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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--South Asia Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2004 and 2005
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
April 2005
Report
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Afghanistan

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

584

$385,234

16

$144,642

FMF

720

$344,039

0

$0

IMET

71

$330,070

105

$1,210,128

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

10950

$0

0

$0

Regional Centers

12

$52,175

61

$183,197

Section 1004

25

$1,045,000

50

$1,845,000

TOTAL

12362

$2,156,518

232

$3,382,967

An important goal of the U.S. military and diplomatic presence in Afghanistan is to set the conditions that will permit the new government in Afghanistan to establish a secure and stable environment that will prevent Afghanistan from again becoming the host for terrorist organizations and operations. Key to this endeavor is establishing an Afghan National Army (ANA) that is truly representative of the population, subject to central civilian authority and supportive of human rights, rule of law and democracy. The ANA will be capable of protecting the newly elected government of Afghanistan from internal threats and ensuring regime survivability.

A stable and secure Afghanistan is also important for regional security. A strong military to support the national government will prevent dissension, regional rifts and ethnic feuds that have often spilled over Afghanistan's borders to neighboring countries. A weak security sector could re-ignite support for the Taliban and reinvigorate Al Qaeda support along the Afghan-Pakistan border. This would have a significant impact on the Pakistan government's (GOP) efforts to uproot Al Qaeda along the Afghan border. GOP's failure in this endeavor could have serious repercussions on stability in Kashmir and Indo-Pak tensions. Likewise, a weak national government in Kabul will embolden poppy growers and narcotics smugglers. This scourge impacts on all of Afghanistan's neighbors and is a significant trans-national threat to the region as well as to Afghanistan's long-term stability. A long-term and well-rounded program to build and train the ANA is essential to the USG's objects in Afghanistan and the region.

To achieve long-term stability in Afghanistan, U.S., UK and French forces continue training and equipping the ANA. Trainers are embedded in all graduated battalions. Brigade headquarters have been formed and four regional commands are being established concurrently in Mazar-i-Sharif, Gardez, Kandahar and Herat. By the end of FY 2005, one brigade will be permanently stationed at each regional command, and build up will continue thereafter to a projected end-strength of 70,000 ANA military and civilian personnel. The training rate was increased in November 2004 from four battalions at once to five battalions concurrently.

The IMET program is an integral part of the long-term ANA training program. We have provided sufficient funds for English language labs, their installation and mobile training teams (MTTs). MTTs also provide training on military equipment. Eleven Afghan officers recently participated in the Near East South Asia (NESA) Center Regional Seminar. Additionally, the ANA has an officer at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Language labs were installed in spring 2003, and the first English language instructor deployed on March 24, 2003. For the immediate future, FMF-funded MTTs will meet most of the ANA training needs. However, the IMET program will continue to grow as the capacity of the ANA allows for increased participation in CONUS-based classes and as an integral part of our efforts to introduce military leadership to civilian control, a professional military ethos and recognition of internationally accepted human rights.

The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) directly supports U.S. strategic objectives by providing the ANA with the military training necessary to maintain the country's sovereignty in its fight against insurgency and terrorism. The current emphasis on developing in-country English language training capabilities, will enable the ANA to spend less on language training in the U.S. and more on formal courses that will improve ANA's interoperability with U.S. forces and increase their participation in future CTFP opportunities. CTFP promotes future U.S.-ANA interoperability necessary to prosecuting the war on terrorism in the South Asia region.

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Afghanistan, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

Bangladesh

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

4

$32,871

2

$880

CTFP

83

$281,431

39

$436,888

IMET

42

$937,028

95

$1,183,081

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

3

$5,435

0

$0

Regional Centers

35

$396,430

15

$196,464

Section 1004

0

$0

60

$118,000

TOTAL

167

$1,653,195

211

$1,935,313

The Country Team's first priority in Bangladesh is combating terrorism. Primary U.S. interests in Bangladesh are security and stability, economic prosperity, and democracy. Sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction will maximize benefits for U.S. companies and decrease reliance on external assistance. Greater respect for human rights and the rule of law, curbing corruption and the strengthening of democratic institutions are essential to ensuring political stability and are basic foundations of economic growth. Other U.S. interests include environmental concerns, fighting the trafficking of women and children and combating piracy.

IMET funds are used to facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts through attendance at professional military courses in the U.S. and by participation in U.S. mobile training team (MTT) training in Bangladesh. Development of an apolitical, well-trained, and professional military contributes to political stability, a closer relationship between our two countries, and increased participation in UN peacekeeping operations. Specifically, Bangladesh uses its IMET funding to send students to a variety of mid-level and senior U.S. service schools, peacekeeping-type courses, and numerous courses in support of the war against terrorism. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of a professional and well-trained military, peaceful relations with the U.S. and other states, increased interoperability, respect for human dignity, and increased Bangladeshi officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Bangladeshi military personnel also take part in courses on defense management, medical training, logistics, maintenance and operations, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants and their value as potential future partners with the United States.

The United States welcomes Bangladeshi participation in executive courses at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the National Defense University's Near East-South Asia (NESA) Center for Security Studies, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. This is an effective means of strengthening defense ties with Bangladesh. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Bangladesh. The U.S. proposes continued Bangladeshi participation in Asia-Pacific Center and the NESA Center executive courses in FY 2005 and beyond.

The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) is providing important training and education to assist Bangladesh in integrating its interagency (military and civil-military) approach to combating terrorism. These funds are being focused on the counterterrorism and counter-smuggling effort (led by the Bangladesh Coast Guard) in the vast inter-coastal and riverine waterways system. These waterways are the primary way of transporting people, weapons, drugs, and other goods into and out of the country. The CTFP brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the counterterrorism (CT) spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, Bangladesh is building a more comprehensive and cohesive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism; other countries in the region are gaining an understanding of the challenges, successes and failures of CT efforts in Bangladesh; and the U.S. is building Bangladesh's long-term CT capacity.

As of the publication date of this report, Bangladesh is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Bhutan

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

6

$81,776

3

$39,188

TOTAL

6

$81,776

3

$39,188

Bhutan is a very small country. Although the United States does not have formal diplomatic relations with Bhutan, the relationship is modest yet cordial. Traditionally an absolute monarchy, it is undergoing a gradual transition to a constitutional monarchy. The Bhutanese army has been actively involved in trying to limit the activities of insurgents from northeast India that use Bhutan as a base for operations. In 2001 and 2002, the Bhutanese government asked the rebels to leave and while some camps were disbanded, the Bhutanese government found an increased number of insurgents within its borders during 2003. Working closely with the Indian military, the Bhutanese Army conducted military operations beginning in December 2003 for a five-week period against the insurgents, capturing or killing approximately 450 in addition to driving others across the border towards waiting Indian troops. The Bhutanese army continues to work closely with the Indian military on border patrol activities because of fear of reprisals, such as the September 2004 bombing in an open-air market in Gelephu. With military operations seen as a success for both the Indians and the Bhutanese, cooperation between the two armies has increased and senior level military officials met several times in 2004. In addition, there were joint military training exercises in October 2004. India has provided police security escort assistance to travelers en route to Bhutan on the Indian-Bhutan highway running through West Bengal.

There are approximately 8,000 members of the Bhutan army - no navy or air force. There is no IMET program, but officers from Bhutan have begun to make use of courses at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS). It is in the U.S. interest to encourage Bhutan's transition to democracy, to help its military forces attain the ability to control the nation's borders and to encourage military professionalism and respect for human rights. Participating in seminars at the APCSS helps promote these goals.

As of the publication date of this report, Bhutan is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

India

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

0

$0

1

$880

CTFP

79

$380,847

32

$305,720

EIPC

6

$53,313

0

$0

FMS

16

$0

2

$26,860

IMET

105

$1,545,966

72

$1,915,827

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

6

$5,435

0

$0

Regional Centers

41

$412,382

16

$190,836

TOTAL

253

$2,397,943

123

$2,440,123

India is the world's second most populous nation and the predominant military power in South Asia and the Indian Ocean. The Indian Government was among the first in the world to offer unstinting support to the Global War on Terrorism after the September 11 attacks. It remains a firm supporter, as evidenced by its decision to send naval escort vessels to the Strait of Malacca, where they helped to protect high value shipping. India faces serious terrorist challenges of its own, in part from groups aligned with those we have been fighting in Afghanistan. In May 2002, a terrorist attack against military family housing in Kashmir heightened tension between India and Pakistan. An attack against a Hindu temple in September also caused numerous civilian casualties. The U.S. and India continue to work closely together in the fight against terrorism, as evidenced by six meetings of the Indo-U.S. Joint Working Group on Counterterrorism, the latest in September 2004. The Indo-U.S. commercial relationship has been growing steadily also, as has the bilateral diplomatic relationship.

President Bush's September 2001 decision to waive sanctions imposed on India following the May 1998 nuclear tests opened the way for full resumption of defense cooperation. The signing in January 2002 of a General Security of Military Information Agreement underscored the commitment of both governments to furthering cooperation in this sphere, as did visits to India by Defense Secretary Rumsfeld and to the U.S. by Defense Minister Fernandes. In January 2004, President Bush and Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee announced the "Next Steps in the U.S.-India Strategic Partnership" (NSSP), an initiative to advance cooperation in several civilian and military areas. On 17 September, the U.S. and India signed phase one of the NSSP and have already begun work on phase two. The NSSP lays out an ambitious path of cooperation in four strategic areas: civil nuclear energy, civilian space programs, high-technology commerce, and missile defense. The U.S. continues to urge India to adhere to global nonproliferation norms and stem a South Asian arms race.

IMET funds are used to facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assist in training exercises. India has used IMET funding to send students to the Army, Air Force and Navy Command and Staff Colleges, the Army, Navy and Air War Colleges and various other officer-training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of stability and democracy, and increase the Indian officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Indian military personnel also take part in courses on medical training, logistics and maintenance, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants.

As a means of strengthening defense ties with India, during the past year the U.S. and India have held ten joint exercises, including several in India where U.S. forces participated, and in the U.S., where Indian forces took part. The U.S. welcomed continued Indian participation in FY 2004 at both the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the National Defense University's Near East-South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from India. The U.S. proposes Indian participation at these executive courses in FY 2005, as well.

The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) is providing important training and education to assist India in integrating its interagency approach to combating terrorism. This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the counterterrorism (CT) spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, India is building a more comprehensive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism; other countries in the region are gaining an understanding of the challenges, successes and failures of CT efforts in India; and the U.S. is building India's long-term CT capacity.

In FY 2002 India received grant funding under the Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) program. EIPC is funding provided by the State Department designed to enhance India's capabilities in peacekeeping operations. India has $800,000 in EIPC funding available through September 2007. India will use EIPC funds primarily for training courses and instructional equipment (computers, software, and audio-visual equipment).

As of the publication date of this report, India is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Maldives

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

IMET

14

$205,354

10

$185,322

Regional Centers

5

$55,415

3

$42,475

Service Academies

1

$52,140

0

$0

TOTAL

20

$312,909

13

$227,797

The Maldives provides important access for U.S. vessels and allows aircraft transit rights in its airspace. This moderate Muslim nation provided airport access during Operation Desert Storm, and offered to do so again during Operation Enduring Freedom. It is in the U.S. national security interest to maintain stability in this small island nation by strengthening its democratic institutions. The USG is also working with the Maldivian Government to coordinate policies in international organizations, especially on such issues of shared interest as global warming, drug trafficking, nonproliferation and international crime and terrorism. Because the U.S. has no resident Mission in the Maldives, the United States will continue to pursue its national interests there through regular diplomatic exchanges managed by the U.S. Embassy in Colombo, through the IMET program, and through Regional Democracy Fund programs.

U.S.-funded training facilitates U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assists in training exercises. Development of an apolitical, professional military contributes to political stability and allows for increased participation in peacekeeping exercises. The Maldives uses its IMET funding to send students to the infantry basic and career courses, maritime training and various other officers and technical training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of enhancing stability and democracy, and increase the Maldivian officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Maldivian military personnel also take part in courses on maintenance and instructor training, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants.

The United States welcomed continued Maldives participation in FY 2004 at both the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the National Defense University's Near East-South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from the Maldives. Continued Maldives participation in these executive courses is expected during FY 2005, as well.

As of the publication date of this report, the Maldives is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Nepal

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

52

$302,313

10

$50,874

FMF

4

$79,455

0

$0

IMET

38

$451,590

32

$765,988

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

1

$0

0

$0

Non-SA, Combatant Command

58

$0

0

$0

Regional Centers

32

$292,958

12

$149,350

TOTAL

185

$1,126,316

54

$966,212

Nepal is a small, poor country wedged between two giants. Relations between the U.S. and Nepal are friendly. The USG wants to help the GON strengthen the unity of its government, combat the Maoists and bring about a settlement to the conflict, implement economic development programs, and improve the Royal Nepal Army's (RNA) human rights record.

Nepal's young democracy is challenged by a Maoist insurgency that seeks to replace its multi-party democracy and constitutional monarchy with a dictatorship. The nine-year-old insurgency has grown increasingly violent and destructive in the past couple of years, costing more than 10,000 lives. Improvements in RNA equipment and training have blunted Maoist advances, but the RNA needs time, better intelligence gathering and operational planning skills, and better mobility to become an effective counter-insurgency force. Our military training programs are part of a multi-track program of economic and security assistance to Nepal that includes, among other things, the provision of equipment and training to improve the Army's ability to address the Maoist military threat. U.S. training and equipment have made a significant contribution in a relatively short time to increasing the effectiveness of the RNA.

Nepal uses IMET funding to send students to various officer-training courses that provide professional military education (PME) as well as familiarize the Nepali officer corps with U.S. values and military practices. The courses provide the opportunity for military-to-military professional contacts, and facilitate cooperation on training exercises and in peacekeeping operations. The USG has specifically tailored its IMET program to address the most pressing needs of the RNA with respect to quelling the Maoist insurgency. Additionally, these courses reinforce FMF-funded training efforts. Nepali military personnel take courses on civil affairs, infantry, ranger, and special operations training, with a special emphasis on establishing and adhering to rules of engagement during military operations that protect human rights. This training significantly enhances the RNA's capabilities as peacekeepers and in maintaining domestic stability.

Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) funding has focused on equipment necessary for training in the past. The RNA continues to participate in peacekeeping operations (PKO) even though it is stretched thin by domestic operations battling the Maoist terrorist. The Bijendra Peace Operations Training Center established in Panchkal provides excellent predeployment training for units participating in upcoming PKOs.

The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provides important training and education to assist Nepal in integrating its interagency approach to combating terrorism. This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the CT spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, Nepal advances a more comprehensive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism, and other countries in the region gain an understanding of the challenges, successes and failures of CT efforts in Nepal.

As a means of strengthening defense ties with Nepal, the U.S. welcomed Nepali participation at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the National Defense University's Near East-South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Nepal. The U.S. proposes increased Nepali participation in Asia-Pacific Center executive courses in FY 2005 and beyond, as well as continuing to fund students to attend the Near East-South Asia Center and other institutions.

As of the publication date of this report, Nepal is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Pakistan

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

ALP

2

$16,810

3

$1,078

CTFP

34

$1,136,302

29

$469,769

FMF

174

$7,373,693

65

$4,194,412

IMET

81

$1,353,860

174

$2,999,213

Regional Centers

35

$384,548

16

$196,070

Section 1004

0

$0

0

$725,000

Service Academies

2

$100,160

3

$156,420

TOTAL

328

$10,365,373

290

$8,741,962

Continued strong support from Pakistan's military in fighting the war on terrorism, promoting stability in nuclear-armed South Asia and advancing Pakistani political and economic reforms are all priority U.S. foreign policy interests. None can be achieved without the support of the Pakistani military, which has, and will retain, broad political influence in Pakistan, even after the transition to full civilian rule. Pakistan's support to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) remains crucial to rooting out terrorists operating in Pakistan's border areas with Afghanistan. Pakistan also is playing a key role in Afghanistan's reconstruction process. For democratization and economic growth to take root, the military must also become more open to transparency and accountability in budgeting and civilian decision-making. Pakistan's IMET program was renewed in October 2001 after the Foreign Operations; Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act section 508 sanctions against Pakistan were waived. IMET funding increases opportunities for military-to-military professional contact, improves interoperability, enhances respect fro civilian rule, and improves technical capabilities. IMET courses also focus on professionalism, as well as exposure to U.S. military doctrine and management. A portion of IMET is earmarked for E-IMET courses taught by the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS), though specific training has yet to be determined.

The Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and the National Defense University's Near East-South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses continue to emphasize the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build relationships with counterparts from Pakistan that will extend to the post-military government era.

The United States has vital interests in Pakistan, a key ally in the war on terrorism. A supporter of U.S. efforts since the beginning of the war, Pakistan's efforts continue to expand. The U.S. military benefits from transit rights over Pakistani territory, the use of certain bases and facilities, and shared intelligence. The majority of high-level terrorists captured in the past year were caught by Pakistan. The Pakistan Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) supports current efforts in the war on terrorism by educating officers directly involved in counterterrorism (CT), thus allowing the country to develop policy and plans that support coalition efforts. Due to sanctions in place for a ten-year period, Pakistan's military was denied training in the U.S. and exposure to U.S. military doctrine, relationships, and culture. Through CTFP, the Pakistanis will gain the necessary tools and capabilities to improve not only their CT abilities, but also their military as a whole.

By its own terms, � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit military assistance to Pakistan.

Sri Lanka

   

FY 2004  

FY 2005  

Type of Activity

Number of
Students
Trained

Dollar
Value

Number of
Projected
Students 

Dollar
Value

CTFP

72

$274,803

31

$340,433

FMS

16

$37,150

0

$0

IMET

15

$648,981

17

$474,660

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

2

$2,708

0

$0

Regional Centers

38

$412,414

18

$215,034

Service Academies

5

$250,415

5

$256,590

TOTAL

148

$1,626,471

71

$1,286,717

Sri Lanka has a long tradition of vigorous democracy. It was the first country in the region to liberalize its economy and has impressive social indicators. Sri Lanka is a strategically located island in the Indian Ocean, which if its peace process progresses, could serve as an anchor of stability in the troubled South Asian region. The USG's top priority remains, as before, the protection of the lives, rights and property of American citizens. The ceasefire and the subsequent drop in violence and relaxation of restrictions on movement have greatly reduced the risk of travel to Sri Lanka. Other U.S. interests in Sri Lanka are strengthening democratic institutions, increasing respect for human rights, improving U.S.-Sri Lankan economic ties and cooperation and enhancing regional stability. The United States and Sri Lanka also share interests in environmental protection and the suppression of international terrorism. Sri Lanka has been completely cooperative in allowing passage through airspace, husbanding of ships and aircraft and supporting operational missions such as Desert Storm, Desert Shield and more recently, Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF).

USG assistance to Sri Lanka includes funds to facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assist in training exercises. Developing an apolitical, professional military contributes to political stability and allows for increased participation in peacekeeping exercises. Specifically, Sri Lanka uses its IMET funding to send students to the Army, Air Force and Navy Command and Staff Colleges and various other officer training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of enhancing stability and democracy, and increase the Sri Lankan officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Sri Lanka's interoperability with U.S. forces improves through IMET-funded specialized English language training. Three DoD assessment teams examined Sri Lanka's military from top-to-bottom in 2002 and recommended increases in IMET funding for professional schools and Mobile Training Teams (MTTs). Sri Lankan military personnel currently take part in career courses for infantry, field artillery, and armor, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants and increase professionalism within the force. Further, U.S. co-sponsored training events contributed to the development of the Sri Lankan peacekeeping training center at Kukuleganga that opened in December 2003. As a result, the Sri Lankan military has increased its capability to provide troops for UN peace support operations, as evidenced by the October 2004 deployment to Haiti for MINUSTAH.

The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) is providing important training and education to assist Sri Lanka in integrating its interagency approach to combating terrorism. This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the counterterrorism (CT) spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, Sri Lanka is building a more comprehensive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism; other countries in the region are gaining an understanding of the challenges, successes and failures of CT efforts in Sri Lanka; and the U.S. is building Sri Lanka's long-term CT capacity.

The U.S. welcomed continued Sri Lankan participation in FY 2004 at both the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the National Defense University's Near East-South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from the Maldives. Continued Sri Lankan participation in these executive courses is expected during FY 2005, as well.

As of the publication date of this report, Sri Lanka is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.



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