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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--Africa Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2004 and 2005
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
April 2005
Report
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Angola

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

19

$204,731

14

$319,477

Regional Centers

2

$29,712

10

$139,747

TOTAL

21

$234,443

24

$459,224

Two years after the end of a crippling 27-year civil war, Angola is transitioning from emergency recovery efforts to a focus on rebuilding and economic development. Angola's announcement of elections to be held in September 2006, discussions with IMF on monetary transparency and debt management, and demonstrated interest in regional stability are positive signs and coincide with U.S. goals for democratic, social, and economic reform. Angola, a significant U.S. energy supplier, is expected to double oil production to two million barrels per day by 2008. The significant and growing U.S. investment in Angola's energy sector calls for strong economic security. Angola has one of Africa's largest, most experienced and well-equipped militaries, which can play a constructive role in ensuring a safe, peaceful, and democratic Angola, and potentially contribute to international peacekeeping operations.

Providing military training assistance to Angola promotes development of an apolitical, professional defense force that is respectful of human rights. In FY 2004, the Department of State managed a $322,000 Expanded IMET operating budget, which focused on English language training, civil-military relations, and defense resource management. A training highlight was the Distinguished Visitor's Orientation Tour to the U.S. by the Angolan Armed Forces Chief of Staff and deputies in September 2004. This intensive training program and high-level exposure to U.S. military and government practice has further strengthened the foundation for contact and cooperation. Funding for English language training has productively enhanced communication, and will also facilitate leadership in eventual Angolan international peacekeeping operations. Through participation in International Defense Management Course Training in 2004, the Angolan military was introduced to concepts, techniques and comparative resource management techniques to strengthen theoretical knowledge, competence, and capabilities. The visit to Angola by U.S. lawyers from the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies provided for consultations on military law, including human rights, and was an opportunity to discuss ways to develop a professional military and the importance of the noncommissioned officer in the military. Funding was also allocated to enable Angolan Armed Forces members to participate in a conference sponsored by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies on conflict management and the problems of small arms proliferation. U.S. assistance to the Angolan military should continue to expand in 2005 to examine engagement on weapons and munitions destruction, HIV/AIDS prevention, coastal and economic security, and peacekeeping training.

As of the publication date of this report, Angola is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Benin

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

7

$105,098

10

$315,077

Regional Centers

2

$28,471

6

$81,079

Service Academies

1

$50,085

1

$50,085

TOTAL

10

$183,654

17

$446,241

Since the transition from a Marxist military regime after a National Conference in 1990, Benin has become a model, albeit imperfect, of democracy in the region. Free and fair presidential elections in 1991 led to a peaceful transition of government to civilian authorities. The country since that time has been characterized by a lively and crowded political landscape. The Beninois military has returned to a subordinate role in Beninois society, although President Kerekou, as a former military man, remains attentive to the military's needs. At present, Benin faces no external threat to its stability and the armed forces have played an increasing role in regional peacekeeping activities.

The Beninois were enthusiastic participants in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) training and military leaders hope to continue to benefit from training opportunities presented under programs such as the Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program. Benin's armed forces (BAF) have played a significant role in regional peacekeeping activities and programs like ACOTA will help them enlarge that role. We continue to encourage the Beninois to be engaged in the region, both on a political and military/peacekeeping level and they have been responsive, most recently deploying troops to Liberia and Haiti. We seek to strengthen the capabilities of the BAF to provide international humanitarian relief.

Benin has still not signed an Article 98 agreement with the United States. We continue to urge the Government of Benin to do so and the government has repeated assurances that they believe an accommodation can be reached in the near future based on a draft non-aggression agreement provided by Washington. Programs such as IMET, the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) and ACOTA will aid in increasing both the BAF's readiness and participation in international peacekeeping as well as buttressing democratic government and good governance. Benin's robust IMET program played a key role in keeping the Beninois military in the barracks, and reinstating their IMET program after signature of an Article 98 agreement will help signal our support for their democratization efforts.

The African Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Benin by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Benin, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Botswana

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

1

$10,156

3

$5,729

CTFP

2

$18,446

0

$0

EIPC

1

$0

0

$0

FMF

8

$22,322

3

$26,088

IMET

68

$1,189,458

59

$1,126,786

Regional Centers

2

$28,759

6

$81,079

TOTAL

82

$1,269,141

71

$1,239,682

Botswana has one of the longest-running democracies and most fiscally prudent economic regimes on the continent. Our efforts focus on helping Botswana confront one of the highest per capita HIV/AIDS infection rates in the world, supporting Botswana's stable democracy, expanding U.S. business opportunities and advocating Botswana's leadership in the region. On the security side, Botswana has one of the region's most professional and responsible military establishments and offers a model for civilian-military relations for the rest of southern Africa.

Botswana has provided a venue for regional military exchanges that have been well received and that have fostered a spirit of regional cooperation. Through our IMET and other security assistance programs, we seek to expand our connections with Botswana's military leaders and support their interest in contributing to efforts to strengthen both regional civil-military ties and regional military-military relations. BDF personnel will continue taking courses in senior military leadership (officer and enlisted), combat and combat support arms, medical specialties, and strategic intelligence. These courses not only support individual professional development, but also prepare the BDF to better execute Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) and humanitarian support operations while complementing other existing programs, such as the Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) program and the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program. Expanded IMET training included components on HIV/AIDS, civil-military relations, peacekeeping and post-graduate studies.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Botswana by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Botswana, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Burkina Faso

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

1

$8,710

1

$16,470

Regional Centers

2

$28,798

6

$81,079

TOTAL

3

$37,508

7

$97,549

Military engagement with Burkina Faso has been limited for many years to participation in an occasional Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) event and infrequent contacts in the context of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) oriented regional training or development programs. However, Burkina Faso quietly embarked on a new policy in the region four years ago and has made concerted efforts to end its disruptive role in the region and to improve relations with the United States, including ratifying an Article 98 Agreement. The Government of Burkina Faso (GOBF) has also demonstrated a willingness to cooperate on important USG policy priorities such as the war on terrorism, support of the Linas-Marcoussis accords in Cote d'Ivoire and bringing Charles Taylor to justice. As a result of the shift in the GOBF's behavior, the Department of State has re-started an Expanded IMET program as a means to expand bilateral military training efforts. Using the $115,000 provided in FY 2004, we have contributed materials and training to allow the GOBF to build an English language laboratory and we have programmed seminars on civil-military relations and on military justice and civil society that will be held in FY 2005. These military engagement programs will provide a vehicle to enhance the Burkinabe Armed Forces' positive role within civil society and assist the country in its continued democratic transition. English language training will be critical to increasing the interoperability of the Burkina military with Anglophone members of the Economic Community of West African States, as well as with the United States.

Burkina Faso sent two participants to various ACSS events in FY 2004 and hope to send a further six in FY 2005. Military and civilians alike covet spots for these events and participation is a mark of distinction. ACSS provides an exceptional forum for engaging senior-level military and civilian officials in African countries. The Africa Center program promotes democratic governance in the defense and security sectors and fosters critical partnerships with African nations.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Burkina Faso, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Burundi

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

0

$0

5

$45,117

Regional Centers

9

$135,634

9

$129,079

TOTAL

9

$135,634

14

$174,196

Substantial progress towards peace and stability has been achieved since the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Accord of 2000, and notably since the main Hutu rebel movement joined the transitional government in November 2003. The restoration of democratic government will allow for the lifting of restrictions under section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, thus making it eligible for IMET. National elections are now scheduled to be completed in April 2005, the first since 1993.

In August 2004, the Department of State obtained a waiver under section 451 of the Foreign Assistance Act to use $600,000 in FY 2004 Peacekeeping (PKO) funds to pay for specialized security training for VIP protection in Burundi. This training was to augment the protection of senior members of the Burundi government. This assistance advances USG policy goals, including supporting the peaceful transition to democratically elected government in Burundi, and promoting regional stability and democratic systems in Central Africa.

We have suspended almost all forms of military-to-military engagement with Burundi because of the 1996 military coup d'�tat, the ongoing civil conflict and the poor human rights records of the army and rebels. Nevertheless, Burundi was one of nine African countries invited to participate in CENTCOM's Golden Spear Symposium - a continuing program designed to develop a regional response mechanism for crisis prevention and disaster management in East Africa. The Department of State concurred with the DoD decision to include Burundi to help promote peace and stability in central Africa.

Additionally, as a result of the promising recent developments in the Burundi peace process, DoD invited Burundi to participate in Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) events. The African Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Burundi by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. The ACSS program in Burundi will continue in FY 2005.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Burundi, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Cameroon

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

12

$385,994

8

$275,257

Regional Centers

8

$111,203

11

$140,091

Service Academies

7

$354,695

5

$256,590

TOTAL

27

$851,892

24

$671,938

U.S. goals in Cameroon support the successful transformation of Cameroonian society into a democratic, pluralistic community, with a market-based economy integrated into the world economy. Cameroon's political stability and relative economic development make it a leading sub-regional power. Construction of the Chad-Cameroon pipeline further integrates Cameroon into the regional petroleum economy. Cameroon's status as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council in 2002 and 2003 underlines the importance of a strong military-to-military relationship, particularly on peacekeeping issues.

Cameroon's military can potentially play an important role in supporting regional peacekeeping initiatives and promoting peaceful resolution of border disputes with neighboring countries, particularly in the case of the Bakassi peninsula and Cameroon's maritime borders with Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria. Moreover, it is crucial to have military participation and cooperation as Cameroon undertakes additional political and economic reforms.

Military training provided to Cameroon is designed to encourage good military-to-military relationships and increased understanding of the constructive role the military can play in promoting civilian programs. The West Africa Training Cruise in October, November 2003 reinforced the role of the Navy in maritime security and humanitarian assistance. Cameroon values IMET courses and continues to fill every available course. Cameroon sent cadets to the U.S. Air Force Academy, the U.S. Naval Academy, and the U.S. Military Academy this year and continues to seek additional training opportunities. Other IMET programs in FY 2004 targeted building professionalism within the Cameroonian Armed Forces through professional training for junior- to mid-level military officers. Senior level courses are rarely offered, but highly sought after by the Cameroonian senior leadership.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Cameroon by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. Cameroon hosted an ACSS conference in the spring of 2004.

As of the publication date of this report, Cameroon is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Cape Verde, Republic of

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

8

$166,087

8

$191,437

Regional Centers

2

$34,978

4

$42,260

TOTAL

10

$201,065

12

$233,697

Since gaining independence in 1975, Cape Verde has been at peace with itself and its neighbors, and its military has consistently played a constructive role in civil society. The country's physical isolation, poverty and limited number of educational institutions make it heavily reliant on training from other countries to develop appropriate technical proficiencies. The IMET program provides English language training to the military's officer and mid-level NCO corps to enhance their ability to provide effective cooperation in maritime patrols and other military and Coast Guard-related activities. IMET also will be used to support Cape Verde's plan for a professional military police unit. Participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) also provides a low-cost investment to help ensure the continued professionalism of Cape Verde's military under civilian, democratic leadership.

With greater English-language proficiency, Cape Verde's military could access training programs specifically designed to increase its ability to patrol territorial waters, and so address more effectively the environmental threats of over fishing and reduced biodiversity. Effective coastal patrols also would improve Cape Verde's drug interdiction, counterterrorism, search and rescue, and disaster preparedness programs.

ACSS supports democratic governance in Cape Verde by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Cape Verde is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Service members' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Central African Republic

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

0

$0

7

$219,556

TOTAL

0

$0

7

$219,556

On March 15, 2003, former military Chief of Staff General Francis Bozize seized power in a military coup from democratically elected President Ange-Felix Patasse. Bozize issued a decree suspending the constitution and other government institutions. Section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2003 (Div. E, P.L. 108-7) prohibits most direct assistance to the government of any country whose duly elected head of government is deposed by decree or military coup. In accordance with that provision, we have ended all military and other assistance covered by section 508, to the Central African Republic. Assistance related to the promotion of democratic elections is specifically exempted. The restriction in section 508 does not apply to assistance not provided directly to the government (such as humanitarian aid provided through non-government organizations). Military assistance cannot resume until such time as the President determines and certifies that a democratically elected government has taken office.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Central African Republic, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Chad

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

21

$182,539

2

$114,252

FMF

58

$91,400

15

$110,178

IMET

16

$286,686

35

$590,983

Regional Centers

8

$136,139

10

$139,747

TOTAL

103

$696,764

62

$955,160

Chad occupies a strategic position west of Sudan and south of Libya, sharing borders with the Central African Republic, Cameroon, Nigeria and Niger. In the course of the last ten years, all but one of Chad's neighbors have suffered a coup d'�tat or been named state supporters of terrorism. A well-disciplined, effective military under civilian control will reinforce Chad's role as a point of relative stability in a troubled region. U.S. assistance strengthens leadership and respect for rule of law within the military, which over time will contribute to the development of a military that supports civilian control and direction of the Armed Forces and whose members are cognizant of their duty with respect to human rights. Such a force would have a strong influence throughout the region, and would be able to contribute constructively to regional conflict resolution and counterterrorism initiatives.

Chad was a victim of terrorism in the bombing of UTA 772, and the Government of Chad (GOC) therefore feels that it has a stake in excluding potential terrorist elements from Chadian territory. In March 2004, the Chadian military engaged members of the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC), an Algerian terrorist cell, in a firefight in northern Chad. During this skirmish more than forty GSPC and five Chadians were killed. Several of the GSPC, including their leader Al-Para, escaped and were captured by a Chadian rebel group in the Tibesti region of Chad. The GOC was instrumental in facilitating the eventual turnover of this terrorist leader to the Algerian government. The GOC has also been supportive in sharing anti-terrorism information with its partners in the global war on terror, and raising awareness of regional threats. As part of the Counterterrorism Fellowship Fund, Chad hosted a regional conference titled "Civil Military Responses to Terrorism." The September 2004 Conference was led by the Center for Civil Military Relations and included representatives from twelve African countries.

Chad, a committed member of the Pan-Sahel Initiative (PSI), has participated in several peacekeeping operations in the region and possesses the most operational airlift capability among the four PSI participant countries. In summer 2004, U.S. Marines provided 60 days of basic infantry training to a Chadian Army company comprised of approximately 170 soldiers. The PSI training focused on individual and unit-level tasks such as basic rifle marksmanship, basic soldier's skills and both platoon and squad-level platoon tactics. PSI training is targeted to assist Chad not only in countering terrorist operations, but to respond more efficiently to border incursions and trafficking of people, illicit materials and other goods. Throughout 2004, the Chadian military has been active in providing security in eastern Chad. GOC forces are positioned along the border with Sudan in an effort to prevent further Jandjaweed incursions, and are also responsible for ensuring the security of the Sudanese refugee camps in Chad.

The process of restructuring the Chadian Armed Forces is ongoing. American support for the rule of law is crucial to preserving Chad's fragile democratic institutions, to the continued relative stability of Chad and to extending the positive influence of that stability to a troubled region. Without such stability in a framework of the rule of law, Chad will be unable to attract foreign investors and unable to make the most of the development opportunities opening up in the era of oil production. In February 2004, FMF grant funds supported a seminar on basic rule of law concepts applicable to military operations. The seminar was well attended by a broad cross-section of Chad's military, including officers from the field and from former "irregular" units now integrated into the military. However, additional Foreign Military Financing (FMF) will be necessary to adequately support mounting USG efforts to engage with the Chadian military during the coming year.

As of the publication date of this report, Chad is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Comoros

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

0

$0

4

$103,077

Regional Centers

7

$92,418

4

$42,260

TOTAL

7

$92,418

8

$145,337

A small island nation in the Indian Ocean, the Union of Comoros has a history of political instability and military intervention in politics. This background has given particular importance to U.S. efforts to promote democracy and stability in the Comoros and to strengthen the professionalism of the Comorian Defense Force, including respect for civilian control. A modest IMET program for the Comoros in the past had been an important element in U.S. policy toward, and bilateral relations with, the Comorian government.

In April 1999, Comoros experienced a military coup that overthrew the civilian government elected in March 1996. Assistance to Comoros was suspended consistent with section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2001 (P.L.106-429), which restricts direct assistance to the government of any country whose duly elected head of state is deposed by decree or military coup until such time as the President determines and certifies to Congress that a democratically elected government has taken office. Although some regional humanitarian programs continued, all military cooperation was discontinued, except for training events offered by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS).

In December 2001, Comoros held a referendum that overwhelmingly approved a new constitution that instituted a system of shared autonomy between a national government and the island governments that make up Comoros. An election was held in April 2002 that confirmed military strongman, Azali Assoumani, as president. With the lifting of section 508 sanctions in November 2003, Comoros was allowed to participate in the FY 2004 IMET program and State included a request for $50,000 in IMET funding in its FY 2005 Congressional Budget Justification document. The FY 2004 IMET program focused on English language training, civil-military relations, and professional military education.

The African Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Comoros by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Comoros is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Cote d'Ivoire

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

0

$0

17

$603,180

Regional Centers

2

$28,533

6

$81,079

TOTAL

2

$28,533

23

$684,259

Until late 1999, Cote d'Ivoire had experienced a level of political stability and economic growth that made it a model for its neighbors. With the third largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa, it was the economic engine for the sub-region. The Ivoirian Armed Forces had begun to participate in the African Crisis Response Initiative, and Cote d'Ivoire had established an important regional center for peacekeeping training. But the country's era of tranquility ended with a military coup in December 1999 that ousted the elected government of President Henri Konan Bedie.

Since then, Cote d'Ivoire has been in a state of political upheaval. Ten months after the coup, scores of people died in violence associated with the deeply flawed elections that brought current President Laurent Gbagbo to power. On September 19, 2002, an armed rebellion erupted, splitting the country in two. Although rebels and the government eventually signed a cease-fire and formed a government of national reconciliation, the country, as of this writing, remains divided. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and France have sent peacekeeping troops to help stabilize the situation and implement a peace agreement concluded in January 2003. In 2004, the ECOWAS forces became the core of a UN Peacekeeping Mission, ONUCI.

As of this writing, the 2003 peace agreement and subsequent agreements have yet to be implemented and disarmament of former combatants has not begun. Bilateral assistance to Cote d'Ivoire was suspended consistent with section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2000, (P.L. 106-113), which restricts direct assistance to the government of any country whose duly elected head of government is deposed by decree or military coup until such time as the President determines and certifies to Congress that a democratically elected government has taken office. Although some regional humanitarian programs (including participation in DoD/CDC HIV/AIDS Clinic renovations) and Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) participation continued, all other military cooperation is suspended. These sanctions will remain in place until a democratically elected government has taken office.

If eligible and not otherwise restricted, Cote d'Ivoire's participation during FY 2005 in ACSS programs and potential E-IMET training stressing good governance, civilian rule, the rule of law and democracy will be considered as those seminars are scheduled, taking into consideration if and how the rebellion is resolved. Theses types of programs support democratic governance throughout the region by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. Participation in these types of events also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Cote d'Ivoire is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Democratic Republic of Congo

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

1

$21,832

6

$193,376

Regional Centers

5

$68,943

9

$129,079

TOTAL

6

$90,775

15

$322,455

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is transitioning from what was essentially a dictatorship to a democratic republic based on a parliamentary system of government with an elected president as its head. At the end of 2003, however, the former belligerents had not yet fully integrated key institutions such as the army, the police and local administrations. Territory in former rebel-held areas was not yet under effective central government control. The poor condition of transportation and communications infrastructure, and the presence of numerous uncontrolled armed groups in eastern Congo further limited central authority.

Now that the former rebel components' combatants have been added to the national armed forces, the exact size of the DRC military is unknown. There are likely more than 300,000 members divided into mainly army personnel, with a small air force and navy. However, it remains poorly funded. The size of the military will be reduced significantly once demobilization efforts commence. The DRC is surrounded by former enemies and requires a viable military. The mission and role of the military is being redefined at this time. It will focus on defense of the country's borders centered on units controlled by the eleven military regional headquarters and dispersed in brigade-sized cantonments. There is also a plan to establish regional training centers. The military will most probably also be tasked to provide domestic disaster relief, humanitarian demining operations, and other operations to support the stability and security of the country. Less than 5 percent of GDP goes into military funding. At this time the DRC is largely incapable of securing and defending its borders, coastal waterways and territorial waters. Poor maritime, airport and border security, corruption, and weak to non-existent infrastructure and laws make the DRC a potential playground for transnational terrorists, smugglers and traffickers of all sorts.

Democratic reform and human rights are the most significant U.S. interests in the Democratic Republic of Congo, followed by concern for the humanitarian situation, protection of American citizens, global issues including promoting health and economic development. Sustaining a peaceful democracy contributes to U.S. humanitarian interests and regional security by creating the mechanisms for peaceful resolution of disputes and by providing a fertile environment to foster a growing economy. Security assistance efforts in FY 2004 focused on re-establishing an English language lab in the DRC; providing English language instructor and laboratory technician training; and funding Mobile Training Team (MTT) visits in preparation for assistance to be conducted in FY 2005. Mobile Training Teams were conducted by the Defense Language Institute English Language Center (DLIELC), the Defense International Institute for Legal Studies (DIILS) and the Center for Civil Military Relations (CCMR). For the first time since the 1980s Congolese military students were sent to the United States for training - four instructors from the Centre Superieur Militaire for language instructor and laboratory technician training. In FY 2005, security assistance funds will provide training in military justice, human rights, officer and non-commissioned officer professionalization, and other functional areas. These training programs will assist in the continued integration and professionalization of the military composed of former government and rebel troops. IMET will also facilitate military-to-military contact and the establishment of beneficial relations and defense cooperation between the militaries of the DRC and the United States. Expanded International Military Education and Training (E-IMET) courses will focus on professional training and development in the areas of civil-military relations, the rule of law, and respect for human rights. During FY 2004, prior year Foreign Military Funds (FMF) were released to support defense reform efforts, but the Congolese have not yet decided how best to use these funds.

The DRC became eligible in FY 2004 to receive Excess Defense Articles (EDA) on a grant basis under section 516 of the Foreign Assistance Act. Grant EDA could be used to support efforts to reform and restructure the military, assist with maintaining internal security, and assist the DRC to participate in peacekeeping activities. The DRC received Excess Defense Property (medical and school equipment and furniture) in early FY 2004 valued at approximately $80K and will shortly receive additional items valued at approximately $90K, plus an ambulance and trailer-mounted generator valued at $42K.

Military assistance program objectives in coming years will focus on modernization and professionalization of the Congolese Armed Forces (FARDC); leaning heavily toward creation of a moderate force trained to carry out and support regional and international peace keeping operations. Other objectives include enhancing the FARDC's ability to react to natural disasters and carry out humanitarian operations, and increasing interoperability with regional and international forces - mainly through development of a robust English language training program. Program objectives also seek to contribute to the development of a professional officer and noncommissioned officer corps. Development of maritime security in conjunction with the United States does not currently seem to be a high priority for the FARDC, which is focusing on land forces. This could change if the FARDC were offered EDA vessels for its navy's use.

The DRC in FY 2004 also began limited participation in United States government funded programs such as the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminars. ACSS supports democratic governance in the DRC by offering senior government civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. The DRC received invitations to participate in ACSS seminars in Washington DC (February 2004 - two delegates failed to receive permission to travel from DRC government), Cameroon (May 2004 - four of six delegates attended), Tampa (July 2004 - two delegates attended), and Uganda (October 2004 - two delegates attended).

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to the Democratic Republic of Congo, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Djibouti

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

1

$12,768

20

$131,362

IMET

7

$146,872

14

$354,802

Regional Centers

2

$29,752

9

$129,079

TOTAL

10

$189,392

43

$615,243

Djibouti, strategically located at the entrance to the Red Sea, next to Somalia and facing Yemen, is the home of the only U.S. military base in Sub-Saharan Africa. It also hosts France's largest military base overseas. Djibouti has played a strategic role in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) and currently has forces from five countries (Germany, United Kingdom, France, Spain and the U.S.) participating in the coalition effort against terrorism. It also serves as the main seaport for Ethiopia - which has also been a staunch ally in the war on terrorism. In 2004, urgently needed emergency food aid from the U.S. passed through the Port of Djibouti to Ethiopia.

Djibouti has become an important refueling point for U.S. military aircraft and a training area for U.S. military personnel as well as ships and aircraft. Bouffard French military hospital is a key trauma care center in the area and helped stabilize victims after the terrorist attack on the USS Cole in October 2000.

IMET training is our core program for Djibouti and has been one of the most successful programs in the region. Graduates now hold key policy and operational positions within the Djiboutian military, including chief of staff and major command positions. Djiboutian mid- and senior-grade officers have attended Command and General Staff, and War College courses.

Access to this highly supportive Arab League nation and critical base of support for the U.S. military merits our serious commitment to the continuation and expansion of the IMET program. IMET helps U.S. strategic interests by expanding relations and our influence in a frontline state in the GWOT. The Djiboutians benefit from the training in meeting their core objectives of creating a professional and well-trained force with shared commitments to democratic values and security objectives.

Djibouti's strategic position adjacent to the Bab el Mandeb strait provides the U.S. access, basing and over-flight rights. Djibouti works closely with the Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) to prosecute the GWOT. The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) continues to foster bilateral relations with Djiboutian Armed Forces and is an integral part of U.S. Central Command's Theater Security Cooperation Strategy. The CTFP helps to promote access, while serving overall U.S. strategic interests associated with this important littoral nation.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) has become an important complement to IMET in exposing senior Djiboutian leaders to core U.S. values on civil-military relations and national security and defense concerns. This program also enhances interaction between our countries and expansion of this program will promote closer bilateral cooperation and trust.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) of the provision of military assistance to Djibouti, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Equatorial Guinea

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

2

$28,867

9

$125,303

TOTAL

2

$28,867

9

$125,303

All forms of military assistance to Equatorial Guinea are suspended. The Equato-Guinean Government's poor human rights record, governance problems and marginal progress on democratic reform improved during 2004. However, the country's leadership remains in the hands of a small clique whose legitimacy remains questionable. We continue to suspend almost all forms of official military-to-military engagement in Equatorial Guinea, except for participation on a case-by-case basis at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) and at Gulf of Guinea conferences.

The African Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Equatorial Guinea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Equatorial Guinea is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Eritrea

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

0

$0

21

$344,889

Regional Centers

2

$32,571

9

$129,079

TOTAL

2

$32,571

30

$473,968

Democratic institutions in Eritrea, including a non-political military, have yet to be established. This, together with the slow pace of political reform and the continued government suppression of the political opposition, independent media and religious freedom is discouraging. Nevertheless, U.S. assistance could play a key role in building a professional Eritrean military, sensitive to the separation between civilian and military authority and to the concept of a non-political and apolitical military that respects human rights and promotes self-management.

Since Eritrea has a long seacoast on the Red Sea, a good bilateral relationship with Eritrea, could be useful to U.S. interests in the region. Eritrea is an important factor for the overall regional stability in the Horn of Africa, particularly with respect to U.S. efforts to promote an enduring peace between Ethiopia and Eritrea, and to stem the presence and influence of terrorism in the Horn. A modern, well-trained Eritrean military could be an asset to U.S. national security interests in the region. Currently, however, relations between the U.S. and Eritrea are generally strained and Eritrea declined participation in: the DoD Counterterrorism Fellowship Program, Golden Spear Disaster Preparedness Conference, Coalition Sentinel Maritime Exercises (CJTF-HOA), and EACTI Conference, Kampala.

IMET and other training activities are key to supporting Eritrea's efforts to professionalize its military and promote respect for democracy and human rights. Reflecting concerns for Eritrea's poor human rights and democratization records, the USG has limited Eritrea's participation in the IMET program to E-IMET courses only for the past two years.

Eritrea was also invited to participate in several seminars hosted by the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) during FY 2004. ACSS supports democratic governance in Eritrea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. ACSS hosted two students from Eritrea in FY 2004. On another positive note, Eritrea signed an Article 98 agreement in July 2004, and is considering a Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA).

As of the publication date of this report, Eritrea is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Service members' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Ethiopia

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

1

$15,904

0

$0

CTFP

9

$159,987

6

$23,934

IMET

36

$382,110

31

$694,481

Regional Centers

2

$27,845

10

$129,423

TOTAL

48

$585,846

47

$847,838

Ethiopia is arguably the key to U.S. security interests in the Horn of Africa, a turbulent region threatened by Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism. Ethiopia has been a staunch ally in the war on terrorism and the Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) has been our most effective partner in the counter-terrorist fight within the region. Ethiopia's internal stability and its role as a regional and international leader remain critical for the stability of the Horn as a whole. The long-term goal of transforming the Ethiopian military into a professional, apolitical modern force remains important.

The ENDF is one of, if not the, most capable military forces in sub-Saharan Africa and has clearly established itself as the dominant military power within the Horn of Africa. Having identified three battalions in FY 2003 as their national combating terrorism force eventually to be deployed on the Somali border, we are proceeding with training these ENDF units in border control and combating terrorism skills under FMF-funded training conducted by CJTF-HOA. This effort will pay dividends in controlling the region's volatile and porous borders and enabling the host nation to strike trans-national terrorist networks when and where they are found.

Further, the Ethiopians have a long history of successful participation in United Nations military efforts, spanning the spectrum from the Korean War to combating genocide in Rwanda. Ethiopia currently has a reinforced battalion (900 soldiers) deployed to Burundi as peacekeepers in the UN Mission in Burundi (formerly the African Union (AU) African Mission in Burundi (AMIB)). This battalion was the first Ethiopian battalion trained under the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program. Affirming their commitment to international peacekeeping, Ethiopia has also deployed over 2000 peacekeepers to Liberia for the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL).

In FY 2004 under ACOTA, we conducted train-the-trainer training to build Ethiopia's own peacekeeping training capability and trained two more ENDF battalions in critical peacekeeping skills. Those two ACOTA-trained battalions are now deployed to Liberia as part of UNMIL. The Ethiopian's own cadre of ACOTA-trained trainers is now training their own battalions to rotate to Burundi or Liberia or to be available for future peacekeeping missions. In FY 2005 under ACOTA, we plan to monitor and mentor the Ethiopian cadre of trainers as they train at least two more battalions, provide battalion-level equipment for their peacekeeping units, and build toward ACOTA's goal of a sub-regional multi-lateral peacekeeping exercise.

As principally a former-guerrilla army, the ENDF lacks strong organic training institutions - a deficiency of which the Ethiopian senior leadership is painfully aware and is working hard to correct. Not only does this lack of formal military schooling hinder the professional growth of the military; it drastically reduces proper use of defense resources, which is critical to a poor nation like Ethiopia. During the past several years, the Ethiopians have increasingly turned to the U.S. military for assistance in addressing these shortcomings. IMET assists in increasing the professionalism of the Ethiopian military and in strengthening the U.S.-Ethiopian military relationship. The focus of the IMET program in Ethiopia is on building host-nation training institutions. Increasing the English-speaking capability of the military is achieving this by training instructors at U.S. military training institutions and by bringing U.S. military trainers to Ethiopia. An Ethiopian colonel who graduated from the U.S. Army War College in 2003 was recently promoted to brigadier general and is the Commandant of the ENDF's Defense University College. A major who attended the U.S. Army Command & General Staff College is a senior instructor at the ENDF Officer Basic Course, an excellent assignment utilizing this officer's training experience in the United States. Ethiopia currently has a colonel as an International Fellow at the National Defense University. The ACOTA training management workshop and drafting of the ENDF training doctrine have also assisted greatly in specifically addressing the ENDF's training shortcomings. In FY 2004, the Ethiopians used a portion of their FMF and IMET and East Africa Counter Terrorism Initiative funds to upgrade the level of instruction and capabilities of their Military Intelligence School. This will better position them for the future in the war on terrorism. They are also attempting to establish their own Command and Staff College for professional military education of mid-rank officers. Both endeavors will pay great dividends in the future for the U.S. military's inter-operability with the Ethiopians and the long-term professionalization of the ENDF.

Ethiopia has taken an aggressive stance against terrorism in Somalia and has supported the U.S. with operational access and invaluable intelligence sharing. Ethiopia's participation in the CTFP strengthens U.S. and Ethiopian bilateral relations especially in areas of counterterrorism training and education. The ENDF continues to work closely with, and enjoys ever-increasing interoperability with, CJTF-HOA in the prosecution of the Global War on Terrorism.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Ethiopia by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. In FY 2003, the Ethiopian Ministries of National Defense (MOND) and Foreign Affairs (MOFA) hosted the ACSS Senior Leader Seminar (ACSS' capstone conference) in Addis Ababa. Senior Ethiopian civilian and military leaders continue to benefit from participation in ACSS events and conferences. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. On a regional scale, the Ethiopian MOND hosted U.S. Central Command's annual regional seminar, GOLDEN SPEAR, in Addis Ababa. GOLDEN SPEAR brings together senior military and civilian leaders from eleven east African countries focused on disaster preparedness and management. Ethiopia participated in GOLDEN SPEAR 04 in Tampa and plans to continue future participation.

The scourge of HIV/AIDS transcends political and geographic boundaries, making it more a global humanitarian issue rather than only a medical one. The training support provided through the U.S. DoD HIV/AIDS Prevention Program to ENDF medical personnel is not limited to the transfer of skills and knowledge during the duration of training. It has developed into a network of close person-to-person professional contacts, establishment of bilateral research studies and access to ENDF military hospitals. This has established an effective, tightly knit team of American and Ethiopian military health professionals working together on common issues. Under the program, Ethiopian military health professionals have been able to participate in international training, conferences and symposiums from the U.S. to Thailand, Spain and Botswana. Every indication is that the HIV prevalence rate within the Ethiopian military remains lower than that of the general population, a rare, if not unique, situation in sub-Saharan Africa.

As of the publication date of this report, Ethiopia is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Gabon

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

FMF

23

$39,000

0

$0

IMET

35

$136,831

17

$357,251

Regional Centers

4

$59,143

10

$139,747

TOTAL

62

$234,974

27

$496,998

The Gabonese Republic is a politically stable and influential regional leader. President Bongo has led mediation efforts in several neighboring conflicts. These efforts included the conflict in the Central African Republic where Gabon has led the peacekeeping mission of the Economic and Monetary Community of Central African States (CEMAC) and where Gabonese troops have comprised the majority of CEMAC's deployed forces. On several occasions Gabon has served as a safe haven in times of conflict in the region, and the government has authorized the U.S. to use its facilities as a staging area for evacuations of Americans and other Westerners in case of need. Oil production, the basis of the national economy, is declining, although the consequences of this change have not had the anticipated impact because of the rising oil prices. However, if social indicators remain skewed, and the economy does not become more diversified, stability and democratic progress could be undermined.

IMET in FY 2004 focused on improving the English language capability of Gabonese military personnel and increasing the level of professionalism in the military. By fostering effective relations between the Gabonese and the U.S. military, and by exposing the Gabonese participants to U.S. professional military organizations, procedures and the manner in which the U.S. military functions under civilian control, Gabon's military efficiency and effectiveness should be enhanced. This in turn will support the goal of regional stability, particularly in peacekeeping operations in which the Gabonese participate. Training programs included thirteen students sent to the United States in FY 2004, as well as a Coast Guard program in Gabon with twenty-three participants and several participants at medical seminars.

Participation in the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) also supports democratic aims in Gabon by reinforcing the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders. Four members of the Gabonese Ministry of Defense participated in 2004; further invitations are expected in 2005. In addition, creating military-to-military contacts will increase the likelihood that Gabon will remain willing to serve as a staging area for evacuation operations in the region, although none were conducted in FY 2004. A ship visit is tentatively planned for January-February 2005.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to the Gabonese Republic, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Gambia

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

10

$164,955

6

$219,852

Regional Centers

2

$29,673

6

$81,079

TOTAL

12

$194,628

12

$300,931

In FY 2003, following the lifting of section 508 sanctions, the United States recommenced a modest IMET program to expose the next generation of Gambian military officers to U.S. military organizations and procedures, civil-military relations and the role of the military in a democracy. Until the lifting of those sanctions, the only military-to-military cooperation between the U.S. and The Gambia was through the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) programs. ACSS continues to support democratic governance in The Gambia by offering senior Gambian military and civilian leaders practical programs in civil-military relations, national security strategy, defense economics and related topics

In FY 2004, the initial IMET allocation was for $100,000, but this was supplemented by approximately $80,000 later in the year. This total was sufficient to allow eight officers to attend the Infantry officer basic course and one the Engineer officer basic course. In November 2004, U.S. and Gambian armed forces conducted joint military exercises within the context of the West Africa Training Cruise (WATC).

Three Military-to-Military Contact Program (Mil-to-Mil) events have been proposed by Marine Forces - Europe (MARFOREUR) for FY 2005: Riverine Operations Traveling Contact Teams, Harbor Security and Defense Traveling Contact Teams, and Aids Awareness and Preventive Medical Traveling Contact Teams.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) of the provision of military assistance to The Gambia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Ghana

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

2

$21,865

0

$0

CTFP

9

$119,819

0

$0

EIPC

3

$35,514

0

$0

FMF

1

$47,240

0

$0

IMET

41

$916,783

45

$943,883

Regional Centers

2

$27,516

11

$140,091

TOTAL

58

$1,168,737

56

$1,083,974

The Ghanaian Armed Forces (GAF) has a long and commendable record in peacekeeping operations, participating in operations around the globe. The GAF currently deploys battalions in Lebanon, the Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Liberia and has had UN observers in the Western Sahara, East Timor, Angola, Tajikistan, Kuwait, the Balkans and Ethiopia/Eritrea. With its history of political stability and English as its official language, Ghana provides an ideal platform for staging humanitarian operations (e.g. Feb-Apr 2000 flood relief for Mozambique; Sept 2002 EUCOM operation to extract Americans from civil unrest in the Ivory Coast, summer 2003 EUCOM operations for U.S. troop deployment in Liberia) and regional peacekeeping training activities.

Military cooperation under IMET, the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) and the Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program reinforce the GAF's ability to contribute to peacekeeping efforts in the region and beyond, and to play a constructive role in the development of Ghana as a democratic society. Ghana has proven to be a leader in organizing African responses to West African problems. The GAF was the prime organizers behind the West African response to the Liberian crises and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sponsored deployment in Cote d'Ivoire. The GAF has been an integral participant the African Union initiative to establish an African Stand-by Force.

Ghanaian armed forces were the first to be trained under the ACOTA program, the successor to ACRI. ACOTA-trained Ghanaian military trainers have trained all deploying peacekeeping units since April 2003. In addition to the figures cited above, the U.S. is providing also $800,000 in Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities Program funds to support of the Kofi Annan Peacekeeping Center, where commanders and staff from throughout the world train together for future peacekeeping missions. IMET will also help the GAF play a key role in the country's development by demonstrating and reinforcing correct civil-military relations in a democratic society.

One of the primary objectives of U.S. assistance programs for Ghana is to increase and improve Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) ability to support the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), project and support peacekeeping support forces, continue to provide a stabilizing influence in the region, and to strengthen our strong partnership with the GAF. This will enable Ghana to build a network of graduates from U.S. education and training programs that can pass along their knowledge and help Ghana build the institutions that can provide regional leadership and expertise to help resolve conflicts and maintain stability in West Africa.

The African Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Ghana by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Ghana, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Guinea

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

7

$24,686

1

$5,555

IMET

196

$428,870

18

$499,882

Regional Centers

1

$14,894

3

$27,816

TOTAL

204

$468,450

22

$533,253

U.S. diplomatic efforts in Guinea are primarily directed towards reinforcing Guinea's ability to play a more effective role in regional conflict-resolution and peacekeeping efforts, including the protection of refugees. The armed forces play a critical role in Guinean society. Assisting the Government of Guinea to continue to reform its military institutions by engaging in closer military-to-military cooperation and by increasing appropriate military assistance serves U.S. interests in several ways.

Through the West Africa Stabilization Program, the USG trained and partially equipped an 800-man counterinsurgency battalion that assisted in the containment of former Liberian President Charles Taylor. Guinea's "Ranger" Battalion, which is still deployed in Eastern Guinea along the borders with Cote d'Ivoire, Mali and Liberia, received accolades from NGOs and civilians for its service and professionalism in the aftermath of Cote d'Ivoire's mutiny in September 2002. Despite being an overwhelmingly Muslim country, Guinea is pro-U.S. and supported the United States in UNSCR 1441, the passage of numerous anti-terrorism resolutions, and entered into an Article 98 agreement with the United States. More recently, the USG witnessed the indirect benefit of U.S. military engagement when Guinea agreed to allow the destruction of its entire stockpiles of MANPADS and anti-personnel mines under a State-funded Small Arms/Light Weapons Destruction Program in October-November 2003.

Guinea has a long history of assisting other African countries, but its contributions and effectiveness in peace operations are limited by its army's organic capabilities. To the extent that we can help Guinea develop its armed forces, we will witness improved participation in African multilateral contingency operations. Guinea has participated in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and UN peace operations in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Rwanda. Guinea continues to benefit from training at the Freetown ECOWAS Depot that not only betters its military, but also reinforces sub-regional cooperation, interoperability and breaks down cultural barriers and mutual suspicions. Through combined training and exercises like those offered at the Freetown Depot, West African countries may be able to avoid conflict in the future, and failing that, will be better able to conduct multilateral peace/humanitarian operations. Guinea might also be considered for invitation into the Africa Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program. English is the operational language for international peace/humanitarian operations and the Guinean Armed Forces are finally seeing the value of having English-speaking personnel. To assist in this endeavor, the Defense Attach� Office has committed to improving the military's two existing language laboratories with an infusion of updated training materials and English language instructor training, as well as adding a third language lab outside of Conakry.

Collective, in-country training has included components on human rights, the rule of law, law of land warfare, civil-military relations and the role of a military in a democratic society. The USG has also successfully used E-IMET to fund seminars in Guinea in which these same topics were reinforced. The most recent such event was a civil-military relations seminar in Kankan in September 2004; the Defense Attach� Office also organized a seminar which brought together civilian and military officials involved in the justice system in June 2004. Next year we look forward to two combined training events that have the added benefit of encouraging sub-regional cooperation: a defense resource management seminar during which good governance and fiscal responsibility will be stressed, and a coastal surveillance exercise involving both the Guinean and the Sierra Leonean navies.

Also under the auspices of the Defense Attach� Office, Guinea initiated its HIV/AIDS Education and Awareness Program. This program is funded by the Department of Defense and managed by the DAO's implementing partner, Population Services International. During its first 14 months, this program has resulted in the creation of the Guinean Armed Forces' first HIV/AIDS policy. It has also produced peer educators in numerous regions, promoted condom usage and distribution, and initiated construction of the military's first voluntary counseling and testing facility.

Guinea continues to be a strong supporter of the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). Guinea participated in each of the ACSS events to which it was invited in FY 2004 and looks forward to continuing its participation in FY 2005. ACSS supports democratic governance in Guinea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Guinea, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Guinea-Bissau

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

0

$0

5

$146,330

TOTAL

0

$0

5

$146,330

Following eleven months of internal conflict in 1998-99, Guinea-Bissau held elections in 2000. That government ruled until the September 14, 2003 military intervention. A democratically elected government took office in Guinea-Bissau on May 12, 2004. In August 2004, the U.S. lifted sanctions against Guinea-Bissau under section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act (FOAA), which had been imposed due to the September 2003 military coup that removed former President Kumba Yala. Due to the 508 sanctions in place during most of FY 2004, the U.S. conducted no military training programs with Guinea-Bissau in FY 2004.

Guinea-Bissau is not a State Party to the Rome Statute. Regardless, the USG continues to work toward concluding an Article 98 agreement with Guinea-Bissau, to guarantee necessary legal protections for U.S. personnel.

The Government of Prime Minister Carlos Domingos Gomes Jr. is faced with three major challenges: 1) down-sizing and reforming the military and creating a "republican army" permanently subordinate to civilian authority; 2) promoting economic development, especially by controlling public finances, fighting corruption, and creating jobs, especially in fishing, agriculture and food processing; and 3) strengthening democratic institutions, including the judiciary and the parliament, as well as strengthening technical capacity within public agencies. Considering these priorities, any U.S. military cooperation with Guinea-Bissau should focus on: human rights and the role of a military in a democratic society; promoting down-sizing through job skills training and support for a functioning military retirement system; enhancing maritime patrol capabilities for protection of fishing areas and interdiction of criminal activities; enhancing security capabilities at land borders, ports, and airports for protection of commerce and interdiction of illegal trafficking; military and civil engineering projects in priority sectors including port dredging and repair of transportation infrastructure; and promoting participation in international peacekeeping operations to give the military a constructive mission during the difficult downsizing process.

Additional challenges in Guinea-Bissau include an extremely poor public health system, making it difficult to prevent and combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and other tropical diseases. HIV/AIDS control and other health programs conducted with USG assistance would contribute to regional stability as well as basic humanitarian needs. USG assistance to Humanitarian Demining efforts in Bissau has resulted in removal of nearly all mines from Bissau. The remaining landmines and unexploded ordnance are in two-dozen well-known locations spread throughout the country. There are also an undetermined number of mines scattered along the border with Senegal resulting from the long-standing conflict in Senegal's Casamance region, which occasionally involves people and locations in northern Guinea-Bissau.

Assistance provided under the Humanitarian Assistance (HA), Excess Property (EP), and HA/Other activities programs for schools, health centers, and bridges have been very well received by Bissau-Guinean authorities and local populations. Continued HA activities in Guinea-Bissau would further enhance U.S. relations with the country and contribute to long-term economic development goals.

As of the publication date of this report, Guinea-Bissau is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Kenya

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

2

$18,881

3

$1,078

CTFP

81

$223,660

20

$246,259

FMF

0

$0

0

$60,000

IMET

88

$644,891

51

$935,062

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

2

$295

0

$0

Regional Centers

2

$28,534

9

$129,079

TOTAL

175

$916,261

83

$1,371,478

The purpose of military training for Kenya is to improve the professionalism of the Kenya military and improve their capabilities in supporting the Global War on Terrorism and Peacekeeping Operations (PKO). Through military training, Kenya is meeting those ends. A key aspect of U.S. engagement with Kenya is based on maintaining access to Kenya's sea and air facilities for contingencies and training exercises. Access to the Horn of Africa region and the Indian Ocean remains important as current operations proceed, and for future potential for humanitarian and other emergencies in the region.

Training engagement for Kenya includes IMET, E-IMET, DoD Regional Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) activities, U.S. Central Command exercises and the Africa Contingency and Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program. Overall, the IMET training program helped promote excellent military-to-military relationships through resident courses and mobile training teams in Kenya. Senior and intermediate level professional military education (PME) courses and technical courses were balanced with mobile courses in country to provide a diverse training program for Kenya's Armed Forces. Most of the top Kenya military leaders have attended U.S. resident PME in the past, and PME will continue to be a key ingredient for a balanced approach to professional development. E-IMET courses were successful by including key Kenyan civilian personnel charged with port and coastal security and PKO. These mobile training courses conducted for Kenya are quite beneficial and effective since more personnel can be trained for the money and multiple agencies come together in the training setting, which rarely occurs in Kenya. IMET allocations will be focused on mobile training team courses that support the President's East Africa CT Initiative (improving the Kenyan military's capabilities in coastal and border security).

Kenya's porous borders are exposed to external threats such as terrorist and insurgents. Even though Kenya's small Armed Force of 30,000 personnel is focused on external threats, they are transitioning to more multifaceted missions against terrorism following the American Embassy Bombing in Nairobi in Aug 1998, the bombing at a tourist hotel in Mombasa, and the near miss of an Israeli Airline. The CTFP was instrumental in training key Kenyan Department of Defense (KDOD) leaders at the National Defense University's Counterterrorism Fellows course and the Center for Civil Military Relations (CCMR) course on combating terrorism. These alumni are now responsible for helping to fight terrorism and in coordinating KDOD/U.S. CT operations within the Horn of Africa region. As well, the CTFP trained key, promising mid-level officers in such areas as advanced infantry, armor, military police functions and shipyard management focusing on CT. Under the CTFP, Kenya benefited from a very well conducted mobile training course on emergency medical trauma system management that addressed hands-on emergency care and consequence management. Kenyan military and civilian leaders participated in ACSS events focused on defense management and small arms proliferation. The USCENTCOM Golden Spear Seminar, supported by ACSS, promoted the exchange of ideas and continued interaction among the regional participants.

U.S. Central Command exercises such as Edged Mallet and Natural Fire continue to build on excellent cooperation between Kenya and the United States. All levels of the Kenya Armed Forces participate in these events, and the ultimate result is an increase in Kenyan capabilities, and interoperability with U.S. Forces.

The African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) successor, the ACOTA program focused on training of personnel and providing equipment for a Battle Simulation Center at the Kenya Peace Support Training Center near Nairobi. The training emphasized "train-the-trainer" skills for junior commanders and staff officers in PKO.

As of the publication date of this report, Kenya is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Lesotho

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

2

$16,463

3

$84,698

Regional Centers

2

$27,744

4

$66,635

TOTAL

4

$44,207

7

$151,333

Historically, Lesotho's army has been a highly politicized force, vulnerable to influence by political parties. Military involvement in political destabilization and coups d'�tat has been a problem since independence in 1966. The political/security crisis of 1998, for example, included an army mutiny and junior officer complicity in an unconstitutional attempt to overthrow the elected government. The crisis demonstrated that a significant segment of the Lesotho Defense Forces (LDF) neither understood nor accepted the subordinate role of the military in a democracy.

Lesotho's current government has undertaken a comprehensive program to reform and professionalize the LDF and other security services. The U.S. has an interest in supporting this program because it advances our foreign policy goals of promoting democracy and human rights as well as humanitarian response skills.

Lesotho sent two high-level Ministry of Defense officials (one military and one civilian) to the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) Senior Leader Seminar in 2004. The government intends to do the same in 2005. Participation in this program supports democratic governance in Lesotho by offering senior officials practical instruction in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics.

As of the publication date of this report, Lesotho, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Madagascar

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

61

$207,159

14

$267,922

Regional Centers

7

$100,232

9

$129,149

TOTAL

68

$307,391

23

$397,071

After the failure of its socialist experiment (1975-1991), Madagascar has continued its transition to democracy and economic liberalization, showing much greater openness towards the U.S. and the West. Throughout the political turmoil of the early and mid-90's, the military remained disciplined, apolitical and respectful of civilian authority, despite calls for it to intervene. The resolve of their apolitical posture was again tested in early 2002 during the political standoff over disputed presidential election results. The dispute was resolved democratically and peacefully, without causing significant damage to civil-military relations.

The world's fourth-largest island, but one of the poorest countries on earth, Madagascar lacks the capability to protect its 5,000 kilometer maritime border against threats of smuggling. This inability deprives the government of significant revenues, contributes to the endangerment of many rare species found nowhere else and creates an unintended permissive environment for transnational terrorists.

The Malagasy are traditionally inward looking, but have sought to play a more active role in regional and international affairs. In 1999 the Malagasy hosted an African Union (AU) conference that sought to bring reconciliation to the Comoros and the government has expressed willingness to participate in peacekeeping operations under UN or AU auspices. IMET-funded training for Madagascar has enabled Malagasy officers to attend training that offers basic military skills for junior officers and mid-level officer staff operations, especially for the navy. It has also trained English language instructors at the basic and advanced levels.

Madagascar is a French-speaking country and mastery of English is a prerequisite for U.S. military training courses and to participate in multinational peacekeeping operations.

IMET contributes to the U.S. strategic goals of supporting counterterrorism and combating international crime, as well as to reinforcing democracy. Using IMET, the USG will be able to provide a mobile training team on peacekeeping operations, disaster relief/humanitarian assistance and perhaps assist with the maintenance and repair of equipment.

The Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS) supports democratic governance in Madagascar by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. APCSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Asia Pacific region and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Madagascar is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Malawi

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

3

$22,915

0

$0

IMET

23

$461,050

32

$379,846

Regional Centers

2

$31,337

6

$81,079

TOTAL

28

$515,302

38

$460,925

With just under a decade of democratic rule, a professional and apolitical military is essential to continuing stability in Malawi, one of the world's poorest countries. Malawi held its second free and fair national multi-party elections in June 1999 and its first-ever local multi-party election in November 2000. Presidential and parliamentary elections took place in May 2004 within a relatively free and fair environment. The country faces increasing and significant external threats from both the rise of terrorism in East Africa and from transnational crime. Malawi has steadily improved relations with its neighbors since its democratic transition and has sought to play a stabilizing role in the region and the continent.

Malawi takes seriously its cooperative military relationship with the U.S. and has been an active participant in the IMET program. Its military is small and under-funded, yet has maintained an apolitical and highly professional character. The Army has been an exemplary participant in a very active slate of programs. One of the first countries to join the Africa Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI), Malawi was the only country in southern Africa in the program and has participated in ACRI's successor program, ACOTA. The Army joins the equally resource-strapped national police force in select operations to fight crime and has distinguished itself in peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance missions. Malawi was the first country in the region to provide flood relief (helicopters and supplies) to Mozambique. Currently it has ACRI-trained observers in Kosovo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo and has served previously in Rwanda.

In addition to traditional professional military skills training, IMET and other security assistance programs are allowing the Malawi Army to bring significant resources to bear on key issues, including HIV/AIDS, structural reform, civilian-military relations, human rights and anti-corruption. For example, Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS)-organized seminars provide a venue for members of the Army, Malawi government, parliamentarians, judiciary, academia, the media and NGOs to work together on issues including rule of law, human rights and peacekeeping.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Malawi by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Security assistance programs and military exercises provide excellent opportunities and resources in post's efforts to assist in the battle against HIV/AIDS in Malawi. All in-country training includes a session on some aspect of the disease. We have called on the International Health Resources Management Program to help the Ministry of Health, other ministries, the Army, and donors implement an ambitious comprehensive National AIDS Strategic Plan.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Malawi, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Mali

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

56

$210,563

7

$49,866

IMET

3

$76,534

8

$372,213

Regional Centers

9

$130,450

6

$81,079

TOTAL

68

$417,547

21

$503,158

Over the past decade the Malian Armed Forces have evolved into a professional organization, which supports human rights, economic development and conflict resolution. Although Mali has made strides in military professionalism, the overall military capability is hampered by a severe lack of resources, which directly impact military readiness and ability to deploy. U.S. security assistance programs in Mali serve to institutionalize these changes, providing training in civil-military affairs, coordinating ongoing peacekeeping training and conducting seminars on the role of the armed forces in a democracy. U.S.-sponsored training of senior- and mid-level officers contributes to the professional development of current and future Malian military leaders to reinforce and perpetuate the subordinate, apolitical role of the military. Additionally, training in military justice and defense management fortify the Government of Mali's (GOM) efforts to fight corruption and instill good governance.

Mali has been an effective interlocutor, mediator and staunch supporter of regional security issues within the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Mali deployed a 250-man contingent to Liberia as part of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) presence in that country. In FY 2004, Mali participated in the Pan Sahel Initiative. Overall, this $3.2 million package included 39 vehicles, communication equipment and tactical training.

Mali was the first country to participate in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI), which provided training on basic capabilities in responding to crises. While the program has done well in establishing a core of trained officers, further training under the ACRI successor - the African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) program - has been minimal as the program focused on capacity building in other countries within the region. However, Malian leaders remain committed to, and seek a greater role for Mali as a force for, regional stability and peace.

In addition, Mali's IMET program saw a steady rise through the last decade. Most of the funds supported training of junior- and mid-level officers and non-commissioned officers (NCOs) in the United States. On some occasions, a senior-level officer had been invited to attend the War College. The program had been successful and IMET program participants are in prominent positions within the military and Ministry of Defense. Mali has also benefited from the Regional Defense Counterterrorism Fellowship as part of security assistance.

Mali has become one of the key U.S. Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) partners in West Africa and a major participant in regional efforts to identify and stop the transit of weapons and terrorist movement throughout the Sahel region. The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) is capable of providing the strategic level of education that Mali needs to develop the expertise to become a viable partner in the GWOT. Mali is supportive of many U.S. regional initiatives as indicated by Mali's participation in ACRI and peacekeeping operations in Liberia, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone. The CTFP will help to provide Mali an effective cadre of mid-level and senior officials capable of participating with the U.S. in the GWOT. During the past year, the Secretary General of the Ministry of Defense attended the Civil Military Responses to Terrorism Seminar in residence and five other officers attended the same seminar during a regional MTT. A successful DIILS seminar on the subject of counterterrorism through law enforcement and military operations attended by 45 participants from the ministries of defense, security and civil protection, justice, finance, foreign affairs, communication and new technologies, as well as the office of the inspector general.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Mali by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. Mali has participated in ACSS programs and hosted this year's ACSS conference on counterterrorism, which drew participants from the region, Europe and the United States. Increased security assistance and training support from DoD and State programs would permit Mali to be more effective as it continues to play a constructive role in these areas.

As of the publication date of this report, Mali, a State Party to the Rome Statute; is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Mauritania

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

5

$29,500

0

$0

IMET

47

$121,889

8

$271,570

Regional Centers

11

$135,623

10

$139,747

TOTAL

63

$287,012

18

$411,317

Mauritania is a participant in the Pan-Sahel Initiative (PSI), a regional counterterrorism program including Mali, Niger and Chad. The PSI program is intended to assist the Sahelian countries in Africa to strengthen their capabilities to protect their borders thereby enhancing regional peace and security. Also, Mauritania will be eligible in FY 2005 to receive Excess Defense Articles (EDA) on a grant basis under section 516 of the Foreign Assistance Act. Grant EDA will be used primarily to help Mauritania better control its borders.

The U.S. has trained and equipped the National Demining Office since late 1999. This assistance, through the provision of FY 2004 Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining and Related programs (NADR) funding, was intended to allow Mauritania to continue demining operations in the northern part of the country, which has the potential for mineral extraction, but is currently isolated and unable to sustain an agricultural base due to the presence of landmines. Inertia on the part of the Government of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania has compelled the USG to table Mauritania's participation in future aspects of the NADR demining program. Mauritania is under consideration for counterterrorist training programs.

The IMET program for Mauritania focuses on encouraging military support for a democratically elected civilian government and respect for human rights.

State-sponsored anti-terrorist assistance (ATA) training enhances policing capacities for the Gendarmerie, which fulfills some military functions in addition to its civilian role. The National Guard, a military service with a mandate to provide security for diplomatic missions, also received ATA training.

Senior Mauritanian civilian and military leaders continue to benefit from the efforts of the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). ACSS offers a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. Additionally, ACSS helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants by offering exchanges, research opportunities and seminars in the United States, Africa and Europe.

Given most Mauritanian's dual linguistic use of French and Arabic, Mauritania also benefits from efforts of the Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA). NESA offers programs focused on four broad themes: the impact of globalization on regional strategic issues; the changing strategic environment -including an assessment of the campaign against terrorism and the implications of initiative such as missile defense and military transformation; elements of strategic planning; and concepts for enhancing regional security.

As of the publication date of this report, Mauritania is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Mauritius

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

75

$168,239

4

$83,165

Regional Centers

6

$78,432

7

$80,483

TOTAL

81

$246,671

11

$163,648

Located 600 miles east of Madagascar, Mauritius is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. The economy relies heavily on exports of sugar and textiles as well as tourism and financial services. Mauritius has one of the strongest economies and highest per capita incomes in Sub-Sahara Africa. While Mauritius has no military, approximately 10,000 active duty personnel under the command of the Police Commissioner are divided into various units including the National Police, a VIP Protection Unit, a Police Helicopter Squadron, a Special Mobile Force and a National Coast Guard. Currently, officers on loan from India head up the Coast Guard and the Police Helicopter Squadron.

U.S. military training assistance has focused on the Coast Guard. Through U.S. assistance, it is hoped that the National Coast Guard, created in 1989, will grow into a Mauritian-led organization capable of effectively patrolling territorial waters, stemming narcotics trafficking and illegal fishing, and mounting successful search and rescue operations. Another U.S. foreign policy goal in this area is to improve protection of Mauritius' fragile coastal environment.

Officers from the Coast Guard and Police attended U.S.-based training in crisis management and international maritime law at the U.S. Coast Guard Training Center. This course provides a strong overview of all Coast Guard mission areas including maritime law enforcement, fisheries protection, pollution control and search and rescue. Additionally, officials from the Ministry of Health have received executive level training in Health Management. Officers have also received training in peacekeeping operations. This training allowed the Government of Mauritius to send a contingent of SMF guards to both Kosovo and Sierra Leone to participate in UN peacekeeping missions.

Funding available in FY 2004 allowed U.S. Mobile Training Teams to provide in-country training on legal and civil-military relations issues.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Mauritius, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Mozambique

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

27

$154,117

114

$383,760

Regional Centers

1

$16,955

10

$139,747

TOTAL

28

$171,072

124

$523,507

Mozambique is considered a post-conflict success story. Since the signing of the 1992 Rome Peace Agreement that ended sixteen years of civil war, Mozambique has made significant progress in promoting economic reform and advancing democracy. In December 2004, Mozambique will hold its third multi-party presidential elections since independence in 1975. The current president, Joaquim Chissano, will step down after having served since 1986, winning elections in 1994 and 1999. Since 1992, U.S. policy has been to encourage democratic consolidation and socio-economic reform. Success in achieving these goals is essential for lasting peace and prosperity for the Mozambican people and for regional stability. Mozambique has developed into one of Africa's fastest growing economies and is showing signs of becoming a regional leader in conflict resolution efforts.

Mozambique has become more active on the regional stage since hosting the African Union (AU) Summit and holding the AU Presidency in 2003. In his role as head of the AU, President Chissano traveled extensively and played an important role in resolving conflicts in places such as Liberia, Guinea-Bissau and Burundi. Mozambique contributed 200 infantry troops to the peacekeeping forces in Burundi. Mozambique also supported the United Nations PKO in East Timor having sent a 10-man military police contingent. In September 2004, members of the Mozambican military took part in the initial phase of peacekeeping training under the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance Program (ACOTA). Planning for subsequent ACOTA peacekeeping training sessions is currently underway. Mozambique began DoD HIV/AIDS programs in FY 2002. The impact of HIV/AIDS on the force readiness of the Mozambican military is becoming more acutely visible. Among the infected are English-speaking officers, a group that represents a small but crucial component of the military. The loss of these English-speaking officers will inhibit Mozambique's ability to participate in peacekeeping operations, as English is the operational language of most missions. The inclusion of Mozambique in the President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief initiative raises the visibility and capability of the Government of the Republic of Mozambique to address this problem with international assistance.

The devastating floods of early 2000 caused great damage and underlined the country's need to continue developing its crisis preparation and response capability. The USG hopes to help build this response capacity with bilateral and possibly sub-regional engagement programs. In support of this goal, participants from the Mozambican military, as well as Ministries of Justice and Interior took part in a September 2004 Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS) seminar on emergency preparedness and response.

The consolidation of democracy in the post-war period requires that the military play a constructive role by becoming an apolitical and professional defense force that respects human rights. The International Military Education and Training (IMET) program and other training activities facilitate this transition by providing civil-military relations courses to inculcate a respect for civilian control of the defense force. The FY 2004 IMET training program emphasizes English language training, professional military education, defense management training and civil-military relations. The lack of qualified candidates and financial constraints in Mozambique are limitations on the impact of the IMET program.

Mozambique is identified in the GWOT strategy for assistance in the area of border and coastal security. The country's porous borders provide a potential transit stop for international terrorists, and though Mozambique has undertaken initiatives to improve this, it is again constrained by limited resources.

As of the publication date of this report, Mozambique is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Service Members' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Namibia

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

1

$15,452

10

$356,995

Regional Centers

2

$28,511

6

$81,079

TOTAL

3

$43,963

16

$438,074

The primary goals of the U.S. Mission to Namibia are global health, democracy, economic growth and development, and natural resource management. Independent since 1990, Namibia has made significant strides in developing a stable, democratic political system and free-market economy. Assisting Namibia in its efforts to address the HIV/AIDS crisis and to overcome the legacy of apartheid provides a basis for enhanced regional stability, economic development, trade and investment opportunities and advancement of U.S. global interests. Namibia is of growing importance as a provider of peacekeeping troops; it is contributing 900 troops to Liberia and has offered to provide a similar contingent in the event of a UN peacekeeping operation in Sudan.

In 2004, the U.S. Department of Defense contributed to the fight against HIV/AIDS by funding the Social Marketing Association, the agency leading the Namibia Defense Force (NDF) HIV/AIDS education and prevention program. Since its inception in December 2002, SMA has visited 23 bases and educated over 10,000 soldiers.

Two Namibian military/governmental officials attended the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS), which supports Namibia's young democracy by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a program in national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

In past years, International Military Education and Training (IMET) funds supported the training of Namibia Defense Force (NDF) personnel in democratic values, logistics and respect for civilian institutions. However, as of the publication date of this report, Namibia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) (ASPA) from receiving military assistance, so no IMET-funded assistance has been provided since ASPA restrictions took effect. Additionally, no FMS, MTT, CT Fellowships, or Theater Security Cooperation events took place in Namibia during 2004.

Niger

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

5

$19,000

0

$0

IMET

1

$45,402

13

$617,906

Regional Centers

8

$123,541

6

$81,079

TOTAL

14

$187,943

19

$698,985

Niger has pursued a path to qualify for military assistance following the disruption and suspension of support related to the early 1999 coup. Since FY 2002, IMET and other military-to-military programs have contributed to continued engagement, and such programs provide a vehicle to enhance the Armed Forces' positive role within civil society and to assist the country in its continued democratic transition. However, because Niger has not entered into an Article 98 agreement with the United States, the Nigerian military has not been eligible for IMET-funded assistance since the American Servicemembers' Protection Act restrictions took effect.

To assist the path to professionalization in the past, we provided IMET-funded training in civil-military relations and defense resources management to key leaders in the Nigerian military. In addition, the French-speaking Nigerian military received language instruction and labs to assist with training using English language materials and equipment.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Niger by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Niger, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Nigeria

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

3

$18,682

0

$0

CTFP

69

$76,204

0

$0

FMF

44

$66,467

0

$0

FMS

4

$177,310

0

$0

IMET

0

$0

50

$1,193,932

Regional Centers

7

$113,334

11

$140,091

TOTAL

127

$451,997

61

$1,334,023

U.S. engagement with Nigeria on political, economic, and security issues is vital to the stability and prosperity of West Africa and indeed, the entire continent. Nigeria is Africa's most populous nation, a key source of U.S. oil imports, and crucial security partner. U.S. trained battalions of the Nigerian Army played a key role in ending the civil war in Liberia and created conditions for a peace settlement in Sierra Leone. Most recently, Nigeria has deployed peacekeeping troops to the Darfur region of Sudan.

Until the inauguration of an elected, civilian government in 1999, the U.S. government had embargoed the export of military goods and services to Nigeria. The lifting of these sanctions permitted the resumption of IMET and other forms of security assistance. In FY 2000 and 2001, over 100 Nigerian military personnel benefited from IMET training. This intensive training focused on changing the attitudes of the Nigerian officer corps after years of military rule. Instilling a sense of the Nigerian military's role in a democratic, civilian government was a key component of our strategy to consolidate democratic gains in the country.

In FY 2003, due to a specific human rights abuse case, legislative restrictions on IMET and FMF funding were implemented. These restrictions prevented Nigeria from participating in the IMET program during FY 2004. Should it become eligible in FY 2005, the IMET program in Nigeria will focus on defense resource management, maintenance and logistics training, and professional military training for mid- to senior-level personnel. This training will be a key component of our effort to professionalize the Nigerian military.

Every effort should be made to assist the Nigerian government in its effort to increase the professionalism of its armed forces. The military, with our assistance, must become focused on military tasks and the creation of a professional, apolitical leadership. We also must continue to support the participation of the armed forces in international and regional peacekeeping and as a strong and willing ally in the war on terrorism.

Despite legislative restrictions on some key activities, U.S.-Nigerian security cooperation remains strong in many areas. Joint training between the U.S. and Nigeria has enhanced the ability of the Nigerian Army to provide security in the key oil producing regions of the country. DoD Counterterrorism Fellowship funds have been used to train Nigerian officers and officials in regional CT issues and to conduct high level, in-country training on how to conduct domestic operations in accordance with the rule of law. Additionally, the U.S. has continued to provide key support to the Nigerian Air Forces C-130 fleet. As a result of this assistance, Nigeria was able to largely self -deploy a unit of peacekeepers to Darfur. U.S. support of a tactical simulation center has enabled the Nigerian military to improve command and control, tactical planning, and execution of tactical and peacekeeping missions as well as improving coordination with other government agencies.

The President has waived the prohibition in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Nigeria, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

0

$0

8

$111,307

Regional Centers

7

$109,438

10

$139,747

TOTAL

7

$109,438

18

$251,054

Emerging from a five-year period of instability that included a civil war and major instability from 1997-2001, the Republic of Congo has made considerable progress in moving towards more democratic political and economic systems and a more peaceful and stable country. Presidential and legislative elections were held in 2002, and a peace agreement was signed in March 2003 with the last vestiges of the rebel factions known as the "Ninjas." Since the 2002 elections, the government has made significant strides in rebuilding institutions destroyed during the years of civil conflict in an attempt to restore the faith and confidence of the Congolese people in the government. The country continues to require considerable repair of its infrastructure and basic social services. As a post-conflict country, Congo still faces challenges to ensure that it remains on the path to develop fully transparency procedures and expand efforts on good governance. Over the past year, the country has focused on addressing anti-corruption issues and improving transparency in the economic and oil sectors as outlined in its International Monetary Fund program. In addition to these undertakings, the military must reconstitute and professionalize.

During 2004, an English language lab which was originally IMET-funded in 2002, and which opened in July 2003 at the nation's military academy was enhanced.

The Republic of Congo has continued to participate in African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminars, which help further an understanding of appropriate civil-military relations and the role of the military in a democracy. In February 2004, the Chief of Staff of the Military and Port Commander attended ACSS training in Washington. An IMET-funded Civil-Military Relations Seminar is planned for February 2005.

The President has waived the prohibition in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to the Republic of Congo (Brazzaville), a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Rwanda

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

55

$304,536

17

$338,137

Regional Centers

7

$98,246

9

$129,079

TOTAL

62

$402,782

26

$467,216

U.S. programs in Rwanda aim at preventing the recurrence of genocide (which claimed some 800,000 lives in 1994) by helping to create the political, economic and social conditions that will lead to a prosperous civil society that embraces democratic governance and respect for human rights. To achieve these goals, the U.S. has implemented a variety of political, humanitarian and economic assistance programs that support U.S. interests in aiding Rwanda's transition to sustainable development while securing regional peace and stability in Africa's Great Lakes Region.

Following a two-year period of suspension, IMET was reinstated for Rwanda on March 5, 2003, but was limited to Expanded IMET (E-IMET) pending further review. Since reinstatement, Rwanda Defense Forces (RDF) officers have attended training in the United States and Mobile Training Teams have trained RDF officers in Rwanda.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Rwanda by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Rwanda is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Sao Tome And Principe

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

62

$175,594

7

$137,044

Regional Centers

4

$60,969

8

$100,928

TOTAL

66

$236,563

15

$237,972

Sao Tome and Principe (STP) is a maturing multi-party democracy that observes political and civil liberties. In July 2001, President Fradique de Menezes was elected in the third democratic transfer of power since 1991. In July 2003, some members of the military supported a coup attempt that was resolved through successful talks between the rebels and a multinational negotiating team, including the United States. In September of 2004, the President dismissed his cabinet because of reports of corruption within its membership and appointed a new government. STP is one of the poorest and most heavily indebted nations in Africa and its economic problems could undermine its long-term stability and democratic institutions. At the same time, the country's social indicators are strong for such a poor country. The discovery of large oil reserves in STP's coastal waters promises considerable new revenues, and will also make Sao Tome and Principe a major player in the economically and strategically important Gulf of Guinea.

IMET facilitates the building of effective relations between the STP and the U.S. militaries. It exposes the trainee-participants to U.S. professional military organizations, procedures and the manner in which the U.S. military functions under civilian control. IMET in FY 2004 focused on improving civil-military relations while continuing to develop the English language capability of STP military personnel, thereby enhancing STP's ability to participate in other IMET courses. Students making use of the English language instruction included the Minister of Defense, the Commander of the Army, and senior ministry and military personnel. The Coast Guard also provided training to 12 members of the Sao Tomean Navy. In FY 2005, additional emphasis will be placed on courses designed to support the planned restructuring of the security forces. In addition, participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) and the Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR) seminars in 2004 supported democratic aims in STP by reinforcing the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders. Senior military and civilian leaders participated, including the Commander of the Army and the Minister of Defense.

As of the publication date of this report, Sao Tome and Principe is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Senegal

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

2

$14,511

3

$1,408

CTFP

46

$191,775

1

$55,723

IMET

68

$1,269,060

41

$1,360,949

Regional Centers

5

$73,962

6

$81,079

TOTAL

121

$1,549,308

51

$1,499,159

Senegal is our most important Francophone partner in sub-Saharan Africa, a supporter of key U.S. foreign policy initiatives and a consistent voice for moderation and compromise in multilateral and Islamic organizations. Senegal plays a key role in ensuring a vital U.S. interest: regional stability. Senegal is a participant in the African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) program and participated in Operation Focus Relief (OFR). It hosted the first Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminar in November 1999 and the first brigade-level attendance at the ACOTA course (known at the time as ACRI) in October 2000. Senegal is committed to economic reform and has initiated an ambitious privatization program. The Senegalese military has distinguished itself in peacekeeping operations in Bosnia, Cote d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Lebanon, Liberia, Rwanda and the Sinai. Senegal was the first sub-Saharan country to offer troops to Operation Desert Shield. The continuing development of a cadre of professional officers through the IMET program is in the interest of the U.S. and will reinforce Senegal as a full partner with its neighbors in peacekeeping operations in the sub-region. Reinforcing the traditions of a professional civilian-controlled military that emphasizes respect for democratic principles, human rights and the rule of law will set an example for other nations in the sub-region. By working with Senegal to further democracy and economic liberalization, the U.S. helps strengthen the democratic foundation of a country whose growth and successes are extremely important.

IMET training and ACSS programs have supplemented training with ACOTA and OFR to strengthen the levels of professionalization within the Senegalese officer and NCO corps.

The African Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Senegal by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Senegal is a strong supporter of the U.S. Global War on Terrorism and peacekeeping efforts. It has provided over twenty peacekeeping battalions, and is interested in opportunities to enhance its peacekeeping and counterterrorism capabilities. During FY 2004, Senegal's first year participating in the CTFP, they focused on initiating their CT program. At the senior level, they sent one officer to the Defense Planning for Decision Makers Course in Monterey, California. To address a wider audience, they hosted a seminar on the legal aspects for combating terrorism. Lastly, to begin regional cooperation, they attended a regional conference of CT leaders in N'djamena, Chad.

A complicating factor in providing military training to Senegal is the 22-year-old rebellion in the Casamance region, the area between Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. The Casamance is Senegal's richest agricultural area and had a thriving tourist industry until problems developed in 1982. The leadership of the separatist movement's public statement in October 2003 that it no longer seeks total independence from Senegal, combined with a de facto ceasefire, give reason to hope that the conflict may end in the near future.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Senegal, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Seychelles

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

23

$97,484

2

$32,295

Regional Centers

2

$30,305

7

$90,260

TOTAL

25

$127,789

9

$122,555

The purpose of U.S. sponsored military training in Seychelles is to professionalize the Seychelles Peoples Defense Forces and improve the skills necessary to enforce maritime law and protect the marine environment and local fisheries. An important byproduct of U.S. military engagement with Seychelles is access to its air and seaports. The Indian Ocean region remains an important location in the context of ongoing Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom.

IMET training has focused on maritime training for the Seychelles Coast Guard. In the past, this has included classes on coastal security, search and rescue, and maritime law courses on the environment and fisheries issues. The small IMET program is administered by the U.S. Military Liaison Office in Kenya and continues to have a positive influence on continued access to the island. Mobile Training Team courses have generally been viewed as being more productive and cost efficient, as they allow for greater numbers of the Seychelles military to participate. However, in FY 2004 additional emphasis were placed upon resident training in the U.S. for professional military education (PME) courses, as it has been four years since the last Seychelles student traveled to the U.S. for military training.

Also during FY 2004, Seychelles Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Foreign Affairs officials participated in several training events conducted by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). ACSS supports democratic governance in Seychelles by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Seychelles is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Sierra Leone

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

273

$453,796

24

$499,848

Regional Centers

2

$29,213

4

$52,191

TOTAL

275

$483,009

28

$552,039

The security situation in Sierra Leone continued to improve during 2004. There has been no significant violence since December 2001. The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) is deployed in former rebel-held areas and is currently in the process of drawdown. The UNSC has extended UNAMSIL's mandate through June 2005. The Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF) has benefited from British training and has deployed to the borders with Liberia and Guinea. Over 45,000 combatants were disarmed in a UNAMSIL-supervised disarmament program that was declared complete on January 17, 2002. Parliamentary and presidential elections took place on May 14, 2002 without any violence. The Special Court for Sierra Leone, established to try those most responsible for crimes under international humanitarian law during the 11-year long civil war, has indicted thirteen people, including former President of Liberia Charles Taylor. There are currently nine indictees in Special Court custody. The Special Court began its first trial in June 2004, of Kamajor leader Hinga Norman. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission carried out its mandate throughout the year, and presented its final report in October 2004.

IMET-funded training focused on professional military education (PME) courses and participation in Mobile Education Training seminars provided by the Defense Institute of Legal Studies (DILLS).

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Sierra Leone by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Sierra Leone, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

South Africa

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

4

$27,758

0

$0

FMF

70

$882,335

16

$48,480

FMS

1

$7,610

0

$0

IMET

6

$343,372

8

$124,821

Regional Centers

4

$51,758

11

$147,472

TOTAL

85

$1,312,833

35

$320,773

After South Africa's first democratic elections in May 1994, the new government undertook a sweeping transformation of its military. The transformation has included incorporating ten former homeland militaries and anti-apartheid militant groups with the regular armed forces into what is now known as the South African National Defense Force (SANDF). The SANDF leadership struggles with issues of racial representation within the military; differences in levels of training, education and promotion criteria among the various groups; and limited resources as the new government focuses on providing services to the historically disadvantaged majority.

The South African Government is also struggling to define an appropriate mission for the SANDF and to structure the force to accomplish that mission. In recent years, SANDF forces have been deployed for border control, police support and peacekeeping operations in Burundi, DRC, Lesotho and elsewhere in Africa. A controversial multi-billion dollar defense acquisition program will add corvettes, submarines, jet fighters, trainers and helicopters to the SANDF arsenal. At the same time, downsizing efforts are expected to bring SANDF forces from a peak of 100,000 to around 60,000.

U.S. interests are served by assisting South Africa to transform its military into a professional, apolitical force capable and willing to undertake a regional leadership role commensurate with the country's size, population and level of development. A successful transformation will serve as a model for other African countries with which the United States can cooperate on conflict resolution and peacekeeping. South Africa and the U.S. enjoy a close military relationship, meeting annually to exchange views at the Defense Committee.

To advance the SANDF's transformation and pursue a strong security assistance partnership, in the past the IMET program provided training (such as command and staff college, logistics and military law) for officers who may not have received formal leadership training. IMET has also allowed our militaries to exchange expertise in the area of equal opportunity. IMET has assisted the SANDF with minimal technical training, such as flight safety training, to enable the SANDF to maintain the relatively high-tech military it inherited. Additional training has focused on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, pilot instructor training, military acquisition seminars and on peacekeeping operations. However, because South Africa has not entered into an Article 98 agreement with the United States, SANDF forces have not been eligible for IMET or new FMF funded assistance since the American Servicemembers' Protection Act restrictions took effect.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in South Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

In FY 2004, South Africa sent four individuals to courses using CTFP funding. Two members of the South African Police Service (SAPS) attended the Civil-Military Response to Terrorism in Chad; one individual from the Ministry of Defense attended the Senior International Defense Management Course in Monterrey, California; and one individual from the Ministry of Defense attended the Defense Resource Management Course. Due to ASPA sanctions, the DVOT is one of the few sources left for engagement with South Africa.

As of the publication date of this report, South Africa, a State Party to the Rome Statute is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Swaziland

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

11

$146,002

16

$200,548

Regional Centers

2

$27,889

6

$66,635

TOTAL

13

$173,891

22

$267,183

We continue to support the Swazi military through training programs designed to promote democracy, human rights and professional development. In addition, these programs advance regional stability and humanitarian assistance through exercises designed to promote a modern, apolitical military. IMET funds support military assistance programs that promote the professionalization of the Swazi defense forces through education in the role of the military in a democracy and in respect for human rights. Over the past several years there has been increasing pressure both internationally and domestically for Swaziland to move from its current system of absolute monarchy toward democracy. A Swazi military that is apolitical and respects human rights will be of vital importance if that transition is to take place smoothly.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Swaziland by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Swaziland is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Tanzania

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

2

$47,670

1

$40,088

IMET

2

$51,070

24

$552,165

Regional Centers

4

$55,426

9

$129,079

TOTAL

8

$154,166

34

$721,332

Tanzania is in a critically important location in Africa. Porous borders and easy access into Tanzania from neighboring countries and overseas make Tanzania a prime target of terrorist threats, as demonstrated by the tragic bombing of the Embassy in August 1998. The port in Dar es Salaam serves as the entry point for shipment of goods to other parts of central Africa. Tanzania is also the main reception point for refugees fleeing instability in neighboring countries, most notably Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Indeed, Tanzania has the most refugees of any African country. The numbers have decreased as the region slowly stabilizes, but Tanzania still hosts over 500,000 refugees. The economic, criminal and possible military problems of such a large refugee group present serious security issues for Tanzania.

Tanzania also serves a crucial political role, serving as the seat for the Arusha peace talks aimed at ending the ethnic bloodshed in Burundi, and for the International Criminal Court for Rwanda. The Government of Tanzania is frequently called upon to mediate between its neighbors. Tanzania also serves as an important partner with Uganda and Kenya in the development of the East Africa Community (EAC). In addition to integrating the markets and economic policies of these three countries, the EAC envisions facilitating security cooperation among the three nations through a military liaison office.

Tanzania is a relatively stable country, favorably disposed to U.S.-led initiatives and training programs. It seeks close cooperation with the U.S. as underscored by its cooperation with the U.S. in the Global War on Terrorism. Tanzania has offered assistance including intelligence information to the war effort.

The IMET program is crucial to Tanzania-U.S. relations because it helps professionalize its armed forces and enables Tanzania's force to look closely at cooperation at the regional level in organizations like the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). Furthermore, through training activities provided by the U.S., Tanzania will be better equipped and trained to patrol its own borders and limit infiltration by potential terrorists and criminal activities. The existence of Islamic extremists in Tanzania makes this effort critical for the protection of American interests in the area. The fact that Tanzania ha not signed an Article 98 agreement limited their participation in U.S. military training opportunities in FY 2004 and will continue to do so in FY 2005.

During FY 2003/2004, Tanzania sent one IMET-funded student to the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, KS. Although ASPA restrictions preclude scheduling future IMET and FMF opportunities, the Tanzanian military has accepted three counterterrorism resident training courses scheduled for FY 2005, and the Zanzibar Coast Guard (KMKM) has accepted one counterterrorism course for FY 2005. Additionally, USSOCEUR is projecting a Small Unit Exchange training program in Zanzibar with the KMKM for April 2005. All of the programs projected for FY 2005 are exempt from ASPA restrictions.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) continued to support democratic governance in Tanzania by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. Tanzanian participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities.

As of the publication date of this report, Tanzania, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Togo

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

52

$150,616

10

$309,124

Regional Centers

2

$27,897

6

$81,079

TOTAL

54

$178,513

16

$390,203

President Eyadema, the longest serving African head of state, pledged to leave power in 2003 upon completion of his term, but the National Assembly, controlled by the ruling party, changed the constitution so that he could run again. Eyadema subsequently won reelection in June 2003, after an election marred by violence and numerous irregularities that were not seriously investigated by the appropriate governmental bodies. In April 2004, the Government began formal consultations with the European Union under Article 96 of the Cotonou Accord by making 22 commitments in the areas of democracy, human rights, and the rule of law. Some progress has been achieved in the context of these consultations - a revised, less repressive press code and the release of political prisoners - but there has been little genuine engagement with the political opposition, the sine qua non of national reconciliation. In light of Togo's difficult democratic transition, we have focused military training, especially E-IMET funds, on the duties of a republican army, military subordination to civilian control, the rule of law in peacekeeping operations, and HIV/AIDS prevention programs.

In spite of its political and economic problems, Togo has played a major role - disproportionate to its small size - in the sub-region to promote peace and stability. Togo's troops continue to support both Cote d'Ivoire and Liberia in their peacekeeping efforts.

In FY 2004, the Department of State's IMET program was used to send key officers to English language training, a civil-military relations seminar, and the HIV/AIDS Strategic Planning and Policy Development Annual Conference. In addition, approximately 40 military representatives participated in two week-long seminars focused on the rule of law in peacekeeping operations (one in Lome, one in the northern town of Kara) sponsored by the Defense Institute of International and Legal Studies, and a senior civilian and a senior military official were sent to an ACSS-sponsored seminar in Kampala on the proliferation of light weapons. The USG plans to focus FY 2005 funding assistance on HIV/AIDS activities, continued English language training, and a week-long seminar in Lome on civil-military relations by the Center for Civil-Military Relations associated with the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California.

As of the publication date of this report, Togo is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Uganda

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

FMF

6

$0

0

$0

IMET

46

$312,554

13

$356,492

Regional Centers

9

$138,033

9

$129,079

TOTAL

61

$450,587

22

$485,571

Located astride the troubled regions of the Great Lakes and East Africa, Uganda played a positive role in 2004 to resolve chronic regional tensions. President Yoweri Museveni, as chairman of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), pushed feuding Somali parties to appoint a transitional president, helped broker an accord between Burundi's warring factions, and worked closely with Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to enact confidence-building measures and move forward to disarm and demobilize militias in eastern Congo. In the meantime, Uganda continues to professionalize its military and find the proper role for it as a republican force. Uganda has been a staunch backer of the Global War on Terror.

By mid-2003, the Ugandan Peoples' Defense Force (UPDF) withdrew its forces from the DRC. However, the Ugandan Government continues to complain that the DRC is unstable and provides a haven for remnants of anti-government rebel groups, the Allied Democratic Force (ADF) and the People's Redemption Army (PRA). Meantime, improved relations with Sudan enabled the UPDF to score major successes in 2004 against the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), launching a major offensive against Joseph Kony in southern Sudan, splintering and reducing their ranks, driving the terrorist group out of eastern Uganda, and forcing Kony back to Northern Uganda. Nevertheless, more than 1.3 million Ugandans in the North remain internally displaced because of the 18-year-old conflict.

President Museveni and his single-party Movement system of government helped Uganda leave behind the dark years of Idi Amin. According to the constitution, Museveni is required to leave power in 2006, and there has been debate about enlarging the political system for multi-party politics. However, in 2004, Museveni and his closest advisers have moved to modify the constitution to enable him to run for president again.

As a result of Uganda's withdrawal from the DRC, the State Department relaxed restrictions on the International Military Education Training (IMET) program. In 2004, the U.S. Government lifted the last restrictions on Ugandan participation in regular IMET training.

Uganda co-hosted an African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) continent-wide conference on small arms in Kampala in October 2004. In April, Uganda also hosted a sub-regional meeting on the U.S. Government's East African Terrorism Initiative with participants from more than 10 East and Central African countries. More than 20 high-ranking UPDF officers, many of them so-called Historicals who liberated Uganda in 1986, were sent to the newly created Uganda Senior Command and Staff College in Jinja. There, in a one-year course, a combination of Ugandan, Kenyan and Tanzanian military instructors are teaching them various subjects, including civil-military relations and the proper role of the military in a democracy.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Uganda, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Zambia

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

0

$0

1

$40,088

IMET

295

$408,139

16

$278,957

Regional Centers

8

$126,737

6

$81,079

TOTAL

303

$534,876

23

$400,124

Zambia has been a commendable example of peace and stability in southern Africa. Not only has Zambia avoided involvement in the civil conflicts of two of its neighbors, Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), but it also has played a leading role in efforts to broker and implement a cease-fire agreement for DRC.

Zambia must deal with a host of domestic political and economic challenges. The economy contracted sharply for over two decades because of irresponsible economic management and over-reliance on one commodity, copper. Zambia returned to multi-party democracy in 1991 after nearly two decades of one-party rule, but corruption and cronyism undermined the rule of law throughout the ensuing decade. Zambia held its third multiparty national elections in late 2001. The U.S. and other donor countries are working with the public and private sectors in Zambia to address the challenges of generating market-driven growth, developing good governance and addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic. A more prosperous, democratic Zambia can act as a catalyst in a region of increasing economic and political importance to the United States.

The Zambian Defense Force (ZDF), which developed a cold war mentality under socialist rule, suffers from a lack of resources which severely hampers its training and professional development. U.S. military training assistance has greatly benefited the Zambian military, and been especially useful for Zambian junior ranking officers and enlisted personnel. Previous IMET-funded instruction in tactical armor, infantry, logistics and advanced leadership has helped improve the professional capability of the ZDF. Continued IMET training in these and other military professional development courses would build on this progress. Training provided by the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DILLS) support the overall U.S. interest in consolidating democracy and rule of law in Zambia. Military training has also contributed to economic development. A ZDF demining unit trained with U.S. assistance removed unexploded ordnance that had hampered key infrastructure projects. Continued participation by Zambian military personnel in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminars help develop the senior leadership necessary to sustain and improve the ZDF. IMET graduates and ACSS participants return to Zambia following studies to positions commensurate with their training and an ability to influence change.

The Zambian Defense Force has received extensive USG assistance in training for its Inspector General (IG) on investigation techniques and audit mechanisms. This training, designed to help the IG better uncover and avoid corruption, is part of a broader program of USG support for President Mwanawasa's anti-corruption campaign. Training was also provided to members of the ZDF on Combating International Terrorism and Crime, as part of strong USG commitment to assisting foreign countries' understanding of and capacity in combating terrorism.

The ZDF's estimated HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is more than 50%. The Defense Attach� Office has used Emergency Plan funding to initiate a prevalence study for the Zambian military. It will be used to improve HIV counseling and testing, diagnosis, care and treatment to HIV infected personnel as part of the USG's commitment to assisting Africa with its AIDS epidemic.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Service Members' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Zambia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.



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