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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--Africa Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2005 and 2006
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
September 2006
Report
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Angola

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

11

$283,546

3

$67,387

Regional Centers

3

$76,026

0

$0

TOTAL

14

$359,572

3

$67,387

Angola has one of Africa's largest, most experienced and well-equipped militaries, which can play a constructive role in ensuring a safe, peaceful, and democratic Angola, and potentially contributes to international peacekeeping operations. Three years after the end of a decades-long civil war, the government of Angola (GRA) is largely focused on rebuilding the country's devastated infrastructure and economy. The GRA has made some progress on economic reform, and has demonstrated interest in regional stability. The country is preparing for general elections in 2006, the first since 1992. Rich in natural resources, Angola is the second greatest oil producer in sub-Saharan Africa (1.6 million barrels per day), and the world's fourth-largest producer of rough diamonds. Significant and growing U.S. investment in Angola highlights the importance of economic security.

U.S. military training assistance to Angola promotes development of an apolitical, professional defense force respectful of human rights. In FY 2005, the Department of State managed a $300,000 IMET operating budget. IMET programs focused on English language training and fostered more effective participation in military-to-military engagement and increased professionalism and familiarization with U.S. culture, military methods, and resources. Angolan participation in seminars and conferences sponsored by the African Center for Strategic Studies exposed military leaders to their counterparts throughout the region and helped promote a shared vision of regional and global security. DoD Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) seminars created a greater depth of understanding among senior Angolan military intelligence officers and built support for U.S. goals and objectives in combating terrorism.

Mutual understanding and goodwill were enhanced through theater security operation events. For example, an epidemiologist from the Naval Medical Research Unit in Cairo, Egypt, visited Angola to assist military health care personnel with information and management of the Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemic. In a separate engagement, two U.S. Reserve naval officers visited Angola as part of the Maritime Partnership Program to explore ways to improve training cooperation. Progress was made toward Angolan participation in the Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program, and further discussions leading to a partnership are planned. ACOTA training events with Angola could begin by mid-FY 2006.

Angola hosted MEDFLAG 2005, a joint and combined military humanitarian medical training exercise involving Angolan and American units. The exercise provided disaster response training and enhanced interoperability of forces. The first, and largest, exercise of its kind between the U.S. and Angola, MEDFLAG 2005 was a groundbreaking event that helped set the tone for further military cooperation in the future.

As of the publication date of this report, Angola is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  �2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Benin

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

0

$0

25

$956,596

Regional Centers

6

$88,919

0

$0

Service Academies

1

$64,575

0

$0

TOTAL

7

$153,494

25

$956,596

Since the transition from a Marxist military regime after a National Conference in 1990, Benin has become a model, albeit imperfect, of democracy in the region. Free and fair presidential elections in 1991 led to a peaceful transition of government to civilian authorities. The country since that time has been characterized by a lively and crowded political landscape. The Beninois military has returned to a subordinate role in Beninois society, although President Kerekou, as a former military man, remains attentive to the military's needs. At present, Benin faces no external threat to its stability and the armed forces have played an increasing role in regional peacekeeping activities.

The Beninois were enthusiastic participants in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) training and military leaders continue to benefit from training opportunities presented under programs such as the Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program. Benin's armed forces (BAF) have played a significant role in regional peacekeeping activities and programs like ACOTA will help them enlarge that role. We continue to encourage the Beninois to be engaged in the region, both on a political and military/peacekeeping level and they have been responsive, most recently deploying troops to Liberia, Haiti, Cote d'Ivoire and planning a deployment to the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC). We seek to strengthen the capabilities of the BAF to provide international humanitarian relief.

In July 2005 Benin signed an Article 98 agreement with the United States, which entered into force in August. Programs such as IMET, the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) and ACOTA will aid in increasing both the BAF's readiness and participation in international peacekeeping as well as buttressing democratic government and good governance. Support via the FMF and Excess Defense Articles programs would also bolster the BAF's capacity to serve in these roles. Benin's robust IMET program has played a key role in keeping the Beninois military in the barracks, and reinstating their IMET program with its signature on an Article 98 agreement will help signal our support for their democratization efforts.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Benin by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Benin, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.


Botswana

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ALP

1

$21,615

1

$14,995

CTFP

3

$9,018

1

$40,000

FMF

7

$21,526

12

$251,039

IMET

40

$1,085,078

42

$928,869

Regional Centers

7

$108,147

3

$0

TOTAL

58

$1,245,384

59

$1,234,903

Botswana has one of the longest-running democracies and most fiscally prudent economic regimes on the continent. Our efforts focus on supporting Botswana's stable democracy, expanding U.S. business opportunities, advocating Botswana's leadership in the region, and helping Botswana confront its HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the world's worst. Botswana has one of the region's most professional and responsible military establishments and offers a model for civilian-military relations for the rest of Africa.

The IMET program in Botswana provides for well-received regional military exchanges that have fostered a spirit of regional cooperation. In FY 2005, Botswana received $716,000 in IMET funding. Through our IMET and other security assistance programs, including the Regional Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program and FMF/ FMS training cases, we seek to expand our connections with Botswana's military leaders and support their interest in contributing to efforts to strengthen both regional civil-military ties and regional military-military relations. The Botswana Defense Force (BDF) uses IMET as the primary vehicle to obtain Intermediate and Senior Professional Education for their Officer Corps. In FY 2005 Botswana received two Intermediate and two Senior Professional Military Education seats. Additionally, in FY 2005, we initiated a program to enhance the professionalism and capabilities of BDF Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO) Corps by programming over 20 lines of NCO-specific training. These courses not only support individual professional development, but also prepare the BDF to better execute Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) and humanitarian support operations while complementing other existing programs, such as the Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) program and the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program. Expanded IMET training included components on HIV/AIDS, civil-military relations, peacekeeping and post-graduate studies. Eleven of fourteen currently serving General Officers in the BDF are IMET graduates. The BDF has leveraged limited counterterrorism (CT) funding to foster the development of an internal counterterrorism capacity. Over the last fifteen months, four BDF officers have attended CT training at the Marshall Center and Asia- Pacific Center for Strategic Studies. In FY 2006 Botswana will receive funding under the DoD Regional Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Botswana by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. In 2005 Botswana hosted the ACSS Senior Leaders Seminar.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Botswana, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.

 
Burkina Faso

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

34

$123,505

7

$118,205

Regional Centers

6

$88,919

0

$0

TOTAL

40

$212,424

7

$118,205

Military engagement with Burkina Faso expanded in FY 2005 after many years during which it was limited to participation in an occasional Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) event and infrequent contacts in the context of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) oriented regional training or development programs. The increased engagement follows Burkina Faso's efforts during the past five years to play a more productive regional role and to improve relations with the United States, including signing an Article 98 Agreement. The Government of Burkina Faso (GOBF) has also demonstrated a willingness to cooperate on important USG policy priorities such as the war on terrorism, support of the peace process in Cote d'Ivoire and bringing Charles Taylor to justice. As a result of the shift in the GOBF's actions, the Department of State has re-started an Expanded IMET program as a means to expand bilateral military training efforts.

FY 2004 funding in the amount of $115,000 was used to procure the equipment for a language lab and to train a Burkinabe Military Officer at Defense Language Institute English Language Center's (DLIELC) Basic American Language Instructor Course. The equipment and the trained instructor both arrived in Burkina Faso in 2005, and language courses are expected to start soon. Embassy Ouagadougou used FY 2005 IMET funding in the amount of $100,000 to hold a seminar at the Center for Civil-Military Relations and a seminar by the Defense Institute for International Legal Studies. Each seminar had a mix of military and civilian personnel. The military was represented by members of all the armed forces of ranks ranging from lieutenants to colonels (the senior most active rank in the Burkinabe military). Civilian participants were from civil society groups, especially human rights organizations. Members of the Foreign Affairs and Defense Commission of the National Assembly attended the seminars as well. These military engagement programs will provide a vehicle to enhance the Burkinabe Armed Forces' positive role within civil society and assist the country in its continued democratic transition. FY 2005 "5th Quarter" IMET funding has also been earmarked for a second Burkinabe English Language instructor. English language training will be critical to increasing the interoperability of the Burkina military with Anglophone members of the Economic Community of West African States, as well as with the United States.

Burkina Faso sent six participants to various ACSS events in FY 2005 and hopes to send a further six in FY 2006. Military and civilians alike covet spots for these events and participation is a mark of distinction. ACSS provides an exceptional forum for engaging senior-level military and civilian officials in African countries. The Africa Center program promotes democratic governance in the defense and security sectors and fosters critical partnerships with African nations. The Burkinabe graduates of previous ACSS seminars have formed a local community chapter, which held an ACSS-funded local seminar on the importance of security and regional stability to economic development. The seminar was opened by two ministers and attended by several service chiefs, military personnel and civilians.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Burkina Faso, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.


Burundi

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

0

$0

3

$48,193

Regional Centers

6

$107,685

0

$0

TOTAL

6

$107,685

3

$48,193

Burundi's three-year transitional government came to successful conclusion with the election and inauguration of Pierre Nkurunziza on August 26, 2005. The restoration of democratic government resulted in the lifting of sanctions under section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, thus making Burundi eligible for IMET and other forms of military assistance. While security and stability improved throughout Burundi during 2005, one rebel group - the National Liberation Forces (FNL) - remained outside the peace process despite repeated appeals for negotiation from the transitional government and the international community. Burundi's challenge is completing security sector reform, right-sizing the military and police force, and providing both with the training and equipment to defeat the FNL and confront rising crime and banditry.

Despite the suspension of almost all forms of military cooperation with Burundi because of the 1993 assassination of Burundi's first Hutu president, the subsequent civil war, and the poor human rights records of the army and rebels, the transitional government did benefit from limited military engagement in 2005. Burundi faithfully supported CENTCOM's Golden Spear initiative - a program designed to develop a regional response mechanism for crisis prevention and disaster management in the Great Lakes Region, Horn of Africa, Egypt and Seychelles. This initiative resulted in the official opening of the Regional Disaster Centre of Excellence in Kenya on August 15, 2005.

Burundi also continued to participate in events sponsored by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). The Africa Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Burundi by offering mid-level and senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. The ACSS program in Burundi will continue in FY 2006.

With the lifting of Section 508 sanctions in October 2005 we can expect to see an expansion, albeit modest, in military-to-military engagement with Burundi. Our challenge in 2006 will be to use IMET and other funding sources to help professionalize the Burundian National Defense Force (FDN), building capacity in an institution that is suffering from a dozen years of neglect caused by the civil war and the recent integration of a largely untrained rebel force.

Burundi is willing to support peacekeeping operations in Sudan and elsewhere, contingent on training in accordance with international norms. This willingness offers us an opportunity to collaborate with European partners, notably the Netherlands, to help the FDN transform and ultimately deploy in support of international peace operations. Burundi is also a member of the Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC), and has pledged to support the AU's Standby Brigade; to participate effectively, Burundi requires training in staff operations. This is another opportunity to focus IMET funding in an effort to encourage sub-regional organizations.

Finally, we hope to use E-IMET to sponsor civil-military relations training in an effort to educate Burundi on the proper role of the military in a democratic society and avoid a repetition of Burundi's coup history.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Burundi, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.


Cameroon

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

1

$8,746

0

$0

IMET

8

$236,433

16

$434,982

Regional Centers

6

$85,925

0

$0

Service Academies

6

$342,398

0

$0

TOTAL

21

$673,502

16

$434,982

U.S. goals in Cameroon support the successful transformation of Cameroonian society into a democratic, pluralistic community, with a market-based economy integrated into the world economy. Cameroon's political stability and relative economic development make it a leading sub-regional power. Construction of the Chad-Cameroon pipeline further integrates Cameroon into the regional petroleum economy. Cameroon's status as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council in 2002 and 2003 underscores the importance of a strong military-to-military relationship, particularly on peacekeeping issues.

Cameroon's military can potentially play an important role in supporting regional peacekeeping initiatives and promoting peaceful resolution of border disputes with neighboring countries, particularly in the case of the Bakassi peninsula and Cameroon's maritime borders with Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria. Moreover, it is crucial to have military participation and cooperation as Cameroon undertakes additional political and economic reforms.

Military training provided to Cameroon is designed to encourage good military-to-military relationships and increased understanding of the constructive role the military can play in promoting civilian programs. The Medical Outreach Program of the West Africa Training Cruise in July 2005 very effectively demonstrated the capability of an armed force to render humanitarian assistance.

Cameroon values IMET courses and continues to fill every available course. Cameroon has cadets at the U.S. Air Force Academy and the U.S. Military Academy this year and continues to seek additional training opportunities. Other IMET programs in FY 2005 sponsored reform within the Cameroonian Armed Forces through professional training for junior- to mid-level military officers. Senior level course are rarely offered, but highly sought after by the Cameroonian senior leadership.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Cameroon by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. Cameroon hosted an ACSS conference in the spring of 2004.

As of the publication date of this report, Cameroon is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Cape Verde, Republic Of

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

8

$137,319

11

$259,877

Regional Centers

5

$73,172

0

$0

TOTAL

13

$210,491

11

$259,877

Since gaining independence in 1975, Cape Verde has maintained domestic peace, as well as continual peaceful relations with its neighbors. Its military has consistently played a constructive role in civil society. The country's physical isolation, poverty and limited number of educational institutions make it heavily reliant on training from other countries to develop appropriate technical proficiencies. Their military is seeking to transform itself from a heavy Soviet-model land force, to one that focuses on maritime security and crisis reaction. This force will better be able to counter the transnational threats facing Cape Verde: drug smuggling, counterterrorism, maritime disaster, and the illicit movement of persons.

With the IMET program we are seeking to support the military's constructive role in Cape Verde society by providing English language training and professional development to the military's officer and mid-level non-commissioned officer (NCO) corps. During 2005, Cape Verde received $170,024, which funded five students' travel to the US for training and purchased English language training materials.

In the EUCOM Military-to-Military Contact Program, Marine Forces Europe conducted two events. During these they discussed with the Cape Verde Army U.S. doctrine and procedures for Reaction Force Operations. This helped the Cape Verdeans form their own ideas on how best to re-organize their army.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Cape Verde by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Cape Verde is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance. 


Central African Republic

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

0

$0

3

$93,451

TOTAL

0

$0

3

$93,451

On March 15, 2003, former military Chief of Staff General Francis Bozize seized power in a military coup from democratically elected President Ange-Felix Patasse. Bozize issued a decree suspending the constitution and other government institutions.

Section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act prohibits most direct assistance to the government of any country whose duly elected head of government is deposed by decree or military coup. In accordance with that provision, the U.S. government ended all military and other assistance covered by section 508 to the Central African Republic(CAR) in 2003, however, section 508 aid restrictions were lifted in September 2005 following the successful May 2005 presidential election in the CAR. Embassy Bangui may begin an IMET program in the CAR during FY 2006.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Central African Republic, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.


Chad

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ALP

0

$0

1

$39,276

CTFP

9

$68,289

12

$246,799

IMET

27

$497,276

33

$549,083

Regional Centers

6

$126,748

0

$0

Service Academies

1

$64,575

0

$0

TOTAL

43

$756,888

46

$835,158

Chad occupies a strategic position west of Sudan and south of Libya, sharing borders with the Central African Republic, Cameroon, Nigeria and Niger. In the course of the last ten years, all but one of Chad's neighbors have suffered a coup d'�tat or been named state supporters of terrorism. A well-disciplined, effective military under civilian control will reinforce Chad's role as a point of relative stability in a troubled region. U.S. assistance strengthens leadership and respect for rule of law within the military, which over time will contribute to the development of a military that supports civilian control and direction of the Armed Forces and whose members are cognizant of their duty with respect to human rights. Such a force would have a strong influence throughout the region, and would be able to contribute constructively to regional conflict resolution and counterterrorism initiatives.

The Government of Chad (GOC) feels that it has a stake in excluding potential terrorist elements from Chadian territory, particularly in as much as unsecured borders may harbor groups hostile to the current government. In March 2004, the Chadian military engaged members of the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC), an Algerian terrorist cell, in a firefight in northern Chad. During this skirmish more than forty GSPC and five Chadians were killed. Several of the GSPC, including their leader Al-Para, escaped and were captured by a Chadian rebel group in the Tibesti region of Chad. The GOC was instrumental in facilitating the eventual turnover of this terrorist leader to the Algerian government. The GOC has also been supportive in sharing anti-terrorism information with its partners in the global war on terror, and raising awareness of regional threats.

Chad, a committed member of the Pan-Sahel Initiative (PSI), and now the Trans-Sahara Counter-Terrorism Initiative (TSCTI), has participated in several peacekeeping operations in the region and possesses the most operational airlift capability among other Sahelian countries. In June and August 2005, Special Forces units provided training for a unit of the Chadian Army now known as the Anti-Terrorism Unit comprised of approximately 170 soldiers. The PSI training focused on individual and unit-level tasks such as basic rifle marksmanship, basic soldier's skills and both platoon and squad-level platoon tactics. TSCTI training is targeted to assist Chad not only in countering terrorist operations, but to respond more efficiently to border incursions and trafficking of people, illicit materials and other goods. This unit was also trained in June 2004 by U.S. Marines. In 2005, a key officer in the unit attended a conference on counterterrorism for junior officers. Throughout 2004 and 2005, the Chadian military has been active in providing security in eastern Chad. GOC forces are positioned along the border with Sudan in an effort to prevent further Janjawid incursions.

Additional Foreign Military Financing (FMF) will be necessary to adequately support mounting USG efforts to engage with the Chadian military during the coming year. The process of restructuring the Chadian Armed Forces is ongoing. In April 2005, the Chadian military conducted an internal review and made a series of recommendations including downsizing, demobilization of soldiers, and improving professionalism. U.S. training supports our objectives of strengthening the rule of law and respect for human rights within the security forces. A well-trained and professional military is crucial to Chad's democratic development and stability. Chad's oil production is attracting considerable attention from foreign businesses, which require security and rule of law in order to justify significant investments. In 2005, two Chadians participated in seminars on security issues in oil producing countries and a Chadian officer and the head of the National Assembly's budget committee are part of another Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminar on budgeting and managing security resources.

As of the publication date of this report, Chad is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance. 


Comoros

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

1

$9,245

1

$305

IMET

3

$66,362

6

$84,655

Regional Centers

4

$50,823

3

$1,766

TOTAL

8

$126,430

10

$86,726

A small island nation in the Indian Ocean, the Union of Comoros has a history of political instability and military intervention in politics. This background has given particular importance to U.S. efforts to promote democracy and stability in Comoros and to strengthen the professionalism of the Comorian Defense Force, including respect for civilian control. A modest IMET program for Comoros in the past had been an important element in U.S. policy toward, and bilateral relations with, the Comorian government.

In April 1999, Comoros experienced a military coup that overthrew the civilian government elected in March 1996. Assistance to Comoros was suspended consistent with Section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financial and Related Programs Appropriations Act until December 2003, following the previous year's free and fair presidential election.

The IMET program restarted in June 2004 with an allocation of $100,000. Goals of the training program included inculcating the proper role of the military in a democracy in order to reduce the likelihood of inappropriate military involvement in politics. The program also sought to strengthen military and civil capabilities in the areas of counterterrorism, drug/weapon trafficking and illegal immigration, and improve the English language capabilities of the military to promote greater interaction with the U.S. and other militaries in the region. Comorian soldiers continued to train at the English lab opened in 2004 and participated in military exercises organized by the Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa (CJTF - HOA).

FY 2005 IMET program funds allowed a senior military officer to attend a five-month intelligence training program at the Army School. He is currently the military and counterterrorism advisor to the Comorian president. A counterterrorism section is in the process of being established within the Defense Ministry and will be headed by the senior military officer. In addition, the English lab director went to the U.S. for advanced instructor training.

Comoros is receiving under the FY 2005 Foreign Military Finance program a modest appropriation earmarked for maritime security. Comorian maritime laws are not enforced, and the nation's porous coastline and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) are entirely unmonitored due to a lacking coastal defense force. This new appropriation seeks to address these issues by providing Comoros, for the first time, with some semblance of a coastal defense force.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Comoros by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continued interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Comoros is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Cote d'Ivoire

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Regional Centers

3

$53,843

0

$0

TOTAL

3

$53,843

0

$0

Until late 1999, Cote d'Ivoire had experienced a level of political stability and economic growth that made it a model for its neighbors. With the third largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa, it was the economic engine for the sub-region. The Ivorian Armed Forces had begun to participate in the African Crisis Response Initiative, and Cote d'Ivoire had established an important regional center for peacekeeping training. But the country's era of tranquility ended with a military coup in December 1999 that ousted the elected government of President Henri Konan Bedie.

Since then, Cote d'Ivoire has been in a state of political upheaval. Ten months after the coup, scores of people died in violence associated with the deeply flawed elections that brought current President Laurent Gbagbo to power. On September 19, 2002, an armed rebellion erupted, splitting the country in two. Although rebels and the government eventually signed a cease-fire and formed a government of national reconciliation, the country, as of this writing, remains divided. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and France have sent peacekeeping troops to help stabilize the situation and implement a peace agreement concluded in January 2003. In 2004, the ECOWAS forces became the core of the United Nations Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (ONUCI), a UN Peacekeeping Mission. In June of 2005, the United Nations increased the size of the peacekeeping force, and adjusted the ONUCI mandate to assist with upcoming elections.

As of this writing, the 2003 peace agreement and subsequent agreements have yet to be fully implemented and disarmament of former combatants has not begun. Bilateral assistance to Cote d'Ivoire was suspended consistent with section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, which restricts direct assistance to the government of any country whose duly elected head of government is deposed by decree or military coup until such time as the President determines and certifies to Congress that a democratically elected government has taken office. Currently, participation with sponsored Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminars is the only on-going military cooperation activity. These sanctions will remain in place until a democratically elected government has taken office.

If eligible and not otherwise restricted, Cote d'Ivoire's participation during FY 2006 in ACSS programs and potential E-IMET training stressing good governance, civilian rule, the rule of law and democracy will be considered as those seminars are scheduled, taking into consideration if and how the rebellion is resolved. These types of programs support democratic governance throughout the region by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. Participation in these types of events also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Language training continues in-country on a much reduced and limited basis at both the National Gendarme School and at the Armed Forces Headquarters. However, given the lack of IMET school potential, English language training has been reduced to a part-time endeavor by those students willing to undertake instruction during non-duty hours and on a voluntary basis. All costs associated with this training are borne by the Ivorian government.

As of the publication date of this report, Cote d'Ivoire is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Democratic Republic of Congo

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

90

$65,372

0

$0

IMET

10

$205,126

15

$308,987

Regional Centers

5

$101,470

0

$0

TOTAL

105

$371,968

15

$308,987


The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is transitioning from what was essentially a dictatorship to a democratic republic based on a parliamentary system of government with an elected president as its head. Voter registration for Congo's first democratic elections, planned for the Spring of 2006, is currently underway. The Independent Electoral Commission, charged with organizing elections, is operational in all of the DRC's eleven provinces, and the elections process enjoys broad political support among transitional players. With the help of the international community, as represented by the Committee to Accompany the Transition (CIAT), police are being trained to provide security for elections, and the army is being restructured to break preexisting links with political party leaders.

Despite two survey processes currently underway (one conducted by South Africa, the other by the Congolese military) , the exact size of the DRC military is unknown, although experts now believe that the number of soldiers is closer to 150,000 than to the 300,000 originally estimated, and that number could further decline as some current military members take advantage of the ongoing demobilization program. The vast majority of the Congolese military are army personnel, with a small air force and navy. In addition to the ongoing process of brassage ("mixing" troops from the former combatant elements into integrated brigades), the military is also trying, again with international assistance, to better define appropriate missions and to address logistical problems, such as regular payment of salaries and food rations. The international community hopes that as the decreased size of the military becomes apparent it will be possible to use the existing military budget to increase the basic salary for soldiers, thereby bringing them up to a minimum living standard. While the main mission of the restructured Congolese Armed Forces (FARDC) will be to defend the country's borders, the military will likely also be tasked to provide domestic disaster relief and designated humanitarian operations. At this time the DRC is largely incapable of securing and defending its borders, coastal waterways and territorial waters. Poor maritime, airport and border security, corruption, and weak to non-existent infrastructure and laws make the DRC a potential haven for transnational terrorists, smugglers and traffickers of all sorts.

Democratic reform and human rights are the most significant U.S. interests in the Democratic Republic of Congo, followed by concern for the humanitarian situation, protection of American citizens and global issues including promoting health and economic development. Sustaining a peaceful democracy contributes to U.S. humanitarian interests and regional security by creating the mechanisms for peaceful resolution of disputes and by providing a fertile environment to foster a growing economy. Using limited FMF and IMET funds, Post has reestablished a military English language lab in the DRC; provided English language instructor and laboratory technician training; and funded Mobile Training Team (MTT) visits. The Defense International Institute for Legal Studies (DIILS) recently conducted a counterterrorism seminar (which drew one-third more participants than the maximum already registered, a tribute to the demand for U.S.-provided training). We also are preparing to provide brigade and staff training for approximately 300 Congolese mid-grade officers, as the first tranche in a projected training effort in coordination with other international partners. For the first time since the 1980s, Congolese military students were sent to the United States for training - four instructors from the Centre Superieur Militaire for language instructor and laboratory technician training. We also are planning a visit to EUCOM and the U.S. for the Congolese Defense Minister, to improve ties and familiarize him with U.S. military capabilities.

The DRC became eligible in FY 2004 to receive Excess Defense Articles (EDA) on a grant basis under section 516 of the Foreign Assistance Act. We currently are looking at ways, given availability of materials, with which we can use the EDA program to support Congolese military equipment and restructuring needs. The DRC also has received Excess Defense Property (medical and school equipment and furniture) valued at over $200K, including an ambulance and trailer-mounted generator.

The priority for our military assistance programs will continue to be to support the modernization and professionalization of the FARDC, leaning heavily toward creation of a moderate force trained to carry out and support regional and international peace keeping operations. Other objectives include enhancing the FARDC's ability to react to natural disasters and carry out humanitarian operations, and increasing interoperability with regional and international forces - mainly through development of a robust English language training program. Program objectives also seek to contribute to the development of a professional officer and noncommissioned officer corps.

The DRC in FY 2004 also began limited participation in United States government-funded programs such as the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminars. ACSS supports democratic governance in the DRC by offering senior government civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. The DRC received invitations to participate in ACSS seminars in Washington DC (February 2004 - two delegates failed to receive permission to travel from DRC government), Cameroon (May 2004 - four of six delegates attended), Tampa (July 2004 - two delegates attended), and Uganda (October 2004 - two delegates attended).

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.


Djibouti

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

1

$0

1

$0

FMF

90

$130,180

0

$0

IMET

12

$222,023

16

$491,173

Regional Centers

12

$164,584

3

$0

TOTAL

115

$516,787

20

$491,173

Djibouti, strategically located at the entrance to the Red Sea, next to Somalia and facing Yemen, is the home of the only U.S. military base in Sub-Saharan Africa (Camp Lemonier). It also hosts France's largest military base overseas. Djibouti has played a strategic role in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) and currently has forces from five countries (Germany, United Kingdom, France, Spain and the U.S.) participating in the coalition effort against terrorism. It also serves as the main seaport for Ethiopia - which has also been a staunch ally in the war on terrorism. In 2004, urgently needed emergency food aid from the U.S. passed through the Port of Djibouti to Ethiopia.

Djibouti has become an important refueling point for U.S. military aircraft and a training area for U.S. military personnel as well as ships and aircraft. The new Doraleh port facility, where the U.S. Navy has leased several storage tanks, will support refueling of naval vessels and increase markedly the number of U.S. Navy ship visits to Djibouti. This will make Djibouti one of the more active African ports for U.S. naval vessel activity. The port is expected to be fully operational by the end of 2005. Bouffard French military hospital is a key trauma care center in the area and helped stabilize victims after the terrorist attack on the USS Cole in October 2000.

IMET training is our core program for Djibouti and has been one of the most successful programs in the region. Graduates now hold key policy and operational positions within the Djiboutian military, including chief of staff and major command positions. Djiboutian mid- and senior-grade officers have attended Command and General Staff, and War College courses.

Access to this highly supportive Arab League nation and critical base of support for the U.S. military merits our serious commitment to the continuation and expansion of the IMET program. IMET helps U.S. strategic interests by expanding relations and our influence in a frontline state in the GWOT. The Djiboutians benefit from the training in meeting their core objectives of creating a professional and well-trained force with shared commitments to democratic values and security objectives.

Djibouti's strategic position adjacent to the Bab el Mandeb strait provides the U.S. access, basing and over-flight rights. Djibouti works closely with the Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) to prosecute the GWOT. The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) continues to foster bilateral relations with Djiboutian Armed Forces and is an integral part of U.S. Central Command's Theater Security Cooperation Strategy. The CTFP helps to promote access, while serving overall U.S. strategic interests associated with this important littoral nation.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) has become an important complement to IMET in exposing senior Djiboutian leaders to core U.S. values on civil-military relations and national security and defense concerns. This program also enhances interaction between our countries and expansion of this program will promote closer bilateral cooperation and trust.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Djibouti, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.  


Equatorial Guinea

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Regional Centers

1

$101

0

$0

TOTAL

1

$101

0

$0

All forms of military assistance to Equatorial Guinea are suspended. The Equato-Guinean Government's poor human rights record, governance problems and marginal progress on democratic reform improved during 2004. However, the country's leadership remains in the hands of a small clique whose legitimacy remains questionable. We continue to suspend almost all forms of official military-to-military engagement in Equatorial Guinea, except for participation on a case-by-case basis at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) and at Gulf of Guinea conferences. A USEUCOM general officer visit successfully conveyed to the Equato-Guinean military leaders the steps that they need to take in order to qualify for official bilateral military programs.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Equatorial Guinea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Equatorial Guinea is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Eritrea

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

122

$151,933

6

$107,471

Regional Centers

5

$72,811

0

$0

TOTAL

127

$224,744

6

$107,471

Because of Eritrea's strategic location along the Red Sea coast, a good bilateral relationship with Eritrea could be useful to U.S. interests in the region. Currently, however, relations between the U.S. and Eritrea are generally strained due to the border impasse with Ethiopia, the slow pace of political reform, and continued government suppression of religious freedom, independent media, and the political opposition. Nevertheless, U.S. assistance could play a key role in building a professional Eritrean military, sensitive to the separation between civilian and military authority and to the concept of an apolitical military that respects human rights and promotes self-management.

Eritrea remains important for the overall regional stability in the Horn of Africa, particularly with respect to U.S. efforts to promote an enduring peace between Ethiopia and Eritrea, and to stem the presence and influence of terrorism in the Horn. A modern, well-trained Eritrean military could be an asset to U.S. national security interests in the region. To foster a greater level of military engagement, the U.S. Fifth Fleet conducted four ship visits to the Port of Massawa in the summer of 2005, the first since 1997. These visits were supplemented in 2005 by several General Officer visits that sought to further the dialogue with the Government of the State of Eritrea (GSE). However, Eritrea still declined participation in several U.S.-led initiatives, including the DoD Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program, Golden Spear Disaster Preparedness Conferences, and Coalition Sentinel Maritime Exercises.

Eritrea also declined invitations to participate in several seminars hosted by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) during FY 2005. ACSS supports democratic governance in Eritrea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics.

Eritrea did make some use of the IMET Program, hosting two Mobile Education Teams from the Defense Institute of Medical Operations, and sending two senior officers to the US for advanced policy seminars. Seeking to upgrade its military healthcare infrastructure, Eritrea also established Foreign Military Sales cases with the USG in excess of $400K. In FY2005, security cooperation activities totaled $7.1M, up from the $5.4M spent in FY2004.

As of the publication date of this report, Eritrea is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Service members' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance. 


Ethiopia

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

0

$0

4

$115,836

IMET

19

$428,430

33

$970,103

Regional Centers

6

$111,102

0

$0

TOTAL

25

$539,532

37

$1,085,939


Ethiopia is arguably the key to U.S. security interests in the Horn of Africa, a turbulent region threatened by Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism. Ethiopia remains a staunch ally in the war on terrorism and the Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) has been our most effective partner in the counter-terrorist fight within the region. Ethiopia's internal stability and its role as a regional and international leader remain critical for the stability of the Horn as a whole. The long-term goal of transforming the Ethiopian military into a professional, apolitical modern force remains important.

The ENDF is one of, if not the, most capable military forces in sub-Saharan Africa and has clearly established itself as the dominant military power within the Horn of Africa. In 2004, Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) continued to train ENDF company-size units in border control and counterterrorism skills using FMF. This effort will pay dividends in controlling the region's volatile and porous borders and enabling the host nation to strike trans-national terrorist networks when and where they are found.

Further, the Ethiopians have a long history of successful participation in United Nations military efforts, spanning the spectrum from the Korean War to combating genocide in Rwanda. Ethiopia currently has a reinforced battalion (900 soldiers) deployed to Burundi as peacekeepers in the UN Mission in Burundi (formerly the African Union (AU) African Mission in Burundi (AMIB)). This battalion was the first Ethiopian battalion trained under the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program. Affirming their commitment to international peacekeeping, Ethiopia has also deployed over 2000 peacekeepers to Liberia for the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL).

In FY 2005 ACOTA training continued focusing on train-the-trainer training to build Ethiopia's own peacekeeping training capability. Ethiopia has peacekeeping battalions deployed in Liberia as part of UNMIL and in Burundi. Ethiopia rotates its peacekeeping battalions every six months. Ethiopia's own cadre of ACOTA-trained trainers now trains their own battalions to rotate to Burundi or Liberia or to be available for future peacekeeping missions. In FY 2005 under ACOTA, we monitored and mentored the Ethiopian cadre of trainers as they trained two more battalions, provided battalion-level equipment for their peacekeeping units, and built toward ACOTA's goal of a sub-regional multi-lateral peacekeeping exercise.

As principally a former-guerrilla army, the ENDF lacks strong organic training institutions - a deficiency of which the Ethiopian senior leadership is painfully aware and is working hard to correct. Not only does this lack of formal military schooling hinder the professional growth of the military, it drastically reduces proper use of defense resources, which is critical to a poor nation like Ethiopia. During the past several years, the Ethiopians have increasingly turned to the U.S. military for assistance in addressing these shortcomings. IMET assists in increasing the professionalism of the Ethiopian military and strengthens the U.S.-Ethiopian military relationship. The focus of the IMET program in Ethiopia is on building host-nation training institutions. Increasing the English-speaking capability of the military is achieving this by training instructors at U.S. military training institutions and by bringing U.S. military trainers to Ethiopia. An Ethiopian colonel who graduated from the U.S. Army War College in 2003 was recently promoted to brigadier general and is the Commandant of the ENDF's Defense University College. A major who attended the U.S. Army Command & General Staff College is a senior instructor at the ENDF Officer Basic Course, an excellent assignment utilizing this officer's training experience in the United States.

Ethiopia currently has a colonel as an International Fellow at the National Defense University. The ACOTA training management workshop and drafting of the ENDF training doctrine have also assisted greatly in specifically addressing the ENDF's training shortcomings. The ENDF has requested US assistance using FMF to help establish their own Command and General Staff College and National War College for professional military education of mid-rank and senior officers. Both endeavors will pay great dividends in the future for the U.S. military's inter-operability with the Ethiopians and the long-term professionalization of the ENDF. Enhancing ENDF professionalism will better position them for the future in the war on terrorism.

Ethiopia has taken an aggressive stance against terrorism in Somalia and has supported the U.S. with operational access and invaluable intelligence sharing. Ethiopia's participation in the Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) strengthens U.S. and Ethiopian bilateral relations especially in areas of counterterrorism training and education. The ENDF continues to work closely with, and enjoys ever-increasing interoperability with, CJTF-HOA in the prosecution of the Global War on Terrorism.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Ethiopia by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. Senior Ethiopian civilian and military leaders continue to benefit from participation in ACSS events and conferences. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. On a regional scale, Ethiopia participated in U.S. Central Command's annual regional seminar, GOLDEN SPEAR 05, in Nairobi, Kenya. GOLDEN SPEAR brings together senior military and civilian leaders from eleven east African countries focused on disaster preparedness and management. Ethiopia plans to continue future participation.

The scourge of HIV/AIDS transcends political and geographic boundaries, making it more a global humanitarian issue rather than only a medical one. The training support provided through the U.S. DoD HIV/AIDS Prevention Program to ENDF medical personnel is not limited to the transfer of skills and knowledge during the duration of training. It has developed into a network of close person-to-person professional contacts, establishment of bilateral research studies and access to ENDF military hospitals. This has established an effective, tightly knit team of American and Ethiopian military health professionals working together on common issues. Under the program, Ethiopian military health professionals have been able to participate in international training, conferences and symposiums from the U.S. to Thailand, Spain and Botswana. Every indication is that the HIV prevalence rate within the Ethiopian military remains lower than that of the general population, a rare, if not unique, situation in sub-Saharan Africa.

As of the publication date of this report, Ethiopia is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Service members' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.)


Gabon

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

12

$172,137

21

$538,632

Regional Centers

5

$88,818

0

$0

TOTAL

17

$260,955

21

$538,632

The Gabonese Republic is a politically stable and influential regional leader. President Bongo has led mediation efforts in several neighboring conflicts. These efforts include the conflict in the Central African Republic where Gabon has led the peacekeeping mission of the Economic and Monetary Community of Central African States (CEMAC) and where Gabonese troops have comprised the majority of CEMAC's deployed forces. On several occasions Gabon has served as a safe haven in times of conflict in the region, and the government has authorized the U.S. to use its facilities as a staging area for evacuations of Americans and other Westerners in case of need. Oil production, the basis of the national economy, is declining, although the consequences of this change have not had the anticipated impact because of the rise in oil prices. If social indicators remain skewed, and the economy does not become more diversified, stability and democratic progress could be undermined.

IMET in FY 2005 focused on improving the English language capability of Gabonese military personnel and increasing the level of professionalism in the military, enhancing peacekeeping capability and increasing maritime security. By fostering effective relations between the Gabonese and the U.S. military, and by exposing the Gabonese participants to U.S. professional military organizations, procedures and the manner in which the U.S. military functions under civilian control, Gabon's military efficiency and effectiveness should be enhanced. This in turn will support the goal of regional stability, particularly in peacekeeping operations in which the Gabonese participate. Training programs included twenty-one students sent to the United States in FY 2005, as well as the visit by the USS Emory S. Land, which provided training to Gabonese naval personnel in maintenance and operations. Three Gabonese naval officers were embarked on the vessel for a month for more intensive training. Gabon initiated its participation in the African Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program in 2005, including field training for 100 Gabonese soldiers and computer-assisted staff training for 55 officers. Gabon also participated in a medical outreach program with the United States Navy. During the two week exercise, U.S. and Gabonese medical personnel treated over 8000 patients in seven villages.

Participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) also supports democratic aims in Gabon by reinforcing the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders. Eight members of the Gabonese military participated in 2005; further invitations are expected in 2006. In addition, creating military-to-military contacts will increase the likelihood that Gabon will remain willing to serve as a staging area for evacuation operations in the region. Following a successful ship visit in FY 2005, a ship visit is tentatively planned for February 2006. Prior to the planned opening of a new Gabonese Military Medical Center, EUCOM sponsored the visit of the Gabonese Military Health Service Surgeon General to Washington DC, including tours of Bethesda Naval Medical Center and Walter Reed Army Medical Center.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act, of the provision of military assistance to the Gabonese Republic, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States. 


Gambia

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

2

$1,802

0

$0

IMET

10

$195,641

10

$256,778

Regional Centers

8

$130,071

0

$0

TOTAL

20

$327,514

10

$256,778

Since gaining independence in 1970, Gambia has maintained continual peaceful relations with its neighbors. Until a military coup in 1994, Gambia was one of the oldest existing multi-party democracies in Africa. The current military contingent is approximately 1900 men strong. The country has committed troops to several peacekeeping missions inter alia, Bosnia, Kosovo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DROC), Sierra Leone, Eritrea, East Timor, Liberia and most recently they contributed a 196-man contingent to the United Nation's Peacekeeping Mission in Darfur, Sudan. The country is keen for western military, especially U.S. military, cooperation to assist with training soldiers and updating broken or outdated equipment.

During FY 2003, following the lifting of section 508 sanctions that resulted from the 1994 coup, the United States began a modest IMET program to expose the next generation of Gambian military officers to U.S. military organizations and procedures, civil-military relations and the role of the military in a democracy. Until the lifting of those sanctions, the only military-to-military cooperation between the U.S. and Gambia was through the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) programs. ACSS continues to support democratic governance in Gambia by offering senior Gambian military and civilian leaders practical programs in civil-military relations, national security strategy, defense economics and related topics.

In FY 2005, the initial IMET allocation was for $75,000, but this was supplemented by approximately $114,000 at the end of the year. This total was sufficient to allow seven officers to attend the Infantry Officer Basic Course and one to attend the Engineer Officer Basic Course. These courses are an effort to train a new generation of officers, who will respect human rights and the role of a military in a democratic society.

Two Military-to-Military Contact Program (Mil-to-Mil) events were conducted in Gambia .The first event was presented by U.S. Air Forces Europe on AIDS Awareness and Preventive Medicine. The second concerned Riverine Operations and was conducted by U.S. Marine Forces Europe. In November 2004, U.S. and Gambian armed forces conducted joint military exercises within the context of the West Africa Training Cruise (WATC).

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Gambia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.


Ghana

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ALP

0

$0

1

$22,282

CTFP

12

$162,478

6

$108,617

FMF

2

$12,006

0

$0

FMS

5

$155,329

0

$0

IMET

46

$883,992

41

$883,280

Regional Centers

8

$88,818

0

$0

TOTAL

73

$1,302,623

48

$1,014,179

The Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) is one of the more reliable and professional armies in Africa. It has a long and commendable record in peacekeeping operations, participating in operations around the globe. The GAF currently deploys battalions in Lebanon, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, the Ivory Coast, and Sierra Leone and has had United Nations (UN) military observers in the UN peacekeeping missions in the Western Sahara, East Timor, Angola, Tajikistan, Kuwait, the Balkans and Ethiopia/Eritrea. Because of its history of political stability and its use of English as an official language, the Republic of Ghana provides an ideal platform for staging humanitarian operations and regional peacekeeping training activities.

U.S. military assistance programs in Ghana seek to strengthen democracy through enhanced military professionalism by reinforcing proper civil-military relationships; increasing and improving the ability of the Government of Ghana (GOG) to support U.S. government non-combatant evacuation operations (NEO); increasing and improving the GAF's ability to project and support peacekeeping operations; and increasing and improving the GOG's ability to support the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) by increasing interoperability with U.S. forces.

Military cooperation under the IMET program, the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS), the African Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program, and the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) program all reinforce the GAF's ability to play a constructive role in the development of Ghana as a democratic society and to contribute to peacekeeping efforts in the region and beyond. The GAF was one of the prime organizers behind the West African response to the recent Liberian crisis and the Economic Community of African States (ECOWAS)-sponsored deployment in Cote d'Ivoire, and has played an integral part in the African Union (AU) initiatives to develop an African Stand-by Force.

Training provided by funding under the IMET program enables Ghana to build a network of graduates from U.S. education and training programs. These graduates can pass on their knowledge and expertise and assist Ghana in building the institutions needed to play a constructive role in regional leadership. These courses also help strengthen the GAF's apolitical role in a democratic society.

ACSS programs promote and support democratic governance in Ghana by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Ghana's armed forces were the first to be trained under the ACOTA program and ACOTA-trained GAF trainers have trained all deploying GAF peacekeeping units since April 2003. The GAF continues to be supported by ACOTA training and equipment ($500,000), which helps ensure that it is up-to-date on training modules, and that there is continuity of its trainer force. The ACOTA team examined the feasibility of providing funding for the construction of a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) site at the GAF training center.

In addition, the U.S. has provided approximately $1 million in Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) fundsin support of the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Center (KAIPTC), where commanders and staff from throughout the world train together for future peacekeeping missions. The KAIPTC in 2005 was provided with $100,000 worth of Automated Data Program (ADP) upgrades (additional server capability) under EIPC. Previous support funded a reprographics center and training and equipment for JANUS war-fighting exercise simulation capability. Peacekeeping training capability development programs, such as ACOTA, EIPC, and GPOI increase the GOG's ability to more effectively cooperate with ECOWAS and other partners in regional security, peacekeeping, and humanitarian operations.

In 2005, the GAF was allocated $1.33 million in Foreign Military Financing (FMF), and utilized the funds for additional IMET training, parts for EDA-provided naval vessels, and vehicles.  

The President has waived the prohibition, in � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Ghana, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.


Guinea

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

111

$437,641

19

$626,881

Regional Centers

2

$38,456

0

$0

TOTAL

113

$476,097

19

$626,881

U.S. diplomatic efforts in Guinea are primarily directed towards democracy, good governance and economic development, as well as reinforcing Guinea's ability to play a more effective role in regional conflict-resolution and peacekeeping efforts. Because the armed forces play a critical role in Guinean society, assisting the Government of Guinea to continue to reform its military institutions by engaging in closer military-to-military cooperation and by increasing appropriate military assistance serves U.S. interests.

In 2001, through the West Africa Stabilization Program, the U.S. government (USG) trained and partially equipped an 800-man counterinsurgency battalion that assisted in the containment of former Liberian President Charles Taylor. Guinea's "Ranger" Battalion, which is deployed along the borders with Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Senegal and Liberia, continues to receive accolades from NGOs and civilians for its service and professionalism, although it has received no sustainment training.

A moderate and tolerant Muslim country, Guinea is pro-U.S. and supported the United States on UNSCR 1441 and on the passage of numerous anti-terrorism resolutions. Most recently, the USG witnessed the indirect benefit of U.S. military engagement when Guinea agreed to participate in the West Africa Training Cruise (WATC), a multi-lateral Navy and Marine Corps military exercise, conducted within Guinean territory between the United States, Guinea, Italy and Spain in October 2005. This is the first time that the Guinean government has allowed a foreign military to participate in an exercise within its national borders.

Guinea has a long history of assisting other African countries, but its contributions and effectiveness in peace operations are limited by its army's organic capabilities. To the extent that we can help Guinea develop its armed forces, we will witness improved participation in African multilateral contingency operations. Guinea has participated in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and U.N. peace operations in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Burundi, Haiti and Rwanda. Through combined training and exercises, West African countries may be able to avoid conflict in the future, and failing that, will be better able to conduct multilateral peace/humanitarian operations. In this context, Guinea might also be considered for invitation into the Africa Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) and the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) programs.

English is the operational language for international peace/humanitarian operations and the Guinean Armed Forces are finally seeing the value of having English-speaking personnel. To assist in this endeavor, the Defense Attach� Office (DAO) has committed to improving the military's two existing language laboratories with an infusion of updated training materials and English language instructor training, as well as planning a third language lab outside of Conakry.

Collectively, in-country training has included components on human rights, the rule of law, law of land warfare, civil-military relations and the role of a military in a democratic society. The USG has also successfully used E-IMET to fund seminars in Guinea in which these topics were reinforced. The most recent such event was a civil-military relations seminar held in Conakry 16-20 May 2005. In February 2005, the DAO also organized a seminar that brought together civilian and military officials from five African nations involved in developing defense budgets.

Guinea's E-IMET budget for 2005 was $350,000, augmented by approximately $150,000 in fall-out funds from nations that were ineligible due to their failure to sign Article 98 agreements.

With the assistance of the Defense Attach� Office and other donors, Guinea continues its HIV/AIDS Education and Awareness Program. This program is funded by the Department of Defense and managed by the DAO's implementing partner, Population Services International. During its first two and one half years of existence, this program has resulted in the creation of the Guinean Armed Forces' first HIV/AIDS policy. It has also produced peer educators throughout the country, promoted condom usage and distribution, and inaugurated the military's first voluntary counseling and testing facility.

Guinea continues to be a strong supporter of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). Guinea participated in each of the ACSS events to which it was invited in FY 2005 and looks forward to continuing its participation in FY 2006. ACSS supports democratic governance in Guinea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Guinea, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States. 


Guinea-Bissau

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

69

$65,065

3

$45,409

Regional Centers

6

$88,919

0

$0

TOTAL

75

$153,984

3

$45,409

Following eleven months of internal conflict in 1998-99, Guinea-Bissau held elections in 2000. That government ruled until the September 14, 2003 military intervention. A democratically elected legislature took office in Guinea-Bissau on May 12, 2004, and a new president was elected in 2005. In August 2004, the U.S. lifted sanctions against Guinea-Bissau under section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act (FOAA), which had been imposed due to the September 2003 military coup that removed former President Kumba Yala.

Guinea-Bissau now faces three major challenges: 1) down-sizing and reforming the military, and bringing it under civilian authority; 2) promoting economic development; and 3) strengthening democratic institutions. Considering these priorities, any U.S. military cooperation with Guinea-Bissau should focus on human rights and the role of a military in a democratic society. With the resumption of IMET in 2005, Guinea-Bissau has held an E-IMET Seminar on Civil-Military Relations.

Additional challenges in Guinea-Bissau include an extremely poor public health system, making it difficult to prevent and combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and other tropical diseases. HIV/AIDS control and other health programs conducted with USG assistance would contribute to regional stability as well as basic humanitarian needs. USG assistance to Humanitarian Demining efforts in Guinea-Bissau has resulted in removal of nearly all mines from Guinea-Bissau. The remaining landmines and unexploded ordnance are in two-dozen well-known locations spread throughout the country. There are also an undetermined number of mines scattered along the border with Senegal resulting from the long-standing conflict in Senegal's Casamance region, which occasionally involves people and locations in northern Guinea-Bissau.

Assistance provided under the Humanitarian Assistance (HA), Excess Property (EP), and HA/Other activities programs for schools, health centers, and bridges have been very well received by Bissau-Guinean authorities and local populations. Continued HA activities in Guinea-Bissau would further enhance U.S. relations with the country and contribute to long-term economic development goals.

Guinea-Bissau is not a State Party to the Rome Statute as of the publication date of this report; and hence, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Kenya

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ALP

2

$35,852

0

$0

CTFP

45

$196,895

7

$192,991

IMET

56

$385,081

28

$546,762

Regional Centers

52

$462,283

0

$0

TOTAL

155

$1,080,111

35

$739,753


The purpose of military training for Kenya is to improve the professionalism of the Kenya military and improve their capabilities in supporting the Global War on Terrorism and Peacekeeping Operations (PKO). Through military training, Kenya is meeting those ends. A key aspect of U.S. engagement with Kenya is based on maintaining access to Kenya's sea and air facilities for contingencies and training exercises. Access to the Horn of Africa region and the Indian Ocean remains important as current operations proceed, and for future potential for humanitarian and other emergencies in the region.

Training engagement for Kenya has included IMET, DoD Regional Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) activities, U.S. Central Command exercises, and the Africa Contingency and Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program. FMF and IMET were suspended following Kenya's March ratification of the Rome Treaty without concluding an Article 98 bilateral agreement. Prior to this freeze, the IMET training program helped promote excellent military-to-military relationships through resident courses and mobile training teams in Kenya. Senior and intermediate level professional military education (PME) courses and technical courses were balanced with mobile courses in country to provide a diverse training program for Kenya's Armed Forces. Most of the top Kenyan military leaders have attended U.S. resident PME in the past and, if funding becomes available again, PME will continue to be a key ingredient for a balanced approach to professional development.

IMET courses were successful by including key Kenyan civilian personnel charged with port and coastal security and PKO. These mobile training courses conducted for Kenya were quite beneficial and effective since more personnel can be trained for the money and multiple agencies come together in the training setting, which rarely occurs in Kenya. If funding is re-instated, IMET allocations will be focused on mobile training team courses that support the President's East Africa CT Initiative (improving the Kenyan military's capabilities in coastal and border security).

Kenya's porous borders are exposed to external threats such as terrorists and insurgents. Even though Kenya's small Armed Force of 30,000 personnel is focused on external threats, they are transitioning to more multifaceted missions against terrorism following the American Embassy Bombing in Nairobi in Aug 1998, the bombing at a tourist hotel in Mombasa, and the near miss of an Israeli Airline. The CTFP was instrumental in training key Kenyan Department of Defense (KDOD) leaders at the National Defense University's Counterterrorism Fellows course and the Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR) course on combating terrorism. These alumni are now responsible for helping to fight terrorism and in coordinating KDOD/U.S. CT operations within the Horn of Africa region. As well, the CTFP trained key, promising mid-level officers in such areas as advanced infantry, armor, military police functions and shipyard management focusing on CT. Under the CTFP, Kenya benefited from a very well conducted mobile training course on emergency medical trauma system management that addressed hands-on emergency care and consequence management.

Kenyan military and civilian leaders participated in ACSS events focused on defense management and small arms proliferation. The USCENTCOM Golden Spear Seminar, supported by ACSS, promoted the exchange of ideas and continued interaction among the regional participants.

U.S. Central Command exercises such as Edged Mallet and Natural Fire continue to build on excellent cooperation between Kenya and the United States. In addition, the Joint Combined Exchange Training (JCET) NOBEL PIPER has helped the Kenyan Army's Strike Force Company to improve its capabilities. All levels of the Kenya Armed Forces participate in these events, and the ultimate result is an increase in Kenyan capabilities and interoperability with U.S. Forces.

The African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) successor, ACOTA, focused on training of personnel and providing equipment for a Battle Simulation Center at the Kenya Peace Support Training Center near Nairobi. The training emphasized "train-the-trainer" skills for junior commanders and staff officers in PKO. ACOTA training for Kenya is shifting to direct training of units preparing for deployments to mandated PKOs.

As of the publication date of this report, Kenya is a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving certain military assistance. This includes the freezing/loss of FY04 and FY05 FMF and approximately $500,000 in FY05 IMET funding.


Lesotho

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

0

$0

5

$96,536

Regional Centers

5

$88,818

0

$0

TOTAL

5

$88,818

5

$96,536

Historically, Lesotho's army has been a highly politicized force, vulnerable to influence by political parties. Military involvement in political destabilization and coups d'�tat has been a problem since independence in 1966. The political/security crisis of 1998, for example, included an army mutiny and junior officer complicity in an unconstitutional attempt to overthrow the elected government. The crisis demonstrated that a significant segment of the Lesotho Defense Forces (LDF) neither understood nor accepted the subordinate role of the military in a democracy.

Lesotho's current government has undertaken a comprehensive program to reform and professionalize the LDF and other security services. The U.S. has an interest in supporting this program because it advances our foreign policy goals of promoting democracy and human rights as well as humanitarian response skills.

Lesotho sent two high-level Ministry of Defense officials to the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) Senior Leader Seminar in 2004 and 2005. Participation in this program supports democratic governance in Lesotho by offering senior officials practical instruction in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. As of the publication date of this report, Lesotho, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance. 

Liberia 

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

0

$0

14

$345,623

TOTAL

0

$0

14

$345,623

On October 11, 2005, the first democratic elections were held in Liberia since the Accra Peace Accords facilitated the departure of then-President Charles Taylor. During the interim period, the United States has supported the National Transitional Government of Liberia and the Liberian people. With over 15,000 United Nations peacekeeping and police forces on the ground in Liberia, efforts to restore Liberia's capacity to provide for its own security is essential. The United States has taken the lead in Security Sector Reform (SSR) for Liberia. We will provide the appropriate equipment, support and training for a new 2000 strong Liberian military along with the establishment of a trained Ministry of National Defense staff. The New Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) will be a fiscally sustainable, effective civilian-led national military force to supplement border control and to interdict arms traffickers and regional paramilitaries. A weak Liberia may continue to fuel regional instability in West Africa. We need to reduce the potential for terrorists to threaten Liberia's fragile peace or to take advantage of Liberia as a haven for money laundering, arms smuggling, and other activities supporting terrorism. Liberia has only the barest law enforcement, the military has been demobilized, and there is almost no capability to control its borders or to enforce customs and other laws. Its alluvial diamond fields and forests have attracted significant illicit commercial activity in the past and due to this illicit activity, Liberia is sanctioned from exporting diamonds and timber.

Liberia's military will start from scratch. All of the over 9,000 war recruits have been demobilized. As of this writing the remaining "professional" AFL are in the process of receiving their severance payment. A recruiting and vetting process has been developed to bring in the best candidates available for the new AFL. Once the first class of soldier graduates, tentatively in June 06, follow-on training will become necessary. IMET would allow for the continuation of training beyond the basic recruit level. Courses could include human rights training, defense budgeting and improved English language training to the military's new officer and mid-level NCO corps to facilitate their provision of effective, appropriate cooperation in civil defense, Coast Guard and Border Patrol-related and other military activities. Effective patrols also would improve Liberia's drug interdiction, counterterrorism, search and rescue, and disaster preparedness programs. IMET also would be used to support Liberia's plans for a range of military activities, including financial management and military policing. Primarily non-lethal FMF and EDA would be necessary to help equip these forces.

Participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) programs and potential E-IMET training would provide a low-cost investment to build professionalism within Liberia's military under civilian, democratic leadership. FY 2006 funding would enable AFL members to participate in ACSS conferences, which would support democratic governance in Liberia by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, respect for human rights, and defense economics, as well as engagement and interaction with USG and fellow African civilian and military officials.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Service-members' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Liberia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States. 


Madagascar

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

82

$252,927

14

$351,723

Regional Centers

5

$91,938

0

$0

TOTAL

87

$344,865

14

$351,723

After the failure of its socialist experiment (1975-1991), Madagascar has continued its transition to democracy and economic liberalization, showing much greater openness towards the U.S. and the West. Throughout the political turmoil of the early and mid-90's, the military remained disciplined, apolitical and respectful of civilian authority, despite calls for it to intervene. The resolve of their apolitical posture was again tested in early 2002 during the political standoff over disputed presidential election results. The dispute was resolved democratically and peacefully, without causing significant damage to civil-military relations.

The world's fourth-largest island, but one of the poorest countries on earth, Madagascar lacks the capability to protect its 5,000 kilometer maritime border against threats of smuggling. This inability deprives the government of significant revenues, contributes to the endangerment of many rare species found nowhere else and creates an unintended permissive environment for transnational terrorists.

The Malagasy are traditionally inward looking, but have sought to play a more active role in regional and international affairs. In 1999 the Malagasy hosted an African Union (AU) conference that sought to bring reconciliation to the Comoros and the government has expressed willingness to participate in peacekeeping operations under UN or AU auspices. IMET-funded training for Madagascar has enabled Malagasy officers to attend training that offers basic military skills for junior officers and mid-level officer staff operations, especially for the navy. It has also trained English language instructors at the basic and advanced levels.

Madagascar is a French-speaking country and mastery of English is a prerequisite for U.S. military training courses and to participate in multinational peacekeeping operations.

The FY 2005 IMET program contributed to the U.S. strategic goals of supporting counterterrorism and combating international crime, as well as to reinforcing democracy. Using IMET, the USG has provided mobile training teams on coastal defense, maritime law, search and rescue operations and the legal aspects of peacekeeping operations.

For the first time in over 12 years, Madagascar received Foreign Military Financing (FMF) in FY 2005. This appropriation has been earmarked to support a maritime security capability for Madagascar's 5,000 km coastline. Additionally, a modest FMF appropriation has been earmarked for Madagascar's military medical facilities. This, in addition to a FY 2004 funded Humanitarian Assistance program for a military medical-dental Mobile Training Team visit, has assisted Madagascar in its dire need for medical assistance.

The Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS) and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Madagascar by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. APCSS and ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in the Asia Pacific region and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Madagascar is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance. 


Malawi

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

57

$324,176

28

$480,724

TOTAL

57

$324,176

28

$480,724

With just over a decade of democratic rule under its belt, a professional and apolitical military is essential to continuing stability in Malawi, one of the world's poorest countries. Malawi held its second free and fair national multi-party elections in June 1999 and its first-ever local multi-party election in November 2000. Presidential and parliamentary elections took place in May 2004 within a relatively free and fair environment. The country faces increasing and significant external threats from both the rise of terrorism in East Africa and from transnational crime. Malawi has steadily improved relations with its neighbors since its democratic transition and has sought to play a stabilizing role in the region and the continent.

Malawi takes seriously its cooperative military relationship with the U.S. and has been an active participant in the IMET program. Its military is small and under-funded, yet has maintained an apolitical and highly professional character. The Malawi Defense Force (MDF) has been an exemplary participant in a very active slate of programs. One of the first countries to join the Africa Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI), Malawi was the only country in southern Africa in the program and has plans to actively participate in ACRI's successor program, ACOTA. The MDF joins the equally resource-strapped national police force in select operations to fight crime and has distinguished itself in peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance missions. Malawi sent a mixed company of 110 peacekeepers to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in September 2005, and plans to send a company or battalion to the UN mission in the Sudan. Malawi was also the first country in the region to provide flood relief (helicopters and supplies) to Mozambique.

In addition to traditional professional military skills training, IMET and other security assistance programs are allowing the Malawi Army to bring significant resources to bear on key issues, including HIV/AIDS, structural reform, civilian-military relations, human rights and anti-corruption. For example, Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS)-organized seminars provide a venue for members of the Army, Malawi government, parliamentarians, judiciary, academia, the media and NGOs to work together on issues including rule of law, human rights and peacekeeping.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Malawi by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Security assistance programs and military exercises provide excellent opportunities and resources in Post's efforts to assist in the battle against HIV/AIDS in Malawi. All in-country training includes a session on some aspect of the disease. We have called on the International Health Resources Management Program to help the Ministry of Health, other ministries, the Army, and donors implement an ambitious comprehensive National AIDS Strategic Plan. In addition, we have been intimately involved with the new USG HIV/AIDS planning exercise to develop a 5-year Strategy and one year Country Operating Plan, as all in-country HIV/AIDS activities come under the purview of the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Malawi, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.


Mali

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ALP

0

$0

1

$4,310

CTFP

66

$215,853

6

$122,462

IMET

0

$0

9

$311,997

Regional Centers

22

$131,845

0

$0

TOTAL

88

$347,698

16

$438,769

Over the past decade the Malian Armed Forces have evolved into a professional organization, which supports human rights, economic development and conflict resolution. Although Mali has made strides in military professionalism, the overall military capability is hampered by a severe lack of resources, which directly impacts military readiness and ability to deploy. U.S. security assistance programs in Mali serve to institutionalize these changes, providing training in civil-military affairs, coordinating ongoing peacekeeping training and conducting seminars on the role of the armed forces in a democracy. U.S.-sponsored training of senior- and mid-level officers contributes to the professional development of current and future Malian military leaders to reinforce and perpetuate the subordinate, apolitical role of the military. Additionally, training in military justice and defense management fortify the Government of Mali's (GOM) efforts to fight corruption and instill good governance.

Mali has been an effective interlocutor, mediator and staunch supporter of regional security issues within the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Mali deployed a 250-man contingent to Liberia as part of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) presence in that country. In FY 2004, Mali participated in the Pan Sahel Initiative. Overall, this $3.2 million package included 39 vehicles, communication equipment and tactical training for three companies of the Malian Armed Forces. In FY 2005, Mali participated in and hosted key U.S. air and ground elements during the FLINTLOCK exercise.

Mali was the first country to participate in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI), which provided training on basic capabilities in responding to crises. While the program has done well in establishing a core of trained officers, further training under the ACRI successor - the African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) program - of a battalion size force is currently scheduled to commence in FY 2006. Malian leaders remain committed to and seek a greater role for Mali as a force for regional stability and peace. In addition, Mali's IMET program saw a steady rise through the last decade. Most of the funds supported training of junior- and mid-level officers and non-commissioned officers (NCOs) in the United States. On some occasions, a senior-level officer had been invited to attend the War College. The program had been successful and IMET program participants are in prominent positions within the military and Ministry of Defense.

Mali has become one of the key U.S. Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) partners in West Africa and a major participant in regional efforts to identify and stop the transit of weapons and terrorist movements throughout the Sahel region. The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) will help to provide Mali an effective cadre of mid-level and senior officials capable of participating with the U.S. in the GWOT. Mali eagerly participates in all training opportunities offered by CTFP. During the past year, a successful Civil Military Responses to Terrorism Seminar conducted in Bamako by the faculty of the Naval Postgraduate School was attended by 67 participants from the ministries of defense, security and civil protection, justice, finance, foreign affairs, communication and new technologies.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Mali by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. Mali has participated in all available ACSS programs and has an active chapter of ACSS graduates.

As of the publication date of this report, Mali, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance in the form of grant excess defense articles, military assistance drawdowns, international military education and training, or defense articles or defense services furnished with foreign military financing.
 

Mauritania


 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

12

$103,832

20

$258,623

IMET

7

$85,170

11

$332,670

Regional Centers

8

$42,333

8

$29,568

TOTAL

27

$231,335

39

$620,861


Since 1999, Mauritania has been an active recipient of U.S. military and security related support. However, on August 3, 2005, a small group of Mauritanian military and security officials carried out a successful coup d'etat, overthrowing the government of President Maaouiya Ould Taya. The self-appointed Military Committee for Justice and Democracy (CMJD) took control and appointed an interim civilian government. The United States has condemned the coup d'�tat and has limited its engagement with the government except that which specifically relates to issues of vital U.S. interest such as protection of U.S. citizens, some cooperation on counterterrorism, and humanitarian assistance. Therefore, the following programs are presently under review by the U.S. Government (USG).

Mauritania has been an active participant in the Trans-Sahel Counterterrorism Initiative (TSCTI), which superseded the Pan-Sahel Initiative (PSI), a regional counterterrorism program including Mali, Niger and Chad. The TSCTI program now includes additional countries and is intended to assist Sahelian countries in better coordinating their efforts and strengthening their capabilities to protect their borders, thereby enhancing regional peace and security. In FY05, $47,000 of TSCTI funds was expended, mostly on educational training.

Mauritania also receives Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program funds at the level of $150K. In FY 2005 Mauritania sent 10 students to CONUS for training to enhance their communication skill and capacities across the different defense and security services. Mauritania did not participate in the Excess Defense Articles (EDA) program in FY 2005.

The U.S. trained and equipped the National Demining Office starting in late 1999 and funded two de-mining centers. This assistance, through the provision of FY2004 funding from the Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining and Related Programs (NADR), was intended to allow Mauritania to continue de-mining operations in the northern part of the country, which has the potential for mineral extraction, but is currently isolated and unable to sustain an agricultural base due to the presence of landmines. However, as a result of corruption within the Government of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, the USG has been compelled to table Mauritania's participation in future aspects of the NADR demining program. As an interim solution, the U.S. Embassy has coordinated the Mauritanian Demining Program with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and International NGOs operating in the de-mining areas. The intent is to re-engage the government with demining activities, with a focus on public awareness.

The IMET program for Mauritania focuses on encouraging military support for a democratically elected civilian government and respect for human rights. IMET is focused on military intelligence courses and English language training. A total of eight students participated in FY 2005.

State sponsored anti-terrorist assistance (ATA) training enhances policing capacities for the Gendarmerie, which fulfills some military functions in addition to its civilian role. The National Guard, a military service with a mandate to provide security for diplomatic missions, has also received ATA training in the past. In FY 2005, Mauritanian officials were slated to attend a Senior Crisis Management Seminar in Baton Rouge, LA. However, due to hurricane Katrina, the seminar was cancelled.

Senior Mauritanian civilians and military leaders continue to benefit from the efforts of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). ACSS offers a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Additionally, ACSS helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction amongst participants by offering exchanges, research opportunities and seminars in the United States, Africa and Europe. Mission sponsored three Mauritanians for ACSS Seminars in FY 2005.

Given most Mauritanian's dual linguistic use of French and Arabic, Mauritania also benefits from efforts of the Near East South-Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA). NESA offers programs focused on four broad themes: the impact of globalization on regional strategic issues; the changing strategic environment - including an assessment of the campaign against terrorism and the implications of initiatives such as missile defense and military transformation; elements of strategic planning; and concepts for enhancing regional security. In FY 2005, Mission sponsored seven participants for the NESA programs as well as two students for the Marshall Center, a European-based facility similar to NESA.

As of the publication date of this report, Mauritania is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  �2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Mauritius

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

46

$98,222

10

$106,342

Regional Centers

6

$117,216

1

$0

TOTAL

52

$215,438

11

$106,342

Located 600 miles east of Madagascar, Mauritius is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. The economy relies heavily on exports of sugar and textiles as well as tourism and financial services. Mauritius has one of the strongest economies and highest per capita incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa. While Mauritius has no military, approximately 11,356 active duty personnel under the command of the Police Commissioner are divided into various units including the National Police, a VIP Protection Unit, a Police Helicopter Squadron, a paramilitary Special Mobile Force (SMF), and a National Coast Guard (NCG). Officers on loan from India head up the Coast Guard and the Police Helicopter Squadron.

U.S. military training assistance has focused on the Coast Guard. Through U.S. assistance, it is hoped that the National Coast Guard, created in 1989, will grow into a Mauritian-led organization capable of effectively patrolling territorial waters, stemming narcotics trafficking and illegal fishing, and mounting successful search and rescue operations. Another U.S. foreign policy goal in this area is to improve protection of Mauritius' fragile coastal environment.

FY 2005 IMET funding enabled a U.S. Mobile Training Team to provide in-country training on the legal aspects of peacekeeping and counterterrorism. The Mauritian government has expressed its desire to create a 100-person unit within the special mobile force that would be trained, equipped and available to take part in international peacekeeping efforts. The military peacekeeping training provided to the SMF guards under the IMET Program has allowed them to participate in UN peacekeeping missions in Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, and Comoros.

Officers from the NCG attended U.S.-based training in crisis management and an international maritime officer course. This course provided a strong overview of Coast Guard mission areas, including maritime law enforcement, fisheries protection, pollution control and search and rescue. IMET funds have also enabled an officer from the National Security Service to attend an advance training program at the U.S. Army School.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  �2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Mauritius, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is a party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.


Mozambique

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

30

$170,533

12

$326,013

Regional Centers

5

$88,457

0

$0

TOTAL

35

$258,990

12

$326,013

Mozambique is considered a post-conflict success story. Since the signing of the 1992 Rome Peace Agreement that ended sixteen years of civil war, Mozambique has made significant progress in promoting economic reform and advancing democracy. In December 2004, Mozambique held its third multi-party presidential election since independence in 1975. The result was the peaceful transfer of power from a President in office for 18 years to his duly elected successor. Since 1992, U.S. policy has been to encourage democratic consolidation and socio-economic reform. Success in achieving these goals is essential for lasting peace and prosperity for the Mozambican people and for regional stability. While there is still work to be done, Mozambique is moving in the right direction and has developed into one of Africa's fastest growing economies.

Mozambique has remained active on the regional stage. Two hundred Mozambican troops continue to participate in the UN peacekeeping effort in Burundi. Mozambique actively seeks to participate in observer missions and to develop the capabilities necessary to participate in other peacekeeping missions and the South African Development Community (SADC) Brigade of the African Union Standby Peacekeeping Force. Under the African Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program in Mozambique, the USG will provide peacekeeping operations support training for three Armed Forces of Mozambique (FADM) battalions. The commander, staff, and elements of the First Mozambican Battalion participated in the five-module ACOTA training program between April and July 2005. The commander and staff of a second battalion began the staff training program in August 2005, and the final field training phase for the second battalion will take place in October 2005. Planning for the third ACOTA peacekeeping session is currently underway. Most importantly, for the first time, ACOTA-trained Mozambican troops deployed to the UN Mission in Burundi in December 2005.

HIV/AIDS poses a threat to this progress as trained and ready personnel become unavailable for service and liabilities to the health care system. The Mozambican military is actively participating in the President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) initiative. Through PEPFAR, the capabilities and infrastructure of the Mozambican Military Health Service have been improved, and supplemental IMET funds have been used to provide HIV-related training in the US to military doctors. PEPFAR funds will provide for expanded training in the coming year.

The consolidation of democracy in the post-war period requires that the military play a constructive role by becoming a apolitical and professional military that respects the rule of law and human rights. The FY 2005 IMET program emphasized English language training, professional military education, defense management training, and government ethics. A Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS) seminar on "Legal and Ethic Concerns in Public Agencies," was extremely well received by the Ministry of Defense, and the seminar participants have been directed to conduct training on this subject throughout the military. The lack of qualified candidates and financial constraints in Mozambique are limitations on the impact of the IMET program. The FY 2006 IMET program will continue to emphasize these same areas as well as providing training to naval officers to improve Mozambique's ability to protect its ocean resources and maritime borders. Mozambique received FY 2005 FMF funding that was earmarked to support maritime and coastal security capabilities.

As of the publication date of this report, Mozambique is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  �2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Namibia

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

0

$0

11

$267,921

Regional Centers

10

$158,571

0

$0

TOTAL

10

$158,571

11

$267,921

The primary goals of the U.S. Mission to Namibia are global health, democracy, economic growth and development, and natural resource management. Independent since 1990, Namibia has made significant strides in developing a stable, democratic political system and free-market economy. Assisting Namibia in its efforts to address the HIV/AIDS crisis and to overcome the legacy of apartheid provides a basis for enhanced regional stability, economic development, trade and investment opportunities and advancement of U.S. global interests. Namibia is of growing importance as a provider of peacekeeping troops; it is contributing 900 troops to Liberia and has offered to provide a similar contingent in the event of a UN peacekeeping operation in Sudan.

In 2004, the U.S. Department of Defense contributed to the fight against HIV/AIDS by funding the Social Marketing Association, the agency leading the Namibia Defense Force (NDF) HIV/AIDS education and prevention program. Since its inception in December 2002, SMA has visited 23 bases and educated over 10,000 soldiers.

Two Namibian military/governmental officials attended the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS), which supports Namibia's young democracy by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a program in national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

In past years, International Military Education and Training (IMET) funds supported the training of Namibia Defense Force (NDF) personnel in democratic values, logistics and respect for civilian institutions. However, as of the publication date of this report, Namibia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) (ASPA) from receiving military assistance, so no IMET-funded assistance has been provided since ASPA restrictions took effect. Additionally, no FMS, MTT, CT Fellowships, or Theater Security Cooperation events took place in Namibia during 2004.

As of the publication date of this report, Namibia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Niger

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

9

$62,044

7

$80,110

IMET

0

$0

4

$166,502

Regional Centers

4

$53,944

0

$0

Section 1004

0

$0

0

$720,000

TOTAL

13

$115,988

11

$966,612

Niger has pursued a path to qualify for military assistance following the disruption and suspension of support related to the early 1999 coup. Since FY 2002, IMET and other military-to-military programs have contributed to continued engagement, and such programs provide a vehicle to enhance the Armed Forces' positive role within civil society and to assist the country in its continued democratic transition. However, because Niger has not entered into an Article 98 agreement with the United States, the Nigerien military has not been eligible for IMET-funded assistance since the American Service members' Protection Act restrictions took effect.

The only training options available to Niger in FY 2005 were under the Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) and Joint Combined Exercise Training (JCET). Under CTFP, five Nigerien company grade officers from their counterterrorism unit attended intelligence and infantry officer basic courses in the United States. Additionally, Niger was also able to send senior military officers to a regional seminar on peacekeeping and counterterrorism. U.S. forces also trained two Nigerien Military companies during FLINTLOCK, a JCET exercise. Niger was also able to send three officers to Dakar, Senegal to participate in the Command Post Exercise (CPX) portion of FLINTLOCK.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Niger by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. Nigerien military officers participated in two ACSS sponsored seminars in FY05.

As of the publication date of this report, Niger, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Nigeria

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ALP

1

$7,134

0

$0

CTFP

5

$31,729

5

$251,877

FMS

50

$388,115

34

$1,241,830

IMET

0

$0

38

$861,464

Regional Centers

4

$95,254

1

$100

TOTAL

60

$522,232

78

$2,355,271

U.S. engagement with Nigeria on political, economic, and security issues is vital to the stability and prosperity of West Africa and, indeed, the entire continent. Nigeria is Africa's most populous nation, a key source of U.S. oil imports, and crucial security partner. U.S. trained battalions of the Nigerian Army played a key role in ending the civil war in Liberia and created conditions for a peace settlement in Sierra Leone. Most recently, Nigeria has deployed peacekeeping troops to the Darfur region of Sudan.

Until the inauguration of an elected, civilian government in 1999, the U.S. government had embargoed the export of military goods and services to Nigeria. The lifting of these sanctions permitted the resumption of IMET and other forms of security assistance. In FY 2000 and 2001, over 100 Nigerian military personnel benefited from IMET training. This intensive training focused on changing the attitudes of the Nigerian officer corps after years of military rule. Instilling a sense of the Nigerian military's role in a democratic, civilian government was a key component of our strategy to consolidate democratic gains in the country.

In FY 2003, due to a specific human rights abuse case, legislative restrictions on IMET and FMF funding were implemented. These restrictions prevented Nigeria from participating in the IMET program during FY 2004. These sanctions were lifted in 2005, but new restrictions on IMET and FMF funding related to the continued presence of Charles Taylor in Nigeria were implemented. Should it become eligible in FY 2006, the IMET program in Nigeria will focus on defense resource management and professional military training for mid- to senior-level personnel. This training will be a key component of our effort to professionalize the Nigerian military. Every effort should be made to assist the Nigerian government in its effort to increase the professionalism of its armed forces.

The military, with our assistance, must become focused on military tasks and the creation of a professional, apolitical leadership. We also must continue to support the participation of the armed forces in international and regional peacekeeping and as a strong and willing ally in the war on terrorism.

Despite legislative restrictions on some key activities, U.S.-Nigerian security cooperation remains strong in many areas. Joint training between the U.S. and Nigeria has enhanced the ability of the Nigerian Army to provide security in the key oil producing regions of the country. DoD Counterterrorism Fellowship funds have been used to train Nigerian officers and officials in regional CT issues and to conduct high level, in-country training on how to conduct domestic operations in accordance with the rule of law. Additionally, the U.S. has continued to provide key support to the Nigerian Air Forces C-130 fleet. As a result of this assistance, Nigeria was able to largely self -deploy a unit of peacekeepers to Darfur.

U.S. support of a tactical simulation center has enabled the Nigerian military to improve command and control, tactical planning, and execution of tactical and peacekeeping missions as well as improving coordination with other government agencies. Nigeria will soon enter an ACOTA (African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance) partnership with the U.S., under the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI). Advanced operational planning is underway, and the initial training package should be delivered in early 2006. Participation in ACOTA will further enhance Nigeria's peacekeeping capabilities and support the military reprofessionalization goals of the military's senior leadership.

The President has waived the prohibition in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Nigeria, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States. 


Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

68

$100,376

9

$188,528

Regional Centers

5

$73,172

0

$0

TOTAL

73

$173,548

9

$188,528

Emerging from a five-year period of instability that included a civil war and major instability from 1997-2001, the Republic of Congo has made considerable progress in moving towards more democratic political and economic systems and a more peaceful and stable country. Presidential and legislative elections were held in 2002, and a peace agreement was signed in March 2003 with the last vestiges of the rebel factions known as the "Ninjas." Since the 2002 elections, the government has made some progress in rebuilding institutions destroyed during the years of civil conflict in an attempt to restore the faith and confidence of the Congolese people in the government. The country continues to require considerable repair of its infrastructure and basic social services. As a post-conflict country, Congo still faces challenges to ensure that it remains on the path to develop fully transparency procedures and expand efforts on good governance. Over the past year, the country continued to address anti-corruption issues and improve transparency in the economic and oil sectors as outlined in its International Monetary Fund program.

IMET funds have historically been used to support Congolese efforts to restructure and professionalize the Congolese military. In 2005, Brazzaville's limited IMET was used to further enhance an English Language Laboratory that prepares Congolese military officers and non-commissioned officers for Professional Military Education (PME) courses. In 2006, IMET will be used to host a rule of law conference for senior-level military officers.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Congo-Brazzaville by offering senior African civilian and military leaders courses in civil-military relations and technical issues. In 2005, government officials participated in regional seminars on small arms, energy security, and leadership. One senior level officer took the "Next Generation of African Military Leaders" course in Washington DC in April 2005. ACSS participation helps build and maintain long-term interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The President has waived the prohibition in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to the Republic of Congo (Brazzaville), a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.


Rwanda

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

70

$83,898

1

$75,608

IMET

9

$231,739

2

$24,645

Regional Centers

13

$69,950

0

$0

TOTAL

92

$385,587

3

$100,253

U.S. programs in Rwanda aim at preventing the recurrence of genocide (which claimed some 800,000 lives in 1994) by helping to create the political, economic and social conditions that will lead to a prosperous civil society that embraces democratic governance and respect for human rights. To achieve these goals, the U.S. has implemented a variety of political, humanitarian and economic assistance programs that support U.S. interests in aiding Rwanda's transition to sustainable development while securing regional peace and stability in Africa's Great Lakes Region.

Following a two-year period of suspension, IMET was reinstated for Rwanda on March 5, 2003, but was limited to Expanded IMET (E-IMET) pending further review. Since reinstatement, Rwanda Defense Forces (RDF) officers have attended training in the United States and Mobile Training Teams have trained RDF officers in Rwanda. The U.S. recently provided "Just-in-Time" training for Rwandan troops deploying to Darfur for peacekeeping operations as part of the Africa Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS).

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Rwanda by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Rwanda is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Sao Tome And Principe

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

38

$180,421

14

$253,374

Regional Centers

4

$72,710

0

$0

TOTAL

42

$253,131

14

$253,374

Sao Tome and Principe (STP) is a maturing multi-party democracy that observes political and civil liberties. In July 2001, President Fradique de Menezes was elected in the third democratic transfer of power since 1991. In July 2003, some members of the military supported a coup attempt that was resolved through successful talks between the rebels and a multinational negotiating team, including the United States. In June 2005, the cabinet resigned in protest of alleged corruption in the awarding of oil concessions to consortiums with ties to Nigeria. The President reached an agreement with the majority party in the National Assembly and was able to appoint a new government the same month. STP is one of the poorest and most heavily indebted nations in Africa and its economic problems could undermine its long-term stability and democratic institutions. At the same time, the country's social indicators are strong for such a poor country. The discovery of large oil reserves in STP's coastal waters promises considerable new revenues, and will also make Sao Tome and Principe a major player in the economically and strategically important Gulf of Guinea.

IMET facilitates the building of effective relations between the STP and the U.S. militaries. It exposes the trainee-participants to U.S. professional military organizations, procedures and the manner in which the U.S. military functions under civilian control. IMET in FY 2005 focused on improving military professionalism and maritime security while continuing to develop the English language capability of STP military personnel, thereby enhancing STP's ability to participate in other IMET courses. The U.S. Coast Guard provided training to 30 members of the Sao Tomean military and Ministry of Fisheries. In addition, participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic aims in STP by reinforcing the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders. The USCGC Bear visited Sao Tome and provided maintenance and operational training to the Sao Tomean Coast Guard. The USS Emory S. Land also embarked two Sao Tomean Coast Guard Officers for a month of more intensive training. Throughout the year, EUCOM sponsored six training seminars that benefited over two hundred members of the Sao Tomean Military and various Ministry officials. A twenty-seven foot Boston Whaler is expected to be delivered to the Sao Tomean Coast Guard in February 2006.

As of the publication date of this report, Sao Tome and Principe is not a State Party to the Rome Statute, and is a party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States. Therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act from receiving military assistance.


Senegal

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ALP

1

$26,535

0

$0

CTFP

34

$158,926

3

$117,284

IMET

47

$1,225,400

42

$1,522,553

Regional Centers

5

$88,818

0

$0

TOTAL

87

$1,499,679

45

$1,639,837

Senegal is our most important Francophone partner in sub-Saharan Africa, a supporter of key U.S. foreign policy initiatives and a consistent voice for moderation and compromise in multilateral and Islamic organizations. Senegal was the first sub-Saharan country to offer troops to Operation Desert Shield. Senegal plays a key role in ensuring a vital U.S. interest: regional stability. Senegal is a participant in the African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) program and participated in Operation Focus Relief (OFR). It hosted the first Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminar in November 1999 and the first brigade-level exercise under ACRI (ACOTA predecessor) in October 2000, and has been a leader in the program ever since. The Senegalese military has distinguished itself in peacekeeping operations in Sudan, Cote d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Liberia, Sierra Leone, Lebanon, Rwanda, Bosnia, and the Sinai. They currently have about 25% of their army deployed supporting PKO.

IMET underpins all US-Senegalese cooperation. The continuing development of a cadre of professional officers through the IMET program is in the interest of the U.S. and will reinforce Senegal as a full partner with its neighbors in peacekeeping operations in the sub-region. IMET training and ACSS programs have complimented training under ACOTA to strengthen the levels of professionalism within the Senegalese officer and NCO corps. Reinforcing the traditions of a professional civilian-controlled military that emphasizes respect for democratic principles, human rights and the rule of law will set an example for other nations in the sub-region. By working with Senegal to further democracy and economic liberalization, the U.S. helps strengthen the democratic foundation of a country whose growth and successes are extremely important.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Senegal by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Senegal is a strong supporter of the U.S. Global War on Terrorism. During FY 2005, Senegal completed the education of one officer at the Defense Planning for Decision Makers Course in Monterey, California. They also sent officers to regional CT conferences in Chad, Ghana, and Guinea.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Senegal, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.


Seychelles

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

19

$85,529

6

$122,772

Regional Centers

5

$107,520

0

$0

TOTAL

24

$193,049

6

$122,772

Seychelles, an archipelago located in the Indian Ocean, has a population of 80,000 inhabitants. Tourism and seafood are the primary sources of income. Former President Rene stepped down in 2004 after twenty-seven years in power and peacefully handed power to Vice President Michel.

The purpose of U.S. sponsored military training in Seychelles is to professionalize the Seychelles Peoples Defense Forces and improve the skills necessary to enforce maritime law and protect the marine environment and local fisheries. An important byproduct of U.S. military engagement with Seychelles is access to air and seaports.

IMET training, administered by the U.S. Military Liaison Office in Kenya, has focused on maritime training for the Seychelles Coast Guard. In the past, this has included classes on coastal security, search and rescue, and maritime law courses on the environment and fisheries issues. The program continues to have a positive influence on continued access to the island. Mobile Training Team courses have generally been viewed as being more productive and cost efficient, as they allow for greater numbers of the Seychelles military to participate. However, in FY 2005 additional emphasis was placed upon resident training in the U.S. for professional military education (PME) courses. Seychelles received FY 2005 FMF funding that was earmarked to support maritime and coastal security capabilities.

In 2005, officers from the Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Foreign Affairs participated in training events conducted by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). ACSS supports democratic governance in Seychelles by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Seychelles is not a State Party to the Rome Statute, therefore, it is not prohibited by  �2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Sierra Leone

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

1

$11,242

0

$0

IMET

118

$209,777

9

$242,392

Regional Centers

2

$31,494

0

$0

TOTAL

121

$252,513

9

$242,392

Our priorities in Sierra Leone are to consolidate peace by enhancing political and economic governance, reducing corruption, building national capacity for conflict prevention (including training a professional, civilian-led military), and preparing for elections in 2007. The security situation in Sierra Leone continued to improve during 2005, and there has been no significant violence since December 2001. In August 2005, UN Security Council Resolution 1620 established a UN Integrated Office (UNIOSIL) as a transition presence from The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), which departed December 20, 2005.

Over 45,000 combatants were disarmed in a UNAMSIL-supervised disarmament program that was declared complete in January 2002. Parliamentary and presidential elections took place May 14, 2002 without any violence. The next elections are scheduled for 2007. The Special Court for Sierra Leone is scheduled to conclude in 2006 its trials of those most responsible for crimes under international humanitarian law during the 11-year long civil war. The Government of Sierra Leone's efforts to consolidate constitutional order and state authority by improving its diamond industry and by decentralizing administrative machinery has been commendable. Although Sierra Leone is no longer considered a "post-conflict" country, many root causes of its civil war are yet to be addressed, including poverty, youth unemployment, illiteracy, lack of basic infrastructure, and to establish a culture of respect for human rights by enacting recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF) has benefited from British training and has deployed to the borders with Liberia and with Guinea, where border demarcation is ongoing.

IMET-funded training focused on professional military education (PME) courses and participation in Mobile Education Training seminars provided by the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS).

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Sierra Leone by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Sierra Leone, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.


South Africa

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

1

$0

2

$0

FMF

58

$778,975

16

$11,564

FMS

7

$69,833

3

$885

IMET

0

$0

2

$62,987

Regional Centers

9

$76,522

0

$0

TOTAL

75

$925,330

23

$75,436

After South Africa's first democratic elections in May 1994, the new government undertook a sweeping transformation of its military. The transformation has included incorporating ten former homeland militaries and anti-apartheid militant groups with the regular armed forces into what is now known as the South African National Defense Force (SANDF). The SANDF leadership struggles with issues of racial representation within the military; differences in levels of training, education and promotion criteria among the various groups; and limited resources as the new government focuses on providing services to the historically disadvantaged majority.

The South African Government is also struggling to define an appropriate mission for the SANDF and to structure the force to accomplish that mission. In recent years, SANDF forces have been deployed for border control, police support and peacekeeping operations in Burundi, DRC, Lesotho and elsewhere in Africa. A controversial multi-billion dollar defense acquisition program will add corvettes, submarines, jet fighters, trainers and helicopters to the SANDF arsenal. At the same time, downsizing efforts are expected to bring SANDF forces from a peak of 100,000 to around 60,000.

U.S. interests are served by assisting South Africa to transform its military into a professional, apolitical force capable and willing to undertake a regional leadership role commensurate with the country's size, population and level of development. A successful transformation will serve as a model for other African countries with which the United States can cooperate on conflict resolution and peacekeeping. South Africa and the U.S. enjoy a close military relationship, meeting annually to exchange views at the Defense Committee.

To advance the SANDF's transformation and pursue a strong security assistance partnership, in the past the IMET program provided training (such as command and staff college, logistics and military law) for officers who may not have received formal leadership training. IMET has also allowed our militaries to exchange expertise in the area of equal opportunity. IMET has assisted the SANDF with minimal technical training, such as flight safety training, to enable the SANDF to maintain the relatively high-tech military it inherited. Additional training has focused on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, pilot instructor training, military acquisition seminars and on peacekeeping operations. However, because South Africa has not entered into an Article 98 agreement with the United States, SANDF forces have not been eligible for IMET or new FMF funded assistance since the American Servicemembers' Protection Act restrictions took effect.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in South Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Due to ASPA sanctions, the only USG-funded training was provided by the ACSS in FY 2005. Four SANDF personnel were sent to ACSS courses during the year: one to "The Threat of Small Arms & Light Weapons Proliferation in Africa" seminar, two to "Next Generation of African Military Leaders" course, and one to "Senior Leader Seminar." ODC South Africa is attempting to facilitate using Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program monies in hope of increasing USG-funded training in FY 2006.

As of the publication date of this report, South Africa, a State Party to the Rome Statute is prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act (ASPA) of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Swaziland

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

1

$2,174

0

$0

IMET

11

$138,379

10

$191,470

Regional Centers

4

$69,590

0

$0

TOTAL

16

$210,143

10

$191,470

U.S. government funding for military training in Swaziland is designed to promote democracy, human rights, and professional development. During the past year, the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program sent five members of the Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (USDF) to the U.S. to improve the professional competencies of the officer corps.

Over the past several years, there has been increasing pressure both internationally and domestically for Swaziland to move from its current system of absolute monarchy toward democracy. In a first step towards this end, King Mswati III recently ratified Swaziland's first constitution in over 30 years. The IMET program, by promoting the professionalization of the Swazi defense force and the role of an apolitical military that respects human rights, will be of vital importance for the rule of law to take hold in this country.

In addition, USG funding has been helping the USDF combat its growing HIV/AIDS problem by training lab technicians to provide in-house services for HIV positive members of the USDF. Swaziland's current prevalence rate is 42.6% - the highest in the world. Although the USDF has not been specifically surveyed, UNAIDS estimates that in the military HIV can be 2-5 percent higher than other populations.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Swaziland by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. Swaziland has benefited from training designed to assist the next generation of African military leaders to successfully address complex domestic and regional security challenges, as well as training for the legal aspects of conflict prevention and combating terrorism.

As of the publication date of this report, Swaziland is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Tanzania

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

6

$186,020

6

$142,914

IMET

0

$0

1

$24,923

Regional Centers

5

$70,051

0

$0

TOTAL

11

$256,071

7

$167,837


Tanzania is in a critically important location in Africa. Porous borders and easy access into Tanzania from neighboring countries and overseas make Tanzania a prime target of terrorist threats, as demonstrated by the tragic bombing of the U.S. Embassy in August 1998. The port in Dar es Salaam serves as the entry point for shipment of goods to other parts of central Africa. Tanzania is also the main reception point for refugees fleeing instability in neighboring countries, most notably Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Indeed, Tanzania has the most refugees of any African country. The numbers have decreased as the region slowly stabilizes, but Tanzania still hosts approximately 400,000 refugees. The economic, criminal and possible military problems of such a large refugee group present serious security issues for Tanzania.

Tanzania also serves a crucial political role, serving as the seat for the Arusha peace talks aimed at ending the ethnic bloodshed in Burundi and for the International Criminal Court for Rwanda. The Government of Tanzania is frequently called upon to mediate between its neighbors. Tanzania also serves as an important partner with Uganda and Kenya in the development of the East Africa Community (EAC). In addition to integrating the markets and economic policies of these three countries, the EAC envisions facilitating security cooperation among the three nations through a military liaison office.

Tanzania is a relatively stable country, favorably disposed to U.S.-led initiatives and training programs, such as within the law enforcement and health sectors. During FY 2005, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) allocated over $84 million USD to Tanzania for HIV/AIDS training programs. Tanzania has offered assistance including intelligence information to the Global War on Terrorism effort.

The IMET program is crucial to Tanzania-U.S. relations because it helps professionalize its armed forces and enables Tanzania's armed forces to look closely at cooperation at the regional level in organizations like the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). The counterterrorism resident training courses provided by the U.S. and funded by SOLIC have helped train Tanzania's mid-level and senior military and civilian leaders. This is helping to provide the leadership, concept and instructor base for Tanzania's establishment of a National Counterterrorism Center, planned for the near future. The existence of Islamic extremists in Tanzania makes this effort critical for the protection of American interests in the area. The fact that Tanzania has not signed an Article 98 agreement limited their participation in U.S. military training opportunities in FY 2005 and will continue to do so in FY 2006.

Although ASPA restrictions preclude scheduling future IMET and FMF opportunities, the Tanzanian military, through SOLIC funding, accepted five counterterrorism resident training courses in FY 2005, to include sending two TPDF military officers to the National Defense University, three officers to the Civil-Military Responses to Terrorism Course, and two TPDF officers to the Naval Post Graduate School. For FY 2006, Tanzania has accepted two slots to the International Special Forces Training Course (ISFTC), one slot at the National Defense University, one slot for the Counterterrorism Resident Training Course, and one slot for the Combined Strategic Intelligence Training Program (CSITP). All of the programs projected for FY 2006 are exempt from ASPA restrictions and funded by SOLIC.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) continued to support democratic governance in Tanzania by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. Tanzanian participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities. For FY 2006, Tanzania plans to send one officer to the Junior Officer Counterterrorism Fellowship Seminar, two mid-level officers to the Next Generation of African Leaders Seminar, and two military or civilians to the Senior Leader Seminar.

Tanzania also participated in the Golden Spear 2005 Symposium "Civil-Military Cooperation in Disaster Management" in Nairobi, Kenya 14-18 August 2005. Participants included two representatives from the Office of the Prime Minister, Tanzania's Disaster Management National Focal Point Officer, and two representatives from the Ministry of Health.

As of the publication date of this report, Tanzania, a State Party to the Rome Statute, is prohibited by  � 2007 of the of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.
 

Togo

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

4

$40,656

6

$176,934

Regional Centers

8

$180,064

0

$0

TOTAL

12

$220,720

6

$176,934

Thirty-eight years after seizing power in a military coup, former President Gnassingbe Eyadema unexpectedly died in February 2005. During his reign, the rule of law was not respected, human rights abuses were de rigueur behavior and the military was used as a tool of repression. After Eyadema's death, the military installed his son, Faure Gnassingbe, as the president in contravention of the constitution. After sustained international pressure, Faure stepped down and Togo held presidential elections. In a hotly contested election, marred by serious irregularities, Faure was declared the winner.

The Government of Togo, under Eyadema, had begun formal political consultations with the European Union in 2004, promising to make improvements in the areas of democracy, civil liberties and human rights. The current government is working within the same framework in the hopes of resuming bilateral aid programs. Some progress has been achieved as a result of these consultations - a revised, less repressive press code and the release of political prisoners - but there has been little genuine engagement with the political opposition, the sine qua non of national reconciliation. The government is also in the formative stages of a judicial and military reform process.

In spite of its political and economic problems, Togo has played a major role - disproportionate to its small size - in the sub-region to promote peace and stability. Togo's troops continue to support both Cote d'Ivoire and Liberia in their peacekeeping efforts. In September 2005, Togo dispatched peacekeepers to Haiti.

Because of Togo's difficult transition to democracy and because of the role the military played in this year's constitutional machinations and election-related violence, we have suspended all military assistance indefinitely. In FY 2005, we did, however, provide funding assistance for HIV/AIDS activities and continued English language training. Funding from the Department of State's IMET program was going to be used to send an officer to an International Defense Management Course, but since assistance was suspended, this was cancelled.

As of the publication date of this report, Togo is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Uganda

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

1

$10,724

1

$11,162

FMF

71

$452,319

0

$492,622

IMET

95

$433,394

23

$506,798

Regional Centers

21

$464,166

0

$0

TOTAL

188

$1,360,603

24

$1,010,582

Located astride the troubled regions of the Great Lakes and East Africa, Uganda played a positive role in 2005 to resolve chronic regional tensions. President Yoweri Museveni, as chairman of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), pushed a new Somali transitional government to reinstall itself in Somalia, maintained international pressure on Burundi to see through its peace accord and elect a new government, and worked with Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to enact confidence-building measures and move forward to disarm and demobilize militias in eastern Congo. Meantime, Uganda continues to professionalize its military and find the proper role for it as a republican force. Uganda has been a staunch backer of the Global War on Terror.

By mid-2003, the Ugandan Peoples' Defense Force (UPDF) withdrew its forces from the DRC. However, the Ugandan Government continues to complain that the DRC is unstable and provides a haven for remnants of anti-government rebel groups, the Allied Democratic Force (ADF), the People's Redemption Army (PRA), and most recently the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). Meantime, improved relations with Sudan enabled the UPDF to continue to score successes in 2005 against the LRA, by splintering and reducing their ranks. Nevertheless, more than 1.3 million Ugandans in the North remain internally displaced because of the 19-year-old conflict.

President Museveni and his single-party Movement system of government helped Uganda leave behind the dark years of Idi Amin. In 2005, Uganda finally adopted a multi-party system of government after a popular referendum supported the change. Museveni loyalists in Parliament, however, successfully pushed through a constitutional amendment eliminating presidential term limits in order to allow Museveni to extend his 20-year time in power.

As a result of Uganda's withdrawal from the DRC, the State Department relaxed restrictions on the International Military Education Training (IMET) program. In 2004, the U.S. Government lifted the last restrictions on Ugandan participation in regular IMET training.

The U.S. sponsored a civil-military relations seminar for 20 civil society leaders and 20 UPDF officers in March 2005. A professional development team of five U.S. Air Force non-commissioned officers trained their counterparts in May. In June, a team of commissioned officers from the U.S. Air Force conducted similar training for their counterparts in the Uganda Air Force. Five U.S. military instructors spent two months at the Uganda Senior Command and Staff College in Jinja to conduct training on topics related to the professionalization of the armed forces.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Uganda, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.


Zambia

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

77

$196,223

25

$288,961

TOTAL

77

$196,223

25

$288,961

 

Zambia has been a commendable example of peace and stability in southern Africa. Not only has Zambia avoided involvement in the civil conflicts of two of its neighbors, Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), but it also has played a leading role in efforts to broker and implement a cease-fire agreement for DRC.

Zambia must deal with a host of domestic political and economic challenges. The economy contracted sharply for over two decades because of irresponsible economic management and over-reliance on one commodity, copper. Zambia returned to multi-party democracy in 1991 after nearly two decades of one-party rule, but corruption and cronyism undermined the rule of law throughout the ensuing decade. Zambia held its third multiparty national elections in late 2001. The U.S. and other donor countries work with the public and private sectors in Zambia to support market-driven growth, develop good governance and combat the HIV/AIDS epidemic. A more prosperous, democratic Zambia can serve as a strong model in a region of increasing economic and political importance to the United States.

The Zambian Defense Force (ZDF), which developed a cold war mentality under socialist rule, suffers from a lack of resources, which severely hampers its training and professional development. U.S. military training assistance has greatly benefited the Zambian military, and been especially useful for Zambian junior ranking officers and enlisted personnel. Previous IMET-funded instruction in tactical armor, infantry, logistics and advanced leadership has helped improve the professional capability of the ZDF. Continued IMET training in these and other military professional development courses would build on this progress. Training provided by the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS) support the overall U.S. interest in consolidating democracy and rule of law in Zambia. Military training has also contributed to economic development. A ZDF demining unit trained with U.S. assistance removed unexploded ordnance that had hampered key infrastructure projects. Continued participation by Zambian military personnel in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminars help develop the senior leadership necessary to sustain and improve the ZDF. IMET graduates and ACSS participants return to Zambia following studies to positions commensurate with their training and an ability to influence change. Zambia participates in the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program. In September 2005 ACOTA trainers facilitated a successful Training Strategy Conference, which lays the groundwork for the next phase of the program, staff and field training, which is expected to begin in 2006.

The ZDF has received extensive USG assistance in training for its Inspector General (IG) on investigation techniques and audit mechanisms. This training, designed to help the IG better uncover and avoid corruption, is part of a broader program of USG support for President Mwanawasa's anti-corruption campaign. Training was also provided to members of the ZDF on Combating International Terrorism and Crime, as part of strong USG commitment to assisting foreign countries' understanding of and capacity in combating terrorism.

The ZDF's estimated HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is more than 50%. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief provides millions of dollars annually to prevention, care and treatment programs for the Zambian military and its health service; these activities represent the biggest HIV/AIDS effort linked to a foreign military in the world. The Embassy's Defense Attach� Office has used Emergency Plan funding to initiate a prevalence study for the Zambian military. The study results will be used to improve HIV counseling and testing, diagnosis, care and treatment to HIV infected personnel as part of the USG's commitment to assisting Africa with its AIDS epidemic.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Zambia, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.



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