTA-trained Ghanaian military trainers have trained all deploying peacekeeping units since April 2003.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Ghana, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Guinea

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

28

$197,571

74

$531,532

Regional Centers

3

$40,368

2

$28,000

TOTAL

31

$237,939

76

$559,532


U.S. diplomatic efforts in Guinea are primarily directed towards reinforcing Guinea's ability to play a more effective role in regional conflict-resolution and peacekeeping efforts, including the protection of refugees. The armed forces play a critical role in Guinean society. Assisting the Government of Guinea to continue to reform its military institutions by engaging in closer military-to-military cooperation and by increasing appropriate military assistance serves U.S. interests in several ways.

Through the West Africa Stabilization Program, the USG trained and partially equipped an 800-man counterinsurgency battalion that assisted in the containment of former Liberian President Charles Taylor. Guinea's "Ranger" Battalion is currently deployed in Southeastern Guinea along the borders with Cote d'Ivoire and Liberia. Its service and professionalism have earned accolades from NGOs and civilians in the region. Another indirect benefit of military engagement can be found in Guinea's support of U.S. resolutions as they have served on the United Nations Security Council since January 2002. Despite being an overwhelmingly Muslim country, Guinea is pro-U.S. and supported the United States in UNSCR 1441, the passage of numerous anti-terrorism resolutions, and signed Article 98, just to name a few examples in the past 12 months.

Guinea has a long history of assisting other African countries, but its contributions and effectiveness in peace operations are limited by its army's organic capabilities. To the extent that we can help Guinea develop its armed forces, we will witness improved participation in African multilateral contingency operations. Guinea has participated in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and UN peace operations in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Rwanda. Guinea continues to benefit from training at the Freetown ECOWAS Depot that not only betters its military, but also reinforces sub-regional cooperation, interoperability and breaks down cultural barriers and mutual suspicions. Through combined training and exercises like those offered at the Freetown Depot, West African countries may be able to avoid conflict in the future, and failing that, will be better able to conduct multilateral peace/humanitarian operations. English is the operational language for international peace/humanitarian operations and the Guinean Armed Forces are finally seeing the value of having English-speaking personnel. To assist in this endeavor, the U.S. Embassy Public Diplomacy (PD) section launched a partnership with the Defense Attach� Office in which PD's contract English professor is using two IMET-funded language labs not only for basic English language training, but also to prepare Guinean military instructors to take her place. PD is also using this educational forum to discuss topics like human rights, democratic governance and HIV/AIDS.

Collective, in-country training has included components on human rights, the rule of law, law of land warfare, civil-military relations and the role of a military in a democratic society. The USG has also successfully used E-IMET to fund seminars in Guinea in which these same topics were reinforced. The most recent such event was a defense resources management seminar during which good governance and fiscal responsibility were stressed. This seminar had the additional attraction of being a multilateral training event in which the USG and the Government of Guinea hosted civilian and military representatives from six other African nations.

Guinea continues to be a strong supporter of the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). Guinea participated in each of the ACSS events to which it was invited in FY 03 and looks forward to continuing its participation in FY 2004. ACSS supports democratic governance in Guinea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, the President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Guinea, a State Party to the Rome Statute, until March 24, 2004.

Guinea-Bissau

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

2

$17,476

4

$113,884

Regional Centers

2

$20,821

2

$28,000

TOTAL

4

$38,297

6

$141,884


Following eleven months of internal conflict in 1998-99, Guinea-Bissau held elections in 2000. That government ruled until the September 14, 2003 military intervention noted below. Despite the elections, democracy did not take root in the succeeding three years. President Yala neither vetoed nor promulgated the new constitution that was approved by the National Assembly in April 2001. The resulting ambiguity undermined the rule of law. Impulsive presidential interventions in ministerial operations hampered effective governance. On November 14, 2002, the President dismissed the government of Prime Minister Alamara Nhasse, dissolved the National Assembly, and called for legislative elections. Two days later, he appointed Prime Minister Mario Pires to lead a caretaker government controlled by presidential decree. The Constitution provides for an independent judiciary and for the Supreme Court to choose its own leadership; however, it was subject to political influence and corruption, and was undermined when President Yala replaced the President of the Supreme Court on two occasions in 2002.

Elections for the National Assembly were scheduled for April, but later postponed until June and then October 2003. On September 12, the President of the National Electoral Commission announced that it would be impossible to hold the elections on October 12 as scheduled. The army, led by Chief of Defense General Verrisimo Correia Seabra, intervened on September 14. President Yala was placed under house arrest and subsequently "resigned." The government was dissolved and a 25-member Committee for Restoration of Democracy and Constitutional Order was established. On September 28, businessman Henrique Rosa, was sworn-in as President with the support of most political parties and of civil society. Artur Sanha was sworn-in as Prime Minister.

As of the publication date of this report, Guinea-Bissau is not a State Party to the Rome Statute therefore; it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance. However, consistent with section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, direct assistance to the government is restricted until such time as the President determines and certifies to Congress that a democratically elected government has taken office. This restriction has resulted in the suspension of all military training programs.

Kenya

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

1

$10,166

1

$15,965

CTFP

31

$12,000

15

$300,000

IMET

99

$673,427

271

$827,614

Regional Centers

8

$117,151

12

$150,500

TOTAL

139

$812,744

299

$1,294,079


The purpose of military training for Kenya is to professionalize the Kenya military and to improve their capabilities in supporting the Global War on Terrorism and Peacekeeping Operations (PKO). Through military training, Kenya is meeting those ends. A key aspect of U.S. engagement with Kenya is based on maintaining access to Kenya's sea and air facilities for contingencies and training exercises. Access to the Horn of Africa region and the Indian Ocean remains important as Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom proceed and any future potential for humanitarian and other emergencies in the region.

Training engagement for Kenya includes IMET, E-IMET, African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) activities, U.S. Central Command exercises and the Africa Contingency and Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program. Overall, the IMET training program helped promote excellent military-to-military relationships through resident courses and mobile training teams in Kenya. Senior and Intermediate level professional military education (PME) courses and technical courses were balanced with mobile courses in-country to provide a diverse training program for Kenya's Armed Forces. Most of the top Kenya military leaders have attended U.S. resident PME in the past, and PME will continue to be a key ingredient for a balanced approach to professional development. E-IMET courses were successful by including key Kenyan civilian personnel with responsibilities in improving Kenyan's defense resource management. Expanded IMET in Kenya has focused on proper management of defense resources, military rule of law, peacekeeping operations and maritime security/safety operations. These mobile training courses conducted for Kenya are quite beneficial and effective since more personnel are trained. Thus, IMET allocations will be focused on mobile courses, and in training which supports the President's East Africa Counter Terrorism Initiative and improving the Kenyan military's capabilities in coastal and border security.

Kenya's porous borders are exposed to external threats such as terrorist units and insurgents. Even though Kenya's small armed forces of 30,000 personnel is focused on external threats, the country's armed forces are transitioning to more multifaceted missions against terrorism following the American embassy bombing in Nairobi in Aug 98; the most recent bombing at a tourist hotel in Mombasa; and the near miss of an Israeli Airline. The Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) was instrumental in training a key Kenyan Department of Defense (KDOD) commander in the National Defense University's Homeland Security Program. The KDOD commander is responsible for organizing counter insurgency/terrorism units and is a key individual in coordinating KDOD-U.S. counter terrorism operations within the Horn of Africa region.

Kenyan military and civilian leaders participated in ACSS events such as the Golden Spear Symposium conducted in Ethiopia. The seminar promoted the exchange of ideas and continued interaction among the participants.

U.S. Central Command exercises such as Operation Edged Mallet and exercise Natural Fire continue to build on excellent cooperation between Kenya and the United States. All levels of the Kenya Armed Forces participate in these events, and the ultimate result is an increase in Kenyan capabilities.

The African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) successor, the ACOTA program focused on training of personnel and providing equipment for a Battle Simulation Center at the Kenya Peace Support Training Center near Nairobi. The training emphasized "train-the-trainer" skills for junior commanders and staff officers in PKO.

As of the publication date of this report, Kenya is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Lesotho

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

4

$49,723

44

$160,911

Regional Centers

2

$25,485

2

$28,000

TOTAL

6

$75,208

46

$188,911


Historically, Lesotho's army has been a highly politicized force, vulnerable to influence by political parties. Military involvement in political destabilization and coups d'�tat has been a problem since independence in 1966. The political/security crisis of 1998, for example, included an army mutiny and junior officer complicity in an unconstitutional attempt to overthrow the elected government. The crisis demonstrated that a significant segment of the Lesotho Defense Forces (LDF) neither understood nor accepted the subordinate role of the military in a democracy.

Lesotho's current government has undertaken a comprehensive program to reform and professionalize the LDF and other security services. The U.S. has an interest in supporting this program because it advances our foreign policy goals of promoting democracy and human rights as well as humanitarian response skills.

Lesotho sent two high-level Ministry of Defense officials (one military and one civilian) to the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) Senior Leader Seminar in 2003. The government intends to do the same in 2004. Participation in this program supports democratic governance in Lesotho by offering senior officials practical instruction in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. LDF members attended a number of courses offered by IMET. Some offerings covered technical skills, e.g., helicopter repair and financial management. Others involved Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS) subjects and civil affairs. All the IMET courses were important to continuing efforts to improve the professionalism of the LDF.

As of the publication date of this report, Lesotho, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Madagascar

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMS

60

$0

0

$0

IMET

9

$180,232

72

$245,536

Regional Centers

6

$89,751

5

$64,088

TOTAL

75

$269,983

77

$309,624


After the failure of its socialist experiment (1975-91), Madagascar has continued its transition to democracy and economic liberalization, showing much greater openness towards the U.S. and the West. Throughout the political turmoil of the early and mid-90's, the military remained disciplined, apolitical and respectful of civilian authority, despite calls for it to intervene. The resolve of their apolitical posture was again tested in early 2002 during the political standoff over disputed presidential election results. The dispute was resolved democratically and peacefully, without causing significant damage to civil-military relations. The world's fourth-largest island, but one of the poorest countries on earth, Madagascar lacks the capability to protect its 5,000 kilometer maritime border against threats of smuggling. This inability deprives the government of significant revenues, contributes to the endangerment of many rare species found nowhere else and creates an unintended permissive environment for transnational terrorists.

The Malagasy are traditionally inward looking, but have sought to play a more active role in regional and international affairs in the past. In 1999 the Malagasy hosted an African Union (AU) conference that sought to bring reconciliation to the Comoros and the government has expressed willingness to participate in peacekeeping operations under UN or AU auspices. IMET-funded training for Madagascar has enabled Malagasy officers to attend training that offers basic military skills for junior officers and mid-level officer staff operations, especially for the navy. It has also trained English language instructors at the basic and advanced levels. Madagascar is a French-speaking country and mastery of English is a prerequisite for U.S. military training courses and to participate in multinational peacekeeping operations.

IMET contributes to the U.S. strategic goals of supporting counter-terrorism and combating international crime, as well as reinforcing democracy. With a substantial increase in IMET, we will be able to provide a mobile training team on peacekeeping operations, disaster relief/humanitarian assistance and perhaps assist with the maintenance and repair of equipment.

The Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS) supports democratic governance in Madagascar by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. APCSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Asia Pacific region and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Madagascar is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Malawi

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

2

$21,527

0

$0

IMET

76

$299,192

141

$501,538

Regional Centers

2

$26,648

2

$28,000

TOTAL

80

$347,367

143

$529,538


With just under a decade of democratic rule under its belt, a professional and apolitical military is essential to continuing stability in Malawi, one of the world's poorest countries. Malawi held its second free and fair national multi-party elections in June 1999 and its first-ever local multi-party election in November 2000. Presidential and parliamentary elections are next scheduled to take place in May 2004. The country faces increasing and significant external threats from both the rise of terrorism in East Africa and from transnational crime. Malawi has steadily improved relations with its neighbors since its democratic transition and has sought to playa stabilizing role in the region and the continent.

Malawi takes seriously its cooperative military relationship with the U.S. and has been active in Expanded-IMET programs. Its military is small and under-funded, yet has maintained its apolitical and highly professional character. The Army has been an exemplary participant in a very active slate of programs. One of the first countries to join the program, Malawi was the only Africa Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) country in southern Africa and is slated to participate in ACRI's successor program, ACOTA. The Army joins the equally resource-strapped national police force in select operations to fight crime and has distinguished itself in peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance missions. Malawi was the first country in the region to provide flood relief (helicopters and supplies) to Mozambique. Currently it has ACRI-trained observers in Kosovo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo and has served previously in Rwanda.

In addition to traditional professional military skills training, IMET and other security assistance programs are allowing the Malawi Army to bring significant resources to bear on key issues, including HIV/AIDS, structural reform, civilian-military relations, human rights and anti-corruption. For example, Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS)-organized seminars provide a venue for members of the Army, Malawi government, parliamentarians, judiciary, academia, the media and NGOs to work together on issues including rule of law, human rights and peacekeeping.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Malawi by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Security assistance programs and military exercises provide excellent opportunities and resources in post's efforts to assist in the battle against HIV/AIDS in Malawi. All in-country training includes a session on some aspect of the disease. We have called on the International Health Resources Management Program to help the Ministry of Health, other ministries, the Army and donors implement an ambitious comprehensive National AIDS Strategic Plan.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Malawi, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Mali

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

CTFP

55

$70,976

15

$300,000

IMET

14

$258,327

20

$568,208

Non-SA, Combatant Command

190

$1,086,578

50

$85,000

Regional Centers

4

$47,706

12

$172,000

TOTAL

263

$1,463,587

97

$1,125,208


Over the past decade the Malian Armed Forces have evolved into a professional organization, which supports human rights, economic development and conflict resolution. Although Mali has made strides in military professionalism, the overall military capability is hampered by a severe lack of resources, which directly impact military readiness and ability to deploy. U.S. security assistance programs in Mali serve to institutionalize these changes, providing training in civil-military affairs, coordinating ongoing peacekeeping training and conducting seminars on the role of the armed forces in a democracy. U.S. sponsored training of senior- and mid-level officers contributes to the professional development of current and future Malian military leaders to reinforce and perpetuate the subordinate, depoliticized role of the military. Additionally, training in military justice and defense management fortify the Government of Mali's (GOM) efforts to fight corruption and instill good governance.

Mali has been an effective interlocutor, mediator and staunch supporter of regional security issues within the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Mali deployed a 250-man contingent to Liberia as part of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) presence in that country. Mali has begun its participation in the Pan Sahel Initiative (PSI) with the first installment of PSI equipment and vehicles arriving in September 2003. Overall, this $3.2 million package includes 39 vehicles, communication equipment and tactical training. The first set of vehicles went to the 5th military region of Timbuktu and plans are underway for training and equipment in two other regions.

Mali was the first country to participate in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI), which provides training on basic capabilities in responding to crises. While the program has done well in establishing a core of trained officers, part of the old ACRI funds earmarked for Mali ($2.8 million) were not used and the program seems to have slowed down. Mali was not chosen for the African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) in FY 2003 and FY 2004, as the program focused on capacity building in other countries within the region. However, Malian leaders remain committed to and seek a greater role for Mali as a force for regional stability and peace.

In addition, Mali's IMET program has seen a steady rise through the last decade. Most of the funds supported training of junior and mid-level officers and non-commissioned officers (NCOs) in the United States. On some occasions, a senior-level officer has been invited to attend the War College. The program has been successful and IMET program participants are in prominent positions within the military and Ministry of Defense. Mali has also benefited from the Regional Defense Counter-Terrorism Fellowship as part of security assistance.

Mali has become one of the key U.S. Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) partners in West Africa and a major participant in regional efforts to identify and stop the transit of weapons and terrorist movement throughout the Sahel region. The Counter terrorism fellowship Program (CTFP) is capable of providing the strategic level of education that Mali needs to develop the expertise to become a viable partner in the GWOT. Mali is supportive of many U.S. regional initiatives as indicated by Mali's participation in ACRI, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOMOG), and peacekeeping operations in Liberia, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone. The CTFP will help to provide Mali an effective cadre of mid-level and senior officials capable of participating with the U.S. in the GWOT.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Mali by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. Mali has participated in ACSS programs and hosted this year's ACSS conference on counter terrorism, which drew participants from the region, Europe and the United States. Increased security assistance and training support from DoD and State programs would permit Mali to be more effective as it continues to play a constructive role in these areas.

As of the publication date of this report, Mali, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Mauritania

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

4

$62,457

68

$255,249

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

$0

70

$102,000

Regional Centers

15

$89,096

24

$163,880

TOTAL

19

$151,553

162

$521,129


Mauritania is a participant in the Pan-Sahel Initiative (PSI), a regional counter-terrorism program including Mali, Niger and Chad. The PSI program is intended to assist the Sahelian countries in Africa to strengthen their capabilities to protect their borders thereby enhancing regional peace and security. Also, Mauritania will be eligible in FY 2004 to receive Excess Defense Articles (EDA) on a grant basis under Section 516 of the Foreign Assistance Act. Grant EDA will be used primarily to help Mauritania better control its borders.

The U.S. has trained and equipped the National Demining Office since late 1999. This assistance, through the provision of FY 2004 Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining and Related programs (NADR), will allow Mauritania to continue demining operations in the northern part of the country, which has the potential for mineral extraction, but is currently isolated and unable to sustain an agricultural base due to the presence of landmines.

The IMET program for Mauritania focuses on encouraging military support for a democratically elected civilian government and respect for human rights.

Senior Mauritanian civilian and military leaders continue to benefit from the efforts of the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). ACSS offers a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. Additionally, ACSS helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants by offering exchanges, research opportunities and seminars in the United States, Africa and Europe.

As of the publication date of this report, Mauritania is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Mauritius

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

36

$85,516

67

$63,305

Regional Centers

6

$77,557

5

$64,088

TOTAL

42

$163,073

72

$127,393


Located 600 miles east of Madagascar, Mauritius is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. The economy relies heavily on exports of sugar and textiles as well as tourism and financial services. Mauritius has one of the strongest economies and highest per capita income in Sub-Sahara Africa. While Mauritius has no military as such, under the command of the Police Commissioner, there are approximately 10,000 active duty personnel divided into the National Police, a VIP Protection Unit, a Police Helicopter Squadron, a Special Mobile Force and a National Coast Guard. Currently, officers on loan from India head up the Coast Guard and the Police Helicopter Squadron.

U.S. military training assistance has focused on the Coast Guard. Through U.S. assistance, it is hoped that the National Coast Guard, created in 1989, will grow into a Mauritian-led organization capable of effectively patrolling territorial waters, stemming narcotics trafficking and illegal fishing, and mounting successful search and rescue operations. Another U.S. foreign policy goal in this area is to improve protection of Mauritius' fragile coastal environment.

Officers from the Special Mobile Force (SMF), Coast Guard and Police attended U.S.-based executive training in crisis management, military justice and international maritime law at the U.S. Coast Guard Training Center. This course provides a strong overview of all Coast Guard mission areas including maritime law enforcement, fisheries protection, pollution control and search and rescue.

SMF officers have also received training in peacekeeping operations. This training allowed the Government of Mauritius to send a contingent of SMF guards to both Kosovo and Sierra Leone to participate in UN peacekeeping missions.

Funding programmed for FY 2004 will enable three U.S. Mobile Training Teams (MTTs) to provide in-country training on fisheries and maritime law enforcement, intelligence training and counter-terrorism.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Mauritius, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Mozambique

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

67

$150,681

68

$321,233

Regional Centers

2

$27,860

2

$28,000

TOTAL

69

$178,541

70

$349,233


In the eleven years since Mozambique ended its 16-year civil war, U.S. policy has been to encourage democratic consolidation and socio-economic reform. Success in achieving these goals is essential for lasting peace and prosperity for the Mozambican people and for regional stability. Mozambique has developed into one of Africa's fastest growing economies and has become a regional leader in conflict resolution efforts. Mozambique has been even more active on the regional stage since hosting the African Union (AU) Summit and assuming the AU Presidency in July 2003. In this AU role, President Chissano has traveled extensively and played important roles in resolving conflicts in places such as Liberia, Guinea-Bissau and Burundi. Also, Mozambican soldiers departed on a peacekeeping mission in Burundi in October 2003. Separately, the inability of the country to cope with floods in May 2000 underlined its need to continue developing its crisis response capacity. We hope to help build this response capacity with bilateral and possibly sub-regional engagement programs.

The consolidation of democracy in the post-war period requires that the military play a constructive role by becoming an apolitical and professional defense force that respects human rights. The IMET program and other training activities facilitate this transition by providing civil-military relations courses to inculcate a respect for civilian control of the defense force. IMET also trains students in basic technical skills, such as ordnance maintenance to ensure the proper handling of the army's equipment, and coast guard management to help Mozambique protect the resources along its lengthy ocean border. In 2003, participants from the Mozambican military as well as Ministries of Justice and Interior took part in a Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS) seminar on internal development. This training also touched on the lack of movement in finalizing the Model Maritime Service Code; necessary for Mozambique to potentially qualify for excess defense boats to patrol Mozambique's extensive unprotected coastline. Also in 2003, several Navy officials participated at the International Military Officer School in Yorktown, VA, and one Army officer attended the Captain's Career Course at Ft Benning, Ga. The lack of qualified candidates in Mozambique is a constraint on the impact of the IMET program.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Mozambique by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. Having hosted a weeklong ACSS conference for southern African countries focused on security cooperation in September 2002, greatly enhancing the senior-level U.S.-Mozambican defense relationship, the Mozambican Government continues to actively participate in ACSS events.

As of the publication date of this report, Mozambique is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Namibia

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

64

$252,831

13

$375,555

Regional Centers

2

$24,923

7

$88,000

TOTAL

66

$277,754

20

$463,555


The primary U.S. national interests in Namibia are democracy and humanitarian assistance. Independent since 1989, Namibia has made significant strides in developing a stable, democratic political system and free-market economy. Assisting Namibia in its efforts to address the HIV/AIDS crisis and overcome the legacy of apartheid provides a basis for enhanced regional stability, economic development, trade and investment opportunities and advancement of U.S. global interests.

IMET funds support the training of Namibia Defense Force (NDF) personnel in democratic values, logistics and respect for civilian institutions. Namibia's program focuses on training for all strata of the NDF from senior level Ministry of Defense officials down to non-commissioned officers.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports Namibia's young democracy by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a program in national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Namibia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Niger

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

38

$52,717

53

$698,949

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

$0

50

$83,000

Regional Centers

5

$71,181

8

$112,000

TOTAL

43

$123,898

111

$893,949


Niger has pursued a path to qualify for military assistance following the disruption and suspension of support related to the early 1999 coup. Since FY 2002, IMET and other military-to-military programs have contributed to continued engagement, while such programs provide a vehicle to enhance the Armed Forces' positive role within civil society and to assist the country in its continued democratic transition.

To assist the path professionalization, we provided IMET courses in civil-military relations and defense resources management to key leaders in the Nigerian military. In addition, the French-speaking Nigerian military received language instruction and labs to assist with training using English language materials and equipment.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Niger by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Niger, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.)from receiving military assistance.

Nigeria

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

1

$5,553

1

$13,257

CTFP

0

$0

0

$0

FMF

145

$259,638

28

$0

FMS

103

$782,592

56

$1,799,482

IMET

18

$348,687

45

$1,037,355

Non-SA, Combatant Command

50

$20,000

50

$85,000

Regional Centers

4

$46,770

7

$98,000

TOTAL

321

$1,463,240

187

$3,033,094


As Africa's most populous nation, a key source of U.S. oil imports, and a new democracy still struggling with the legacy of decades of misrule and military dictatorships, U.S. engagement with Nigeria on political, economic and security issues is vital to the stability and prosperity of West Africa and the Continent. The Nigerian Armed Forces have played key roles in ending the civil war in Liberia and in creating conditions for a peace settlement in Sierra Leone.

Until the inauguration of an elected, civilian government on May 29, 1999, the U.S. government had embargoed the export of military goods and services to Nigeria. The lifting of these sanctions permitted the resumption of IMET and other military training for Nigeria. In FY 2001 and 2002, over 100 Nigerian military personnel benefited from IMET training, in many cases with courses lasting up to a year in the United States. This intensive training focused on changing the attitudes of Nigerian military officers after years of military rule. Instilling in the Nigerian military a sense of its role within a civilian democracy was a key component of our strategy to help consolidate democratic gains in the country. Inherent in our engagement with the Nigerian military was the intention to impart a sense of responsibility, accountability and respect for human rights and rule of law.

In FY 2003, legislative restrictions on IMET and FMF funding forced a drastic reduction in our engagement with the Nigerian military. IMET training programs that had focused on defense resources management, military health care, civil-military relations, military justice and professional training for mid to senior-level officers were suspended. Though an FMF-funded professionalization program was able to continue at a reduced level with prior-year funding and Nigerian co-funding, this valuable training effort is in jeopardy of being cut if assistance restrictions continue. After years of a severed relationship, our training has been vital in slowly changing the mindset of Nigeria's military toward a democratic, rights-based civilian government. We had hoped that in time, our programmatic approach, mixing professional training with courses on military justice and civil-military relations, would help to inculcate values which would make the largest military in Africa a positive force for change in the region and on the continent. Our train and equip efforts in Operation Focus Relief (OFR), which began in late August 2000 and ended in December 2001, played a major role in professionalizing part of the Nigerian Army and enhancing its ability to play an effective regional peacekeeping role first with the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) and now with the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL). However, with the limitations on opportunities to offer continued training for Nigerian troops, it has become clear that Nigeria's ability to be a positive force in regional peacekeeping will decline, placing the success of UNMIL at particular risk. The Nigerian government has sought support for "OFR-type" training for troops deployed to UNMIL. Such training would be consistent with our overall goals of improving the professionalism and readiness of the Nigerian military and re-orienting its personnel to serve a civilian, democratic state, while contributing to our broader goals of consolidating peace in Liberia and enhancing regional peacekeeping abilities.

Every effort should be made to assist the Nigerian government in its effort to increase the professionalism within the armed forces. Nigeria has a history of problems with a politicized military, ethnic division, inter-service rivalries and propensity for military coups. The military, with our assistance, must become focused on military tasks, and the creation of a professional, apolitical leadership. Secondly, we seek to facilitate and support the continued participation of Nigerian peacekeepers in international and regional peacekeeping and war on terrorism related operations. The primary focus of the Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) will continue to be to help build and maintain a professional, apolitical, military structure in Nigeria. U.S. provided training also significantly contributes to Nigeria's development of capabilities to participate in or even lead regional peacekeeping or counter terrorism/anti-terrorism missions.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) continues to support democratic governance in Nigeria by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Nigeria, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

63

$150,150

32

$129,526

Regional Centers

1

$14,065

7

$88,000

TOTAL

64

$164,215

39

$217,526


Emerging from a five-year period of instability that included a civil war and major instability from 1997-2001, the Republic of Congo has made considerable progress in seeking to move toward more democratic political and economic systems and consolidate peace and stability. Presidential and legislative elections were held in 2002, and a peace agreement was signed with the last vestiges of the rebel factions called the "Ninjas" in March 2003. Since the 2002 elections the government has made significant strides in seeking to rebuild institutions destroyed during the years of civil conflict and restore the faith and confidence of the Congolese people in its ability to change the history of Congo to one of durable and lasting peace. The country requires considerable repair of its infrastructure and basic social services. The military must reconstitute and professionalize.

During 2003, formal military training exchanges with the Congo's Armed Forces were limited to individual professional military education under IMET. FY 2003 IMET funds were used to send two Congolese military officers to the Basic Language Instructor Course at Lackland AFB, Texas to prepare themselves as instructor-trainers for the DoD-sponsored English language laboratory. The lab was funded in 2002 under IMET and opened in July 2003 at the nation's military academy. In conjunction with the lab opening, an IMET-funded Mobile Education Team (MET) spent 90 days in country mentoring the new instructor-trainers and providing quality control and assurance for the lab opening. The language lab, in addition to teaching a language key to military interoperability and any role that Congo would play in coalition operations, also helps foster democratic principles and instills a greater understanding of the key role Congo's military can play in this post-conflict country.

The Republic of Congo has continued to participate in the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminars, which help further the understanding of civil-military relations and the role of the military in a democracy. Additionally, the country's Air Force Chief of Staff attended the USAF-sponsored Global Air Chief Conference held in Washington D.C. in September 2003. The theme of the conference was "Air and Space Power in the 21st Century: Global Issues and Challenges" with workshops on security cooperation, coalition war fighting and cooperative development.

As of the publication date of this report, the Republic of Congo (Brazzaville) is not a State Party to the Rome Statute, therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Rwanda

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

44

$144,757

9

$262,898

Regional Centers

7

$93,829

12

$168,000

TOTAL

51

$238,586

21

$430,898


U.S. programs in Rwanda aim at preventing the recurrence of genocide (which claimed some 800,000 lives in 1994) by helping to create the political, economic and social conditions that will lead to a prosperous civil society that embraces democratic governance and respect for human rights. To achieve these goals, the U.S. has implemented a variety of political, humanitarian and economic assistance programs that support U.S. interests in aiding Rwanda's transition to sustainable development while securing regional peace and stability in Africa's Great Lakes Region.

Following a two year period of suspension, IMET was reinstated for Rwanda on 5 March 03, but was limited to Expanded IMET (E-IMET) pending further review. Since reinstatement, Rwanda Defense Force officers have attended training in the United States.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Rwanda by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Rwanda is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Sao Tome And Principe

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMF

0

$0

60

$61,000

IMET

5

$88,150

97

$207,268

Regional Centers

2

$27,423

2

$28,000

TOTAL

7

$115,573

159

$296,268


Sao Tome and Principe (STP) is a maturing multi-party democracy. This attribute played an important role in the U.S. decision to build a $55 million Voice of America relay station there. STP is only in the first decade of transition to a multi-party democracy. As one of the world's poorest countries, STP's economic plight undermines its long-term stability and democratic institutions. The joint exploration with Nigeria of oil deposits in the Gulf of Guinea, along the lines of an agreement signed in 2001, offers hope for improved economic development.

IMET in FY 2003 focused on improving the English language capability of STP military personnel, thereby increasing STP's ability to participate in other IMET courses. In FY 2004, emphasis will shift to selection of courses designed to increase professionalism and to support the restructuring of the security forces that is currently underway. IMET facilitates the building of effective relations between the STP and the U.S. militaries and the exposure of trainee-participants to U.S. professional military organizations, procedures and the manner in which the U.S. military functions under civilian control. In addition, participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) and the Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR) seminars support our democratic aims in STP by reinforcing the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders.

As of the publication date of this report, Sao Tome and Principe is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Senegal

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ACOTA

25

$21,546

0

$0

ALP

2

$23,407

0

$0

CTFP

0

$0

10

$200,000

IMET

227

$1,304,636

70

$1,421,978

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

$0

100

$116,000

Regional Centers

4

$46,915

5

$70,000

TOTAL

258

$1,396,504

185

$1,807,978


Senegal is our most important Francophone partner in sub-Saharan Africa, a supporter of key U.S. foreign policy initiatives and a consistent voice for moderation and compromise in multilateral and Islamic organizations. Senegal plays a key role in ensuring a vital U.S. interest: regional stability. Senegal is a participant in the African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) program and participated in Operation Focus Relief (OFR) last year. It hosted the first Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminar in November 1999 and the first Brigade-level attendance at the ACOTA course (known at the time as ACRI) in October 2000. Senegal is committed to economic reform and has initiated an ambitious privatization program. The Senegalese military has distinguished itself in peacekeeping operations in Cote d'Ivoire, Liberia, Bosnia, Rwanda, the Sinai and Lebanon. Senegal was the first sub-Saharan country to offer troops to Operation Desert Shield. The continuing development of a cadre of professional officers through the IMET program is in the interest of the U.S. and will reinforce Senegal as a full partner with its neighbors in peacekeeping operations in the sub-region. Reinforcing the traditions of a professional civilian-controlled military that emphasizes respect for democratic principles, human rights and the rule of law will set an example for other nations in the sub-region. By working with Senegal to further democracy and economic liberalization, the U.S. helps strengthen the democratic foundation of a country whose growth and success are extremely important.

IMET training and ACSS programs have supplemented training with ACOTA and OFR to strengthen the levels of professionalization within the Senegalese officer and NCO corps.

The African Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Senegal by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

A complicating factor in providing military training to Senegal is the smoldering rebellion in the Casamance region, the area between Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. The Casamance is Senegal's richest agricultural area and had a thriving tourist industry until problems developed in 1982. The leadership of the separatist movement stated publicly in October 2003 that it no longer seeks total independence from Senegal, which gives some reason to hope that the conflict may end in the near future.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Senegal, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Seychelles

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

27

$52,680

151

$28,870

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

0

$0

30

$0

Regional Centers

7

$102,462

7

$108,000

TOTAL

34

$155,142

188

$136,870


The purpose of U.S. sponsored military training in Seychelles is to professionalize the Seychelles Peoples Defense Forces and improve the skills necessary to enforce maritime law and protect the marine environment and local fisheries. An important byproduct of U.S. military engagement with Seychelles is access to its air and seaports. The Indian Ocean region remains an important location in the context of ongoing Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom.

IMET training has focused on maritime training for the Seychelles Coast Guard. This has included classes on coastal security, search and rescue and maritime law courses on the environment and fisheries issues. The small IMET program is administered by the U.S. Military Liaison Office in Kenya and continues to have a positive influence on continued access to the island. Mobile Training Team (MTT) courses have generally been viewed as being more productive and cost efficient as they allow for greater numbers of the Seychelles military to participate. However, in FY 2004 additional emphasis will be placed upon resident training in the U.S. for professional military education (PME) courses as it has been four years since the last Seychelles student traveled to the U.S. for military training.

During FY 2003, Seychelles military leaders participated in several training events conducted by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS), to include the CENTCOM-hosted, ACSS-organized Golden Spear Symposium. ACSS supports democratic governance in Seychelles by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Seychelles is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Sierra Leone

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

247

$312,828

82

$520,938

Regional Centers

5

$59,611

2

$28,000

TOTAL

252

$372,439

84

$548,938


The security situation in Sierra Leone continued to improve during 2003. There has been no significant violence since December 2001. The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) is deployed in former rebel-held areas and is currently in the process of drawdown. The current stated withdrawal date is the end of 2004. The Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF) has benefited greatly from British training and has deployed to the borders with Liberia and Guinea. Over 45,000 combatants were disarmed in a UNAMSIL-supervised disarmament program that was declared complete on January 17, 2002. Parliamentary and presidential elections took place on May 14, 2002 without any violence. The Special Court for Sierra Leone, established to try those most responsible for crimes under international humanitarian law during the 11-year long civil war, has indicted thirteen people, including former President of Liberia Charles Taylor. There are currently nine indictees in Special Court custody. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission carried out its mandate throughout the year, and is expected to present the final report in spring 2004.

IMET-funded training focused on professional military education (PME) courses and attendance at Mobile Education Training (MET) seminars provided by the Defense Institute of Legal Studies (DILLS).

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Sierra Leone by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Sierra Leone, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

South Africa

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

2

$15,783

0

$0

CTFP

0

$0

10

$200,000

FMF

121

$814,955

0

$0

FMS

3

$6,051

0

$0

IMET

335

$1,114,497

269

$1,319,269

Non-SA, Combatant Command

78

$610,662

50

$73,000

PME Exchanges

171

$380,566

4

$44,966

Regional Centers

1

$12,132

7

$88,000

TOTAL

711

$2,954,646

340

$1,725,235


After South Africa's first democratic elections in May 1994, the new government undertook a sweeping transformation of its military. The transformation has included incorporating ten former homeland militaries and anti-apartheid militant groups with the regular armed forces into what is now known as the South African National Defense Force (SANDF). The SANDF leadership struggles with issues of racial representation within the military; differences in levels of training, education and promotion criteria among the various groups; and limited resources as the new government focuses on providing services to the historically disadvantaged majority.

The South African Government is also struggling to define an appropriate mission for the SANDF and to structure the force to accomplish that mission. In recent years, SANDF forces have been deployed for border control, police support and peacekeeping operations in Burundi, DRC, Lesotho and elsewhere in Africa. A controversial multi-billion dollar defense acquisition program will add corvettes, submarines, jet fighters, trainers and helicopters to the SANDF arsenal. At the same time, downsizing efforts are expected to bring SANDF forces from a peak of 100,000 to around 60,000.

U.S. interests are served by assisting South Africa to transform its military into a professional, apolitical force capable and willing to undertake a regional leadership role commensurate with the country's size, population and level of development. A successful transformation will serve as a model for other African countries with which the United States can cooperate on conflict resolution and peacekeeping. South Africa and the U.S. enjoy a close military relationship, meeting annually to exchange views at the Defense Committee.

To advance the SANDF's transformation and pursue a strong security assistance partnership, the IMET program provides training (such as command and staff college, logistics and military law) for officers who may not have received formal leadership training. IMET has also allowed our militaries to exchange expertise in the area of equal opportunity. IMET has assisted the SANDF with minimal technical training, such as flight safety training, to enable the SANDF to maintain the relatively high-tech military it inherited. Additional training has focused on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, pilot instructor training, military acquisition seminars and on peacekeeping operations. Pending resolution of Article 98 issues, IMET will remain suspended in FY 2004.

DoD has conducted various military exercises with South Africa, most recently with Exercise Flintlock, a battalion-level peacekeeping exercise in Bloemfontein that involved U.S. Army Rangers and the SANDF's 44th Para Regiment. There is a biannual Navy/Marine Corps event, the West African Training Cruise that occurs in November.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in South Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, South Africa, a State Party to the Rome Statute is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Swaziland

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

10

$68,637

14

$184,100

Regional Centers

2

$25,015

4

$56,000

TOTAL

12

$93,652

18

$240,100


We continue to support the Swazi military through training programs designed to promote democracy, human rights and professional development. In addition, these programs advance regional stability and humanitarian assistance through exercises designed to promote a modern, apolitical military.

IMET funds support military assistance programs that promote the professionalization of the Swazi defense forces through education in the role of the military in a democracy and in respect for human rights. Over the past several years there has been increasing pressure both internationally and domestically for Swaziland to move from its current system of absolute monarchy toward democracy. A Swazi military that is apolitical and respects human rights will be of vital importance if that transition is to take place smoothly.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Swaziland by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Swaziland is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Tanzania

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

16

$267,090

44

$306,202

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

1

$0

0

$0

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

$0

105

$110,000

Regional Centers

4

$53,031

14

$196,000

TOTAL

21

$320,121

163

$612,202


Tanzania is in a critically important location in Africa. Porous borders and easy access into Tanzania from neighboring countries and overseas make Tanzania a prime target of terrorist threats, as demonstrated by the tragic bombing of the Embassy in August 1998. The port in Dar es Salaam serves as the entry point for shipments of goods to other parts of central Africa. Tanzania is also the main reception point for refugees fleeing instability in neighboring countries, most notably Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Indeed, Tanzania has the most refugees of any African country. The numbers have decreased as the region slowly stabilizes, but Tanzania still hosts over 500,000 refugees. The economic, criminal and possible military problems of such a large refugee group present serious security issues for Tanzania.

Tanzania also serves a crucial political role, serving as the seat for the Arusha peace talks aimed at ending the ethnic bloodshed in Burundi, and for the International Criminal Court for Rwanda. The Government of Tanzania is frequently called upon to mediate between its neighbors. Tanzania also serves as an important partner with Uganda and Kenya in the development of the East Africa Community (EAC). In addition to integrating the markets and economic policies of these three countries, the EAC envisions facilitating security cooperation among the three nations through a military liaison office.

Tanzania is a relatively stable country, favorably disposed to U.S.-led initiatives and training programs. It seeks close cooperation with the U.S. as underscored by its cooperation with the U.S. in the Global War on Terrorism. Tanzania has offered assistance including intelligence information to the war effort.

The IMET program is crucial to Tanzania-U.S. relations because it helps professionalize its armed forces and enables Tanzania's force to look closely at cooperation at the regional level in organizations like the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). Furthermore, through training activities provided by the U.S., Tanzania will be better equipped and trained to patrol its own borders and limit infiltration by potential terrorists and criminal activities. The existence of Islamic extremists in Tanzania makes this effort critical for the protection of American interests in the area. Tanzania's unwillingness to sign an Article 98 agreement in FY 2003 will affect their participation in U.S. military training opportunities in FY 2004. In 2003, Tanzania was able to use nearly all of its IMET funds prior to the American Servicemembers' Protection Act sanctions going into effect. The program thus far has proven beneficial to Tanzania and has also helped to enhance U.S.-Tanzanian relations.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) continued to support democratic governance in Tanzania by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. Tanzanian participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities.

As of the publication date of this report, Tanzania, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Togo

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

17

$119,787

67

$158,523

Regional Centers

4

$49,903

2

$28,000

TOTAL

21

$169,690

69

$186,523


Gnassingb� Eyadema, the longest serving African head of state, was re-elected president on June 1, 2003, despite his earlier pledge to leave power upon completion of his term. He has ruled Togo since 1967. The election process was marred by reports that many Togolese were unable to cast their ballots and by reports of ballot box stuffing. Two people were killed by military police in demonstrations at voting bureaus. In light of Togo's difficult democratic transition, we have focused military training, especially E-IMET funds, on the duties of a professional military, developing military subordination to civilian control and on an Africa-wide Code of Conduct.

In spite of its political and economic problems, Togo has played a major role -- disproportionate to its small size -- in the sub-region to promote peace and stability. Togo deployed troops to both Cote d'Ivoire and Liberia in 2003, and President Eyadema took on a leadership role in hosting discussions between the Cote d'Ivoire government and rebel factions following the September 2002 attempted coup d'etat.

IMET funds were focused on sending select military personnel to an International Defense Resource Management courses, a Civilian-Military Relations Seminar and a Civilian-Military Strategy for Internal Development course, as well as to the HIV/AIDS Strategic Planning and Policy Development Annual Conference. Togolese officers also participated in a six-week Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) program at Newport Naval Station. One Togolese military officer was enrolled in the Basic American Language course at Lackland Air Force Base. He will continue on into the American Language Instructors Course in 2004. IMET funding was also used to complete a 2002 project to purchase texts and instructional materials for the English Language Lab, which has been installed at Togo's military headquarters.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Togo by offering senior African civilians and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Togo is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Uganda

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMF

6

$0

0

$0

IMET

0

$0

87

$513,212

Regional Centers

7

$94,716

12

$168,000

TOTAL

13

$94,716

99

$681,212


Critically situated at the intersection of the troubled regions of East Africa and the Great Lakes, Uganda is a country still in recovery from many years of despotic misrule. By June 2003, the Ugandan People's Defense Force (UPDF) withdrew its forces from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Still, the unstable situation there as well as the threat posed by the remnants of an anti-government rebel group, the Allied Democratic Force (ADF), has continued to worry the Ugandan Government. Meantime, the 17-year-old conflict in northern Uganda expanded and drew even more resources and attention of the Ugandan People's Defense Force (UPDF). By year's end, the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) expanded its attacks against civilians into eastern Uganda and pushed the number of internally displaced people to 1.4 million. Uganda has been a staunch backer of the Global War on Terror and one of only four Sub-Saharan African countries that backed coalition forces in Iraq.

President Yoweri Museveni and his single-party Movement system of government helped Uganda leave behind the dark years of Idi Amin, but they are approaching their 20th anniversary in power. According to the constitution, Museveni is due to leave power in 2006, and there has been debate about enlarging the political system for multi-party politics. However, in 2003, Museveni and his closest advisers advocated modifying the constitution to enable him to run for president again.

As a result of Uganda's withdrawal from the DRC, the State Department lifted a ban on the International Military Education Training (IMET) program. However, Ugandan participation in the program was limited to courses designed to improve the democratic nature of the military and its respect for basic human rights. Restrictions on regular IMET are being reviewed for the FY 2004 timeframe.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Uganda by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Uganda, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Zambia

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

48

$262,912

64

$562,211

Regional Centers

1

$12,328

7

$88,000

TOTAL

49

$275,240

71

$650,211


Zambia has been a commendable example of peace and stability in southern Africa. Not only has Zambia avoided involvement in the civil conflicts of two of its neighbors, Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but it also has played a leading role in efforts to broker and implement a cease-fire agreement for DRC.

Zambia must deal with a host of domestic political and economic challenges. The economy stagnated under decades of extensive state control, but the government divested itself of more than three-quarters of all state-owned enterprises over the last decade. Zambia returned to multi-party democracy in 1991 after nearly two decades of one-party rule, although the political situation remains volatile. Zambia held its third multiparty national elections in late 2001, an important event in efforts to consolidate a pluralistic democracy. The U.S. and other donor countries are working with the public and private sectors in Zambia to address the challenges of generating market-driven growth, developing good governance and addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic. A more prosperous, democratic Zambia can act as a catalyst in a region of increasing economic and political importance to the United States.

The Zambian Defense Force (ZDF) suffers from a lack of resources which severely hampers its training and professional development. U.S. military training assistance has greatly benefited the Zambian military. Previous IMET-funded instruction in tactical armor, infantry, logistics and advanced leadership has helped improve the professional capability of the ZDF. Continued IMET training in these and other military professional development courses would build on this progress. Training provided by the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DILLS) support the overall U.S. interest in consolidating democracy and rule of law in Zambia. Military training has also contributed to economic development. A ZDF demining unit trained with U.S. assistance removed unexploded ordnance that had hampered key infrastructure projects. Continued participation by Zambian military personnel in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminars help develop the senior leadership necessary to sustain and improve the ZDF. Similarly, U.S. military training programs further bilateral relations and provide continued access and influence with the military and its political leadership in Zambia, a pivotal country in a region key to stability and prosperity on the continent. IMET graduates and ACSS participants continue to return following studies to positions commensurate with their training and an ability to influence change.

The Zambian Defense Force has received extensive assistance with training for its Inspector General (IG) on investigatory techniques and audit mechanisms. This training, designed to help the IG better uncover and avoid corruption, is part of a broader program of USG support for President Mwanawasa's anti-corruption campaign.

The ZDF's estimated HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is 35-40%. The Defense Attach� Office (DAO) supports training of doctors, nurses and social workers in diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Zambia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Zimbabwe

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

0

$0

39

$177,040

TOTAL

0

$0

39

$177,040


Zimbabwe is in the midst of inter-related political, economic, and humanitarian crises in which the rule of law and human rights are under assault by the ruling party and its supporters. Due to these circumstances, there was no IMET program with Zimbabwe in FY 2003, nor is it likely that Zimbabwe will be allowed to participate in FY 2004. It is equally unlikely that the U.S. will seek to use any other form of military training activities to engage Zimbabwean military forces in FY 2004.

As of the publication date of this report, Zimbabwe is not a State Party to the Rome Statute, as it relates to � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.). However, other restrictions may apply as indicated above.




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