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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. DOS Foreign Policy Objectives -- Newly Independent States (NIS) Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2003 and 2004
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
June 2004
Report
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Armenia

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

37

$211,668

7

$183,902

IMET Multi-Year

14

$267,859

0

$0

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

$0

140

$348,000

Regional Centers

53

$260,685

105

$358,587

TOTAL

104

$740,212

252

$890,489


The U.S. hopes to promote peace, stability and prosperity in the Caucasus, as a potential gateway for energy and trade between Europe and Eurasia. A stable, prosperous and independent Armenia is critical to advancing U.S. national interests and promoting regional goals. U.S. objectives are also served by assisting Armenia in the reform of its military technology and armed forces, and by providing Armenia an alternative to military cooperation that is limited to Russia and Iran. Thus, we seek increased engagement with Armenia's defense establishment in ways that advance our objectives and do not disturb the military balance with Azerbaijan.

The waiver of section 907 of the Freedom Support Act in 2002 permitted the expansion of this kind of cooperation. Section 907 previously prohibited most USG assistance to the Government of Azerbaijan, and as part of a policy of evenhandedness, the Administration extended this prohibition to security assistance to Armenia as well. Congress recently gave the President the authority to issue a renewable one-year waiver of the Section 907 restrictions on assistance to Azerbaijan, which the Administration has used to permit fuller cooperation between the U.S. and Armenia. Over the past year, authorized exceptions to Section 907 restrictions have enabled the attendance of numerous key Armenian officials from various services at conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center instructs representatives from throughout the former Soviet Union and Central Europe in the undertakings necessary for defense reform in states undergoing democratic transition. It has been projected that a significant numbers of students will receive some form of instruction during FY 2004. We believe the first step to military reform and expanded cooperation is exposure to U.S. professional military education (PME). Our policy will hold, however, that no assistance be provided which disturbs regional stability or the military balance between Armenia and Azerbaijan.

The U.S. hopes to expand contacts and cooperation with Armenia further, in line with U.S. and Armenian national security objectives. As one facet of our strategic objectives, we continue to urge Armenia to continue to expand its cooperation in NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and the Partnership for Peace (PfP).

As of the publication date of this report, Armenia is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Azerbaijan

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

CTFP

7

$111,749

10

$200,000

FMF

42

$15,428

0

$0

IMET

53

$585,954

45

$1,134,987

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

$0

180

$403,000

Regional Centers

126

$430,435

28

$176,700

TOTAL

228

$1,143,566

263

$1,914,687


Azerbaijan is a key partner of the United States in the Global War on Terrorism. Additionally, our security cooperation with Azerbaijan promotes regional stability by helping Azerbaijan protect its energy resources and build up its border and maritime security capabilities to prevent the transit of terrorists, narcotics and weapons. Our efforts to reform Azerbaijan's Armed Forces along Western lines serves as part of an overall effort of institutional reform and democratization. Azerbaijan has deployed peacekeeping troops in Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq. The Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) will be an instrumental tool that will help Azerbaijan withstand threats posed by international terrorist organizations and destabilizing influences from Iran. It will also help Azerbaijan develop the institutions that can effectively monitor its borders and stop the transit of dangerous people and materials.

Azerbaijan has granted blanket overflight rights to Operation Enduring Freedom, has deployed a platoon of peacekeepers to Afghanistan under Turkish command in ISAF, a peacekeeping platoon to Kosovo in KFOR, and has deployed a company of peacekeepers to Iraq. Azerbaijan has participated enthusiastically in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP), and we encourage this as a means to cement Azerbaijan's participation in Euro-Atlantic institutions.

Prior to 9/11, section 907 of the Freedom Support Act prohibited most USG assistance to the Government of Azerbaijan. After 9/11, Congress granted the President the authority waive section 907 on an annual basis. The President exercised this authority for the first time in 2002 and did so again in 2003.

In FY 2003, 96 Azerbaijani officials participated in Marshall Center conferences and courses (including democratic defense management, the role of the military in a democracy, civilian control over the military and the like). It has been estimated that a similar number will receive instruction of some form at the Marshall Center during FY 2004.

As of the publication date of this report, Azerbaijan is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Belarus

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

30

$149,324

47

$174,592

TOTAL

30

$149,324

47

$174,592


The U.S. has an interest in seeing Belarus evolve into a state characterized by democratic rule and respect for human rights. As part of the U.S. Selective Engagement Policy, adopted after the illegal electoral referendum in Belarus in 1996, the U.S. has strictly focused its aid to Belarus on democratization and civil society development as well as humanitarian and health assistance.

However, military officers and officials from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are being nominated and sent to attend Marshall Center courses. This is being done in order to expose potential future leadership of the respective ministries to democratic ideals and educate them on the proper interaction of the various power structures in a democracy. The Department of State also sends representatives from civil society and the democratic opposition to ensure the entire spectrum of political society is represented, trained and offered the opportunity to exchange ideas and points of view.

As of the publication date of this report, Belarus is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance. However, as indicated above other restrictions may apply.

Georgia

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

2

$22,633

0

$0

CTFP

0

$0

10

$200,000

Exchange Training

0

$0

200

$236,000

FMF

45

$695,648

5

$221,821

IMET

244

$1,363,429

187

$1,735,034

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

82

$258,756

187

$68,220

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

$0

280

$264,000

Regional Centers

94

$372,127

32

$195,760

TOTAL

467

$2,712,593

901

$2,920,835


Georgia occupies a strategic position in the South Caucasus astride the Trans-Caspian energy corridor and bordering Chechnya. It is in the U.S. national security interest to support Georgia's sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as continued democratic, free-market and military reforms. U.S. support for the continuation of a stable, independent Georgia will reduce the chances of the spread of military conflict, international crime and weapons of mass destruction in a region that lies at the crossroads of Russia, Turkey and Iran. More importantly, the current political climate makes it more critical than ever that Georgia controls its own territory and prevents its use as a safe haven to terrorists. It is at the forefront of U.S. policy to enhance Georgia's capability to combat terrorism, secure its energy resources, prevent transit of illicit materials across borders and protect its sovereignty. This cannot happen without U.S. military training efforts and broad military reforms.

The Georgia Train and Equip Program (GTEP) was designed to assist Georgia in strengthening its capability to deal with terrorism. The two-year program was led and executed by USEUCOM in Georgia beginning in FY 2002. The $64M requirement was funded through a variety of sources, including Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and Military Drawdown Authority. Additional assistance was coordinated through FMF and other U.S. assistance programs to focus on the border control and law enforcement components of the terrorist threat. This was specifically the Georgia Export Control/Border Security and Law Enforcement program funded by the Department of State and implemented by the U.S. Customs Service. Under this program, the Georgian Border Guard received full communications requirements, interoperable with the Ministry of Defense, as well as training and infrastructure for maritime security.

The Georgian Armed Forces are developing the 11th Brigade, which will be the parent unit to 4 battalions trained by the U.S. under the GTEP. This brigade will be the only functional brigade size unit in all of Georgia and the only such unit that is also U.S.-NATO interoperable. Additionally, the 11th Brigade will be the Georgian primary counter insurgency and counter terrorism unit. The Counter Terrorism fellowship Program (CTFP) contributions will help ensure the 11th Brigade is a professional, effective, organization capable of assisting the U.S. in our Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) efforts. During the war in Iraq, Georgia offered half of its infantry troops and a third of its rotor assets for combat operations. Currently Georgian forces serve along side U.S. troops in Iraq and additional troops will arrive during FY04. Georgia is a serious and dedicated participant in the GWOT and can do more if effectively funded.

Georgia also used security assistance received under the Foreign Military Finance (FMF) program to sustain aviation-related training which has been used to support both border patrols in the region and the Georgia Train and Equip Program. Training purchased by Georgia for pilots and aviation maintenance technicians help Georgia operate and maintain the UH-1H helicopters the U.S. Government delivered in October 2001. FMF-funded training has also improved Georgia's ability to control its border and provide for its self-defense. To augment Georgia's self-defense capability by maximizing its ability to use all of its terrain, U.S. training efforts have included high-altitude mountain training.

Using assistance funded through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program, members of the Georgian military also received military training, English language instruction and courses in civil-military relations. These programs have helped Georgian soldiers develop the skills necessary to augment Georgia's participation in the Partnership for Peace and operate alongside NATO. Classes on subjects essential for the implementation of broad defense reform efforts have included legal training, civil-military relations and defense resource management. However, given Georgia's challenging regional security situation, many Georgian soldiers' IMET classes have had more of an operational bent to them with Georgian troops taking infantry, ranger, signal officer and maritime courses, among others.

The U.S. also funded the attendance of Georgian civilian and uniformed defense officials at conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center instructs representatives from throughout the former Soviet Union and Central Europe in the undertakings necessary for defense reform in states undergoing democratic transition. Approximately 94 students received instruction of some form at the Marshall Center during FY 2003.

All of this training has been critical to the implementation of the GTEP in Georgia. It is expected that training will be sustained in the area of international military education, and reforms will continue to be promoted through a sustained Train and Equip Program. However, continued provision of assistance in FY 2004 in key areas of military cooperation will depend on key reforms that we have outlined for the Georgian government.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Georgia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Kazakhstan

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

1

$4,376

2

$12,050

CTFP

5

$120,261

10

$200,000

IMET

49

$1,146,459

96

$1,972,362

Regional Centers

35

$157,902

62

$219,501

Service Academies

2

$100,170

0

$0

TOTAL

92

$1,529,168

170

$2,403,913


Kazakhstan is a vast, resource rich country that has advanced U.S. national security interests in Central Asia through its support for operations in Iraq and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Other U.S. interests include further dismantling of Kazakhstan's inherited weapons of mass destruction infrastructure; a peaceful role for its weapons scientists; the safe and secure storage of nuclear materials and spent fuels, and nonproliferation cooperation; promoting Kazakhstan's long-term political stability by developing democratic institutions and respect for human rights; and encouraging the development of both the Caspian basin's hydrocarbon resources and the means for their secure access to international markets. A new objective, in light of the Global War on Terrorism, is enhancing Kazakhstan's capability to combat terrorist insurgents, eliminate internal terrorist cells and foster regional cooperation in the area of counter terrorism. In addition, building on a mutually beneficial bilateral military relationship with Kazakhstan, our military-to-military goals include deepening Kazakhstan's participation in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) and enhancing the capabilities of Kazakhstan's peacekeeping battalion (KAZBAT), as well as the country's participation in USCENTCOM regional exercises. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and International Military and Education and Training (IMET) enhance regional cooperation by deepening Kazakhstan's cooperation in Partnership for Peace, supporting KAZBAT and U.S. Central Command regional exercises, and enhancing Kazakhstan's military interoperability with NATO forces in the context of PfP exercises. They also facilitate armed forces reform and promote a better understanding of the role of the military in developing democracies and the development of appropriate civil-military relations and human rights practices.

Military training with Kazakhstan focuses in particular on leadership and professional military education (PME) and civil-military relations. Courses related to international staff officer training contribute to PfP goals. Operational leadership courses for junior infantry, engineer and signal officers further the U.S. goal of developing interoperable forces capable of coalition undertakings. Medical and logistics management courses contribute directly to Kazakhstan's ability to meet specified PfP and coalition interoperability goals, as do English language-training courses.

The primary focus for the near and mid-term is concentration on the bilateral military objectives that strengthen joint U.S.-Kazakhstan defense cooperation while supporting the development of defensive capabilities by: providing national security; promoting regional stability; and strengthening U.S.-Kazakhstan-NATO interoperability to fight the Global War on Terrorism. The country intends to develop counter terrorism/special operations capabilities in the Caspian Sea region with the end state being a NATO interoperable 150-man special operations force/counter terrorism force capable of conducting hostage rescue and terrorist interdiction. The Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) promotes building close ties with Kazakhstan through PME and other counter terrorism focused training initiatives that support the Global War on Terrorism.

Kazakhstan also benefited from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

In FY 2004, we seek to use the basics provided in previous years and build on future years in ways more reflective of our current post 9/11 goals. The project at Atyrau has been tailored to development of a Special Forces Training Center for Counter-terrorism. This will allow for increased joint exercises and will also support the work we have done with KAZBAT. It will also provide the means and a venue for other cooperative exercises between Kazakhstan and its neighbors, something that is also a key objective of U.S. strategy in the region.

As of the publication date of this report, Kazakhstan is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Kyrgyzstan

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

CTFP

57

$0

10

$200,000

IMET

117

$1,209,851

35

$744,063

Regional Centers

40

$210,626

63

$229,451

Service Academies

1

$52,140

0

$0

TOTAL

215

$1,472,617

108

$1,173,514


U.S. national interests are furthered by the continued development of a stable, prosperous and independent Kyrgyz Republic, as well as by Kyrgyzstan's continuing support for Operation Enduring Freedom. Bilateral relations, including those related to military training, aim at helping the Kyrgyz Republic contribute to security and regional cooperation in Central Asia, a region that borders on Russia, China, Iran and Afghanistan. While seeking to enhance Kyrgyzstan's capabilities to combat terrorist cells and secure its borders, our security cooperation encourages the Kyrgyz Republic to reform its military along democratic lines, including the areas of civil-military relations and defense management. To further these goals, the U.S. also has sought expanded assistance for international military education. Another key component of U.S. policy is to encourage and facilitate active participation by the Kyrgyz Republic in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities.

U.S. training has focused on helping to provide the basics to enable members of the Kyrgyz military to participate effectively in IMET and PfP programs and to expose Kyrgyz officers to U.S. and other democratic military processes. Courses on civil-military relations, joint planning, military operations other than war and Marshall Center seminars have given Kyrgyz military personnel opportunities to interact with U.S., NATO and PfP counterparts as well as others from Central Asia. In order to provide basic officer training that would allow greater interoperability within PfP, efforts also have focused on the mountain survival course, command and general staff college and training officers as leaders of airborne and related units.

Earlier-on Kyrgyzstan sought U.S. assistance to provide counter terrorism (CT) training. The request was prompted by incursions by the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) in 1999 and 2000. Kyrgyzstan also experienced terrorist bombings by alleged members of the IMU in 2002 and 2003. The government has expressed concern over the possibility of future border incursions. The Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) has been instrumental in deploying a DoD team to teach a one-week Legal Aspects of Counter Terrorism course in Bishkek. Initiatives such these build upon U.S. and Kyrgyzstan bilateral relationships and promote interoperability against global terrorism.

English language instruction plays a key role in preparing Kyrgyzstan for NATO interoperability and PfP activities. In FY 2003, a number of Kyrgyz military officers received a full year of English language instruction and follow-on military training. Others received specialized training as English language instructors. IMET-funded English language laboratories have been established and books and other audio-visual materials are being acquired using IMET funds to supplement the language training programs.

As of the publication date of this report, Kyrgyzstan is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Moldova

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

151

$1,139,502

111

$1,526,421

PME Exchanges

5

$29,896

6

$58,914

Regional Centers

49

$207,773

43

$153,882

TOTAL

205

$1,377,171

160

$1,739,217

Moldova has developed a cooperative security relationship with the U.S., both bilaterally in such areas as nonproliferation, and multilaterally through such avenues as NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). Moldova's military is active in Partnership for Peace (PfP) activities, despite being short on resources as the country's economy continues to struggle. Finally, the Moldavan Government has made efforts to peacefully settle its dispute with the Transnistrian separatists in eastern Moldova.

The fundamental U.S. goal in Moldova is to support the continued development of Chisinau's reformist political and economic leanings and its pragmatic foreign and security policy. U.S.-funded military training comprises an important part of the strategy employed to meet that goal. In particular, U.S. military training through the IMET program helps Moldavan soldiers acquire the skills necessary to operate alongside NATO forces, participate more actively in PfP activities and support peacekeeping operations, as demonstrated by their recent deployment of troops to Iraq.

In FY 2003, numerous Moldavan officers received training under the International Military and Education and Training (IMET) program with training concentrated on developing the operational skills of officers in a wide range of specialization. Moldavan signal officers, engineering officers, field artillery, adjutant general and infantry captains have received specialized training under the IMET program. Moldavian IMET attendees also have taken more universally applicable classes in such areas as English language and language instruction, civil-military relations and defense management. IMET funds were also used to upgrade English language laboratories. Expanded International Peacekeeping Capability (EIPC) funds have been used to help Moldova develop an organic capability to train its peacekeepers.

Moldavan officials also benefited from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

As of the publication date of this report, Moldova is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Russia

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

50

$460,380

1

$25,298

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

0

$0

60

$0

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

$0

100

$85,000

Regional Centers

94

$540,271

111

$473,171

TOTAL

144

$1,000,651

272

$583,469


The U.S. has an overriding national security interest in furthering Russia's development as a democratic civil society ruled by law with respect for human rights - particularly in the fields of military affairs and civil-military relations. We also have a strong interest in cooperating with Russia to prevent arms proliferation to terrorists and state sponsors of terror.

Russia plays a significant role in Europe, Asia and the Middle East, as well as in the UN Security Council and other international organizations. President Putin has consciously re-oriented Russian foreign policy in the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, viewing further integration with the West as being in Russia's interests. Since the attacks, Russia has been a Coalition partner in the Global War on Terrorism. In addition, Russia has forged closer links with NATO. We have worked cooperatively with Russia to forge a new strategic relationship and seek to further integrate Russia into the Euro-Atlantic community.

The NATO-Russia Council (NRC) was established at the Rome Summit in May 2002. In contrast to its predecessor the Permanent Joint Council (PJC), the NATO Russia Council, places emphasis on individual NATO Allies and Russia working as equal partners ("at 20") on selected, mutually-agreed initiatives. The work of the NRC is centered on specific, practical projects where NATO-Russia cooperation can make a real contribution to our common security. A few examples of the progress include civil emergency planning exercises, as well as terrorist and WMD-related threat assessments. The NATO-Russia Council military-to-military interoperability program has been somewhat successful, and is helping work towards a common goal: the ability of NATO and Russian forces to work together in the field -- side-by-side -- to face the threats of the 21st century.

The U.S. continues to discuss with Russian interlocutors areas in which we have serious concerns, such as the depth of Russia's commitment to the rule of law and development of civil society, the extension of government control over the mass media, the conduct of Russian forces in Chechnya, and Russia's sometimes assertive tactics in relations with neighboring countries. We continue to raise with Russian officials at all levels our view of the importance of nonproliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) to state sponsors of terror, including Iran.

Warsaw Initiative Funding for Partnership for Peace (PfP) exercises provides opportunities for Russian officers to interact with U.S. and NATO counterparts. Russian officers can develop greater understanding of NATO doctrine and concepts of coalition contingency operations and the role of the military in a democracy, which aims to increase cooperation between NATO and Russia and to reduce Russian fears that the admission of new members to NATO threatens Russian security.

The U.S. is currently creating a program plan for Russia, geared to developing a military that plays a constructive role in a democratic civil-society and in integrating Russian defense institutions into Euro-Atlantic structures. The major focuses of military training with Russia, particularly professional military education (PME, consists of leadership training and courses aimed at developing expertise in the tasks of international military staff officers). PME-type training supports our efforts to ensure that the Russian military contributes to the development of civil society by reinforcing concepts of appropriate civil-military relations, defense management in democratic societies and professionalism in the conduct of military affairs.

Courses aimed at international military activities, including legal considerations in peace operations and English language training, will contribute to our efforts to encourage the Russian military to participate in NATO/PfP activities and expose Russian officers to NATO and U.S. civil-military relations standards and practices.

Russian officials also benefited from instruction at both the George C. Marshall Center in Germany and the Asia-Pacific Center in Hawaii. Both of these regional centers focus on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

As of the publication date of this report, Russia is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Tajikistan

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

CTFP

4

$42,720

10

$200,000

IMET

132

$414,426

44

$270,441

Regional Centers

86

$300,335

64

$235,781

TOTAL

222

$757,481

118

$706,222


The U.S.-Tajikistan bilateral military relationship continues to develop in a mutually beneficial way, building on our joint efforts in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Tajikistan borders Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, China and Kyrgyzstan. Its porous borders make it highly vulnerable as a transit point for the movement of terrorist insurgents, narcotics and weapons that can destabilize other parts of the region. The U.S. goals in Tajikistan remain the promotion of the development of a stable civil society, a market economy and democratic rule with full respect for human rights.

In FY 2003, security assistance programs were used to fund training in English and professional military education (PME) training in the United States. This money also supported a long-term English-language teacher instructing Tajik officers in Dushanbe. Also during FY 2003, the FMF program funded purchases of boots and uniforms for the Tajik military, as well as a communications survey to determine the Ministry of Defense's communications needs. In FY 2004, the IMET program is anticipated to grow and to be supplemented in counter terrorism funding. From this funding, students will be sent to the U.S. for language and PME training. Additionally, IMET will also fund in-country training on subjects including resource management, training support, civil-military relations and the continued presence of an English language teacher in Dushanbe. The FY 2004 FMF budget is expected to also increase and will be primarily focused on providing communications equipment, training and support for the enhancement of capabilities for selected units in the Ministry of Defense. A new $6 million program to assist Tajikistan in counter-narcotics and counter terrorist operations by providing additional training and equipment to the Tajik Border guards, customs service, and related ministries will be administered during FY 2004.

The Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) helps to build strong bilateral ties between the U.S. and Tajikistan, critical for sustaining our collaborative efforts in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). Over the last several years the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) has used revenues from the narcotics trade, as well as the mountainous regions within Tajikistan, to stage terrorist operations against Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Although Operation ENDURING FREEDOM has significantly impeded IMU operations, the IMU and other related organizations remain a threat to Tajikistan's tenuous stability. Tajikistan continues to seek counter terrorism doctrinal and strategic training through programs such as the CTFP in order to develop a strategic plan in combating terrorism.

In FY 2003, The Export Control and Border Related Security (EXBS) Program provided approximately 1.8 million dollars worth of equipment and training to the Government of Tajikistan that was targeted primarily to the State Border Protection Committee (Border Guard) and to a lesser extent the Tajikistan Customs Service. The equipment included, but was not limited to, high frequency (HF) radios, short wave (SW) radios, vehicles, winter uniforms, binoculars, hand held global positioning satellite units, comprehensive interdiction tool kits and lap top computers. Tajikistan officers from the Border Guard and Customs participated in the EXBS-funded International Border Interdiction Training (IBIT) held in Hildago, Texas. A three-day training course, funded by EXBS, was provided by Motorola radio technicians on the proper care and installation of EXBS-provided Motorola SW radios and repeaters. A five-day training course, funded by EXBS, was provided by Barrett radio communications specialists in the use and installation of the Barrett HF radio stations. A five-day training course, in country, was provided by United States Customs Inspectors in the use of the Comprehensive Interdiction Tool Kits, provided by EXBS, and inspection techniques utilized by the United States Customs Service.

Although the FY 2004 funding level for Tajikistan is $200,000, EXBS will provide over 2 millions dollars in additional transport vehicles, HF radios and uniforms within the first half of 2004. The funding for this equipment and related training has been allocated from the FY 2001 supplemental budget for Tajikistan.

Tajikistan officials also benefited from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Tajikistan, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Turkmenistan

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

IMET

11

$302,329

18

$688,082

Regional Centers

2

$4,410

39

$88,736

Section 1004

20

$10,000

0

$0

TOTAL

33

$316,739

57

$776,818


The U.S. seeks a stable, independent Turkmenistan that contributes to regional stability and prosperity and enhances U.S. national security. A key U.S. interest focuses on the unencumbered delivery of Turkmenistan's significant energy resources to key markets in Turkey and ensuring those resources do not pass through Iran. Maritime and pipeline security is a key component of this objective. Further, the U.S. seeks to enhance Turkmenistan's ability to secure its borders as yet another key potential transit state in Central Asia for the movement of narcotics, weapons and terrorists. We seek Turkmen assistance in the Global War on Terrorism, counterdrug efforts and preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and associated delivery systems, materials, technologies and expertise. While there is still a great deal that needs to be done in Turkmenistan on both democratic and economic reform to deter the roots of terrorism, U.S. interests in regional stability benefit from Turkmenistan's ability to cooperate with its neighbors on border security, counter terrorism and in regional military exercises. We seek to encourage Turkmenistan's further participation in Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities as part of our overall goal of introducing Turkmenistan to military cooperation regionally - and fostering greater exposure.

Warsaw Initiative Funding for participation in PfP activities furthers on-the-ground-experience, including regional cooperation, interoperability with NATO forces and reform of the Turkmen military along Western, democratic lines. These activities also increase Turkmenistan's engagement with Euro-Atlantic security institutions.

In FY 2003, Turkmenistan used IMET funds to send military personnel to the U.S. for English language training, professional military education (PME) and other courses, particularly in the area of civil-military relations, which supports Turkmen military reform by exposing officers to our democratic standards and values. The IMET program for Turkmenistan is focused on professional officer development for junior officers from all branches of service. The goal of the program is to further Turkmenistan's military professionalization and to enhance the ability of Turkmen forces to participate in PfP activities and/or any future coalition contingencies.

As of the publication date of this report, Turkmenistan is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Ukraine

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

FMF

28

$15,465

73

$165,770

IMET

243

$1,915,737

253

$2,479,509

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

0

$0

30

$0

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

$0

1

$0

PME Exchanges

43

$101,970

0

$0

Regional Centers

127

$518,436

91

$377,374

Service Academies

2

$110,225

0

$0

TOTAL

443

$2,661,833

448

$3,022,653


Ukraine and NATO have strengthened their relationship through the continued development of the NATO-Ukraine Commission established in 1997 on the basis of the NATO-Ukraine Charter. Ukraine is eager to become a member of NATO and is working hard to reform its military to bring it into line with NATO requirements. Ukraine is an important partner for the United States in the Global War on Terrorism and, in particular, operations in Iraq. It contributed the fourth-largest contingent of troops to Operation Iraqi Freedom and has deployed troops in support of U.S. and UN operations in Sierra Leone, Kosovo, Lebanon and in various other UN observer groups. It also occupied a seat on the UN Security Council from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001. Parliamentary elections in March 2002 were an important indicator of democratic progress. Observers will be closely watching the presidential elections in October 2004. Defense Minister Marchuk has affirmed Ukraine's commitment to military reform.

The U.S. continues to work for the development of an independent, democratic Ukraine with a market-oriented economy. Along these lines, U.S. goals for engaging Ukraine's military include strengthening civilian control, military reform and restructuring, and an increasing integration of Ukraine into the security institutions of the larger Euro-Atlantic community. U.S.-funded military training efforts are a crucial part of this effort. Training received through IMET, FMF and other U.S. military assistance programs contributes to that goal by augmenting Ukraine's ability to participate alongside NATO forces in crisis response operations, in Partnership for Peace (PfP) exercises and other activities.

Ukraine makes extensive use of the IMET program to improve Ukrainian military readiness in a broad range of functional areas. Areas of concentration include military legal training, English language instruction, supply officer training, classes in civil-military relations and defense resources management, military engineering and military police instruction, and military airfield operations. Ukrainians also have received specialized officer training in courses for signal officers, adjutant general and chemical corps captains. addition, top Ukrainian officers have been trained at the Air and Naval Command and Staff Colleges, Air and Army War Colleges, and the National Defense University.

The Expanded IMET (E-IMET) program has trained Ukrainian military and civilian officials, including civilian personnel from non-defense ministries and the legislative branch who work on military-related issues. E-IMET training focuses on managing and administering military establishments and budgets, promoting civilian control of the military, and creating and maintaining effective military justice systems and military codes of conduct.

As mentioned above, Ukraine also has purchased U.S. military training using FMF grant funds, to advance its NATO interoperability and PfP participation. English language has been a focus, as have health and medical training and vehicle maintenance. Equipment purchased with FMF has aided Ukraine's participation in KFOR, which has led to critical, practical training through real-world peacekeeping experience for Ukrainian troops. Furthermore, U.S. funding has paid for Ukrainians to attend conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center trains Central and Eastern European militaries on civil-military relations and democratic control of the military.

As of the publication date of this report, Ukraine is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Uzbekistan

  

FY 2003

FY 2004

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students

Dollar
Value

ALP

4

$36,044

2

$21,013

CTFP

0

$0

15

$300,000

IMET

75

$659,767

67

$1,597,769

Non-SA, Combatant Command

43

$276,284

0

$0

Regional Centers

25

$174,288

100

$372,228

Section 1004

70

$310,000

90

$405,000

TOTAL

217

$1,456,383

274

$2,696,010


The U.S.-Uzbekistan military relationship continues to develop in a mutually beneficial way, having expanding greatly to build on our joint efforts in support of Operation Enduring Freedom and the Global War on Terrorism. While Uzbekistan ultimately decided not to send peacekeeping troops to assist our efforts in Iraq, the United States has use of the airbase at Karshi-Khanabad and Uzbekistan has been an active supporter of our efforts in Afghanistan. The U.S. looks for Uzbekistan to play a stabilizing and increasingly cooperative role among its neighbors and in the region. Promoting regional cooperation is a key U.S. objective in Central Asia, though we seek to establish defined bilateral relationships with each country based on their own security objectives and priorities for reform. Uzbekistan remains an authoritarian state; another key U.S. interests is to see it evolve democratically, with respect for human rights and democratic values. We seek to advance U.S. objectives in the region by enhancing Uzbekistan's capability to combat terrorist insurgents and cells in Central Asia. Our FMF military assistance in FY 2003 was key to realizing this goal. FY 2004 funds will also focus on this objective. We seek to promote the interoperability of Uzbekistan's Ministry of Defense and Border Guard as part of this goal. U.S. policy goals focus on enhancing Uzbekistan's capability to advance U.S. objectives by preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and associated delivery systems, materials, technologies and expertise across borders, as well as interdicting narcotics and terrorists. All of these call for specific military reforms and Uzbekistan has been an enthusiastic partner in this area during FY 2003.

Uzbekistan sees itself in a leading role in Central Asia. The U.S. seeks to orient Uzbekistan's sizeable military towards greater cooperation with its own neighbors, NATO and the United States. Uzbekistan's active participation in Partnership for Peace (PfP) and the Uzbek Peacekeeping Battalion will enhance the cooperation. Training focuses on defense resource management capabilities, command and general staff and war college courses, English language, and such operational subjects as infantry, signal and field artillery officer, airborne and ranger, special forces and mountain leaders courses, which foster interoperability in both operations and tactics.

Uzbekistan is a front-line state and a key strategic partner in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). It has allowed U.S. and Coalition forces to use its bases and has opened its border with Afghanistan for humanitarian shipments. The Government of Uzbekistan (GOU) has supported the U.S. position on Iraq and most of our positions in the UN. The Government of Uzbekistan has declared its intention to take difficult steps to reform its economy and advance democracy. Half of the people in Central Asia live in Uzbekistan, and the Uzbeks are the largest ethnic group in Central Asia. Uzbekistan borders all other Central Asia countries and Afghanistan, but has borders with no major foreign power. The GOU maintains the most independent foreign policy of all Central Asian nations. Uzbekistan also has the strongest military in Central Asia, and its security policies directly affect its neighbors, especially in the heavily populated Ferghana Valley. These factors help make Uzbekistan vital to stability in Central Asia. The Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provides doctrinal and strategic training necessary to combat the threat of transnational IMU terrorism and also helps to foster bilateral relationships between the U.S. and Uzbekistan in the GWOT.

Participation in Marshall Center activities focusing on civil-military relations, improving military justice systems and defense resource management contribute to the U.S. effort to foster a greater understanding of the principle of effective civilian control.

As of the publication date of this report, Uzbekistan is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.




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