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Diplomacy in Action

II. Description of Programs


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2004 and 2005
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
April 2005
Report
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A. GENERAL

Foreign military assistance directly contributes to U.S. national security and foreign policy objectives. The principal components of foreign military assistance are Foreign Military Sales (FMS), Foreign Military Financing (FMF), International Military Education and Training (IMET), the Regional Defense Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), the Regional Centers for Security Studies, and transfers of Excess Defense Articles (EDA). Drawdowns of defense articles and services, directed by the President in response to urgent requirements, are also managed as part of the foreign military assistance program. The foreign military assistance program enables allies and friendly nations to acquire U.S. defense articles, services, and training for legitimate self-defense and for participation in multinational security efforts.

Ongoing foreign military assistance efforts support the primary foreign policy goals of safeguarding U.S. security, building U.S. prosperity, and promoting U.S. values. By enhancing the capabilities of U.S. allies and friendly nations to address conflicts, humanitarian crises, and natural disasters, foreign military assistance makes it less likely that U.S. forces will be called upon to respond to regional problems. Strengthening deterrence, encouraging defense responsibility sharing among allies and friendly nations, supporting U.S. readiness, and increasing interoperability between potential coalition partners through the transfer of defense equipment and training help security partners defend against aggression and strengthen their ability to fight alongside U.S. forces in coalition efforts. Therefore, if U.S. involvement becomes necessary, these programs help to ensure that foreign militaries can work more efficiently and effectively with ours rather than be hobbled by mismatched equipment, communications, and doctrine.

Security cooperation efforts have adjusted to the new realities of a post September 11th world and our global efforts to fight terrorism. The CTFP epitomizes the responsiveness and flexibility of the international training and education community and is providing critical support to our international partners in the war on terror.

Foreign military assistance, particularly the IMET program, helps to promote the principles of democracy, respect for human rights, and the rule of law. In addition to making the world a safer place, the spread of democratic principles contributes to a political environment more conducive to the global economic development so critical to a nation's well being. Thus, there is a genuine linkage between foreign military assistance programs and the day-to-day lives of Americans.

B. PROGRAMS FUNDED BY FOREIGN NATIONAL FUNDS - FOREIGN MILITARY SALES (FMS)

FMS are the government-to-government sales of U.S. defense articles, services, and training. Responsible arms sales further national security and foreign policy objectives by strengthening bilateral defense relations, supporting coalition building, and enhancing interoperability between U.S. forces and militaries of allies and friendly nations. These sales also contribute to U.S. prosperity by improving the U.S. balance of trade position, sustaining highly skilled jobs in the defense industrial base, and extending production lines and lowering unit costs for such key weapon systems as the M1A2 tank, F-16 aircraft, AH-64 helicopter, and F/A-18 aircraft.

Total FMS sales in FY 2004 (articles and training) were approximately $13.5 billion. However, military training and education, to include professional military education as well as technical training related to equipment purchases is also sold to foreign countries via FMS. Total military training and education sold to foreign countries reported in this report through the FMS program in FY 2004 was over $215 million.

C. FOREIGN MILITARY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS FUNDED BY STATE

1. FOREIGN MILITARY FINANCING (FMF)

The principal means of ensuring U.S. security is through the deterrence of potential aggressors who would threaten the United States or its allies. Foreign Military Financing (FMF), the U.S. appropriation for financing the acquisition of U.S. defense articles, services, and training through grants or loans, supports U.S. regional security goals and enables allies and friendly nations to improve their defense capabilities. Congress appropriates FMF funds in the International Affairs budget; the Department of State allocates the funds for eligible allies and friendly nations; and the Department of Defense executes the program. As FMF helps countries meet their legitimate defense needs, it also promotes U.S. national security interests by strengthening coalitions with allies and friendly nations, cementing cooperative bilateral military relationships, and enhancing interoperability with U.S. forces. Because FMF monies are used to purchase U.S. defense articles, services, and training, FMF contributes to a strong U.S. defense industrial base, which benefits both America's armed forces and U.S. workers.

FMF grants in FY 2004 totaled $4.3 billion, with the vast majority of funds earmarked to support stability in the Middle East. FMF is also being used in the Middle East to strengthen self-defense capabilities and to safeguard borders and coastal areas. In Africa, the bulk of the funds support counter-terrorism programs and provide security for borders and territorial waters. The majority of FMF funds in the East Asia and Pacific region support the Philippines' counter-terrorism efforts and multi-year reform of its armed forces. In Europe and Eurasia, FMF funding supports modernization and interoperability programs in Turkey and Poland. Funding will also be used to continue the integration of new NATO members and to provide support to the Partnership for Peace countries. In South Asia, FMF will continue to be used for OEF sustainment, countering regional and international terrorism, enhancing counter-insurgency programs and peace support programs. Finally, in the Western Hemisphere, FMF for Andean Ridge countries--especially Colombia--will continue to support counter-narcotics and counter-terrorism efforts, and maritime interdiction programs.

2. INTERNATIONAL MILITARY EDUCATION AND TRAINING (IMET)

The International Military Education and Training (IMET) program is a low-cost, highly effective component of U.S. security assistance. In FY 2004, $91.7M provided training to students from over 108 allied and friendly nations. In FY 2005, 130 nations are programmed to receive $89.7M.

The overall objectives of the program are to:

  • Further the goal of regional stability through effective, mutually beneficial military-to-military relations which culminate in increased understanding and defense cooperation between the U.S. and foreign countries; 
  • Provide training that augments the capabilities of participant nations' military forces to support combined operations and interoperability with U.S. forces; and 
  • Increase the ability of foreign military and civilian personnel to instill and maintain democratic values and protect internationally recognized human rights in their own government and military. 

Training provided under the IMET program is professional and non-political, exposing foreign students to U.S. professional military organizations and procedures and the manner in which military organizations function under civilian control. The IMET program's mandatory English language proficiency requirement establishes an essential baseline of communication skills necessary for students to attend courses. It also facilitates the development of important professional and personal relationships that have provided U.S. access and influence in a critical sector of society that often plays a pivotal role in supporting, or transitioning to, democratic governments. The IMET program introduces military and civilian participants to elements of U.S. democracy such as the U.S. judicial system, legislative oversight, free speech, equality issues, and U.S. commitment to the basic principles of internationally recognized human rights.

IMET objectives are achieved through a variety of technical training and professional military education activities conducted by DoD for foreign military and civilian officials. These include formal instruction that involves over 4,000 courses taught at approximately 150 military schools and installations for roughly 11,800 foreign students annually.

The Expanded IMET (E-IMET) program is a subset of the IMET program that fosters greater understanding of and respect for the principle of civilian control of the military, exposes students to military justice systems and procedures, and promotes the development of strong civil-military relations by showing key military and civilian leaders how to overcome barriers that can exist between armed forces, civilian officials, and legislators.

A less formal, but still significant, part of IMET is the Informational Program, which exposes students to the U.S. way of life, including regard for democratic values, respect for individual civil and human rights, and belief in the rule of law.

Overall, IMET assists U.S. allies and friendly nations in professionalizing their militaries through participation in U.S. military educational programs. U.S. allies and friendly nations have long recognized such training as essential for the progression of their own military leaders. In doing so, IMET strengthens regional friendships and enhances self-defense capabilities. The resulting military competence and self-sufficiency provide a wide range of benefits to the U.S. in terms of collective security, stability, and peace. As foreign militaries improve their knowledge of and integrate U.S. military principles into their own forces, military cooperation is strengthened. Similarly, opportunities for military-to-military interaction, information sharing, joint planning, and combined force exercises, as well as essential requirements for access to foreign military bases and facilities, are notably expanded. IMET fosters important military linkages essential to advancing global security interests of the United States and improving the capabilities of its allies and friendly nations.

3. INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (INL)

State's Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) partners with DoD to combat international drug trafficking, terrorist groups, and other transnational crime groups by providing training and other support to strengthen law enforcement and security entities and institutions in key countries of Central and South America, particularly Colombia. Using both Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and International Narcotics and Law Enforcement (INCLE) funding, INL programs are designed to blunt the impact of international drugs and crime by strengthening foreign government ability to identify, confront and disrupt the operations of such groups before they reach American soil. In countries such as Colombia, where narco-terrorism poses a major threat, such assistance is provided to a broader range of police and military, including counterdrug units and personnel.

4. AFRICAN CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS TRAINING AND ASSISTANCE (ACOTA)

The African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance program is a U.S. peace support operations training and equipping program designed to provide trained and equipped contingents from selected African militaries with enhanced capacity to respond quickly and effectively to peace support and humanitarian relief situations on the continent. ACOTA's comprehensive approach encourages regional peace support operations for which African countries and security institutions take the primary responsibility, potentially reducing the humanitarian burden on the United States. The increased regional stability created by an enhanced African peace support capacity also serves U.S. interests in promoting African democracy and economic growth. ACOTA provides partner military units with interoperable peace support operations skills and a package of basic equipment (based on each country's individual requirements) that enables countries to work together effectively in international settings. ACOTA also supports the development in partner militaries of a competent group of peace support operations trainers, in order to promote self-sufficiency. The relatively small size of African militaries means that effective peace support requires participation by several nations at one time. ACOTA emphasizes multi-national activities and common doctrine.

5. ENHANCED INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING CAPABILITIES (EIPC)

The United States has an interest in developing other countries' willingness and capability to contribute to international peace operations. By enhancing international peacekeeping capabilities we increase burden sharing, promote operational efficiency, strengthen regional conflict prevention and resolution initiatives, and reduce the cost of international peace operations.

The primary objective of the EIPC initiative is to assist selected foreign countries in developing their institutional capacities to field more efficient and well-led peacekeeping units capable of taking on the toughest assignments. EIPC aims to enhance military interoperability, leadership performance, use of common peacekeeping doctrine, and English language proficiency to help promote effective combined peacekeeping operations (PKOs) when battalion-level or larger units from diverse countries deploy together. In doing so, EIPC seeks not only to promote burden sharing, but also to enhance national and regional capability to support peace.

Since its inception, EIPC funds have been allocated to: Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Botswana, Bulgaria, Chile, Czech Republic, El Salvador, Fiji, Ghana, Hungary, India, Jordan, Kenya, Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia, Moldova, Morocco, Mongolia, Nepal, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, Ukraine, and Uruguay.

All of the countries that have received EIPC funds have taken decisive steps to increase their international PKO role. To cite a few examples: Mongolia, which had no PK program at all in 1999, was the first country to offer an infantry battalion to support the U.S. Government (USG) in Iraq. In May, 2004 Bangladesh opened its new training center and has already provided training to personnel from over 20 countries as well as its own military. Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Chile all stepped up with troops and assistance for the UN mission to Haiti, MINUSTAH.

EIPC funds are used to develop core curricula for PKO education and training, and to procure non-lethal, defense-related training equipment. EIPC funds events that emphasize "train-the-trainer" to maximize the benefits of the expenditures. It also funds educational seminars tailored to a country's peacekeeping training needs. The program provides for visits to U.S. peacekeeping training centers and installations for senior-level officers and trainers that are directly involved in national PKO training programs. Additionally, EIPC funds help procure peacekeeping training and doctrine-related manuals and other library resources. Finally, EIPC enables countries to obtain and employ peacekeeping software training simulations rather than relying on costly field exercises. Non-FMF resources, including IMET, Excess Defense Articles programs, and Combatant Command peacekeeping exercises, complement the EIPC program.

D. PROGRAMS FUNDED BY DoD

1. DoD REGIONAL CENTERS FOR SECURITY STUDIES

The Regional Centers for Security Studies support the U.S. Defense Strategy and DoD security cooperation priorities with programs designed to enhance security, deepen understanding, foster bilateral and multilateral partnerships, improve defense-related decision-making, and strengthen cooperation among U.S. and regional military and civilian leaders.

Each Regional Center, based on guidance from the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy and the geographic Combatant Commands that it supports, tailors its program specifically to help meet the Secretary of Defense's key goals in each region. Common topics are regional security issues, defense planning, and civil-military relations.

Regional Centers have been established for all major regions of the world. The five Regional Centers are:

  • Africa Center for Strategic Studies 
  • Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies 
  • Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 
  • George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies 
  • Near East-South Asia Center for Strategic Studies 

Typical activities include in-resident extended academic programs, one- to three-week seminars conducted in the region, multi-day conferences, and research studies. In addition, the Regional Centers maintain communications with their former participants through electronic mail, web sites, newsletters, and country-based alumni organizations.

2. SECTION 1004 -- DRUG INTERDICTION AND COUNTER-DRUG ACTIVITIES: COUNTER-DRUG TRAINING SUPPORT (CDTS)

Counter-Drug Training Support includes deployments for training of foreign forces at the request of an appropriate law enforcement agency official as defined in section 1004 of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY 1991. The purpose of the CDTS is to conduct counternarcotics related training of foreign military and law enforcement personnel. SOF and service forces conduct this counter-drug training of light infantry, aviation, coastal, riverine, rotary wing operations, and staffs associated with counter-drug operations.

3. MINE ACTION (MA) PROGRAMS

The USG provides Mine Action assistance to many countries throughout the world to relieve human suffering from the dangers of landmines, to promote regional peace and stability and to promote U.S. foreign policy and national security goals. A collateral benefit to the program is the enhancement of operational readiness skills of participating U.S. forces. Within the overall USG MA program, DoD provides training to foreign nations in mine clearance operations, mine awareness education and information campaigns, assistance in the establishment of mine action centers, emergency medical care, and leadership and management skills needed to successfully conduct a national-level mine action program. When called upon for mine-action training, the ultimate goal of DoD participation is to develop a self-sustaining, indigenous demining capability within each recipient country.

SOF normally conduct MA training, using the "train-the-trainer" concept, with augmentation from explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) and engineer personnel, as needed. The Combatant Commands execute the MA program, providing them an excellent mil-to-mil engagement opportunity. DoD participation in MA programs allows the Combatant Commanders to work closely with Country Teams to show mine-affected countries how military forces can support the civilian population. By participating in these activities, the Combatant Commands and the Country Teams demonstrate the U.S. commitment to provide direct, bilateral humanitarian assistance, relieve suffering, improve the socio-economic environment, promote regional stability and support democratic ideals.

4. DISASTER RESPONSE (HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE)

10 U.S.C. 2561 authorizes Humanitarian Assistance including training in disaster response and/or disaster preparedness. Normally, humanitarian assistance and training conducted under 10 U.S.C. 2561 is not provided to foreign militaries. However, selected military members of the host nation occasionally are included in the training so that the military understands its role in supporting the civilian government during emergencies. In some instances, disaster response training is provided directly to the host nation military when the military is the only government institution capable of responding to the natural disaster. Disaster response training provides the necessary skills for civilian leaders of foreign governments and institutions to organize emergency workers, hospital medical and administrative personnel, and military members to respond to natural disasters. Disaster response programs contribute to regional stability, and support both ambassadorial and command theater security cooperation strategies. The ultimate goal of disaster response training is an improved host nation capability to respond effectively to disasters, thereby reducing or eliminating the need for a U.S. military response.

5. REGIONAL DEFENSE COUNTERTERRORISM FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM (CTFP)

The CTFP enables the Department of Defense to assist key countries in the war on terrorism by providing training and education to build and support counterterrorism capabilities. The program allows the Secretary to work with countries of critical importance to the war on terrorism - providing counterterrorism education and training that will have a direct impact on the long-term capacity of our allies and partner nations. Specifically, the CTFP is used to bolster the capacity of friendly foreign nations to detect, monitor, and interdict or disrupt the activities of terrorist networks ranging from weapons trafficking and terrorist-related financing to actual operational planning by terror groups. This program is a key tool for regional Combatant Commanders to foster regional cooperation and professionalize foreign counterterrorism capabilities to assist in the fulfillment of the command's responsibilities. The CTFP complements existing security assistance programs and fills a current void in the USG's efforts to provide targeted counterterrorism assistance. Regional Combatant Commands recommend participants in the program to the Office of the Secretary of Defense for approval. The Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, Special Operations Low Intensity Conflict (OASD SO/LIC) oversees the creation of a mixture of mobile and resident institutional courses that are tailored to the specific needs of key countries in order to advance broader USG counterterrorism objectives. Key senior and mid-level military officials, ministry of defense civilians, and other foreign security officials who have an impact, directly or indirectly, on their country's ability to cooperate with us in the war on terrorism are given the tools to effectively build, manage, and sustain counterterrorism programs. All personnel are thoroughly vetted consistent with legal requirements regarding human rights issues.

6. SERVICE-SPONSORED ACTIVITIES

a. Academy Exchanges/Service Academy Foreign Student Program

DoD's three Service Academies (U.S. Military Academy, U.S. Naval Academy, U.S. Air Force Academy) have conducted traditional academic exchange programs of varying length and content. As with civilian exchanges, cadets and/or midshipmen may spend a portion of the academic year or summer training period at a comparable foreign institution while counterpart students participate in the U.S. program. In addition, the Service Academy Foreign Student Program allows up to 60 foreign students to attend each Service Academy at any one time as actual members of an Academy class (i.e., as full-time, four-year degree candidates). The foreign and national security policy justification for these activities centers on the inestimable value of exposing future foreign leaders, at the beginning of their careers, to their U.S. peers in an environment that is designed to promote military professionalism in every respect. The presence of foreign students in U.S. institutions also serves our foreign and national security policy interests by exposing future U.S. military leaders to individuals from the many parts of the globe to which they may deploy. The cost reflected in the report represents the cost to the DoD. Some countries reimburse all or a portion of the cost of the program to the Service Academies.

b. Aviation Leadership Program (ALP)

ALP provides Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) to a small number (15-20 per year) of select international students from friendly, less-developed nations. ALP is a USAF-funded program authorized under 10 U.S.C. 9381-9383. ALP consists of English language training, Introduction to Flight Training (IFT), Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT), and necessary related training, as well as programs to promote better awareness and understanding of the democratic institutions and social framework of the United States. The duration of the ALP program is 1-2 years, depending on the amount of English language training required to bring the student up to entry level and the student's progression through the UPT program. ALP was suspended for FY 1999, FY 2000, and FY 2001 due to a shortfall of UPT quotas for overall Air Force requirements. The program resumed in FY 2002 with a number of students entering into English Language Training and follow-on undergraduate pilot training in FY 2003. Countries that accepted and will participate in the FY 2004-2005 program are: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Botswana, Bulgaria, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, India, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Romania, Senegal, Thailand, Tunisia, and Uzbekistan. The cost of ALP is approximately $377,000 per student entering in FY 2004-2005. Countries to be invited to participate in the program for FY 2005-2006 have not been determined. Twenty countries will be invited to nominate a candidate for program participation.

c. Exchanges

Reciprocal professional military education (PME) exchanges are authorized by section 544 (Exchange Training) of the Foreign Assistance Act. This section authorizes the President to provide for the attendance of foreign military personnel at PME institutions in the United States (other than Service Academies) without charge, if such attendance is part of an international agreement. These international agreements provide for the exchange of students on a one-for-one reciprocal basis each fiscal year between the U.S. professional military education institutions and comparable institutions of foreign countries and international organizations.

The Arms Export Control Act (Section 30A - Exchange of Training and Related Support) authorizes the President to provide training and related support to military and civilian defense personnel of a friendly foreign country or international organization. Such training and related support are provided through the Military Departments (as opposed to the Combatant Commands). Unit exchanges conducted under this authority are arranged under international agreements negotiated for such purposes, and are integrated into the theater engagement strategies of the relevant Combatant Commander. Recipient countries provide, on a reciprocal basis, comparable training and related support.

7. FOREIGN ASSISTANCE ACT (FAA) -- FAA DRAWDOWN

Under section 506(a)(1) of the FAA, the President may direct the drawdown of defense articles from DoD stocks, defense services, or military training and education from the DoD if he determines and reports to the Congress that an unforeseen emergency exists which requires immediate military assistance to a foreign country or international organization, and that such emergency requirements cannot be met under the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) or any other law except this section.

Under section 506(a)(2) of the FAA, the President must determine and report to the Congress, in accordance with section 652 of the FAA, that it is in the national interest of the U.S. to drawdown articles and services from the inventory and resources of any agency of the U.S. Government and military training and education from the DoD. If he so determines, the President may direct the drawdown of such articles, services and military training and education for the purposes and under the authorities of Chapter 8 of Part I of the FAA (relating to international narcotics control assistance); Chapter 9 of part I of the FAA (relating to international disaster assistance); Chapter 8 of part II of the FAA (relating to antiterrorism assistance); Chapter 9 of part II of the FAA (relating to nonproliferation assistance); or the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962; or for the purpose of providing such articles, services and military training and education to Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos as the President determines are necessary to (1) support cooperative efforts to locate and repatriate members of the United States Armed Forces and civilians employed directly or indirectly by the USG who remain unaccounted for from the Vietnam War; and (2) to ensure the safety of USG personnel engaged in such cooperative efforts and to support DoD-sponsored humanitarian projects associated with such efforts.

If the President determines that, as the result of an unforeseen emergency, the immediate provision of assistance for the purpose of Chapter 6 of Part II of the FAA in amounts in excess of funds otherwise available for such assistance is important to the national interest of the United States, section 552 of the FAA provides for drawdown of commodities and services from the inventory and resources of any agency of the USG of an aggregate value not to exceed $25M in any fiscal year.

E. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE - JOINT COMBINED EXCHANGE TRAINING (JCET) ACTIVITIES

The JCET program, authorized under 10 U.S.C. 2011, permits U.S. SOF to train through interaction with friendly foreign forces. The particular value of this training is that it enhances those SOF skills, such as instructor skills, language proficiency, and cultural immersion, critical to required missions generated by either existing plans or unforeseen contingencies. The primary purpose of JCET activities is always the training of U.S. SOF personnel, although incidental training benefits may accrue to the foreign forces.

F. DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY/U.S. COAST GUARD ACTIVITIES

The U.S. Coast Guard routinely assists other federal agencies such as State and the Department of Defense through the provision of training and technical assistance. Subject areas include the full breadth of Coast Guard core mission areas including maritime law enforcement, search and rescue, marine environmental protection, port security and marine safety. As the U.S. Coast Guard has no independent authority to conduct this training, funding is provided under auspices of programs such as Anti-Terrorism Assistance, International Narcotics and Law Enforcement (INL), Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR), International Military Education and Training (IMET), and Foreign Military Financing (FMF), to name a few. Countries may also use their national funds to purchase training through the Foreign Military Sales program.

1. Coast Guard Academy Foreign Cadet Program

Foreign national appointments to the U.S. Coast Guard Academy (USCGA) are authorized in 14 U.S.C. 195. The number of foreign USCGA cadets may not exceed 36 at any given time. Cadets earn a bachelor of science degree in one of the following disciplines: marine engineering and naval architecture; electrical engineering; civil engineering; mechanical engineering; marine and environmental sciences; management; or government. The presence of foreign students at the USCGA serves to enhance international relationships with key maritime partners around the world. Normally, sponsoring governments agree in advance to reimburse the Coast Guard for all costs incurred for a cadet's training at the USCGA. Countries may request a waiver to this policy which can only be granted by the Commandant of the Coast Guard. The figures provided in this report represent only those costs born by the U.S. Coast Guard. Countries also must agree that, upon graduation, the cadet will serve in the comparable maritime service of his or her respective country. An appropriate duration of service is determined by the sponsoring government.

2. Caribbean Support Tender (CST)

The Caribbean Support Tender (CST) program is a unique training and technical assistance platform focused on enhancement of maritime capabilities throughout the Central American region. The former U.S. Coast Guard 180' buoy tender GENTIAN is currently performing the CST mission with a joint USCG and international crew. Ship attributes include berthing for 58 personnel, onboard training facilities, shop/repair capability, and 120,000 pounds of cargo carrying capacity. The concept for the CST was initially developed in response to President Clinton's commitments in Bridgetown, Barbados in 1997. It was subsequently authorized under P.L. 105-277, Chapter 4, and commissioned in September 1999. This authority was further codified in the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002. Host nations benefiting from the CST program received training and technical assistance in maritime law enforcement, search and rescue, marine safety, environmental protection, and disaster relief. The CST provides a venue for leading U.S. engagement efforts in the Caribbean by drawing together many USG programs and fostering international cooperation. The multi-national crew develops esprit amongst themselves not only in serving together during the course but also between the nations during GENTIAN's visits to foreign ports.



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