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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--Near East Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2004 and 2005
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
April 2005
Report
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Algeria

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

11

$151,817

0

$0

IMET

45

$414,978

61

$927,326

Regional Centers

10

$131,932

15

$139,747

TOTAL

66

$698,727

76

$1,067,073

The United States has a clear interest in increasing regional stability by promoting democracy, economic reform and security in Algeria. The proposed training plan continues to advise a measured approach in order to encourage reform within the Algerian military establishment and gradually move it along a path toward greater pluralism and respect for civilian authority and human rights. After a decade of bitter conflict with armed terrorist insurgents, attacks have diminished and Algeria's military has begun to focus its counterterrorism efforts on collaboration with regional partners in order to secure its long and porous borders. Algeria inaugurated the Algiers-based African Union Counterterrorism Research Center in October 2004. The Center aims to provide a coordinated regional research venue for counterterrorism efforts of all African Union countries. The Government of Algeria has also expressed a keen interest in expanding the scope of its cooperation with the United States in combating terrorism and ensuring stability in the Mediterranean. United States counterterrorism cooperation with Algeria has increased substantially in recent years. Algeria has proven to be an important partner in U.S. efforts to stem the tide of terrorist activity in North Africa and the Mediterranean. The single most important area of education for Algerian military personnel is, and will remain, professional education of mid-level and senior leaders in order to build a cadre of personnel who can function effectively with the U.S. and regional counterparts.

Participation in the IMET program helps Algerian military officers develop contacts with U.S. counterparts, better understand U.S. policy, increase awareness of international norms and foster greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military. IMET training promotes professionalism and reinforces among core supporters of the regime the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. These officers will establish essential contacts with U.S. counterparts whose influence can encourage reform within the Algerian military. In FY 2005, IMET funds will be used to send Algerian officers to key professional military education (PME) courses as well as selected technical training courses. Our focus will continue to be upon IMET-funded English language training in order to continue to expand and improve the Algerian military's interoperability with U.S. forces, facilitate interaction in potential future contingency operations such as peacekeeping missions, and prepare them for increased training opportunities.

Algeria is conducting its own war on terrorism and is seeking to engage the U.S. on many military and military-related fronts. The relationship and cooperation is increasing everyday and the Algerian military will need to be an effective partner in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). The most important area of education for Algerian military personnel is professional education of mid-level and senior leaders in order to build a cadre of personnel who can function effectively with U.S. and regional counterparts.

In addition, Algerian participation in the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Algeria by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Algeria is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Bahrain

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

FMF

0

$0

12

$100,000

FMS

23

$4,061,837

19

$5,175,553

IMET

65

$533,652

64

$689,841

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

19

$40,100

0

$0

Regional Centers

1

$0

0

$0

TOTAL

108

$4,635,589

95

$5,965,394

The United States has an enduring national security interest in maintaining its access to Bahraini military facilities in order to maintain our influence in the Persian Gulf and to conduct operations in the on-going Global War on Terrorism. Bahrain has hosted the U.S. Navy 5th Fleet for more than 50 years. The relatively open access to facilities, land and airspace needed to support contingency operations, including joint task force, fleet and Multinational Interception Force (MIF) operations are critical to maintaining U.S. operations in the region. In addition, Bahrain annually hosts important exercises that involve U.S. forces.

Our security and political relationship with Bahrain continues to be strong. Bahrain and the United States have maintained a Defense Cooperation Agreement (DCA) since 1991. Bahrain has been a steadfast supporter of our foreign policy objectives in Iraq and Libya, not only as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council in 1997, but also as a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). In 2001, the President designated Bahrain a Major Non-NATO Ally. Bahrain has also been a critical supporter of our containment of Iranian ambitions in the region and has been a key supporter of the Global War on Terrorism. Bahrain responded positively to all NAVCENT and U.S. military requests for Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom, and will remain a critical hub for the U.S. presence in the Gulf and Southwest Asia. Bahrain has been an active participant in the War on Terrorism and was the only GCC country to provide a ship to the Coalition effort. Bahrain has also assumed a leadership role in regional efforts to cut off the flow of funding to terrorist groups.

Training activities funded under IMET and the approval of selected commercial and FMS arms sales promote the interoperability of the Bahrain Defense Forces with existing U.S. and GCC forces in the region. Through the IMET program, Bahrain sends officers to U.S. command and staff colleges, and other key professional military education (PME) and technical courses. IMET training reinforces democratic principles of civilian control of the military, enhances interoperability with U.S. forces, promotes professionalism and reinforces among core supporters of the regime the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. In addition, Bahrain has in the past sent students to the U.S. service academies. By improving English language skills and understanding of the U.S. military, these training programs directly enhance the effectiveness of our bilateral and multilateral joint training programs.

By its own terms, � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit the provision of military assistance to Bahrain.

Egypt

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

1

$12,000

0

$0

FMF

1161

$14,235,207

655

$13,027,032

FMS

2

$0

0

$0

IMET

62

$1,602,467

99

$2,459,406

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

0

$0

1

$43,000

Regional Centers

13

$60,796

19

$195,816

Service Academies

2

$102,225

1

$50,085

TOTAL

1241

$16,012,695

775

$15,775,339

Egypt is a pivotal country in the Arab world and a key U.S. ally in the Middle East. In 1996, the President designated Egypt a Major Non-NATO Ally. The U.S. seeks to promote regional peace and security by encouraging Egypt's continued participation and leadership in Middle East peace efforts. Egypt has been at peace with Israel for over two decades, but has potentially hostile rivals in Sudan and Libya. Egypt faces challenges in maintaining sea lines of communication as well as in protecting territorial and Nile headwaters and its vast, sparsely populated borders with Sudan and Libya. Egypt's strategic location and control of the Suez Canal make it a critical transit point for general commerce, and petroleum shipments, as well as for transiting U.S. forces. Egypt continues to play a major role in the Global War on Terrorism and in fostering regional stability by acting as a reliable coalition partner and through constant engagement in the Middle East Peace Process. Funding under the DoD Counterterrorism Fellowship Program provides the Government of Egypt the ability to sustain their counterterrorism framework in support of Operation Enduring Freedom.

President Mubarak was the first head of an Arab state to make a public statement of support for the strikes on Afghanistan, and Egypt has been extremely cooperative in working with the U.S. to crack down on financing activities of terrorist entities. The importance of Egypt's cooperation for Suez Canal access and security, as well as over flight clearances cannot be overstated. Since 9/11, Egypt granted clearances for tens of thousands of military over flights and for over 800 U.S. Navy ship passages. Egypt participates in a number of annual joint military exercises, and hosts the biennial Operation Bright Star, the largest U.S. military training exercise in the world. Cancelled in October 2003 due to Operation Iraqi Freedom, planning for Bright Star 2005 is well advanced, promising to be a robust exercise that will send an important message to the region about U.S. and coalition regional power projection capabilities.

The Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESACSS) and the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Egypt by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. NESACSS and ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Egypt's replacement of outmoded Soviet-era equipment with smaller quantities of more capable and sustainable U.S. equipment is well underway. Increasing the amount of U.S.-origin equipment in the Egyptian inventory augments U.S. interoperability with Egypt, enhancing their value as a coalition partner. Egypt's training, funded under the IMET and FMF programs, enhances counterterrorism training, improves Egypt's maintenance and supply capabilities, increases English language skills of the Egyptian officer corps and improves pilot proficiency. Attendance at the U.S. military command and staff colleges and service academies advances leadership skills and improves understanding between our militaries. All of these programs directly enhance joint training.

By its own terms, � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit the provision of military assistance to Egypt.

Iraq

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

11

$25,990

10

$123,952

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

13

$0

24

$207,934

Regional Centers

108

$600,850

0

$0

TOTAL

132

$626,840

34

$331,886

The United States, together with its coalition partners, successfully conducted Operation Iraqi Freedom to remove the Saddam Hussein regime from power. "Free Iraqi Forces" (FIF) - Iraqi exiles trained to support coalition forces - participated fully in Iraq's liberation. Training took place under the auspices of the Iraqi Liberation Act in Taszar, Hungary, and included such topics as public affairs, strategic planning, humanitarian assistance, international law, logistics and civil affairs. During combat operations FIF were able to use their language skills and specialized knowledge of the area of operations to assist coalition military commanders. After major combat operations ended, many FIF continued to work closely with Army civil affairs units assisting the Iraqi people with a broad array of reconstruction and governance capacity-building efforts.

Iraq is a country in transition working towards establishing a new Armed Force and Internal Security Force as it struggles to stand up a democratic government in the region. Primary efforts have been on counterinsurgency/counterterrorism training with significant U.S. support in order to stabilize the country. CTFP was instrumental to getting the first Iraqi officers into U.S.-based training with more to come. Iraq plans to develop organic English Language training using CTFP support in order to more fully participate in future program training opportunities. CTFP will promote U.S.-Iraqi interoperability necessary to prosecuting the war on terrorism in the region.

The reconstruction effort is ongoing. The Coalition continues to work with the international community and the Iraqi people to build a new Iraq on the foundation of peace and democracy. Central to this effort is the need to build effective, responsible and professional security institutions.

As of the publication date of this report, Iraq is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Israel

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

FMF

1265

$24,607,900

759

$5,429,926

Regional Centers

16

$5,754

1

$7,725

TOTAL

1281

$24,613,654

760

$5,437,651

It is in the U.S. national interest to promote a stable, democratic and militarily strong Israel that is at peace with its neighbors. President Bush has reiterated the steadfast U.S. commitment to Israel's security, to the maintenance of its qualitative military edge, and to strengthening Israel's ability to deter potential aggressors and defend itself. Maintaining Israel's qualitative military edge in the regional balance of power enhances Israel's security and helps prevent regional conflict.

The U.S. has provided Israel with over $95 billion in economic and military assistance since 1949 and Israel continues to receive the largest share of U.S. security assistance worldwide. Foreign military training, both as a portion of U.S.-provided FMF and as DoD-funded non-security assistance, is important in maintaining Israel's qualitative military edge. Training for Israeli personnel during FY 2004 included Air, Naval and Army War College courses, flight simulator training, and avionics systems and armament maintenance training, among other programs. By providing both technical expertise and exposure to U.S. military culture and personnel, these programs contribute significantly to the strengthening of U.S.-Israel military ties.

By its own terms, � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit the provision of military assistance to Israel.

Jordan

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

2

$7,535

1

$880

CTFP

82

$1,107,397

48

$750,907

EIPC

1

$16,978

0

$0

FMF

17

$19,695

0

$0

FMS

0

$0

6

$0

IMET

232

$3,352,692

246

$3,698,270

Regional Centers

18

$88,554

1

$7,725

Service Academies

1

$52,140

1

$52,140

TOTAL

353

$4,644,991

303

$4,509,922

Stability and economic prosperity in the Middle East support U.S. national security objectives. As a moderate, pro-Western state, Jordan is in a position to play a pivotal role as a stabilizing influence in the region by virtue of its borders with Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Syria and Israel. Political stability and economic development in Jordan are necessary prerequisites to enhance Jordan's moderate influence in the region.

Peace in the Middle East is one of Jordan's highest priorities, especially in light of its significant Palestinian population and its peace treaty with Israel. Jordan is also in a unique position to contribute to collective regional security goals. Jordan is playing a key role in support of Iraq stability and reconstruction, to include facilitating training for up to 32,000 Iraqi police cadets and providing training for some 2,000 Iraqi military officers at Jordanian military colleges. Jordan has deployed a field hospital to Fallujah, which has, so far, treated over 377,000 Iraqi civilians and conducted 1,300 operations. Jordan has been a strong supporter of the Global War on Terrorism and deployed an airborne company, field hospital and demining unit to Afghanistan in support of coalition operations. Jordan has relatively porous borders with Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Iraq where transnational terrorism is a major consideration and threat. Jordan is especially critical to the Middle East Peace Process, considering approximately 62% of the country's population is Palestinian. The Jordanian Armed Forces' (JAF) main mission is to protect against external threats; however, the JAF maintains close ties with Jordan's Public Security Directorate over transnational threats that could jeopardize internal security of the Kingdom. The JAF's efforts to curb transnational terrorism within the region directly support U.S. security interests within the Middle East. The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program helps maintain our close bilateral relationship with a key regional Arab ally.

The U.S.-Jordan military-to-military relationship is excellent, and Jordan has been designated a Major Non-NATO Ally. FMF helps the Jordanian armed forces address their readiness and sustainment requirements, and this program remains the only source of funds for Jordanian military modernization programs as outlined in their Five-Year Plan. FMF also supports counterterrorism and border security requirements. Jordan's successful efforts at border control are critical to prevent illicit trafficking of arms, explosives, drugs and equipment for use in the production of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. Improved security for Jordanian borders translates into enhanced domestic stability for Jordan, improved security for Israel and for the U.S. military based in Saudi Arabia, as well as for coalition forces in Iraq.

Jordan has one of the largest IMET programs in the world and regularly sends officers to U.S. senior service schools, command and staff schools and other key professional military education (PME) and technical courses. IMET training reinforces democratic principles of civilian control of the military, enhances interoperability with U.S. forces, promotes professionalism and reinforces among core supporters of the regime the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. The exercise program is also robust, and Jordan participates in multiple bilateral and multilateral exercises annually.

By its own terms, � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit military assistance to Jordan.

Kuwait

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

FMS

409

$12,642,885

795

$21,888,547

Regional Centers

2

$0

0

$0

Service Academies

1

$50,085

1

$50,085

TOTAL

412

$12,692,970

796

$21,938,632

The United States has a demonstrable interest in maintaining access to Kuwait's facilities, land and airspace. Kuwait faces the difficult task of securing its Iranian and Iraqi borders, and a continuous U.S. presence has been key to Kuwait's security since the Gulf War.

In January 2004, the President designated Kuwait a Major Non-NATO Ally for its consistent support to our operations in the Gulf and in South Asia, as well as for its international counterterrorism efforts. Kuwait hosts the forward headquarters of CENTCOM's ground forces, and approximately 25,000 U.S. and coalition military personnel operating in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. The open access to facilities, land and airspace needed to support contingency operations, including joint task force and fleet operations, are critical to the U.S. presence in the region and ongoing military operations there. Kuwait is an important ally in the Global War On Terror.

The continued participation of Kuwaitis in military-to-military training initiatives and joint military exercises promotes interoperability with U.S. and Gulf Cooperation Council forces, recognizes Kuwait's invaluable support for U.S. force deployments, and helps Kuwait to assume greater responsibility for its own defense and regional security by encouraging the development of its professional military command.

By its own terms, � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit military assistance to Kuwait.

Lebanon

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

142

$787,750

73

$1,023,169

INL

30

$0

0

$0

TOTAL

172

$787,750

73

$1,023,169

U.S. interests lie with a free and independent Lebanon at peace with its neighbors, especially Israel. Lebanon is rebuilding after its 16-year civil war, which ended in 1991, however there remains a long way to go. Israeli forces withdrew completely from south Lebanon in May 2000, as recognized by the United Nations Security Council and Secretary General. However, Lebanon, under the strong influence of Syria, maintains that Israel continues to occupy some Lebanese territory in the area of Sheb'a Farms. The Government of Lebanon has made some progress toward rebuilding its civil institutions and reestablishing the rule of law following the end of the civil war. Still, armed militias (in particular Syrian and Iranian supported Hizballah, as well as Palestinian groups) remain largely outside the control of the central government. The poor economy remains a serious problem for Lebanon. At the end of 2004, many analysts believed that Lebanon required comprehensive economic and financial reforms to overcome the dynamic that had led to the accumulation of over $35 billion in public debt. A secure and independent Lebanon could help weaken forces supporting global terrorism and contribute further to the fight against illegal drugs and counterfeiting.

Peace between Israel and Lebanon, while largely tied to the Israel-Syria peace track, is a critical component of a comprehensive Middle East peace. We continue to support the development of independent Lebanese institutions, in part to minimize the influence of external forces such as Syria and Iran. However, despite the passage of the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act in 2004, Syria maintains a tight grip on Lebanon, with approximately 15-17,000 troops and several thousand intelligence personnel stationed in the country. In early September 2004, the UN passed Security Council resolution 1559, which called for, among other things, strict respect of the sovereignty and political independence of Lebanon under the sole and exclusive authority of the Government of Lebanon. Despite this, just two days after this resolution was passed, the Syrian government compelled Lebanese cabinet and parliament ministers into amending their constitution to extend the term of current president (and former Lebanese Armed Forces chief) Emile Lahoud until 2007.

IMET funding was reinstated for Lebanon in 1993. The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) has taken full advantage of the opportunity for professional military education (PME) and technical training. The Country Team reports that IMET graduates are employed in positions of command and responsibility and achieve proportionally higher rank and influence than their non-IMET peers. In addition, USG assistance to the LAF counters the prevailing tendency to break down society along strictly sectarian/confessional lines in one of the country's major functioning institutions. IMET training also provides an important alternative to military training with Syria and other countries. In FY 2005, Lebanon will send 65 students to various PME and technical courses. Lebanon is one of the few countries in the region that places such a high value on IMET that they participate in the program on a cost-sharing basis by funding all per diem costs themselves. Lebanon also continues to benefit from non-security assistance humanitarian mine action de-mining training, which helps finance an on-going program to remove landmines throughout Lebanon (especially in southern Lebanon where we strongly urge increased deployments of the armed forces in order to stabilize the border areas).

As of the publication date of this report, Lebanon is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Morocco

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

10

$228,591

2

$32,406

EIPC

2

$19,620

0

$0

FMF

1

$16,712

0

$0

IMET

87

$1,767,132

103

$2,201,152

Regional Centers

16

$144,676

15

$147,472

Service Academies

1

$52,140

0

$0

TOTAL

117

$2,228,871

120

$2,381,030

A strategic anchor at the cusp of Africa, Europe and the Arab world, Morocco sits on the south side of the Straits of Gibraltar. From the start of his reign in 1999, King Mohamed VI has shown himself to be a progressive monarch. He has introduced legislation and practices that advance human rights, economic and political reform. However, he has inherited a kingdom that is poor - a middle-ranked developing country - and a political system whose reform is real but far from complete. The United States seeks to support this democratic and free-market opening to encourage a Morocco that is stable, prosperous and free. The U.S. has selected Morocco to be its second free trade partner in the Arab world after Jordan and a key participant in its goal of a Middle East Free Trade Area; negotiations on a bilateral Free Trade Agreement are now near completion. In addition, Morocco was designated a Major Non-NATO Ally in 2004.

Morocco is pro-U.S. in orientation and provides strong support for the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), including assistance that enabled an Al Qaeda plot on U.S. shipping interests in the Straits of Gibraltar to be foiled. Morocco has solicited U.S. assistance on combating terrorist financing, and its anti-money laundering legislation is currently pending. Morocco's moderate policies on the Arab-Israeli conflict and direct overtures toward Israel have proven helpful to our regional peace efforts. It is in the U.S. interest to support stability in Morocco and to support the continuance of Morocco's friendly foreign policy. As the dialogue between NATO and several Middle East states affirms, stability in Morocco and the Maghreb is of vital importance to our Southern European NATO allies. Morocco has been an important moderate voice in the Arab world. Its government continues to support many of the United State's most important foreign policy objectives, especially those relating to the GWOT. It has demonstrated excellent cooperation with the United States in identifying and attacking terrorist cells and networks throughout the North African region. One of the major ways that the Counterterrorism Fellowship Program can contribute to Morocco's participation in the GWOT will be in extending U.S. training opportunities to the Royal Moroccan Gendarmerie and other, non-military, organizations in Morocco that have not been able to avail themselves to U.S. educational opportunities.

The IMET program increases awareness of international norms of human rights, fosters greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military and helps Moroccan military officers understand U.S. foreign policies. Morocco sends students to professional military education (PME) courses including U.S. senior service schools, command and staff colleges and other key leadership courses. Moroccan attendance at these PME courses fosters one-to-one relationships that pay invaluable rewards in the form of interoperability, coordination and mutual understanding. Also, IMET-funded maintenance and logistics technical courses, as well as English language training enhances Morocco's value as a partner in multinational training exercises, peacekeeping missions and potential future coalition contingency actions. Morocco has participated in numerous peacekeeping operations, and currently has peacekeepers in Bosnia, Kosovo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DROC), Cote d'Ivoire and Haiti.

The Near East South Asia Center (NESA) in Washington supports democratic governance in Morocco by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. NESA participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in the Middle East.

By its own terms, � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit military assistance to Morocco.

Oman

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

FMF

1

$84,878

0

$0

FMS

55

$6,355,773

162

$18,555,713

IMET

23

$673,368

110

$1,741,565

Regional Centers

10

$42,922

0

$0

Section 1004

0

$0

0

$369,000

TOTAL

89

$7,156,941

272

$20,666,278

Oman's strategic location on the southern shore of the Strait of Hormuz opposite Iran makes our relationship with the Sultanate critical to U.S. commitments to defend national, regional and global interests in the Gulf. Access to Oman's military bases through a long-standing bilateral agreement provides a key anchor for our regional political-military strategy. Security cooperation has been the bedrock upon which our bilateral relationship with Oman rests. Oman has strongly supported the Global War on Terrorism, and early access to Omani bases was critical to the successful campaign against terrorist forces in Afghanistan. Continued access to facilities and airspace are vital to U.S. interests in the region, the war on terrorism and any future contingencies in Southwest Asia. Additionally, for the past twenty years, we have been able to count on Oman's support for U.S. regional policy initiatives, including peace efforts and U.S.-Iraq policy.

Oman's long-term domestic political stability improves prospects for continued policy support and military access. The USG provides technical assistance for economic, political and legal reforms. It also works closely with Oman, both bilaterally and through the World Trade Organization (Oman became a member of the WTO in October 2000), to encourage a more transparent regulatory environment that will attract increased investment and trade.

Active support of the Sultan's armed forces through professional military education (PME) and technical training has resulted in a demonstrated improvement in performance and capabilities. IMET training provided to Oman has been exceptionally successful, covering a broad range of efforts, including PME, English language, technical and logistics training, medical corps development, demining efforts and maritime operations. IMET training reinforces democratic principles of civilian control of the military, enhances interoperability with U.S. forces, promotes professionalism and reinforces among core supporters of the regime the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. Oman has also participated in joint military exercises to improve its interoperability with U.S. and Coalition forces.

The Near East South Asia Center (NESA) in Washington supports democratic governance in Oman by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. NESA participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in the Middle East.

As of the publication date of this report, Oman is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Qatar

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

FMS

23

$1,074,894

19

$867,633

Regional Centers

6

$0

0

$0

Service Academies

1

$50,080

1

$0

TOTAL

30

$1,124,974

20

$867,633

Our military relationship with Qatar is strong. Emir Hamad is pursuing democratic principals and working to strengthen the U.S. relationship, particularly military ties. The U.S.-Qatar Defense Cooperation Agreement, which was signed in 1992, established the basis for our growing military-to-military relationship. Qatar has hosted CENTCOM's Command Forward Headquarters since 2002. Over the last several years, Qatar has also hosted a number of Air Expeditionary Forces (AEF) and related deployments. Qatari support to Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom has not only been outstanding, but vital to our efforts in the region. Qatar has, without question, the most impressive preposition infrastructure in the Middle East, if not the world. Of particular significance, the U.S. and Qatar recently concluded an Implementing Agreement outlining use of Al Udeid facilities. The Al Udeid Air Base, which is currently home to CENTCOM's Air Operations Center (CAOC), and CENTCOM's CENTAF Headquarters (FWD), features one of the longest and most capable runways in the region. In addition, Qatar hosted the joint/combined exercise Internal Look with U.S., Qatar and other forces in 2002.

Strategically located in the Gulf, it is vital that the U.S. continues to support military-to-military initiatives and training as well as joint training exercises. The relationships, principles and doctrine future leaders of Qatar's military develop in this bilateral engagement will enhance future coalition understanding, capabilities and interoperability.

The Near East South Asia Center (NESA) in Washington supports democratic governance in Qatar by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. NESA participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in the Middle East.

As of the publication date of this report, Qatar is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Saudi Arabia

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

FMS

415

$19,454,906

582

$21,841,712

FMS (Saudi Arabia National Guard)

167

$1,537,254

221

$2,541,819

IMET

3

$23,525

0

$0

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

1

$218

0

$0

Regional Centers

10

$62,658

0

$0

TOTAL

596

$21,078,561

803

$24,383,531

Saudi Arabia is a key ally in the Global War on Terrorism and would play a central political role in any security initiatives in the region. Despite post 9/11 strains, military-to-military relations remain positive, based on decades of cooperation and close consultation, as well as years of U.S. support to Saudi Arabia's military programs including training, joint exercises, FMS and commercial arms sales. Providing IMET to Saudi Arabia ensures a continued high level of Saudi attendance at U.S. military institutions; enhances technical capabilities; exposes Saudi military personnel to U.S. values, ideas, and policies; and increases awareness of international norms of human rights, the principle of civilian control of the military, and the rule of law. Continued military-to-military contacts and joint military exercises will encourage the development of a professional military command and armed forces compatible with, and favorably disposed towards, its U.S. counterparts. This continued cooperation would allow the Kingdom to assume a greater role in self-defense, assist the U.S. in achieving its policy goals in the region and support our efforts to promote security cooperation among the Gulf Cooperation Council members.

As of the publication date of this report, Saudi Arabia is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Tunisia

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

5

$33,307

3

$27,261

CTFP

12

$105,989

2

$118,803

EIPC

2

$18,292

0

$0

IMET

104

$2,218,333

129

$2,873,600

Regional Centers

10

$70,378

15

$147,472

Service Academies

5

$254,530

4

$204,450

TOTAL

138

$2,700,829

153

$3,371,586

Tunisia is a firmly secular state in a troubled Middle East region. Located at the Africa-Sicily chokepoint of the Mediterranean, it is a natural economic and strategic bridge to Europe. A close regional ally of the United States, Tunisia considers the U.S. to be its closest military partner. Our interest is to ensure a strong, durable fabric of bilateral relations which include active Tunisian participation in efforts to promote regional stability, particularly in Middle East peace efforts; bilateral military cooperation; peacekeeping operations; counterterrorism cooperation, including improved border security and littoral defense; and continued access by U.S. forces to Tunisian facilities.

Joint training exercises are an important feature of our relationship, as Tunisian troops typically engage annually in five to eight combined exercises with U.S. forces annually. With over 70% of Tunisian military equipment of U.S.-origin, the Tunisian Army and Air Force have based their structure and operational doctrine on the U.S. Army and Air Force. This greatly enhances the ability to integrate Tunisian forces into operations with U.S. forces. Tunisian training with U.S. forces enhances their value as a potential coalition partner and recently proved instrumental to Tunisia's participation in Kosovo in support of UN humanitarian efforts. Tunisia currently has troops and observers in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Eritrea-Ethiopia, and Cote D'Ivoire.

IMET provides basic and advanced English language training and special technical courses for Tunisian military officers and noncommissioned officers. Tunisian officers have attended U.S. senior service schools, command and staff colleges, and other major professional military education (PME) courses. They have also participated at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) and at the Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESACSS) in programs promoting civil-military affairs, national security strategy, and defense economics, thus supporting democratic governance in Tunisia. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. These opportunities promote U.S. goals of stability and democracy, and increase the Tunisian officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. This reinforces the fact that the Tunisian military is a highly professional and totally apolitical force, a significant exception in Middle East and African countries. IMET-funded maintenance, logistics and specialist training enhances Tunisia's value as a training and potential coalition partner.

As of the publication date of this report, Tunisia is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

United Arab Emirates

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

FMS

241

$93,288,723

92

$9,010,631

Regional Centers

12

$0

0

$0

Section 1004

0

$0

0

$345,000

TOTAL

253

$93,288,723

92

$9,355,631

The United States has a strong security relationship with the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The UAE is a key regional partner in the Gulf region and has supported U.S. policy initiatives in the Gulf. They are a major procurer of advanced U.S. military technology and strive toward interoperability with U.S. forces. Therefore, military-to-military education opportunities are a top priority for the UAE. At the same time, attendance at training schools by UAE officers supports the Central Command's objective of forward engagement and interoperability. Finally, the officers who attend these schools are the future leaders of the UAE military. It is to our advantage if they understand U.S. military doctrine and policy perspectives. A highlight of U.S.-UAE military cooperation is the Gulf Air Warfare Center at Al Dhafra Air Base outside Abu Dhabi, which opened in January 2004.

As of the publication date of this report, the United Arab Emirates is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Yemen

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

6

$32,502

0

$0

CTFP

25

$234,089

4

$51,114

FMF

173

$1,144,203

0

$28,500

FMS

5

$171,167

0

$0

IMET

90

$696,949

69

$1,885,108

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

49

$38,000

0

$0

Regional Centers

12

$56,360

0

$0

TOTAL

360

$2,373,270

73

$1,964,722

Yemen is a proven ally in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), and is fighting a day-to-day campaign against terrorist elements inside its own borders. United States support for that campaign is essential to help ensure its success. Because of Yemen's location adjacent to the Bab-al-Mandab, one of the world's most important shipping routes, as well as its proximity to U.S. allies Saudi Arabia and Oman, Yemen has a direct affect on U.S. interests in the region. Yemen is the most populous and the poorest nation on the Arabian Peninsula, and is undergoing a slow process of political and social reform under President Saleh aimed at making it the first fully functioning democracy in the region, having successfully held parliamentary elections in April 2003. Support for Yemen's democratic and economic reform programs, professional military training and a humanitarian demining program not only promote our national values in Yemen, but also further our national interests, particularly with regard to the GWOT. Attacks on the USS Cole, Vessel Limburg, and the Jiblah Missionary Hospital have forced the U.S. and Yemen to work closer together in the fields of security and counterterrorism (CT). Yemen provides a unique location to conduct Horn of Africa operations and maritime interdiction missions in and around the Suez, Red Sea and Indian Ocean areas (The Red Sea, Bab-al-Mandab Straits and the Gulf of Aden are the second busiest shipping lanes in the world). U.S. Government policy in Yemen is to work with Yemeni officials to eradicate terrorism/support for terrorism and to create an environment that deters the return of any terrorist elements, indigenous or transnational. The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program has been instrumental in training eight Yemeni military officers who will work closely with in-country U.S. personnel over security and CT related issues.

IMET funds U.S. training and education for Yemeni military personnel, particularly in the vital areas of counter terrorism and for Yemen's nascent Coast Guard. The IMET program assists the military leadership in Yemen to better understand U.S. policies, increases their awareness of international norms for human rights and fosters a greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military. Sending Yemenis to professional military education (PME) in the U.S. helps establish one-to-one relationships with counterparts that will pay invaluable rewards later in the form of interoperability, coordination and mutual understanding. Increased IMET-funded English language training will also improve the Yemeni military's interoperability with U.S. forces and prepare them for increased training opportunities.

As of the publication date of this report, Yemen is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.



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