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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. DOS Foreign Policy Objectives -- Europe Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2003 and 2004
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
June 2004
Report
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Albania

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

CTFP

3

$131,853

0

$0

FMF

332

$79,322

125

$77,944

IMET

124

$1,345,631

76

$1,378,972

IMET 2-Year

6

$72,952

0

$0

Non-SA, Combatant Command

148

$1,732,609

60

$130,000

Regional Centers

36

$123,430

78

$250,766

TOTAL

649

$3,485,797

339

$1,837,682


Albania is an extremely cooperative, rapidly emerging security partner of the U.S. and NATO in Southeastern Europe, as well as a key ally in the global war on terrorism. Its security relationship with the U.S. and Allied forces over the past year has continued to grow as evidenced by combat troop deployments to OIF (which Albania has offered to increase in response to U.S. Central Command's request) and continued deployments to Iraq, Afghanistan/ISAF and Bosnia/SFOR, the latter for the past seven years. Albania has also in the past year hosted a series of live-fire military exercises, including Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) training, and exercises for U.S. carrier groups traveling to and from the OIF theater of operations. A primary U.S. goal in Albania is to use the current very positive atmosphere to help create long-term stability in Albania and the region.

U.S. military training efforts in Albania are a crucial means to this end. In particular, training through the IMET program, counter-terrorism (CT) fellowships, at the U.S. Service Academies and English language programs all advance U.S. goals of assisting in Albanian defense restructuring efforts and fostering an Albanian ability to patrol its land and sea borders. More fundamentally, U.S. training in Albania is helping to bring the country more firmly into the Euro-Atlantic community, to increase Albania's ability to participate in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) exercises and activities. Given Albania's status as an aspirant for eventual Alliance membership, U.S. military training is critical in augmenting Albanian Armed Forces' (AAFs') interoperability with NATO forces. Training under the IMET program helps in staffing key Albanian units, used for future tactical deployments, with IMET graduates at the platoon, company, battalion levels, as well as officer and NCO positions.

The FY 2004 plan projects an increase of IMET attendance with a goal of 45 graduates to help meet the Coalition/NATO mission deployment requirements. Courses include basic English language instruction, lieutenant and captain basic and career course in the infantry, armor, military police, engineer, artillery, signal, logistics, chemical and other career specialties, and NCO development at the U.S. Army Sergeant Major Academy. Albanian officers have also received advanced training at the Naval Staff and Command College, the Air Command and Staff College and the National War College.

The government of Albania has fully supported the U.S. in its Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) and peacekeeping efforts as demonstrated by attaching an infantry company to the German peacekeeping organization in Bosnia-Herzegovina, attaching a special forces platoon to the Turkish contingent in Afghanistan, and providing a commando company to U.S. Central Command in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. To date, Albania has sent officers to the Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) training who will be instrumental in building the institutions Albania will need to be an effective partner in the GWOT. This focus will continue as long as CTFP funding is provided for this purpose.

Albanian soldiers and civilian defense officials also have received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Albania, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Austria

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMS

19

$161,797

30

$1,242,773

PME Exchanges

1

$0

0

$0

Regional Centers

15

$0

23

$0

TOTAL

35

$161,797

53

$1,242,773


Many of our European non-NATO Allies are committed to a broad approach to security that recognizes the importance of political, economic, social and environmental factors in addition to the indispensable defense dimension. Our collective aim should be to build a European security architecture in which the security and stability of the Euro-Atlantic area are complementary and mutually reinforcing. Professional military education (PME) helps to develop an important political dimension to our military-to-military relationships and improves understanding of the mutual social and economic factors that affect our relationship. In addition, professional military education develops professional skills with an understanding of our strategy, doctrine and tactics in the employment of allied resources across the entire spectrum of conflict. Exposure to U.S. military education is vital in Europe to counter-balance the "go-it-alone" forces on the continent. Much of the technical training provided is in direct support of U.S. equipment sales to Austria. As a friendly nation that supports U.S. efforts in Europe, the U.S. must support Austria in all types of training, both professional and specialty skill training, and develop educational opportunities to broaden and deepen our mutually beneficial relationship.

Austrian soldiers and civilian defense officials also have received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

As of the publication date of this report, Austria, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Bosnia & Herzegovina

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

3

$22,372

0

$0

CTFP

0

$0

10

$200,000

IMET

189

$1,016,354

281

$1,116,793

IMET 2-Year

8

$57,431

0

$0

Regional Centers

36

$134,270

84

$289,120

Service Academies

1

$50,085

0

$0

TOTAL

237

$1,280,512

375

$1,605,913


Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is in the process of implementing defense reform legislation that would place both entity armies under state-level command and control and meet NATO's technical requirements for participation in Partnership for Peace (PfP). Under the new legislation, the Federation (VF) and Republika Srpska (VRS) militaries will remain as separate institutions but will fall under the operational command of the BiH Tripresidency via the new Ministry of Defense and Joint Staff. The entities will remain responsible for providing administrative support to their respective units. The legislation was drafted by the High Representative's Defense Reform Commission, which issued a report advocating far reaching defense reforms that would enable BiH to join PfP by mid-2004, and ultimately become a credible candidate for full NATO membership. Successful implementation of the defense reforms will also help create the conditions necessary to further draw down the international military and civilian presence in Bosnia. In addition to creating a state-level Ministry of Defense and Joint Staff, the reforms require downsizing the entity militaries; destroying excess weapons; and divesting surplus properties. U.S. military assistance had previously been provided almost exclusively to the Federation under the Train and Equip program. However, since that program ended in December 2002, U.S. security cooperation has been focused on strengthening state-level defense institutions, principally the Standing Committee on Military Matters (SCMM) and the SCMM Secretariat. USG military assistance will be provided in direct support of implementation of its reforms.

Training of Bosnian forces under the IMET program will emphasize the professional development of junior officers (army basic and advanced courses), staff training for mid-level officers (service staff colleges), and E-IMET courses for mid- to upper-level officials in the defense sector. Training activities will support the development of a new state Ministry of Defense and Joint Staff, and other state-level defense structures in furtherance of efforts to meet NATO's requirements for PfP. IMET funds will be made available to train properly vetted members of the Bosnian Serb Army (VRS) to support their active participation in the newly created state-level defense institutions in a manner consistent with U.S. policy and legal requirements.

One of the key objectives of U.S. assistance is to help BiH develop the capability to work with other European and NATO nations in maintaining regional stability and participating in regional peacekeeping. Knowledge of English is fundamental to this effort and the Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) has provided the funding needed to obtain the equipment to support this effort. This will help to create a cadre of senior and mid-level officials capable of working with the U.S. in Global War on Terrorism efforts.

In addition, we anticipate a number of new Foreign Military Finance (FMF) funded cases for contractor-provided mentoring, advice and assistance to the new Ministry of Defense and General Staffing in the areas of: organization and manning; development of a NATO-compatible training, doctrine and procedures; and longer-term work plans, all with the objective of preparing Bosnia for PfP membership.

BiH soldiers and civilian defense officials also have received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Bosnia & Herzegovina, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Bulgaria

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

3

$33,427

1

$15,176

CTFP

0

$0

0

$0

FMF

5

$233,786

2

$0

FMS

1

$0

0

$0

IMET

164

$1,675,865

139

$1,294,932

IMET 2-Year

10

$58,409

0

$0

PME Exchanges

2

$35,930

2

$21,902

Regional Centers

129

$443,142

74

$304,743

Service Academies

20

$523,015

0

$0

TOTAL

334

$3,003,574

218

$1,636,753


Bulgaria received an invitation to join NATO and is expected to join NATO before the NATO Summit in June 2004. Bulgaria is very important to U.S. foreign policy goals for Southeast Europe and has emerged as a regional leader in promoting political, military and economic stability and strengthening democratic institutions. Bulgaria is undertaking a major reorganization of its defense establishment and is continuing to strengthen democracy and the rule of law.

Professional military training is reaching a critical stage for the Bulgarian armed forces as the government proceeds with the significant military reorganization plan outlined in the Defense Reform 2004 project. The IMET program has been a key aspect of the reorganization so far and will be in the future. Current security assistance training program objectives in Bulgaria are continued exposure to Western models of force structure, tactical doctrine, resource management and providing professional military education(PME) to military and civilian personnel expected to occupy key positions in a defense reform environment.

Future IMET objectives and program requirements will focus on the importance of NATO-compatible C4I systems for the Bulgarian armed forces which will necessitate training of Bulgarian information specialists in U.S. schools. Bulgaria has requested more courses for computer and information specialists and officers, information managers, air traffic controllers and intelligence officers. The defense reform plan also calls for more people trained in defense resource management and the general area of defense acquisition, military law and peacekeeping. MoD is also looking into possibilities for using IMET for train-the-trainer/Mobile Education Team (MET) type of instruction for its NCO corps.

The Bulgarian MoD has taken the first step towards utilizing the $1.1 million U.S. provided Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) grant through signing a $150,000 blanket-order training case for train-the-trainer type of instruction with the Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR), Monterey, CA. So far five Bulgarian students have completed the Phase II Instructor course. A CCMR team visited Bulgaria in the summer of 2003 and conducted a site visit with the purpose of finalizing the Bulgarian peacekeeping concept/Country Action Plan.

Bulgarian soldiers and civilian defense officials also have received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe. This support will help keep Bulgaria focused on the practical steps of NATO integration now that it has been given an invitation to join the Alliance.

The President has waived the prohibition in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) with respect to certain programs for Bulgaria (a NATO invitee).

Croatia

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

63

$705,935

96

$1,078,835

IMET 2-Year

1

$1,203

0

$0

Regional Centers

97

$315,123

79

$270,780

Service Academies

3

$100,171

0

$0

TOTAL

164

$1,122,432

175

$1,349,615


Helping Croatia in its democratic transition and integration into Euro-Atlantic institutions is vital to ensuring the long-term stability of Croatia and the stability of the entire Balkan region. It is in the U.S. interest to support the democratic changes that the citizens of Croatia overwhelmingly voted for in January 2000. These democratic changes in Croatia helped promote similar changes in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro. Our goal is to ensure that Croatia sheds its destructive, nationalist past, fully embraces human and civil rights and continues on its path of becoming a fully reliable partner in Europe. Our military training efforts are a valuable tool in pursuing these objectives.

Since 2000, Croatia has joined, and has made increasing use of its membership in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) program. Croatia entered NATO's Membership Action Plan at the May 2002 NATO Summit in Reykjavik, formalizing its NATO candidacy. IMET programs have supported Croatia's NATO ambitions and fostered appreciation among Croatian military officials for the proper role of the armed forces in a democracy. IMET continues to be one of the more successful elements of U.S. engagement strategy. IMET-trained officers helped to initiate implementation of basic defense reforms, including enhanced civilian control of the military. The new government that took office in December 2003 has indicated that NATO membership is a high priority.

In FY 2003, the IMET program focused on the professionalization and democratization of the Croatian armed forces. Croatia's development and adoption of a National Security Strategy was a clear demonstration of progress in these areas. The main focus of the IMET program remained establishing a solid base of trained personnel, using U.S. training facilities from the Basic NCO level to the Senior Service College level. Our Office of Defense Cooperation (ODC) continued several initiatives supported through E-IMET. Security cooperation programs assisted in the development of a programmed modernization strategy with the MOD. Humanitarian Assistance (HA) programs continued to support the overall Embassy goal of assisting in refugee returns and reintegration in war devastated regions. This was accomplished through reconstruction and renovation projects and through the delivery of HA excess property to those areas. In FY 2002, an Acquisition and Cross Servicing Agreement (ACSA) was signed with the MOD.

For FY 2004, IMET programs would continue to focus on the objectives described above if Croatia complies with the American Servicemembers' Protection Act provisions. Efforts would strive to enhance the professionalization and democratization of the armed forces through IMET and E-IMET programs, but would begin to focus more resources on assisting the MOD in meeting its goals in NATO's Membership Action Plan (MAP). The focus of these efforts would be to address specific MAP goals such as increasing civilian control of the military. IMET programs would use FMS and DCS to enhance NATO compatible communications (through the continued purchase of tactical radios), expand support for English language training and initiate air traffic control/airspace management procedures through integration into the Regional Airspace initiative.

Croatian soldiers and civilian defense officials also have received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

As of the publication date of this report, Croatia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Estonia

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMF

2

$257,328

5

$126,530

IMET

173

$1,282,856

201

$1,473,137

Non-SA, Combatant Command

1

$0

0

$0

Regional Centers

45

$118,997

76

$195,965

Service Academies

3

$125,213

0

$0

TOTAL

224

$1,784,394

282

$1,795,632


Estonia continues to work on the accession process for NATO membership when it will join NATO in the spring of 2004. Primary NATO pre-accession objectives as outlined the Estonian Annual National plan have been to strengthen civil society, bolster democratic and market institutions, assist in the integration of minorities and encourage civilian-controlled, NATO-compatible defense forces. Estonia's Force Structure Review will be sent from the Ministry of Defense (MoD) to the Government by February 1, 2004. The GoE has until February 28 to approve it. In tandem with the Force Structure Review, the MoD will complete the new National Military Strategy, which will follow the same submission timeline. Closely following NATO accession, the MFA will release the new Security Concept. These documents, according to MoD planning staff, are expected to demonstrate a shift in Estonia's defense priorities toward NATO compatibility and deployability.

This shift, coupled with the current burden of forces deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan, will push defense procurement and training needs well above the 2% GDP threshold established by NATO. U.S. security assistance is a vital contribution toward improving Estonian defense capabilities, force readiness and compatibility of deployable forces for NATO and U.S.-led missions. The goal is to achieve defensive capability and deterrence. The training portion of the assistance focuses on Western leadership models and staff procedures, increasing staff proficiency, efficiency and ability to cooperate with other forces. Procurement goals are: operational and tactical-level communications equipment; airspace monitoring, command and control, and air defense; armored personnel carriers; and other equipment that will provide a sound basis for a flexible defense doctrine. NATO-compatible training for Estonian defense forces will raise the level of performance of Estonian participation in ongoing operations in Bosnia (SFOR), Kosovo (KFOR),Iraq (OIF) and Afghanistan (OEF and ISAF).

U.S. assistance ensures that Estonia meets the rigorous demands of NATO membership. According to MoD officials, NATO has asked for 57 force proposals in the accession process, including the creation of a Special Operations Force company by 2005. Of these proposals, 16 are fully accepted and 32 are partially accepted (to be implemented in 2006 rather than 2005). There are 28 specific NATO Force Goals to Estonia: 11 land; 11 maritime; and six air force. Goal demands on Estonia are weighty, and will only increase as Estonia moves from the current "limited challenge" bracket to the "reasonable challenge" bracket in 2005.

Estonian participation in professional military education (PME) develops the professional skills of its soldiers. Courses in English language, command and general staff and advanced management develop common perspectives from which the U.S. and Estonia can interoperate. Specialty training in logistics, intelligence, medicine, logistical information management, air traffic control, amphibious warfare, infantry and maritime boarding develop critical skills necessary to enhance security initiatives and help Estonia carry out crisis responses both regionally and in cooperation with NATO forces. IMET has had a significant multiplier effect in Estonia's development process in prioritizing resources for its own legitimate defense needs and for its contribution to the collective security of Europe. It "trains-the- trainers" and gives junior officers the leadership, administrative and management skills to take over from the previous generation of Soviet-trained officers. The IMET program ensures that U.S. and NATO demands on Estonia, which has offered active political and military support to us in many fora, can be reasonably met.

Estonian officials have also received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for
uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

The President has waived the prohibition in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) with respect to certain programs for Estonia (a NATO invitee).

Finland

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMS

53

$149,090

20

$143,652

Regional Centers

1

$0

15

$0

TOTAL

54

$149,090

35

$143,652


Although not a NATO member, Finland is an active participant in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and a solid partner with the United States in many areas of national security concern. It has been actively engaged in the Balkans and has been a mainstay of other international peacekeeping efforts, e.g. UNIFIL in south Lebanon, a mission that after 20 years ended in December 2001. Finland also provided support to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operations in Afghanistan. Finland actively assists the three Baltic countries to achieve military interoperability with the West. Geographically, Finland shares a border with Russia, giving it strategic importance beyond its size. With respect to the European Security Defense Identity (ESDI), Finland supports a strong EU crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged and which does not duplicate NATO structures. It is a great proponent of interoperability; while in defense trade matters, it supports the trans-Atlantic link. Most U.S. assistance is designed to promote interoperability, an essential element to increasingly close cooperation on defense matters, not only with Finland, but also with Europe in general. For these reasons the U.S. continues to support the relatively small program of Foreign Military Sales purchased training.

Finland also benefited from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

As of the publication date of this report, Finland, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Ireland

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMS

1

$8,292

0

$0

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

2

$15,574

3

$21,570

PME Exchanges

1

$0

3

$0

Regional Centers

2

$0

1

$0

TOTAL

6

$23,866

7

$21,570


Since 1958, Ireland has consistently provided professional military personnel for UN peacekeeping and humanitarian operations supported by the United States. Ireland is currently providing troop units for operations in Afghanistan (ISAF), Bosnia (SFOR), and Kosovo (KFOR), where they work with U.S. and other NATO troops. Ireland is also preparing to deploy troops to Liberia as part of a UN peacekeeping operation. Ireland is a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) Program and, as a member of the European Union, participates in the European Security and Defense Policy. The training provided to Ireland is intended to strengthen the capabilities of the Irish Defense Forces in carrying out these duties and responsibilities.

Ireland also benefited from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

As of the publication date of this report, Ireland, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Latvia

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

2

$17,293

0

$0

FMF

33

$1,661,978

3

$6,000

IMET

185

$1,342,804

50

$1,235,170

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

0

$0

30

$0

Non-SA, Combatant Command

1

$0

0

$0

Regional Centers

50

$212,413

49

$165,118

Service Academies

3

$152,310

0

$0

TOTAL

274

$3,386,798

132

$1,406,288


Latvia continues to work on the accession process for NATO membership; when it will officially join NATO in the spring of 2004. Current U.S. security assistance objectives in Latvia are to: restructure and modernize the Latvian Defense Ministry and headquarters of the National Armed Forces; modernize their C4 systems; continue support for the U.S.-sponsored Regional Airspace Initiative; and improve Latvian defense capabilities and force readiness through the procurement of, and training in, anti-tank systems, NBC individual and unit equipment, and tactical and combat vehicles.

NATO compatible training for Latvian Defense Forces will enhance Latvia's ongoing participation in international peacekeeping missions in Bosnia (SFOR) and Kosovo (KFOR), as well as Afghanistan and Iraq. It also keeps the door open for Latvia's efforts to enhance regional security by improving relations with all neighboring countries. Such training helps Latvia play an active role in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) and other Euro-Atlantic institutions.

Latvia's participation in professional military education (PME) helps to develop the professional skills of senior officers. Courses in English language, command and general staff and advanced management help us to develop a common perspective with Latvian officers on leadership and management. Specialty training in strategic intelligence, air traffic control, physical security, explosive ordnance disposal and infantry tactics help develop the critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and improve the capabilities of the Latvian armed forces in both the internal self-defense and multinational crisis response arenas.

As Latvia prioritizes its resources for its own legitimate defense needs and for its contribution to overall security in Europe, IMET has a significant multiplier effect by "training-the-trainers", thus giving more junior officers the leadership and administrative skills needed to take over from officers who operated under Soviet guidelines. Latvia has put its IMET graduates to work, with officers assigned in command positions or at the senior ranks of the individual services being U.S. IMET graduates. This practice will help keep Latvia focused on the practical steps of NATO integration

Latvia also benefited from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

The President has waived the prohibition in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) for Latvia (a NATO invitee).

Lithuania

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

3

$20,926

0

$0

FMF

0

$0

11

$200,000

FMS

0

$0

1

$4,552

IMET

133

$1,399,240

175

$1,445,553

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

0

$0

30

$0

PME Exchanges

63

$58,558

3

$30,369

Regional Centers

50

$220,252

56

$202,208

Service Academies

10

$525,070

0

$0

TOTAL

259

$2,224,046

276

$1,882,682


Lithuania continues to work on the accession process for joining NATO in spring of 2004. Northern Europe's security depends on Baltic stability and proper Baltic-Russian relations. Lithuania looks to the United States as its primary guide while it works to enhance its security. Our security assistance objectives will improve Lithuanian defense capabilities and force readiness through procurement of, and training in, tactical communications equipment, individual and unit NBC equipment, English language training, air surveillance equipment maintenance and support, contractor support for military transformation and force planning, air defense and cartography. These objectives also fulfill NATO Planning and Review Process (PARP) interoperability objectives and partnership goals of NATO integration.

As Lithuania prioritizes resources for its own legitimate defense needs and for its contribution to the overall security of Europe, training has a significant multiplier effect by training trainers and by giving more junior officers leadership and administrative skills. This will help them take over from the previous generation of officers who trained and operated under the Soviet-era system. NATO-compatible training for Lithuanian defense forces will assist Lithuania in its efforts to enhance security in the region. With the help of such training, Lithuania will be able to play an even more active role in international and Euro-Atlantic institutions, thereby enhancing regional stability.

Lithuania's participation in professional military education (PME) helps to develop the professional skills of the current and future senior leadership. Courses at the senior service colleges, command and general staff colleges and courses in financial management and procurement help Lithuania and the U.S. to develop a common perspective on leadership and management.

NATO-compatible training for Lithuanian Defense Forces as well as the Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) training program enhance Lithuania's continued participation in such international peacekeeping missions as Kosovo (KFOR), the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Specialty training in logistics, military police, special operations, civil military operations, engineering, medicine, maritime ops and infantry tactics help develop the critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and to improve the internal self-defense capabilities of the Lithuanian armed forces. This support will help keep Lithuania focused on the practical steps of NATO integration now that it has been given an invitation to join the Alliance.

Lithuania also benefited from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

The President has waived the prohibition in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) with respect to certain programs for Lithuania (a NATO invitee)

Macedonia (FYROM)

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMF

120

$211,306

0

$0

IMET

99

$687,600

88

$1,079,347

IMET 2-Year

2

$16,382

0

$0

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

$0

40

$75,000

Regional Centers

84

$254,446

73

$233,190

TOTAL

305

$1,169,734

201

$1,387,537


The U.S. has a vital strategic interest in preserving peace and stability in the area of the former Yugoslavia. Macedonia, one of its former constituent republics, suffered an ethnic Albanian insurgency during 2001. The August 2001 Framework Agreement (FWA) laid the groundwork for Macedonia's peace and stability in a context of improved civil rights for minority groups. Among other provisions, the FWA calls for strengthening the State's democratic institutions - particularly the police - by making them more inclusive. With international assistance, Macedonia's political leaders have taken significant steps toward implementation of the FWA and restoration of state authority in the former conflict areas. NATO's Task Force Fox departed Macedonia in April 2003 and was replaced by the EU's Operation Concordia. The Concordia mission ended in December 2003 and was followed by an EU police advisory mission, thus ending international military deployments in Macedonia.

Macedonia's relations with its neighbors are generally friendly and constructive. One of the highest priorities of the Macedonian government is accession to NATO, and Macedonia signed the Adriatic Charter with its partners Albania and Croatia, pledging to work together towards this goal. Macedonian public and governmental support for NATO and Macedonian NATO membership is very strong. The September 15, 2001 elections largely conformed to international standards, and ushered in a new, multiethnic government with a pro-Euro-Atlantic platform, committed to FWA implementation and reforms on the path to eventual EU and NATO membership. Macedonia has proven itself to be a strong ally, contributing units to ISAF in Afghanistan and to the U.S. sector in Iraq.

The U.S. is committed to helping Macedonia progress toward Euro-Atlantic integration. USG military training, through FMF and IMET, of Macedonian officers and NCOs is essential to building support for and implementing much needed reforms. Training in areas such as professional military training, defense resource management information systems and English language training is consistent with the U.S. and NATO goal of supporting Macedonia's border security and counter-insurgency capabilities. Continued USG educational programs can be expected to increase support for broad military reforms within the officer corps.

The FY 2003 FMF program reflects priorities set down by a pending Macedonian Ministry of Defense (MOD) Statement of Work, and developed in cooperation with a DoD team, which is working with the new government to finalize a bilateral defense assessment. U.S. defense consultant Booz Allen Hamilton continues defense reform work with the Macedonian government and military. Current indications are that the bulk of FY 2004 FMF funds will be directed toward reform assistance, communications equipment and equipment needed for deployment in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Scheduled FY 2004 IMET training focuses on professional military education (PME), such as special operations training for commissioned and non-commissioned officers and courses in signals, intelligence, counter-insurgency warfare and resource management. Among these priorities, resource management is foremost. IMET training is improving Macedonia's potential for NATO interoperability and is enhancing its ability to participate in Partnership for Peace (PfP) exercises. FMF also continues to be used to finance a renewed emphasis on English language training (placing a language coordinator in-country to assist the MOD in developing and implementing a viable program) and on equipment maintenance.

The Marshall Center in Germany continues to provide U.S.-funded training to civilian and uniformed Macedonian defense officials. Through seminars and conferences, the Marshall Center instructs Central and Eastern European students in civil-military relations, ethnic conflict prevention, anticorruption measures and defense economics.

Finally, as a NATO aspirant and PfP participant, Macedonia's MOD continues to use NATO Kosovo presence to familiarize military officers with NATO procedures.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Macedonia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Malta

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

CTFP

0

$0

15

$300,000

IMET

80

$275,507

110

$255,491

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

0

$0

60

$720

Regional Centers

0

$0

5

$19,600

TOTAL

80

$275,507

190

$575,811


Malta is strategically located in the Central Mediterranean. It is considered by many in the international community, including EU member and EU accession states, to be a key forward boundary that bridges Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. One third of all international maritime traffic passes through or by Malta. Malta has two large ports including a regionally important Freeport, and a major ship repair facility (vital to the U.S. Navy). Given its location (near Libya, Syria and Algeria) and history of lax law enforcement, the Malta Freeport is considered by the U.S. Government to be a potentially serious weapons of mass destruction (WMD) transshipment threat.

U.S. national interests include checking Libyan influence, particularly its WMD program development. In addition, Malta is an active partner with the U.S. in combating counter-terrorism and WMD proliferation. As a result of Malta's close cooperation with the U.S. on a wide range of security related activities, it also serves as a proxy nation in promoting regional security and stability.

In July 2003, all IMET funding was suspended due to Malta's resistance to sign an Article 98 agreement with the United States. The EU leadership pressured Malta and other EU accession countries against signing such an accord or risk endangering their EU accession prospects. The suspension of U.S. military assistance has seriously hindered Malta's armed forces ability to continue their military development and standardization programs. Though DoD has provided some counter terrorism funding during FY 2003, the overall U.S./Malta counter terrorism and WMD efforts have suffered. Embassy Valletta submitted a formal Article 98 suspension waiver request to Washington in July 2003, which remains under review.

The Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) has become instrumental in building upon the successes started by the IMET program in helping Malta develop a capability to conduct effective Maritime Law Enforcement operations oriented toward interdiction of WMD and materials that transit Maltese ports and waters. The Armed Forces of Malta recognizes its limitations in the area of counter terrorism and has actively sought U.S. assistance aimed at improving recognized shortcomings. The current Maltese focus for counter terrorism (CT) efforts is to increase its intelligence capability to collect, analyze, identify, and target the terrorist threat. It is also concerned with building a crisis response capability to a terrorist activity. This includes developing the capability to identify, manage, and respond to a terrorist threat.

As of the publication date of this report, Malta, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Romania

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

2

$17,670

0

$0

CTFP

3

$320,025

10

$200,000

FMF

639

$796,695

68

$371,161

IMET

171

$2,146,198

230

$2,606,776

IMET 2-Year

11

$114,508

0

$0

PME Exchanges

30

$15,000

39

$164,433

Regional Centers

166

$588,754

82

$345,333

Service Academies

19

$412,790

0

$0

TOTAL

1041

$4,411,640

429

$3,687,703


Romania will become a member of NATO at the NATO Summit in June 2004. As the largest country in size and population in southeast Europe, Romania contributes significantly to peace and security in a troubled region and beyond. In 1997, Presidents Clinton and Constantinescu declared a "Strategic Partnership" between the U.S. and Romania, and the resultant U.S. training provided to the Romanian military is a clear demonstration of that partnership.

U.S. bilateral military assistance is helping Romania develop an efficient military under civilian control. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) assistance is helping develop a modern NCO corps with NATO standards. To support the Defense Ministry's Reform Plan, we also provide advice and assistance to downsize and professionalize the Romanian military, making it more NATO-interoperable. The success of both programs already is evident -- Romania has greatly reduced the size of its officer corps, leading to greater efficiency, and plans to transition from a conscription-based military to an all-volunteer force by 2007.

The Government of Romania (GOR) seeks U.S. military training for as many officers as possible and the IMET program's wide range of training available to the Romanian military has helped improve military readiness in all sectors. In FY 2003, officers attended courses in such subjects as: amphibious warfare, field artillery, infantry, engineer, military police, civil-military relations, defense resource management, logistics and English language. Romanian students have also attended U.S. Army and Naval Command and Staff Colleges, and the U.S. Army War College. Many Romanian IMET graduates currently serve alongside U.S. forces in Afghanistan and Iraq, where they have integrated well with other coalition members and acquitted themselves with distinction.

Romanian soldiers and civilian defense officials also receive U.S.-funded training at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Center concentrates on providing courses, conferences and seminars on civil-military relations in the developing democracies of Central Europe and the Newly Independent States. This support will help keep Romania focused on the practical steps of NATO integration.

The President has waived the prohibition in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Romania, a State Party to the Rome Statute, until May 1, 2004.

Serbia and Montenegro

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

48

$208,432

84

$318,493

TOTAL

48

$208,432

84

$318,493


Serbia and Montenegro is key to ensuring long-term stability in the Balkans. Following the democratic transition in Belgrade, our policy has been to encourage development of a professional military that is cooperative and compatible with Western standards, respects human rights and whose actions do not pose a threat to peace and stability in the Balkans. In May 2003, President Bush signed a Presidential Determination authorizing initiation of an IMET program with Serbia and Montenegro. Although the FY 2003 budget included funding for Serbia and Montenegro, IMET funds were not obligated before the July 1 ASPA sanction deadline.

As of the publication date of this report, Serbia and Montenegro, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Slovakia

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

1

$9,125

1

$16,024

FMF

139

$740,695

0

$0

IMET

106

$1,246,068

43

$1,216,596

IMET 2-Year

1

$66,729

0

$0

PME Exchanges

9

$161,714

6

$59,292

Regional Centers

51

$148,733

50

$160,748

TOTAL

307

$2,373,064

100

$1,452,660


Slovakia will become a member of NATO at the NATO Summit in June 2004. The U.S. supports Slovakia's continued economic and political reform; as well as its efforts in defense reform. IMET and other types of training and education help Slovakia play an increasingly active role as a regional defense and security partner (including deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan) and to prepare the country for NATO integration. Training and education will further enhance Slovakia's NATO interoperability.

Slovakia's participation in professional military education (PME) helps to develop the professional skills of senior officers, respect for the rule of law and human rights and a greater understanding of the concept of civilian control of the military. Courses in English language, information systems management, defense management and senior staff courses help Slovakia and the U.S. develop a shared perspective on leadership and management.

Specialty training in nuclear, chemical and biological consequence management as well as search and rescue capability helps to develop critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and improve the capabilities of the Slovak military. This support will also help keep Slovakia focused on the practical steps of NATO integration now that it has been given an invitation to join the Alliance.

Slovakia also benefited from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

The President has waived the prohibition in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) with respect to certain programs for Slovakia (a NATO invitee).

Slovenia

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMF

689

$562,551

0

$0

FMS

3

$0

0

$0

IMET

341

$1,004,869

148

$1,179,765

Regional Centers

39

$123,726

105

$281,899

TOTAL

1072

$1,691,146

253

$1,461,664


Slovenia will become a member of NATO at the NATO Summit in June 2004. As a bridge between Central Europe and the Balkans, Slovenia has increasingly displayed the ability to positively influence Southeast European countries at differing stages of reform and integration. A Slovenia that is actively engaged in addressing regional security problems and a Slovenian military force that is stable, strong, well-administered and closely tied to Euro-Atlantic institutions serves U.S. national security interests. Slovenia will send a small contingent of special forces to Afghanistan in January 2004 to participate in ISAF.

International Military Training and Education (IMET) programs foster development of a strong bilateral military-to-military relationship and assist Slovenia in preparing its forces for entry into NATO. It also deepens Slovenian engagement in regional security arrangements, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and peacekeeping in the nearby area's zone of instability.

Slovenia's participation in IMET-sponsored senior professional military education (PME), officer development courses and non-commissioned officer training helps to develop the professional skills of senior- and mid-level officers and NCOs, and increases interoperability of the Slovene military with U.S. and NATO forces. Further, Expanded-IMET courses on civil-military relations, international defense resource management and military justice foster respect for the rule of law and human rights, and a greater understanding of the concept of civilian control of the military. Specialty training in courses such as airfield operations officer, ranger training, peacekeeping, logistics and acquisition management, help develop critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and interoperability, while at the same time improving the internal self-defense capabilities of the Slovenian armed forces. Slovenia has also undertaken a robust English language-training program with its Foreign Military Financing (FMF). Mobile Training Teams (MTTs) and the employment of a longer-term English language training coordinator have resulted in great success in this area, with a significant percentage of the Slovenian military speaking English. Continued training support will help keep Slovenia focused on NATO integration now that it will soon join the Alliance.

For the first time, the Slovenia Armed Forces (SAF) is devoting a sizable share of available IMET funds to NCO Corps development -- long identified by the USG as a critical area for Slovenian military reform and a priority for NATO accession.

Slovenia also benefited from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

The President has waived the prohibition in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) with respect to certain programs for Slovenia (a NATO invitee).

Sweden

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMS

55

$897,167

31

$1,024,241

Regional Centers

7

$0

5

$0

TOTAL

62

$897,167

36

$1,024,241


Although Sweden is not a member of NATO, it is an active participant in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and a solid partner with the United States in many areas of national security concern. For example, Sweden is an energetic player in the Balkans, was one of the first with troops on the ground in Kosovo and provided support to the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan. Sweden is a staunch supporter of NATO's Open Door and actively assists the three Baltic countries to achieve military interoperability with the West. Sweden has donated equipment to outfit troops in the Baltics. Sweden has also expressed interest in engaging in joint military exercises with Russia, which is an effort we support. With respect to the European Security Defense Identity (ESDI), Sweden supports a strong European Union crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged and which does not duplicate NATO structures. It is a great proponent of interoperability and in defense trade matters, supports the trans-Atlantic link. It is therefore more important than ever to promote close cooperation on security issues between Sweden and the United States.

Sweden also benefited from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

As of the publication date of this report, Sweden, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Switzerland

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMS

85

$7,110,566

45

$639,971

Regional Centers

19

$0

20

$0

TOTAL

104

$7,110,566

65

$639,971


The U.S. and Switzerland work closely to advance human rights, democracy, nonproliferation and other issues of global concern. A traditionally neutral democratic nation, Switzerland has focused on its ability to participate in democracy-building and peacekeeping exercises since joining NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) in 1996. Its PfP goals focus largely on enhancing interoperability of forces and capabilities that may be declared available for PfP activities, but within self-imposed limits on participation related to the Swiss concept of neutrality. The Swiss PfP program for 2004 is expected to remain at 2002 and 2003 levels, with approximately 33 partnership goals and between 500 and 700 participants. These figures include activities of Switzerland's three centers: The Geneva Center for Humanitarian Demining, the Geneva Center for Security Policy and the Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.

As of the publication date of this report, Switzerland, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.




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