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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--Europe Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2004 and 2005
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
April 2005
Report
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Albania

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

106

$288,283

4

$170,963

FMF

84

$165,862

8

$132,830

IMET

75

$1,103,189

54

$1,414,554

Regional Centers

42

$164,494

53

$175,819

Service Academies

1

$50,085

1

$50,085

TOTAL

308

$1,771,913

120

$1,944,251

Albania is an extremely cooperative, rapidly emerging security partner of the U.S. and NATO in Southeastern Europe, as well as a key ally in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). Its security relationship with the U.S. and Allied forces has continued to grow, as evidenced by combat troop deployments to Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), Afghanistan/ISAF and Bosnia/SFOR, the latter for the past eight years. Albania has also, in the past year, hosted a series of live-fire military exercises, including Marine Expeditionary Unit training, and exercises for U.S. Special Forces troops prior to their deployment to the OIF theater of operations. Albania also allowed forward basing of air assets so as to conduct contingency operations in support of the Athens' Olympics. A primary U.S. goal in Albania is to use the current, very positive atmosphere to help create long-term stability in Albania and the region.

U.S. military training efforts in Albania are a crucial means to this end. In particular, training through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program, counterterrorism (CT) fellowships, and English language programs all advance U.S. goals of assisting in Albanian defense restructuring efforts and fostering an Albanian ability to patrol its land and sea borders. Albania recently sent its first cadet to the United States Military Academy with the Class of 2008. More fundamentally, U.S. training in Albania is helping to bring the country more firmly into the Euro-Atlantic community, to increase Albania's ability to participate in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) exercises and activities. Given Albania's status as an aspirant for eventual Alliance membership, U.S. military training is critical in augmenting Albanian Armed Forces' (AAF) interoperability with NATO forces. Training under the IMET program helps in staffing key Albanian units, used for future tactical deployments, with IMET graduates at the platoon, company, and battalion levels, as well as in key officer and non-commissioned officer (NCO) positions.

The FY 2005 training plan projects a minor decrease in IMET attendance, with a goal of 35 graduates to help meet the Coalition/NATO mission deployment requirements. The plan also includes "train the trainer" mobile training teams to provide cost-effective training in country. Courses include basic English language instruction, lieutenant and captain basic and career courses in the infantry, military police, ordnance, transportation, and signal, as well as air traffic control, logistics, NCO development and other specialties. Albanian officers also receive advanced training at the Naval and Air Command and Staff Colleges and the National War College.

The Government of Albania has fully supported the U.S. in its Global War on Terrorism and peacekeeping efforts. This has been demonstrated by attaching an infantry company to the German peacekeeping organization in Bosnia-Herzegovina, attaching an infantry platoon to the Turkish contingent in Afghanistan, and providing a commando company to U.S. Central Command in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Additionally Albania has opened it air, land and waterspace to the United States in the GWOT. Officers Albania has sent to the Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) training will be instrumental in building the institutions Albania will need to be an effective partner in the GWOT. This effort will continue as long as CTFP funding is provided for this purpose.

Albanian soldiers and civilian defense officials also have received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Albania, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Armenia

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

9

$12,168

2

$28,096

IMET

26

$538,118

44

$1,107,494

PME Exchanges

3

$123,076

0

$0

Regional Centers

93

$324,988

76

$289,621

TOTAL

131

$998,350

122

$1,425,211

The United States hopes to promote peace, stability and prosperity in the Caucasus, as a potential gateway for energy and trade between Europe and Eurasia. A stable, prosperous and independent Armenia is critical to advancing U.S. national interests and promoting regional goals. U.S. objectives are also served by assisting Armenia in the reform of its military technology and armed forces, and by providing Armenia an alternative to military cooperation that is limited to Russia and Iran. Thus, we seek increased engagement with Armenia's defense establishment in ways that advance our objectives and do not disturb the military balance with Azerbaijan.

The waiver of section 907 of the Freedom Support Act in 2002 permitted the expansion of this kind of cooperation. Section 907 previously prohibited most USG assistance to the Government of Azerbaijan, and as part of a policy of evenhandedness, the Administration extended this prohibition to security assistance to Armenia as well. Congress recently gave the President the authority to issue a renewable one-year waiver of the section 907 restrictions on assistance to Azerbaijan, which the Administration has used to permit fuller cooperation between the U.S. and Armenia. Since 2002, authorized exceptions to section 907 restrictions have enabled numerous key Armenian officials from various services to attend conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center instructs representatives from throughout the former Soviet Union and Central Europe in the undertakings necessary for defense reform in states undergoing democratic transition. It has been projected that a significant numbers of students will receive some form of instruction during FY 2005. We believe the first step to military reform and expanded cooperation is exposure to U.S. professional military education (PME). Our policy will hold, however, that no assistance be provided which disturbs regional stability or the military balance between Armenia and Azerbaijan.

The U.S. hopes to expand contacts and cooperation with Armenia further, in line with U.S. and Armenian national security objectives. As one facet of our strategic objectives, we continue to urge Armenia to continue to expand its cooperation in NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and the Partnership for Peace (PfP). Armenia ratified a PfP Status of Forces Agreement PfP in April 2004. Armenia was expected to submit its NATO Individual Partnership Action Plan (IPAP) in December of 2004.

As of the publication date of this report, Armenia is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Austria

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

FMS

10

$80,851

21

$1,211,814

Regional Centers

12

$0

26

$0

TOTAL

22

$80,851

47

$1,211,814

Several European non-NATO members, including Austria, are committed to a broad approach to security that recognizes the importance of political, economic, social and environmental factors in addition to the indispensable defense dimension. Our collective aim should be to build a European security architecture in which the security and stability of the Euro-Atlantic area are complementary and mutually reinforcing. Exposure to U.S. military education, also for non-NATO countries, is vital to counteract tendencies in Europe that seek to decouple U.S. and European Union security strategies.

However, Public Law 104-164 prohibits the U.S. from providing Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and International Military Education and Training (IMET) to high-income countries, including Austria. Austria procures training for Ministry of Defense officials on a cash basis, through Foreign Military Sales. This consists primarily of U.S. professional military education (PME) for field-grade officers and staff technical training for junior officers and non-commissioned officers.

The United States supports Austria, a friendly nation that generally assists U.S. security efforts in Europe, in all types of training, both professional and specialty skill training, and seeks to develop educational opportunities to broaden and deepen our mutually beneficial relationship. Much of the technical training provided is in direct support of U.S. equipment sales to Austria.

Professional military education adds an important political dimension to our military-to-military contacts and improves Austrian understanding of the social and economic factors that affect our relationship. In addition, professional military education promotes understanding of U.S. strategy, doctrine and tactics in the deployment of allied resources across the entire spectrum of international conflict.

As of the publication date of this report, Austria, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Azerbaijan

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

0

$0

3

$35,077

CTFP

17

$222,815

4

$88,904

IMET

34

$994,161

41

$1,180,069

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

15

$40,000

0

$0

Regional Centers

49

$263,493

123

$402,839

TOTAL

115

$1,520,469

171

$1,706,889

Azerbaijan is a key partner of the United States in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), to include making force contributions to Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), Operation Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan (ISAF), and Kosovo (KFOR), as well as blanket overflight rights for U.S. aircraft en route from Central Europe to the Middle East. Our long-term security cooperation objectives are aimed at enhancing this mutually beneficial partnership by increasing Azerbaijan's ability to operate with coalition forces, secure its own borders and energy resources, interdict the flow of transnational threats across the Caspian Sea to the West, and promote institutional reform and democratization. To this end, we plan to use International Military Education and Training (IMET) to continue the education of junior military officers and border security forces in U.S./NATO tactics and procedures to insure greater interoperability in the field. Their participation in IMET also exposes them to Western values and culture. The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) program is also aimed at this objective, and additionally serves as a means for educating young policy-makers on the benefits of Western-style institutional reforms. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) has been used to enhance the capabilities of Azerbaijan's peacekeepers to serve in coalition operations, and we plan to use it in the future to enhance the capabilities of the Azerbaijani Navy and Air Force to interdict transnational threats such as weapons of mass destruction, terrorist movements, and narcotics through the Caspian Sea corridor. All of these initiatives are part of a broader U.S. effort to promote regional stability, democracy, and institutional reform within Azerbaijan.

Prior to 9/11, section 907 of the Freedom Support Act prohibited most USG assistance to the Government of Azerbaijan. After 9/11, Congress granted the President the authority waive section 907 on an annual basis. The President exercised this authority for the first time in 2002 and did so again in 2003.

In FY 2004, 49 Azerbaijani officials participated in Marshall Center conferences and courses (including democratic defense management, the role of the military in a democracy, and civilian control over the military). A greater number are expected to receive instruction of some form at the Marshall Center during FY 2005.

U.S. military relations in Azerbaijan are in the development stage, but Azerbaijan has demonstrated a strong level of support for U.S. GWOT efforts, to include vital exchanges of information on international terrorism. The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) has proven a vital tool for increasing positive results from this extensive cooperation, and it continues to help Azerbaijan build the institutional tools necessary to withstand threats posed by international terrorist organizations working in Central Asia and the Caspian Region, as well as the destabilizing influences from neighboring Iran. Azerbaijan has sent its officials to numerous courses including the Counterterrorist Fellowship at National Defense University, the Civil Military Response to Terrorism course at the Naval Post Graduate School, and English language training. In the coming years, ODC Baku plans to increase the number of Azerbaijani counterterrorism planners and mid-level policy makers that attend CTFP training in order to make local institutions stronger, and continue robust bilateral cooperation with the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Azerbaijan is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance. Azerbaijan also has an Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) with the United States.

Belarus

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

33

$157,751

49

$197,274

TOTAL

33

$157,751

49

$197,274

The United States has an interest in seeing Belarus evolve into a state characterized by democratic rule and respect for human rights. As part of the U.S. Selective Engagement Policy, adopted after the illegal electoral referendum in Belarus in 1996, the U.S. has strictly focused its aid to Belarus on democratization and civil society development as well as humanitarian and health assistance.

However, military officers and officials from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are being nominated and sent to attend Marshall Center courses. This is being done in order to expose potential future leadership of the respective ministries to democratic ideals and educate them on the proper interaction of the various power structures in a democracy. The Department of State also sends representatives from civil society and the democratic opposition to ensure the entire spectrum of political society is represented, trained and offered the opportunity to exchange ideas and points of view.

As of the publication date of this report, Belarus is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance. However, as indicated above other restrictions may apply.

Bosnia & Herzegovina

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

1

$12,546

0

$0

CTFP

2

$5,326

1

$9,697

IMET

265

$901,676

65

$1,220,425

Regional Centers

32

$121,593

107

$323,482

TOTAL

300

$1,041,141

173

$1,553,604

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is in the process of implementing defense reform legislation that places both entity armies under state-level command and control, and meets NATO's technical requirements for participation in Partnership for Peace (PfP). Under legislation passed in December 2003, the Federation (VF) and Republika Srpska (VRS) militaries remain as separate administrative institutions but now fall under the operational command of the BiH Tripresidency via the new Ministry of Defense (MoD) and Joint Staff. The entities will remain responsible for providing administrative support to their respective units, but according to standards set by the BiH MoD. The legislation was drafted by the High Representative's Defense Reform Commission, which issued a report advocating far reaching defense reforms that would enable BiH to join PfP, and ultimately become a credible candidate for full NATO membership. Successful implementation of the defense reforms helped create the conditions that permitted the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) to complete its mission in December 2004. An EU-led security force has since assumed primary responsibility for monitoring the military aspects of the Dayton Peace Accords and for maintaining a safe and secure environment in BiH. In addition to creating a state-level Ministry of Defense, Joint Staff, and Operational Command, the reforms require downsizing active and reserve forces, limiting conscription, destroying excess Weapons, and divesting surplus properties. U.S. military assistance had previously been provided almost exclusively to the Federation under the Train and Equip program. However, since that program ended in December 2002, U.S. security cooperation has been focused on strengthening state-level defense institutions, principally the Standing Committee on Military Matters (SCMM) and the SCMM Secretariat. With passage of the defense reform law, USG military assistance is now being provided in direct support of implementation of its reforms, to include establishment and training of the MoD, Joint Staff, Operational Command and other state-level assets. Additional assistance will also be directed to assist BiH in establishing the first state-level units, including an explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) team to be sent to Iraq to support the Multinational Force.

Training Bosnian forces through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program emphasizes the professional development of junior officers (army basic and advanced courses), staff training for mid-level officers (service staff colleges), and E-IMET courses for mid- to upper-level officials in the defense sector. Training activities support the development of the new state Ministry of Defense and Joint Staff, and other state-level defense structures in furtherance of efforts to meet NATO's requirements for PfP. IMET funds will be made available to train properly vetted members of the Bosnian Serb Army (VRS) to support their active participation in the newly created state-level defense institutions in a manner consistent with U.S. policy and legal requirements.

One of the key objectives of U.S. assistance is to help BiH develop the capability to work with other European and NATO nations in maintaining regional stability and participating in peacekeeping operations. Knowledge of English is fundamental to this effort and the Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) has provided the funding needed to obtain the equipment to support this effort. This will help to create a cadre of senior and mid-level officials capable of working with the U.S. in the Global War on Terrorism. The U.S. country team is coordinating the efforts of all agencies in support of counterterrorism (CT) training. BiH did not receive a direct allocation of CTFP funding in 2004 but did send two personnel to a seminar in Romania using EUCOM discretionary money. Although BiH does not have a direct allocation for 2005, BiH will participate in regional CT initiatives and training available through the CTFP whenever possible. EUCOM funded two attendees to a DIILS CT seminar in December 2004. The goal is to educate the leadership of BiH CT organizations at the highest level possible. Terrorism is a growing concern in BiH, and responsible organizations have to learn how to identify terrorists and their networks. In addition they also need to understand the legalities of CT and how to eliminate terrorist activity in BiH effectively.

In addition, we anticipate a number of new Foreign Military Financing- (FMF) funded cases for contractor-provided mentoring, advice and assistance to the new Ministry of Defense, Joint Staff, and Operational Command in the areas of: organization and manning; development of NATO-compatible training, doctrine, and procedures; and longer-term work plans, all with the objective of preparing Bosnia for PfP Membership and further integration in advance of eventual candidacy for NATO membership.

BiH soldiers and civilian defense officials also have received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Bosnia & Herzegovina, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Croatia

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

5

$42,300

0

$0

IMET

10

$266,976

50

$894,420

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

131

$92,400

80

$42,000

Regional Centers

40

$167,100

54

$228,569

Service Academies

2

$102,225

1

$50,085

TOTAL

188

$671,001

185

$1,215,074

Helping Croatia integrate into Euro-Atlantic institutions is vital to ensuring the long-term stability of Croatia and the entire region. Our military training efforts are a valuable tool in pursuing these objectives.

Croatia has made increasing use of its membership in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) program since joining in 2000. Croatia entered NATO's Membership Action Plan (MAP) in May 2002, formalizing its NATO candidacy. In May 2003 Croatia signed the Adriatic Charter with Albania and Macedonia, pledging to work together towards the goal of NATO membership. The new government that took office in December 2003 has indicated that NATO membership is a high priority.

Previous International Military Education and Training (IMET) programs have supported Croatia's NATO ambitions and fostered appreciation among Croatian military officials for the proper role of the armed forces in a democracy. IMET-trained officers helped initiate implementation of basic defense reforms, including enhanced civilian control of the military. In FY 2003, the IMET program focused on the professionalization and democratization of the Croatian armed forces. In FY 2004 funds were allocated but reprogrammed because Croatia was prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Croatia is committed to implementing the military reforms needed for NATO membership. IMET would help broaden and deepen current attitudinal changes in the Croatian military and help build a cadre of officers and non-commissioned officers (NCOs) throughout the command structure, ready to implement restructuring toward the goal of a national armed forces integrated into NATO's collective security and expeditionary missions.

For FY 2005, IMET programs would continue to focus on the objectives described above should Croatia entered into an Article 98 agreement with the United States. Efforts would strive towards enhancing the professionalization and democratization of the armed forces through IMET and E-IMET programs, and would begin to focus more resources on assisting the Ministry of Defense in meeting its NATO MAP goals. The focus of these efforts would include addressing specific MAP goals, such as increased civilian control of the military. Foreign Military Sales (FMS) and Direct Military Sales (DCS) would enhance NATO-compatible communications (through the continued purchase of tactical radios), expand support for English language training, and initiate air traffic control/airspace management procedures through integration into the Regional Airspace initiative.

Croatian soldiers and civilian defense officials also have received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

As of the publication date of this report, Croatia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Finland

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

FMS

24

$136,184

18

$127,164

Regional Centers

2

$0

7

$0

TOTAL

26

$136,184

25

$127,164

Although not a NATO member, Finland is an active participant in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and a solid partner with the United States in many areas of national security concern. It is actively engaged in the Balkans, where Finland distinguished itself as the first non-NATO nation to lead a multi-national NATO brigade in Kosovo, and will contribute more than 200 troops to the EU operation in Bosnia.

Finland is also supporting the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operations in Afghanistan, with about 50 civil-military cooperation troops in Kabul, 6 military firefighters at the Kabul Airport, and 18 personnel in the Provincial Reconstruction Team in Meymaneh.

Finland actively assists the three Baltic countries to achieve military interoperability with the West, although Finland has significantly cut back on this support since the Baltics entered NATO in April 2004.

Geographically, Finland shares a border with Russia, giving it strategic importance beyond its size.

With respect to the European Security Defense Identity (ESDI), Finland supports a strong EU crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged and which does not duplicate NATO structures. It is a great proponent of interoperability. In defense trade matters, Finland supports the trans-Atlantic link, although it also supports the European Defense Agency, and has a stated policy to buy defense products from Finnish industry first, Europe second, and the rest of the world third.

Most U.S. assistance is designed to promote interoperability; an essential element to increasingly close cooperation on defense matters, not only with Finland, but also worldwide. Finland sends 30 to 40 military students to the U.S. for a variety of training. Although this is a relatively small program, it makes U.S. training Finland's largest source of foreign training. The Finnish military spends its training money carefully, and sends only handpicked candidates to the U.S. - they are expected to return to Finland and pass this on in a "train the trainer" capacity. U.S. training significantly helps Finland's NATO interoperability.

Finland spent $3 billion to buy a fleet of 63 U.S. F-18 Hornet fighters to provide air defense for the country, taking delivery of the last one in 2001. The Finns are now investing hundreds of millions more in Foreign Military Sales purchases to further upgrade the capabilities of those fighters.

As of the publication date of this report, Finland, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Georgia

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

1

$12,972

0

$0

CTFP

41

$445,931

7

$166,356

FMF

91

$879,308

66

$1,529,377

IMET

149

$1,136,013

42

$1,455,763

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

121

$269,993

32

$363,348

Regional Centers

117

$457,780

88

$385,302

TOTAL

520

$3,201,997

235

$3,900,146

Georgia occupies a strategic position in the South Caucasus astride the Trans-Caspian energy corridor and bordering Chechnya. It is in the U.S. national security interest to support Georgia's sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as continued democratic, free-market and military reforms. U.S. support for the continuation of a stable, independent Georgia will reduce the chances of the spread of military conflict, international crime and weapons of mass destruction in a region that lies at the crossroads of Russia, Turkey and Iran. It is critical that Georgia control its own territory and prevents its use as a safe haven to terrorists. It is at the forefront of U.S. policy to enhance Georgia's capability to combat terrorism, secure its energy resources, prevent transit of illicit materials across borders and protect its sovereignty. This cannot happen without U.S. military training efforts and broad military reforms.

Our military cooperation was coordinated using Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and other U.S. assistance programs to focus on the border control and law enforcement components of the terrorist threat. Specifically this was the Georgia Export Control/Border Security and Law Enforcement program funded by the Department of State and implemented by the U.S. Customs Service. Under this program, the Georgian Border Guard received communications equipment, interoperable with the Ministry of Defense, as well as training and infrastructure for maritime security.

The Georgian Armed Forces are developing the 11th Brigade, which will be the parent unit to 4 battalions trained by the U.S. under the Georgia Train and Equip Program (GTEP). This brigade will be a functional brigade-size unit, and the only such unit in all of Georgia that is also U.S.-NATO interoperable. Additionally, the 11th Brigade will be Georgia's primary counter-insurgency and counterterrorism unit. Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) contributions will help ensure the 11th Brigade is a professional, effective, organization, capable of assisting the U.S. in Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) efforts. During the war in Iraq, Georgia offered half of its infantry troops and a third of its rotor assets for combat operations. Currently Georgian forces serve along-side U.S. troops in Iraq, and additional troops will arrive during FY 2005. Georgia is a serious and dedicated participant in the GWOT, and if effectively funded, can do even more.

Georgia also used security assistance received under the FMF program to sustain aviation-related training, which has been used to support both border patrols in the region and the Georgia Train and Equip Program. Training purchased by Georgia for pilots and aviation maintenance technicians help Georgia operate and maintain the UH-1H helicopters the U.S. Government delivered in October 2001. FMF-funded training has also improved Georgia's ability to control its border and provide for its self-defense. To augment Georgia's self-defense capability by maximizing its ability to use all of its terrain, U.S. training efforts have included high-altitude mountain training.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Georgia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Ireland

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

FMS

1

$10,500

0

$0

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

3

$16,649

0

$0

PME Exchanges

1

$0

0

$0

Regional Centers

3

$0

1

$0

TOTAL

8

$27,149

1

$0

Since 1958, Ireland has consistently provided military personnel for UN peacekeeping and humanitarian operations supported by the United States. Ireland currently has 753 soldiers deployed in various peacekeeping and observer missions. In 2004, Irish troops served in operations in Afghanistan (ISAF), Lebanon (UNIFIL), Bosnia (SFOR), Kosovo (KFOR), Liberia (UNMIL), and Cyprus (UNFICYP), where they work with U.S. and NATO troops. Additionally, Ireland deployed a number of personnel to the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), the UN Headquarters, the Department of Peace Keeping Operations (DPKO), the UN Observer mission in Western Sahara (MINURSO), the UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), the UN Observer Mission in the Congo (MONUC), the UN Observer Mission in the Ivory Coast (ONUCI), the OSCE, the European Community Monitor Mission (EUMM), the EU Military Staff, and the European Union Observers (EUMO) with African Union Peacekeepers in the Darfur area of Sudan. Ireland is a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) Program and, as a member of the European Union, participates in the European Security and Defense Policy. The training provided to Ireland is intended to strengthen the capabilities of the Irish Defense Forces in carrying out these duties and responsibilities.

In 2004, Ireland sent representatives for instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Exchanges continue to remain critically important as a means of maintaining close bilateral relations between the United States and Ireland and in developing training and military interoperability.

As of the publication date of this report, Ireland, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Kazakhstan

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

4

$16,417

3

$1,078

CTFP

11

$223,775

12

$169,806

IMET

58

$1,177,833

71

$1,892,564

Non-SA, Combatant Command

128

$260,438

14

$54,986

Regional Centers

62

$299,392

74

$243,287

Service Academies

43

$144,724

2

$100,170

TOTAL

306

$2,122,579

176

$2,461,891

Kazakhstan is a vast, resource-rich country that has advanced U.S. national security interests in Central Asia through its support for operations in Iraq and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Other U.S. interests include further dismantling of Kazakhstan's inherited weapons of mass destruction infrastructure; a peaceful role for its weapons scientists; the safe and secure storage of nuclear materials and spent fuels, and nonproliferation cooperation; promoting Kazakhstan's long-term political stability by developing democratic institutions and respect for human rights; and encouraging the development of both the Caspian basin's hydrocarbon resources and the means for their secure access to international markets. A new objective, in light of the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), is enhancing Kazakhstan's capability to combat terrorist insurgents, eliminate internal terrorist cells and foster regional cooperation in the area of counterterrorism. In addition, building on a mutually beneficial bilateral military relationship with Kazakhstan, our military-to-military goals include deepening Kazakhstan's participation in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) and enhancing the capabilities of Kazakhstan's peacekeeping battalion (KAZBAT), as well as the country's participation in USCENTCOM regional exercises. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and International Military and Education and Training (IMET) enhance regional cooperation by deepening Kazakhstan's cooperation in Partnership for Peace, supporting KAZBAT and U.S. Central Command regional exercises, and enhancing Kazakhstan's military interoperability with NATO forces in the context of PfP exercises. They also facilitate armed forces reform and promote a better understanding of the role of the military in developing democracies and the development of appropriate civil-military relations and human rights practices.

Military training with Kazakhstan focuses in particular on leadership and professional military education (PME) and civil-military relations. Courses related to international staff officer training contribute to PfP goals. Operational leadership courses for junior infantry and signal officers and command and general staff courses for mid-level officers further the U.S. goal of developing interoperable forces capable of coalition undertakings. Medical and logistics management training contribute directly to Kazakhstan's ability to meet specified PfP and coalition interoperability goals, as do English language-training courses.

The primary focus for the near- and mid-term is the execution of the Five-Year Military Cooperation plan, signed recently by the Ministry of Defense of Kazakhstan and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. This plan ties mission to task in three areas of development: establish a professional armed force with rapid deployment capability compatible with NATO force standards; establish a quick-reaction military capability in the Caspian region; and pursue general systemic reform within spheres of military education and training, transition to an all-volunteer force, and equipment modernization. Each of these task areas will better develop the U.S.-Kazakhstan-NATO interoperability necessary to fight the GWOT. In support of the country's intent to develop counterterrorism/special operations capabilities in the Caspian Sea region with the end state being a NATO-interoperable, 150-man special operations force/counterterrorism force capable of conducting hostage rescue and terrorist interdiction, the Atyrau construction project was dedicated in July 2004. The project, tailored to the development of a Special Forces Training Center for Counterterrorism, will allow for increased joint exercises and will also support the work we have done with KAZBAT. It will also provide the means and a venue for other cooperative exercises between Kazakhstan and its neighbors, something that is also a key objective of U.S. strategy in the region. The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) promotes building close ties with Kazakhstan through PME and other counterterrorism focused training initiatives that support the Global War on Terrorism.

Kazakhstan also benefited from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

In FY 2005, we seek to use the basics provided in previous years and build on future years in ways more reflective of our current post 9/11 goals. We will emphasize multi-lateral training of special purpose and counterterrorism forces from interested Coalition and NATO countries, seeking to gain greater synergy through greater cooperation in the planning stages. Key areas of emphasis will be the development of a Kazakhstani counterterrorism capability and cooperation and combined training with similar forces from the other Central Asian States.

As of the publication date of this report, Kazakhstan is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Kyrgyzstan

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

1

$572

3

$1,408

CTFP

5

$77,206

6

$56,089

IMET

38

$1,058,258

48

$1,031,650

Regional Centers

57

$255,189

80

$278,358

Service Academies

4

$202,390

3

$152,310

TOTAL

105

$1,593,615

140

$1,519,815

U.S. national interests are furthered by the continued development of a stable, prosperous and independent Kyrgyz Republic, as well as by Kyrgyzstan's continuing support for Operation Enduring Freedom. Bilateral relations, including those related to military training, aim at helping the Kyrgyz Republic contribute to security and regional cooperation in Central Asia, a region that borders on Russia, China, Iran and Afghanistan. While seeking to enhance Kyrgyzstan's capabilities to combat terrorist cells and secure its borders, our security cooperation encourages the Kyrgyz Republic to reform its military along democratic lines, including the areas of civil-military relations and defense management. To further these goals, the U.S. also has sought expanded assistance for international military education. Another key component of U.S. policy is to encourage and facilitate active participation by the Kyrgyz Republic in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities.

U.S. training has focused on helping to provide the basics to enable members of the Kyrgyz military to participate effectively in International Military Education and Training (IMET) and PfP programs and to expose Kyrgyz officers to U.S. and other democratic military processes. Mountain survival and Special Forces courses and Marshall Center seminars have give Kyrgyz military personnel opportunities to interact with U.S., NATO and PfP counterparts as well as others from Central Asia. In order to provide basic officer training that would allow greater interoperability within PfP, efforts also have focused on the logistics management, intelligence, and command and general staff college and training officers as leaders of infantry, airborne and other related units.

Earlier on, Kyrgyzstan sought U.S. assistance to provide counterterrorism (CT) training. The request was prompted by incursions by the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) in 1999 and 2000. Kyrgyzstan also experienced terrorist bombings by alleged members of the IMU in 2002 and 2003. The government has expressed concern over the possibility of future border incursions. The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) has been instrumental in deploying a DoD team to teach a one-week Legal Aspects of Counterterrorism course in Bishkek. Initiatives such as these build on U.S. and Kyrgyzstan bilateral relationships and promote interoperability against global terrorism.

English language instruction plays a key role in preparing Kyrgyzstan for NATO interoperability and PfP activities. In FY 2003, a number of Kyrgyz military officers received a full year of English language instruction and follow-on military training. Others received specialized training as English language instructors. IMET-funded English language laboratories have been established and books and other audio-visual materials are being acquired using IMET funds to supplement the language training programs.

As of the publication date of this report, Kyrgyzstan is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Macedonia

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

33

$31,595

0

$0

FMF

10

$18,630

0

$0

IMET

64

$905,754

47

$1,048,663

Regional Centers

37

$139,931

44

$178,758

TOTAL

144

$1,095,910

91

$1,227,421

The United States has a vital strategic interest in preserving peace and stability in the Balkans. Macedonia suffered an ethnic Albanian insurgency during 2001. The August 2001 Framework Agreement (FWA) laid the groundwork for Macedonia's peace and stability in the context of improved civil rights for minority groups. Among other provisions, the FWA calls for strengthening the State's democratic institutions - including the armed forces and police - by making them more inclusive. With international assistance, Macedonia's political leaders have taken significant steps toward implementation of the FWA. NATO's Task Force Fox departed Macedonia in April 2003 and was replaced by the EU's Operation Concordia, which helped government authorities to monitor the former conflict area. Improvements in the security situation allowed the Concordia mission to terminate in December 2003, thus ending international military deployments in Macedonia.

Macedonia's relations with its neighbors are friendly and constructive. One of the highest foreign policy priorities of the Macedonian government is accession to NATO, and Macedonia signed the Adriatic Charter with its partners Albania and Croatia in May 2003, pledging to work together towards this goal. Macedonian public and governmental support for NATO and Macedonian NATO membership remains strong. September 2002 parliamentary elections ushered in a new, multiethnic government with a pro-Euro-Atlantic integration platform, committed to completing FWA implementation and advancing reforms on the path to eventual EU and NATO membership. Macedonia has proven itself to be a strong ally in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), signing an Article 98 agreement and contributing combat units to ISAF in Afghanistan and to the U.S. sector in Iraq.

The United States is committed to helping Macedonia progress toward full Euro-Atlantic integration. USG military training, funded through Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and International Military Education and Training (IMET), of Macedonian officers and NCOs is essential to building support for and implementing necessary reforms. Training in areas such as professional military training, defense resource management information systems and English language is consistent with the U.S. and NATO goal of improving Macedonian interoperability with NATO forces, supporting Macedonia's border security capabilities, and enhancing Macedonia's capacity to deploy units in support of international peacekeeping operations. Continued USG educational programs will further increase support for broad military reforms within the officer corps.

The FY 2004 FMF program reflects priorities set down in the Strategic Defense Review by the Macedonian Ministry of Defense (MOD), which set forth the policy framework and defined appropriate military missions and capabilities matched to credible resource requirements. The Office of Defense Cooperation continues to coordinate with the in-country NATO Advisory Team to assist Macedonia in defense reforms. The bulk of planned 2005 FMF funds will be directed toward reform assistance, communications equipment, English language training, and resources necessary to equip troops deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and with International Stabilization Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. Scheduled FY 2005 IMET continues a training focus on professional military education (PME) for both commissioned and non-commissioned officers. Highlights of projected FY 2005 PME include courses in special operations training, civil-military affairs, signal, intelligence and resource management, which remains a top priority. IMET training is improving Macedonia's potential for NATO interoperability and Partnership for Peace participation. Reflecting the commitment of Macedonia's civilian and military leadership to effective use of the IMET program, an increasing number of Macedonia's IMET graduates are assuming positions of prominence within the military, such as Defense Attach�, Brigade and Garrison Commanders, and General Staff Officers.

The Marshall Center in Germany continues to provide U.S.-funded training to civilian and uniformed Macedonian defense officials. Through seminars and conferences, the Marshall Center instructs Central and Eastern European students in civil-military relations, ethnic conflict prevention, anticorruption measures and defense economics.

Finally, as a NATO aspirant and PfP participant, Macedonia's MOD continues to use NATO Kosovo presence to familiarize military officers with NATO procedures.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Macedonia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Malta

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

46

$167,026

9

$183,844

IMET

2

$23,422

8

$156,189

Regional Centers

1

$5,754

1

$7,725

TOTAL

49

$196,202

18

$347,758

Malta is strategically located in the Central Mediterranean. It is a key forward boundary that bridges Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. One-third of all international maritime traffic passes through Maltese ports or waters. Malta has two large ports, including a regionally important container port (Freeport), and a major ship repair facility used regularly by the U.S. Navy. The threat of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and dual-use material transshipment through the Maltese Freeport is potentially serious. In 2004, the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL) established Freeport as its Mediterranean hub. Also, Malta is close to other states of interest (Libya and Algeria).

Malta is an active partner with the U.S. in combating terrorism and WMD proliferation. Malta also serves to promote regional security and stability by cooperating closely on a wide range of security-related activities with the United States.

In July 2003, the provision of International Military Education and Training (IMET) and Foreign Military Financing (FMF) funds was prohibited since Malta did not enter into an Article 98 agreement with the United States. At this time, Malta was a candidate for membership in the European Union (and became an EU member in May 2004) and felt pressured not to sign such an agreement as it might endanger its candidacy. The suspension and withdrawal of virtually all U.S. military assistance has seriously hindered Malta's ability to continue development and standardization of its armed forces. Although the Department of Defense had provided some counterterrorism funding during FY 2004, overall counterterrorism and WMD efforts have suffered greatly.

The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funding, which was withdrawn in July 2004, was essential in sustaining accomplishments achieved through the IMET and FMF program in Malta, particularly in the development of effective Maritime Law Enforcement operations capabilities oriented toward detection and interdiction of WMD and dual-use materials transiting Maltese ports and waters. Malta acknowledges its armed forces' limitations in the area of counterterrorism and has actively sought U.S. assistance in resolving recognized shortcomings. The current Maltese focus for counterterrorism efforts is on increasing response capability to a terrorist activity. This includes developing the capability to identify, manage, and respond to terrorist threats and logistics activities.

As of the publication date of this report, Malta, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Moldova

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

6

$15,978

1

$93,672

EIPC

5

$48,970

1

$9,551

IMET

97

$1,287,418

55

$1,443,775

Regional Centers

47

$212,857

58

$207,949

TOTAL

155

$1,565,223

115

$1,754,947

Moldova has developed a cooperative security relationship with the U.S., both bilaterally in such areas as nonproliferation, and multilaterally through such avenues as NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). Moldova's military is active in Partnership for Peace (PfP) activities, despite being short on resources as the country's economy continues to struggle. Finally, the Moldovan Government has made efforts to peacefully settle its dispute with the Transnistrian separatists in eastern Moldova.

The fundamental U.S. goals in Moldova are regional stability, economic prosperity, and promotion of democracy. U.S.-funded military training comprises an important part of the strategy employed to meet these goals. In particular, U.S. military training funded through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program helps Moldovan soldiers acquire the skills necessary to operate alongside NATO forces, participate more actively in PfP activities, and support peacekeeping operations, as demonstrated by recent deployments of troops to Iraq.

In FY 2004, numerous Moldovan officers received training under the IMET program with training concentrated on developing the operational skills of officers in a wide range of specializations. Moldovan signal officers, finance officers, field artillery, judge advocate and infantry captains have been trained under the IMET program. Moldovan IMET attendees also have taken more universally applicable classes in such areas as English language and language instruction, civil-military relations and defense management. IMET funds were also used to upgrade English language laboratories. Expanded International Peacekeeping Capability (EIPC) funds have been used to help Moldova develop an organic capability to train its peacekeepers.

This year, Moldova conducted a U.S. European Command-sponsored National Defense Assessment, during which the Moldovan National Army granted unprecedented openness and transparency to U.S. military experts. Future military cooperation between the U.S. and Moldova will be guided in part by the results of the Defense Assessment.

Moldovan officials also benefited from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe. To date, over 90 Moldovans have completed Marshall Center programs.

As of the publication date of this report, Moldova is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Russia

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

3

$39,716

0

$0

IMET

49

$224,492

38

$835,688

Regional Centers

84

$452,874

111

$466,235

TOTAL

136

$717,082

149

$1,301,923

The United States has overriding national security interests in cooperating with Russia to combat terrorism and in preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The foundation of our cooperation rests on Russia's development as a democratic civil society under the rule of law and with respect for human rights - particularly in the fields of military affairs and civil-military relations. Still a nuclear power, Russia plays a significant role in Europe, Asia and the Middle East, as well as in the UN Security Council and other international organizations. Since the attacks of September 11, Russia has cooperated in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). The United States and Russia cooperate closely on counterterrorism, particularly in the framework of the bilateral Counterterrorism Working Group (CTWG). Russia is also a core member of the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), which is expected to lead to additional requirements for force interoperability. We are working cooperatively with Russia and support their developing closer links to NATO. We also maintain a dialogue on countering the nuclear threat from North Korea as participants in the Six Party Talks.

The NATO-Russia Council (NRC) was established at the Rome Summit in May 2002. The NRC places emphasis on individual NATO Allies and Russia working as equal partners on selected, mutually-agreed initiatives. The work of the NRC is centered on specific, practical projects that will contribute to enhancing interoperability of NATO and Russian forces. Programs include civil emergency planning exercises and joint search and rescue exercises. The NATO-Russia Council military-to-military interoperability program promotes the ability of NATO and Russian forces to work side-by-side in the field to face the 21st-Century threats of terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

The depth of Russia's commitment to the rule of law and development of civil society, our concern over the extension of government control over the mass media, the conduct of Russian forces in Chechnya, and Russia's sometimes assertive tactics in relations with neighboring countries are subjects of our discussions with Russian interlocutors. Warsaw Initiative Funding for Partnership for Peace (PfP) exercises provides opportunities for Russian officers to interact with U.S. and NATO counterparts. Russian officers can develop greater understanding of NATO doctrine and concepts of coalition contingency operations and the role of the military in a democracy. These programs seek to increase cooperation between NATO and Russia and to reduce Russian fears that NATO threatens Russian security.

Funding for the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program for Russia has consistently been about $800,000. The IMET program for Russia is increasingly focused on developing interoperability. Proposals for increasing interoperability include the installation of English language laboratories on Russian bases and Russian participation in a Primary Leadership Development Course (PLDC) for non-commissioned officers. IMET funding will include courses such as airborne training, air assault training and land navigation. The shorter duration of these courses makes them more attractive to Russian participants, and the practical focus on interoperability is expected to promote cooperation between U.S. and Russian militaries.

Russian officials also benefited from instruction at both the George C. Marshall Center in Germany and the Asia-Pacific Center in Hawaii. Both of these regional centers focus on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

As of the publication of this report, Russia is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Serbia and Montenegro

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

10

$55,665

0

$0

IMET

0

$0

3

$38,457

Regional Centers

38

$186,774

108

$360,407

TOTAL

48

$242,439

111

$398,864

Serbia and Montenegro is key to ensuring long-term stability in the Balkans. Following the democratic transition in Belgrade, our policy has been to encourage development of a professional military that is cooperative and compatible with Western standards, respects human rights and whose actions do not pose a threat to peace and stability in the Balkans. In May 2003, President Bush signed a Presidential Determination authorizing initiation of an International Military Education and Training (IMET) program with Serbia and Montenegro. Although the FY 2004 budget included a request for Serbia and Montenegro, IMET funds were not obligated before the restrictions of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act took effect on July 1, 2003.

As of the publication date of this report, Serbia and Montenegro, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Sweden

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

FMS

43

$1,445,196

21

$207,099

Regional Centers

9

$0

8

$0

TOTAL

52

$1,445,196

29

$207,099

Although Sweden is not a member of NATO, it is an active participant in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and a solid partner with the United States in many areas of national security concern. For example, Sweden is an energetic player in the Balkans, was one of the first with troops on the ground in Kosovo, and provided support to the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan. Sweden is a staunch supporter of NATO's Open Door and assisted the three Baltic countries with military interoperability issues. Sweden also donated equipment to outfit troops in the Baltics. Sweden has also expressed interest in engaging in joint military exercises with Russia, which is an effort the USG supports. With respect to the European Security Defense Identity (ESDI), Sweden supports a strong European Union crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged and which does not duplicate NATO structures. The Swedish Government has committed to lead an EU battle group (providing 1100 of the 1500 soldiers) that would be available in 2008. Sweden pays for and uses a number of U.S. training opportunities to include CH 46 simulator training and both staff and war colleges. Sweden also remains a great proponent of interoperability and defense cooperation. It is important to continue prompting close cooperation on security issues between Sweden and the United States.

Sweden has benefited from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

As of the publication date of this report, Sweden, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Service members' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Switzerland

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

FMS

48

$6,808,148

36

$664,809

Regional Centers

21

$0

25

$0

TOTAL

69

$6,808,148

61

$664,809

The United States and Switzerland work closely to advance human rights, democracy, nonproliferation and other issues of global concern. A traditionally neutral democratic nation, Switzerland has focused on its ability to participate in democracy-building and peacekeeping exercises since joining NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) in 1996. Its PfP goals focus largely on enhancing interoperability of forces and capabilities that may be declared available for PfP activities, but within self-imposed limits on participation related to the Swiss concept of neutrality. The Swiss PfP program for 2005 is expected to remain at 2002 and 2003 levels, with approximately 33 partnership goals and between 500 and 700 participants. These figures include activities of Switzerland's three centers: The Geneva Center for Humanitarian Demining, the Geneva Center for Security Policy, and the Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.

As of the publication date of this report, Switzerland, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Tajikistan

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

25

$152,248

14

$191,697

IMET

82

$443,797

19

$555,076

Regional Centers

53

$241,123

86

$360,492

Section 1004

0

$0

0

$626,000

TOTAL

160

$837,168

119

$1,733,265

The U.S.-Tajikistan bilateral military relationship continues to develop in a mutually beneficial way, building on our joint efforts in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and the Global War on Terror (GWOT). Tajikistan borders Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, China and Kyrgyzstan. Its porous borders make it highly vulnerable as a transit point for the movement of terrorist insurgents, narcotics and weapons that can destabilize other parts of the region. U.S. goals in Tajikistan remain the promotion of the development of a stable civil society, a market economy, stable borders, and democratic rule with full respect for human rights.

During FY 2003, the Foreign Military Financing (FMF) program paid for boots and uniforms for the Tajikistani military, as well as a communications survey to determine the Ministry of Defense's communications needs. In FY 2004, security assistance programs funded training in English and professional military education (PME) in the United States. This money also supported a long-term English language teacher instructing Tajikistani officers in Dushanbe. In FY 2004, the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program sustained language training and interoperability successes, and funded courses which demonstrate how a military functions in a democracy. Counterterrorism funding is needed in this assistance effort.

FY 2004 IMET was used to-fund in-country training on subjects including resource management, training support, and civil-military relations. FY 2004 FMF primarily focused on providing communications equipment, training and support for the enhancement of capabilities for selected units in the Ministry of Defense. Tajikistan also obtained training in counter-narcotics and counterterrorist operations for its border guards, customs service, and related ministries.

The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) helps to build strong bilateral ties between the U.S. and Tajikistan, critical for sustaining our collaborative efforts in the Global War on Terror (GWOT). Tajikistan continues to seek counterterrorism doctrinal and strategic training through programs such as the CTFP in order to develop a strategic plan in combating terrorism.

In FY 2004, The Export Control and Border Related Security (EXBS) Program provided equipment and training to the Government of Tajikistan that was targeted primarily to the State Border Protection Committee (Border Guard) and to a lesser extent the Tajikistan Customs Service. The equipment included, but was not limited to, high frequency (HF) radios, short wave (SW) radios, vehicles, winter uniforms, binoculars, hand held global positioning satellite units, comprehensive interdiction tool kits and lap top computers. Tajikistani officers from the Border Guard and Customs participated in the EXBS-funded International Border Interdiction Training (IBIT) held in Hidalgo, Texas. Motorola radio technicians provided a three-day training course, funded by EXBS, on the proper care and installation of Motorola SW radios and repeaters. Barrett radio communications specialists provided a five-day training course, funded by EXBS, on the use and installation of Barrett HF radio stations. United States Customs Inspectors provided a five-day training course, in country, on the use of the Comprehensive Interdiction Tool Kits, and inspection techniques utilized by the United States Customs Service. EXBS provided over $2 million in additional transport vehicles, HF radios and uniforms in FY 2004. The funding for this equipment and related training has been allocated from the FY 2002 supplemental budget for Tajikistan. Tajikistani officials also benefit from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

For FY 2005, border security will be an even larger focus of our assistance efforts, in light of Russia's announcement it will withdraw Russian Border Forces from the Tajik-Afghan border. This will leave Tajikistan solely responsible, for the first time in its independent history, for patrolling its own borders. The potential for reduced interdiction capacity has significant implications for counter-narcotics, counterterrorism, counter-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and regional stability.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Tajikistan, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 Agreement with the United States.

Turkmenistan

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

7

$219,579

21

$740,552

Regional Centers

8

$37,392

59

$140,578

Section 1004

0

$0

0

$577,000

TOTAL

15

$256,971

80

$1,458,130

The United States seeks a stable, independent Turkmenistan that contributes to regional stability and prosperity and enhances U.S. national security. A key U.S. interest is the focus on enhancing Turkmenistan's ability to secure its borders, a key potential transit state in Central Asia for the movement of narcotics, weapons and terrorists. We seek Turkmen assistance in the Global War on Terrorism, counterdrug efforts and preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and associated delivery systems, materials, technologies and expertise. We seek to encourage Turkmenistan's further participation in Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities as part of our overall goal of introducing Turkmenistan to military cooperation regionally - and fostering greater exposure.

Warsaw Initiative Funding for participation in PfP activities furthers on-the-ground-experience, including regional cooperation, interoperability with NATO forces and reform of the Turkmen military along Western, democratic lines. These activities also increase Turkmenistan's engagement with Euro-Atlantic security institutions.

In FY 2004, Turkmenistan used International Military Education and Training (IMET) funds to send military personnel to the U.S. for English language training, professional military education (PME) and other courses, which support Turkmen military reform by exposing officers to our democratic standards and values. The IMET program for Turkmenistan is focused on professional officer development for junior officers from all branches of service. The goal of the program is to further Turkmenistan's military professionalization and to enhance the ability of Turkmen forces to participate in PfP activities and/or any future coalition contingencies.

As of the publication date of this report, Turkmenistan is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by �2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Ukraine

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

Credit

3

$6,600

0

$0

EIPC

0

$0

3

$31,536

FMF

242

$541,020

0

$0

IMET

278

$2,373,177

89

$2,122,649

Non-SA, Combatant Command

1

$0

0

$0

Regional Centers

87

$435,640

123

$503,544

Service Academies

1

$50,080

1

$52,140

TOTAL

612

$3,406,517

216

$2,709,869

Ukraine is an important partner for the United States in the Global War on Terrorism and, in particular, operations in Iraq. It currently contributes the largest non-NATO and fourth-largest overall contingent of troops to Operation Iraqi Freedom and has deployed troops in support of U.S. and UN operations in Kosovo (KFOR), Sierra Leone, Lebanon and in various other UN observer groups. The USG is working with Ukraine to bolster the capabilities of the State Border Guard Service to block illegal efforts by terrorists and others to secure components, materials, and expertise related to weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs.

Ukraine and NATO have strengthened their relationship through the continued development of the NATO-Ukraine Commission established in 1997 on the basis of the NATO-Ukraine Charter. Ukraine's Euro-Atlantic orientation and close partnership with NATO remains the official policy of the Ukrainian government, despite the removal of explicit aspiration to NATO and EU membership from Ukraine's defense doctrine in July. There were over 800 bilateral and multilateral military activities between NATO member countries and Ukraine in 2004, and NATO and Ukraine have signed an agreement for the use of Ukrainian strategic airlift in support of NATO operations, helping address a critical alliance shortfall. Ukraine has worked hard to reform its military to bring it into line with NATO requirements, instituting effective civilian control of the military, developing a professional non-commissioned officer (NCO) Corps, slashing troop numbers from 350,000 to 200,000, aiming to modernize equipment to NATO standards to improve interoperability, and developing a joint rapid reaction force to enhance the ability to participate in peacekeeping and peace-enforcing operations. New Defense Minister Kuzmuk has affirmed Ukraine's commitment to military reform.

The U.S. continues to work for the development of an independent, democratic Ukraine with a market-oriented economy. Parliamentary elections in March 2002 were an important indicator of democratic progress. Presidential elections in October-November 2004 were the next critical indicator of the status of democratic development in the country. Along these lines, U.S. goals for engaging Ukraine's military include strengthening civilian control, military reform and restructuring, and an increasing integration of Ukraine into the security institutions of the larger Euro-Atlantic community. U.S.-funded military training efforts are a crucial part of this effort. Training received through International Military Education and Training (IMET), Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and other U.S. military assistance programs contributes to that goal by augmenting Ukraine's ability to participate alongside NATO forces in crisis response operations, in Partnership for Peace (PfP) exercises and other activities. Current U.S. interoperability initiatives include assistance in defense planning, NCO professionalization, and training and equipping the Ukrainian Joint Rapid Reaction Force.

Ukraine makes extensive use of the IMET program to improve Ukrainian military readiness in a broad range of functional areas. Areas of concentration include military legal training, English language instruction, officer professional military education (logistics, signal, intelligence operations, engineer, military police and adjutant general), classes in civil-military relations and defense resource management, information systems, military engineering and military police instruction, and military airfield and submarine operations. In addition, senior Ukrainian officers have been trained at the Air and Naval Command and Staff Colleges, Air and Army War Colleges, and the National Defense University. The Expanded IMET (E-IMET) program has trained Ukrainian military and civilian officials, including civilian personnel from non-defense ministries and the legislative branch who work on military-related issues. E-IMET training focuses on managing and administering military establishments and budgets, promoting civilian control of the military, and creating and maintaining effective military justice systems and military codes of conduct.

As already mentioned, Ukraine has purchased U.S. military training using FMF grant funds to advance its NATO interoperability and PfP participation. English language has been a focus, as have health and medical training and vehicle maintenance. Equipment purchased with FMF has aided Ukraine's participation in KFOR, which has led to critical, practical training through real-world peacekeeping experience for Ukrainian troops. Furthermore, U.S. funding has paid Ukrainians to attend conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center trains Central and Eastern European militaries on civil-military relations and democratic control of the military.

As of the publication date of this report, Ukraine is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by �2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Uzbekistan

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

5

$41,429

3

$1,408

CTFP

3

$37,267

2

$91,016

FMF

1

$288,700

0

$0

IMET

77

$1,028,605

34

$1,216,445

Regional Centers

58

$261,419

91

$385,645

Section 1004

20

$480,000

10

$652,000

TOTAL

164

$2,137,420

140

$2,346,514

The U.S.-Uzbekistan military relationship continues to develop in a mutually beneficial way, having expanding greatly to build on our joint efforts in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). While Uzbekistan ultimately decided not to send peacekeeping troops to assist our efforts in Iraq, the United States has use of the airbase at Karshi-Khanabad, and Uzbekistan has been an active supporter of our efforts in Afghanistan. The U.S. looks for Uzbekistan to play a stabilizing and increasingly cooperative role among its neighbors and in the region. Promoting regional cooperation is a key U.S. objective in Central Asia, though we seek to establish defined bilateral relationships with each country based on its own security objectives and priorities for reform. Uzbekistan remains an authoritarian state. Another key U.S. interest is to see it evolve democratically, with respect for human rights and democratic values. We seek to advance U.S. objectives in the region by enhancing Uzbekistan's capability to combat terrorist insurgents and cells in Central Asia. We seek to promote the interoperability of Uzbekistan's Ministry of Defense and Border Guard as part of this goal. U.S. policy goals focus on enhancing Uzbekistan's capability to advance U.S. objectives by preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and associated delivery systems, materials, technologies and expertise across borders, as well as interdicting narcotics and terrorists. All of this calls for specific military reforms, and Uzbekistan has been an enthusiastic partner in this area during FY 2004. International Military Education and Training (IMET) and Foreign Military Financing (FMF) assistance to Uzbekistan were put on hold in FY 2004 because of section 568(a) of the Foreign Operations Authorization Act. This section put all foreign assistance to the central Government of Uzbekistan on hold until the Secretary of State could determine and report to the Committees on Appropriations that the Government of Uzbekistan is making substantial and continuing progress in meeting its commitments under the 'Declaration on the Strategic Partnership and Cooperation Framework Between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the United States of America,' including respect for human rights, establishing a genuine multi-party system, and ensuring free and fair elections, freedom of expression, and the independence of the media. In July 2004, the Secretary decided he could not make this determination, and assistance to the central Government of Uzbekistan was reprogrammed for other uses.

Uzbekistan sees itself in a leading role in Central Asia. The U.S. seeks to orient Uzbekistan's sizeable military towards greater cooperation with its own neighbors, NATO and the United States. Uzbekistan's active participation in Partnership for Peace (PfP) and the Uzbek Peacekeeping Battalion will enhance the cooperation. Training focuses on strategic intelligence, command and general staff college courses, English language, and such operational subjects as infantry, ranger, and Special Forces courses, which foster interoperability in both operations and tactics.

Uzbekistan is a front-line state and a key strategic partner in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). It has allowed U.S. and Coalition forces to use its bases and has opened its border with Afghanistan for humanitarian shipments. The Government of Uzbekistan (GOU) has supported the U.S. position on Iraq and most of our positions in the UN. The Government of Uzbekistan has declared its intention to take difficult steps to reform its economy and advance democracy. Half of the people in Central Asia live in Uzbekistan, and the Uzbeks are the largest ethnic group in Central Asia. Uzbekistan borders all other Central Asia countries and Afghanistan, but has borders with no major foreign power.

The GOU maintains the most independent foreign policy of all Central Asian nations. Uzbekistan also has the strongest military in Central Asia, and its security policies directly affect its neighbors, especially in the heavily populated Ferghana Valley. These factors help make Uzbekistan vital to stability in Central Asia. The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provides doctrinal and strategic training necessary to combat the threat of transnational IMU terrorism and also helps to foster bilateral relationships between the U.S. and Uzbekistan in the GWOT.

Participation in Marshall Center activities, focusing on civil-military relations, improving military justice systems, and defense resource management, contribute to the U.S. effort to foster a greater understanding of the principle of effective civilian control.

As of the publication date of this report, Uzbekistan is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance. However, as indicated above, other restrictions may apply.



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