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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. DOS Foreign Policy Objectives -- Near East Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2003 and 2004
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
June 2004
Report
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Algeria

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

CTFP

7

$47,654

10

$200,000

Exchange Training

0

$0

40

$150,000

IMET

113

$276,821

66

$1,038,418

Regional Centers

158

$54,059

20

$138,300

TOTAL

278

$378,534

136

$1,526,718


The U.S. has a clear interest in increasing regional stability by promoting democracy, economic reform and security in Algeria. The proposed plan continues to advise a measured approach in order to encourage reform within the Algerian military establishment and gradually move it along a path toward greater pluralism and respect for civilian authority. After a decade of bitter conflict with armed terrorist insurgents, attacks have diminished and Algeria's military has begun to focus its counter terrorism efforts on collaboration with regional partners in order to secure its long and porous borders. The Government of Algeria has also expressed a keen interest in expanding the scope of its cooperation with the United States in combating terrorism and ensuring stability in the Mediterranean. United States counter terrorism cooperation with Algeria has increased substantially in recent years. Algeria has proven to be an important partner in U.S. efforts to stem the tide of terrorist activity in North Africa and the Mediterranean. The single most important area of education for Algerian military personnel is, and will remain, professional education of mid-level and senior leaders in order to build a cadre of personnel who can function effectively with the U.S. and regional counterparts.

Participation in the IMET program helps Algerian military officers develop contacts with U.S. counterparts, better understand U.S. policy, increase awareness of international norms and foster greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military. IMET training promotes professionalism and reinforces among core supporters of the regime the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. These officers will establish essential contacts with U.S. counterparts whose influence can encourage reform within the Algerian military. In FY 2004, IMET funds will be used to send Algerian officers to key professional military education (PME) courses as well as selected technical training courses. Our focus will continue to be upon IMET-funded English language training in order to continue to expand and improve the Algerian military's interoperability with U.S. forces, facilitate interaction in potential future contingency operations such as peacekeeping missions, and prepare them for increased training opportunities.

In addition, Algerian participation in the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Algeria by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Algeria is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Bahrain

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMS

102

$785,181

76

$1,964,346

IMET

119

$536,822

46

$400,399

Regional Centers

1

$0

13

$2,200

TOTAL

222

$1,322,003

135

$2,366,945


The United States has an enduring national security interest in maintaining its access to Bahraini military facilities in order to maintain our influence in the Persian Gulf and to conduct operations in the on-going Global War on Terrorism. Bahrain has hosted the U.S. Navy 5th Fleet for more than 50 years. The relatively open access to facilities, land and airspace needed to support contingency operations, including joint task force, fleet and Multinational Interception Force (MIF) operations are critical to maintaining U.S. operations in the region. In addition, Bahrain annually hosts important exercises that involve U.S. forces.

Our security and political relationship with Bahrain continues to be strong. In 2001, the President designated Bahrain a Major Non-NATO Ally. Bahrain and the United States have maintained a Defense Cooperation Agreement (DCA) since 1991. Bahrain has been a steadfast supporter of our foreign policy objectives in Iraq and Libya, not only as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council in 1997, but also as a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Bahrain has also been a critical supporter of our containment of Iranian ambitions in the region and has been a key supporter of the Global War on Terrorism. Bahrain responded positively to all NAVCENT and U.S. military requests for Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom, and will remain a critical hub for the U.S. presence in the Gulf and Southwest Asia. Bahrain has been an active participant in the War on Terrorism and was the only GCC country to provide a ship to the Coalition effort. Bahrain has also assumed a leadership role in regional efforts to cut off the flow of funding to terrorist groups.

Training activities funded under IMET and the approval of selected commercial and FMS arms sales promote the interoperability of the Bahrain Defense Forces with existing U.S. and GCC forces in the region. Through the IMET program, Bahrain sends officers to U.S. war colleges, command and staff schools, and other key professional military education (PME) and technical courses. IMET training reinforces democratic principles of civilian control of the military, enhances interoperability with U.S. forces, promotes professionalism and reinforces among core supporters of the regime the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. In addition, Bahrain has in the past sent students to the U.S. service academies. By improving English language skills and understanding of our military, these training programs directly enhance the effectiveness of our bilateral and multilateral joint training programs.

By its own terms, � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit the provision of military assistance to Bahrain.

Egypt

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

CTFP

1

$12,000

0

$0

FMF

1516

$21,605,318

854

$12,222,287

IMET

73

$1,617,953

122

$2,638,826

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

25

$783,000

0

$0

Regional Centers

9

$62,723

19

$89,300

Service Academies

2

$83,141

0

$0

TOTAL

1626

$24,164,135

995

$14,950,413


Egypt is a pivotal country in the Arab world and a key U.S. ally in the Middle East. The U.S. seeks to promote regional peace and security by encouraging Egypt's continued participation and leadership in Middle East peace efforts. Egypt has been at peace with Israel for over two decades, but has potentially hostile rivals in Sudan and Libya. Egypt faces challenges in maintaining sea lines of communication as well as to protecting territorial and Nile headwaters and its vast, sparsely populated borders with Sudan and Libya. Egypt's strategic location and control of the Suez Canal make it a critical transit point for petroleum and for U.S. forces. Egypt plays a major role in the Global War on Terrorism and has fostered regional stability by acting as a reliable coalition partner through constant engagement in the Middle East Peace Process. The Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program provides the Government of Egypt the ability to sustain the counter terrorism framework in support of Operation Enduring Freedom.

President Mubarak was the first head of an Arab state to make a public statement of support for the strikes on Afghanistan, and Egypt has been extremely cooperative in working with the U.S. to crack down on financing activities of terrorist entities. The importance of Egypt's cooperation for Suez Canal access and security, as well as over flight clearances cannot be overstated. In 2003, Egypt granted clearances for almost 15,000 military over flights and for over 430 U.S. Navy ship passages. Egypt participates in a number of annual joint military exercises, and hosts the biennial Operation Bright Star, the largest U.S. military training exercise in the world. Cancelled in October 2003 due to Operation Iraqi Freedom, Bright Star sends an important message to the region about U.S. and coalition capabilities to project forces into the region.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Egypt by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Egypt's replacement of outmoded Soviet-era equipment with smaller quantities of more capable and sustainable U.S. equipment is well underway. Increasing the amount of U.S.-origin equipment in the Egyptian inventory augments U.S. interoperability with Egypt, enhancing their value as a coalition partner. Egypt's training, funded under the IMET and FMF programs, enhances counter terrorism training, improves Egypt's maintenance and supply capabilities, increases English language skills of the Egyptian officer corps and improves pilot proficiency. Attendance at the U.S. military command and staff colleges and service academies advances leadership skills and improves understanding between our militaries. All of these programs directly enhance joint training.

By its own terms, � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit the provision of military assistance to Egypt.

Iraq

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

CTFP

0

$0

20

$400,000

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

9071

$67,985,866

30000

$536,000,000

Section 506

139

$751,242

26

$213,520

TOTAL

9210

$68,737,108

30046

$536,613,520


The United States, together with its coalition partners, successfully conducted Operation Iraqi Freedom to remove the Saddam Hussein regime from power. "Free Iraqi Forces" (FIF)—Iraqi exiles trained to support coalition forces—participated fully in Iraq's liberation. Training took place under the auspices of the Iraqi Liberation Act in Taszar, Hungary, and included such topics as public affairs, strategic planning, humanitarian assistance, international law, logistics and civil affairs. During combat operations FIF were able to use their language skills and specialized knowledge of the area of operations to better inform tactical decision making of military commanders. After major combat operations ended, many FIF continued to work closely with Army civil affairs units assisting the Iraqi people with a broad array of reconstruction and governance capacity-building efforts.

The reconstruction effort is ongoing. The Coalition continues to work with the international community and the Iraqi people to build a new Iraq on the foundation of peace and democracy. Central to this effort is the need to build effective, responsible and professional security institutions. The State Department will continue to be active in developing and implementing policy related to this important task. It is essential a long-term strategy be developed and funding allocated to provide training for the newly developed Iraqi military and para-military forces.

As of the publication date of this report, Iraq is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Israel

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMF

908

$12,977,694

182

$2,022,697

FMS

487

$4,434,784

376

$1,434,745

Regional Centers

54

$0

65

$2,200

TOTAL

1449

$17,412,478

623

$3,459,642


It is in the U.S. national interest to promote a stable, democratic and militarily strong Israel that is at peace with its neighbors. President Bush has reiterated the steadfast U.S. commitment to Israel's security, to the maintenance of its qualitative militarily edge and to strengthen Israel's ability to deter potential aggressors and defend itself. Maintaining Israel's qualitative military edge in the regional balance of power enhances Israel's security and helps prevent regional conflict. Israel remains one of the USG's most important allies in countering the threat of weapons of mass destruction in the region.

The U.S. has provided Israel with over $93 billion in economic and military assistance since 1949 and Israel continues to receive the largest share of U.S. security assistance worldwide. Foreign military training spending, both as a portion of U.S.-provided FMF and as DoD-funded non-security assistance, is an important element in maintaining Israel's qualitative military edge. Training for Israeli personnel during FY 2003 included Air, Naval and Army War College courses, flight simulator training, and avionics systems and armament maintenance training, among other programs. By providing both technical expertise and exposure to U.S. military culture and personnel, these programs contribute significantly to the strengthening of U.S.-Israel military ties.

By its own terms, � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit the provision of military assistance to Israel.

Jordan

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

CTFP

23

$527,271

25

$500,000

FMF

2

$458,917

1

$0

FMS

2

$10,964

2

$11,266

IMET

244

$2,894,343

260

$2,860,033

PME Exchanges

8

$97,568

1

$18,108

Regional Centers

16

$74,538

26

$111,060

Service Academies

4

$154,600

0

$0

TOTAL

299

$4,218,201

315

$3,500,467


Stability and economic prosperity in the Middle East support U.S. national security objectives. As a moderate, pro-West state, Jordan is in a position to play a pivotal role as a stabilizing influence in the region by virtue of its borders with Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Syria and Israel. Political stability and economic development in Jordan are necessary prerequisites to enhance Jordan's moderate influence in the region.

Peace in the Middle East is one of Jordan's highest priorities, especially in light of its significant Palestinian population and its peace treaty with Israel. Jordan is also in a position to contribute to collective regional security goals. Jordan is playing a key role in support of Iraq stability, including facilitating training for up to 30,000 Iraqi police cadets and providing training for some 1,700 Iraqi military officers at Jordanian military colleges. Jordan has deployed a field hospital to Fallujah, which has so far treated 130,000 Iraqi civilians. The Jordanians are providing critical support and guidance to Iraq's new ministries. Jordan has been a strong supporter of the Global War on Terrorism and has deployed an airborne company, field hospital and demining unit to Afghanistan in support of coalition operations. Jordan has relatively porous borders with Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Iraq where transnational terrorism is a major consideration and threat. Jordan is especially critical to the Middle East Peace Process, considering approximately 62% of the country's population is Palestinian. The Jordanian Armed Forces' (JAF) main mission is to protect against external threats; however, the JAF maintains close ties with Jordan's Public Security Directorate over transnational threats that could jeopardize internal security of the Kingdom. The JAF's efforts to curb transnational terrorism within the region directly supports U.S. security interests within the Middle East. The Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program helps to maintain our close bilateral relationship with a key regional Arab ally.

The U.S.-Jordan military-to-military relationship is excellent, and Jordan has been designated a Major Non-NATO Ally. FMF helps the Jordanian armed force address its readiness and sustainment requirements, and this program remains the only source of funds for Jordanian military modernization programs as outlined in their Five-Year Plan. FMF also supports counter-terrorism and border security requirements. Jordan's successful efforts at border control are critical to prevent illicit trafficking of arms, explosives, drugs and equipment for use in the production of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. Improved security for Jordanian borders translates into enhanced domestic stability for Jordan, improved security for Israel and for the U.S. military based in Saudi Arabia, as well as for coalition forces in Iraq.

Jordan has one of the largest IMET programs in the world and regularly sends officers to U.S. war colleges, command and staff schools and other key professional military education (PME) and technical courses. IMET training reinforces democratic principles of civilian control of the military, enhances interoperability with U.S. forces, promotes professionalism and reinforces among core supporters of the regime the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. The exercise program is also robust, and Jordan participates in multiple bilateral and multilateral exercises annually.

By its own terms, � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit the provision of military assistance to Jordan.

Kuwait

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMS

504

$10,133,561

751

$11,341,012

Regional Centers

8

$0

17

$2,200

TOTAL

512

$10,133,561

768

$11,343,212


The United States has a demonstrable interest in maintaining its access to Kuwait's facilities, land and airspace. Kuwait faces the difficult task of securing its Iranian and Iraqi borders. A continuous U.S. presence has been key to Kuwait's security since the Gulf War.

In November, the President notified Congress of his intent to designate Kuwait a Major Non-NATO Ally for its consistent support to our operations in the Gulf and in South Asia, as well as for its international counter-terrorism efforts. Kuwait hosts the forward headquarters of CENTCOM's ground forces, and approximately 25,000 U.S. and coalition military personnel operating in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. The open access to facilities, land and airspace needed to support contingency operations, including joint task force and fleet operations, are critical to the U.S. presence in the region and ongoing military operations there.

The continued participation of Kuwaitis in military-to-military training initiatives and joint military exercises promotes interoperability with U.S. and Gulf Cooperation Council forces, recognizes Kuwait's invaluable support for U.S. force deployments and helps Kuwait to assume greater responsibility for its own defense and regional security by encouraging the development of its professional military command.

By its own terms, � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit military assistance to Kuwait.

Lebanon

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

197

$577,642

288

$887,232

INL

0

$0

30

$0

Regional Centers

1

$13,397

0

$0

TOTAL

198

$591,039

318

$887,232


U.S. interests lie with a free and independent Lebanon at peace with its neighbors, especially Israel. Lebanon is rebuilding after its 16-year civil war, which ended in 1991, however there remains a long way to go. Israeli forces withdrew completely from south Lebanon in May 2000, as recognized by the United Nations Security Council and Secretary General. However, Lebanon, under the strong influence of Syria, maintains that Israel continues to occupy some Lebanese territory in the area of Sheb'a Farms. The Government of Lebanon has made some progress toward rebuilding its civil institutions and reestablishing the rule of law following the end of the civil war. Still, armed militias -(in particular Syrian and Iranian supported Hizballah) remain largely outside the control of the central government. The poor economy remains a serious problem for Lebanon problem. At the end of 2003, many analysts believed that Lebanon required comprehensive economic and financial reforms to overcome the dynamic that had led to the accumulation of over $30 billion in public debt. A secure and independent Lebanon could help weaken forces supporting global terrorism and contribute further to the fight against illegal drugs and counterfeiting.

Peace between Israel and Lebanon, while largely tied to the Israel-Syria peace track, is a critical component of a comprehensive Middle East peace. We continue to support the development of independent Lebanese institutions, in part to minimize the influence of external forces such as Syria.

A comprehensive Middle East peace cannot be achieved absent peace between Lebanon and Israel. Although the Lebanon track is tied to the Syrian track, we continue to promote a Lebanese-Israeli peace and support the development of independent institutions minimizing the influence of external players, including Iran and Syria.

IMET funding was reinstated for Lebanon in 1993. The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) have taken full advantage of the opportunity for professional military education (PME) and technical training. The country team reports that IMET graduates are employed in positions of command and responsibility and achieve proportionally higher rank and influence than their non-IMET peers. In addition, USG assistance to the LAF counters the prevailing tendency to break down society along strictly sectarian/confessional lines in one of the country's major functioning institutions. IMET training also provides an important alternative to military training with Syria and other countries. In FY 2004, Lebanon will send students to various PME courses and continue in-country maritime training in the areas of logistics support, boat repair, medical training, crisis management, environmental and port security and search and rescue. Lebanon also continues to benefit from non-security assistance humanitarian mine action de-mining training, which helps finance an on-going program to remove landmines throughout Lebanon (especially in southern Lebanon where we continue to encourage increased deployments of the armed forces in order to stabilize the border areas).

As of the publication date of this report, Lebanon is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Morocco

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

CTFP

1

$89,800

10

$200,000

FMS

0

$0

30

$174,405

IMET

132

$1,438,869

152

$2,099,859

Non-SA, Combatant Command

400

$2,165,449

95

$246,000

Regional Centers

4

$19,778

170

$153,900

Service Academies

2

$102,225

0

$0

TOTAL

539

$3,816,121

457

$2,874,164


A strategic anchor at the cusp of Africa, Europe and the Arab world, Morocco sits on the south side of the Straits of Gibraltar. From the start of his reign in 1999, King Mohamed VI has shown himself to be a progressive monarch. He has introduced legislation and practices that advance human rights, economic and political reform. However, he has inherited a kingdom that is poor - a middle-ranked developing country - and a political system whose reform is real but far from complete. The United States seeks to support this democratic and free-market opening to encourage a Morocco that is stable, prosperous and free. The U.S. has selected Morocco to be its second free trade partner in the Arab world after Jordan and a key participant in its goal of a Middle East Free Trade Area; negotiations on a bilateral Free Trade Agreement are now near completion.

Morocco is pro-U.S. in orientation and provides strong support for the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), including assistance that enabled an Al Qaeda plot on U.S. shipping interests in the Straits of Gibraltar to be foiled. On May 16, Morocco suffered its own terrorist attack, when simultaneous suicide bombers killed 45 people in Casablanca. Morocco has solicited U.S. assistance on combating terrorist financing, and its anti-money laundering legislation is currently pending. Morocco's moderate policies on the Arab-Israeli conflict and direct overtures toward Israel have proven helpful to our regional peace efforts. It is in the U.S. interest to support stability in Morocco and to support the continuance of Morocco's friendly foreign policy. As the dialogue between NATO and several Middle East states affirms, stability in Morocco and the Maghreb is of vital importance to our Southern European NATO allies. Morocco has been an important moderate voice in the Arab world. Its government continues to support many of the United State's most important foreign policy objectives, especially those relating to the GWOT. It has demonstrated excellent cooperation with the United States in identifying and attacking terrorist cells and networks throughout the North African region. One of the major areas that the Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program can contribute to Morocco's participation in the GWOT will be in extending U.S. training opportunities to the Royal Moroccan Gendarmerie and other, non military, organizations in Morocco that have not been able to avail themselves to U.S. educational opportunities.

The Near East South Asia Center (NESA) in Washington supports democratic governance in Morocco by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. NESA participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in the Middle East.

The IMET program increases awareness of international norms of human rights, fosters greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military and helps Moroccan military officers understand U.S. foreign policies. Morocco sends students to professional military education (PME) courses including U.S. service war colleges, command and staff colleges and other key leadership courses. Moroccan attendance at these PME courses fosters one-to-one relationships that pay invaluable rewards in the form of interoperability, coordination and mutual understanding. Also, IMET-funded maintenance and logistics technical courses, as well as English language training enhances Morocco's value as a partner in multinational training exercises, peacekeeping missions and potential future coalition contingency actions. Morocco has participated in numerous peacekeeping operations, and currently has peacekeepers in Bosnia, Kosovo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC).

As of the publication date of this report, Morocco is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Oman

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMS

35

$154,950

71

$3,545,723

IMET

51

$410,781

36

$674,189

Non-SA, Combatant Command

15

$26,000

0

$0

Regional Centers

19

$69,715

24

$88,249

Section 1004

0

$0

30

$150,000

Service Academies

1

$50,085

0

$0

TOTAL

121

$711,531

161

$4,458,161


Oman's strategic location on the southern shore of the Strait of Hormuz opposite Iran makes our relationship with the Sultanate critical to U.S. commitments to defend national, regional and global interests in the Gulf. Access to Oman's military bases through a long-standing bilateral agreement provides a key anchor for our regional political-military strategy. Security cooperation has been the bedrock upon which our bilateral relationship with Oman rests. Oman has strongly supported the Global War on Terrorism, and early access to Omani bases was critical to the successful campaign against terrorist forces in Afghanistan. Continued access to facilities and airspace are vital to U.S. interests in the region, the war on terrorism and any future contingencies in Southwest Asia. Additionally, for the past twenty years, we have been able to count on Oman's support for U.S. regional policy initiatives, including peace efforts and U.S.-Iraq policy.

Oman's long-term domestic political stability improves prospects for continued policy support and military access. The USG provides technical assistance for economic, political and legal reforms. It also works closely with Oman, both bilaterally and through the World Trade Organization (Oman became a member of the WTO in October 2000), to encourage a more transparent regulatory environment that will attract increased investment and trade.

The U.S. should actively support the improvement of the Sultan's armed forces through professional military education (PME) and technical training. IMET training provided to Oman covers a broad range, including PME, English language, technical and logistics training, medical corps development, demining efforts and maritime operations. IMET training reinforces democratic principles of civilian control of the military, enhances interoperability with U.S. forces, promotes professionalism and reinforces among core supporters of the regime the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. Oman has also participated in joint military exercises to improve its interoperability with U.S. and Coalition forces.

The Near East South Asia Center (NESA) in Washington supports democratic governance in Oman by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. NESA participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in the Middle East.

As of the publication date of this report, Oman is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Qatar

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMF

6

$258,900

0

$0

FMS

40

$1,086,286

26

$447,078

Regional Centers

15

$0

24

$2,700

Service Academies

1

$0

0

$0

TOTAL

62

$1,345,186

50

$449,778


Our military relationship with Qatar is strong and vital. Emir Hamad is pursuing democratic principals and working to strengthen the U.S. relationship, particularly military ties. The U.S.-Qatar Defense Cooperation Agreement, which was signed in 1992, established the basis for our growing military-to-military relationship. Qatar has hosted CENTCOM's Command Forward Headquarters since 2002. Over the last several years, Qatar has also hosted a number of Air Expeditionary Forces (AEF) and related deployments. Qatari support to Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom has been outstanding and vital to our efforts in the region. Qatar has, without question, the most impressive preposition infrastructure in the Middle East, if not the world. Of particular significance, the U.S. and Qatar recently concluded an Implementing Agreement outlining use of Al Udeid facilities. The Al Udeid Air Base, which is currently home to CENTCOM's Air Operations Center (CAOC), features one of the longest and most capable runways in the region. In addition, Qatar hosted the joint/combined exercise Internal Look with U.S., Qatar and other forces in 2002.

Strategically located in the Gulf, it is vital that the U.S. continues to support military-to-military initiatives and training as well as joint training exercises. The relationships, principles and doctrine future leaders of Qatar's military develop in this bilateral engagement will enhance future coalition understanding, capabilities and interoperability.

The Near East South Asia Center (NESA) in Washington supports democratic governance in Qatar by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. NESA participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in the Middle East.

As of the publication date of this report, Qatar is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Saudi Arabia

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMS

1113

$18,147,238

1761

$28,823,694

FMS (Saudi Arabian National Guard)

539

$2,003,340

509

$1,971,863

IMET

3

$27,092

0

$0

Regional Centers

9

$24,772

173

$101,300

TOTAL

1664

$20,202,442

2443

$30,896,857


Saudi Arabia is a key ally in the Global War on Terrorism and would play a central political role in any security initiatives in the region. Despite post 9/11 strains, military-to-military relations remain positive, based on decades of cooperation and close consultation, as well as years of U.S. support to Saudi Arabia's military programs including training, joint exercises, FMS and commercial arms sales. Continued military-to-military contacts and joint military exercises will encourage the development of a professional military command and armed forces compatible with, and favorably disposed towards, its U.S. counterparts. This continued cooperation will allow the Kingdom to assume a greater role in self-defense, assist the U.S. in achieving its policy goals in the region and support our efforts to promote security cooperation among the Gulf Cooperation Council members.

As of the publication date of this report, Saudi Arabia is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Tunisia

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

4

$24,287

2

$21,482

CTFP

0

$0

0

$0

IMET

90

$1,859,432

106

$1,737,088

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

$0

80

$170,000

PME Exchanges

5

$39,402

2

$18,726

Regional Centers

12

$66,548

23

$111,583

Service Academies

1

$52,140

0

$0

TOTAL

112

$2,041,809

213

$2,058,879


Tunisia is a firmly secular state in a troubled Middle East region, where the U.S. national interest in maintaining access to crucial energy supplies remains high. Located at the Africa-Sicily chokepoint of the Mediterranean, it is a natural economic and strategic bridge to Europe. A close regional ally of the United States, Tunisia considers the U.S. to be its closest military partner. Our interest is to ensure a strong, durable fabric of bilateral relations which include: active Tunisian participation in efforts to promote regional stability, particularly in Middle East peace efforts; bilateral military cooperation; peacekeeping operations; counter-terrorism cooperation, including improved border security and littoral defense; and continued access of U.S. forces to Tunisian facilities.

Joint training exercises are an important feature of our relationship, as Tunisian troops typically engage in 10-12 combined exercises with U.S. forces annually. With over 70% of the Tunisia military equipment of U.S.-origin, the Tunisian Army and Air Force have based their structure and operational doctrine on the U.S. Army and Air Force. This greatly enhances the ability to integrate Tunisian forces into operations with U.S. forces. Tunisian training with U.S. forces enhances their value as a potential coalition partner and recently proved instrumental to Tunisia's participation in Kosovo in support of UN humanitarian efforts. In fact, Tunisia recently deployed troops in UN peacekeeping missions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MUNOC), Eritrea (UNMEE) and Kosovo (UNMIK).

IMET provides basic and advanced English language training for Tunisian military officers and noncommissioned officers. Tunisian officers have attended U.S. service war colleges, staff colleges, major professional military education (PME) courses and have participated at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) programs in civil-military affairs and at the Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies. These opportunities promote U.S. goals of stability and democracy, and increase the Tunisian officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. This reinforces the fact that the Tunisian military is a highly professional and totally apolitical force, a significant exception in Middle East and African countries. IMET-funded maintenance, logistics and specialist training will enhance Tunisia's value as a training and potential coalition partner.

The African Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Tunisia by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Tunisia is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

United Arab Emirates

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMS

297

$64,437,586

483

$83,500,735

Regional Centers

17

$792

25

$3,239

Section 1004

0

$0

30

$105,000

TOTAL

314

$64,438,378

538

$83,608,974


The United States has a strong security relationship with the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The UAE is a key regional partner in the Gulf region and has supported U.S. policy initiatives in the Gulf. They are a major procurer of advanced U.S. military technology and strive toward interoperability with U.S. forces. Therefore, military-to-military education opportunities are a top priority for the UAE. At the same time, attendance at these schools by UAE officers supports the Central Command's objective of forward engagement and interoperability. Finally, the officers who attend these schools are the future leaders of the UAE military. It is to our utmost advantage if they understand U.S. military doctrine and policy perspectives. We support the UAE's recent decision to construct a joint air warfare center for regional cooperative training.

As of the publication date of this report, the United Arab Emirates is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Yemen

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

4

$36,278

1

$920

CTFP

10

$134,631

10

$200,000

FMF

115

$549,286

10

$69,592

FMS

13

$127,420

10

$133,393

IMET

26

$423,709

42

$1,247,227

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

10

$57,000

0

$0

Regional Centers

14

$82,445

168

$118,897

TOTAL

192

$1,410,769

241

$1,770,029


Yemen is an ally in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), and is fighting a campaign against terrorist elements inside its borders. United States support for that campaign is essential to help ensure its success. Because of Yemen's location adjacent to the Bab-al-Mandab, one of the world's most important shipping routes, as well as its proximity to U.S. allies Saudi Arabia and Oman, Yemen can affect U.S. interests in the region. Yemen is the most populous and poorest nation on the Arabian Peninsula, and is undergoing a slow process of political and social reform under President Saleh aimed at making it the first fully functioning democracy in the region. For example, Yemen successfully held parliamentary elections in April 2003. Support for Yemen's democratic and economic reform programs, professional military training and a humanitarian demining program not only promote our national values in Yemen, but also further our national interests, particularly with regard to the GWOT. Attacks on the USS Cole, Vessel Limburg, and the Jiblah Missionary Hospital have forced the U.S. and Yemen to work closer together in the fields of security and counter terrorism (CT). Yemen provides a unique location to conduct Horn of Africa operations and maritime interdiction missions in and around the Suez, Red Sea and Indian Ocean areas (The Red Sea, Bab el Mandeb Straits and the Gulf of Aden are the second busiest shipping lanes in the world). U.S. Government policy in Yemen is to work with Yemeni officials to eradicate terrorism/support for terrorism and to create an environment that deters the return of any terrorist elements, indigenous or transnational. The Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program has been instrumental in training 8 Yemeni military officers who will work closely with in-country U.S. personnel over security and CT related issues.

IMET funds U.S. training and education for Yemeni military personnel, particularly in the vital areas of counter terrorism and for Yemen's nascent Coast Guard. The IMET program assists the military leadership in Yemen to better understand U.S. policies, increases their awareness of international norms for human rights and fosters a greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military. Sending Yemenis to professional military education (PME) in the U.S. helps establish one-to-one relationships with counterparts that will pay invaluable rewards later in the form of interoperability, coordination and mutual understanding. Increased IMET-funded English language training will also improve the Yemeni military's interoperability with U.S. forces and prepare them for increased training opportunities.

As of the publication date of this report, Yemen is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.




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