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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--Near East Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2005 and 2006
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
September 2006
Report
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Algeria

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

5

$48,047

14

$272,945

IMET

65

$533,422

51

$1,404,126

Regional Centers

11

$90,074

13

$13,664

TOTAL

81

$671,543

78

$1,690,735

The United States has a clear interest in increasing regional stability by promoting democracy, economic reform and security in Algeria. The proposed training plan advises a measured approach in order to encourage continuing reform within the Algerian military establishment, including gradual moves towards greater pluralism and respect for civilian authority and human rights. After a decade of bitter conflict, attacks by armed terrorist insurgents have diminished, allowing the Algerian military to refocus its counterterrorism efforts on programs of collaboration with regional partners. Currently, the Algerian military, in tandem with these regional partners, is working to secure its long and porous borders. In addition, Algeria inaugurated the Algiers-based African Union Counterterrorism Research Center in October 2004. The Center aims to provide a coordinated regional research venue for counterterrorism efforts in all African Union countries. The Government of Algeria has also expressed a keen interest in expanding the scope of its cooperation with the United States in its efforts to combat terrorism and ensure stability in the Mediterranean. Algeria has proven to be an important partner in U.S. efforts to stem the tide of terrorist activity in North Africa and the Mediterranean in recent years and as such has seen substantial increases in the amount of United States counterterrorism cooperation. To further this burgeoning relationship, the single most important area of education for Algerian military personnel is, and will remain, professional education of mid-level and senior leaders in order to build a cadre of personnel who can function effectively with the U.S. and regional counterparts.

Participation in the IMET program helps Algerian military officers build contacts with U.S. counterparts, better understand U.S. policy, become more aware of international norms and develop greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military. IMET training promotes professionalism and reinforces the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. Those officers who participate in the IMET program will establish essential contacts with U.S. counterparts whose influence can encourage reform within the Algerian military. In FY 2006, IMET funds will be used to send Algerian officers to key professional military education (PME) courses as well as to selected technical training courses. We will continue to focus on IMET-funded English language training in order to expand and improve the Algerian military's interoperability with U.S. forces, facilitate interaction in potential future contingency operations such as peacekeeping missions and prepare Algerian military personnel for increased training opportunities.

In addition, Algerian participation in programs in both the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) and the Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA) supports democratic governance in Algeria by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. Such participation helps build and maintain long-term interaction amongst participants. It also supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities between these participants on relevant topics in Africa, the Middle East, Europe and the United States.

As of the publication date of this report, Algeria is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Bahrain

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMS

15

$3,123,701

10

$3,335,997

IMET

62

$686,966

78

$657,335

Regional Centers

0

$0

8

$0

TOTAL

77

$3,810,667

96

$3,993,332

The United States has an enduring national security interest in maintaining its access to Bahraini military facilities in order to maintain our influence in the Persian Gulf and to conduct operations in the on-going Global War on Terrorism. Bahrain has hosted the U.S. Navy 5th Fleet for more than 50 years. The relatively open access to facilities, land and airspace needed to support contingency operations, including joint task force, fleet and Multinational Interception Force (MIF) operations, are critical to maintaining U.S. operations in the region. In addition, Bahrain annually hosts important exercises that involve U.S. forces.

Our security and political relationship with Bahrain continues to be strong. Bahrain and the United States have maintained a Defense Cooperation Agreement (DCA) since 1991. Bahrain has been a steadfast supporter of our foreign policy objectives throughout the Near East region. In 2001, the President designated Bahrain a Major Non-NATO Ally. Bahrain has also been a critical supporter of our containment of Iranian ambitions in the region and has been a key supporter of the Global War on Terrorism. Bahrain responded positively to all NAVCENT and U.S. military requests for Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, and will remain a critical hub for the U.S. presence in the Gulf and Southwest Asia. Bahrain has been an active participant in the War on Terrorism and was the only Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) country to provide a ship to the Coalition effort. Bahrain assumed a leadership role in regional efforts to cut the flow of funding to terrorist groups.

Training activities funded under IMET and the approval of selected commercial and FMS arms sales promote the interoperability of the Bahrain Defense Forces with existing U.S. and GCC forces in the region. Through the IMET program, Bahrain sends officers to U.S. command and staff colleges, and other key professional military education (PME) and technical courses. IMET training reinforces democratic principles of civilian control of the military, enhances interoperability with U.S. forces, promotes professionalism and reinforces among core supporters of the regime the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. In addition, Bahrain has in the past sent students to the U.S. service academies. By improving English language skills and understanding of the U.S. military, these training programs directly enhance the effectiveness of our bilateral and multilateral joint training programs.

By its own terms,  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit the provision of military assistance to Bahrain.


Egypt

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

11

$11,513

4

$9,960

DOHS/USCG Activities

30

$37,000

0

$0

FMF

827

$16,935,996

342

$13,095,990

IMET

55

$1,439,228

66

$1,725,774

Regional Centers

18

$165,678

12

$19,920

TOTAL

941

$18,589,415

424

$14,851,644

Egypt is a pivotal country in the Arab world and a key U.S. ally in the Middle East. In 1996, the President designated Egypt a Major Non-NATO Ally. The U.S. seeks to promote regional peace and security by encouraging Egypt's continued participation and leadership in Middle East peace efforts. Egypt has been at peace with Israel for over two decades, but has potentially hostile rivals in Sudan and Libya. Egypt faces challenges in securing sea lines of communication, protecting territorial and Nile headwaters and protecting its vast, sparsely populated borders with Sudan and Libya.

Egypt's strategic location and control of the Suez Canal make it a critical transit point for general commerce and petroleum shipments, as well as for transiting U.S. forces. Egypt's cooperation in providing access to and security of the Suez Canal is strategically important. Since 9/11, Egypt has granted tens of thousands of clearances for military over flights and clearances for the passage of over 950 U.S. Navy ships. Additionally, Egypt has been extremely cooperative in working with the U.S. to crack down on those financing the activities of terrorist entities. President Mubarak, the elder statesman of the Arab world, was the first head of an Arab state to make a public statement of support for the strikes in Afghanistan. Egypt has also deployed a field hospital to Bagram, Afghanistan that has been in place for over two years. This hospital has treated over 150,000 Afghan patients and has been especially effective in providing treatment options for local women.

Egypt continues to play a major role in the Global War on Terrorism and in fostering regional stability by acting as a reliable coalition partner and through constant engagement in the Middle East Peace Process. Egypt participates in a number of annual joint military exercises, and hosts the biennial Operation Bright Star, the largest joint and combined military training exercise in the world. Bright Star 2005 was a robust exercise that sent an important message to the region about U.S. and coalition regional power projection capabilities. Additionally, funding under the DoD Counterterrorism Fellowship Program provides the Government of Egypt with the ability to sustain its counterterrorism framework in support of the war on terrorism.

Egypt's replacement of outmoded Soviet-era equipment with more capable and sustainable U.S. equipment is well underway. Increasing the amount of U.S.-origin equipment in the Egyptian inventory augments U.S. interoperability with Egypt, enhancing their value as a coalition partner. Egypt's military modernization is now giving way to transformation, encouraging long-term defense reform for not only organization and equipment, but also in the development of a more professional cadre of military leaders better able to support democratic reform in the country and the democratically elected government.

Egypt's training, funded under the IMET and FMF programs, enhances counterterrorism training, improves Egypt's maintenance and supply capabilities, increases English language skills of the Egyptian officer corps and improves pilot proficiency. Attendance at professional military education courses at all levels advances leadership skills and improves understanding between our militaries. All of these programs directly enhance joint training.

The Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA) and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Egypt by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program of instruction in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. NESA and ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants. It also supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities amongst participants on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

By its own terms,  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit the provision of military assistance to Egypt.


Iraq

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ALP

0

$0

2

$78,440

CTFP

6

$65,003

25

$436,945

FMF

0

$0

35

$235,420

IMET

4

$193,180

28

$1,524,943

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

57

$2,157,742

271

$27,084,914

Regional Centers

19

$77,968

33

$141,240

Section 506

0

$0

2

$28,251

TOTAL

86

$2,493,893

396

$29,530,153

The United States, together with its coalition partners, successfully conducted Operation Iraqi Freedom to remove the Saddam Hussein regime from power. Iraq is now a country in transition, struggling to build a democratic government and simultaneously working towards establishing a new Armed Force and Internal Security Force. U.S. stabilization support has thus far focused much of its effort on counterinsurgency/counterterrorism training. Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funding was instrumental in securing U.S-based training for many Iraqi officers, a precedent that we hope to continue. CTFP support will enable Iraq to develop organic English Language training to facilitate further participation of Iraqi forces in future military training programs. CTFP's efforts will promote U.S.-Iraqi interoperability and will allow for greater cooperation in the continuing Global War on Terrorism.

The reconstruction effort in Iraq is still ongoing. The Coalition continues to work with the international community and the Iraqi people to build a new Iraq on the foundation of peace and democracy. Central to this effort is the need to build effective, responsible and professional security institutions.

As of the publication date of this report, Iraq is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  �2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Israel

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

6

$18,846

8

$0

FMF

513

$24,302,548

521

$2,149,424

FMS

192

$4,202,027

188

$1,084,155

Regional Centers

11

$0

12

$0

TOTAL

722

$28,523,421

729

$3,233,579

The U.S. has a vested interest in promoting a stable, democratic and militarily strong Israel that is at peace with its neighbors. President Bush has reiterated the U.S.'s steadfast commitment to Israel's security, to the maintenance of Israel's qualitative military edge and to strengthening Israel's ability to deter potential aggressors and defend itself. Maintaining Israel's qualitative military edge in the regional balance of power enhances Israel's security and helps prevent regional conflict.

The U.S. has provided Israel with over $100 billion in economic and military assistance since 1949 and Israel continues to receive the largest share of U.S. security assistance worldwide. Foreign military training, both as a portion of U.S.-provided FMF and as DoD-funded non-security assistance, is important to maintain Israel's qualitative military edge, which, in turn, enhances Israel's security. Training for Israeli personnel during FY 2005 included Air War College and Navy and Marine Command and General Staff College courses, flight simulator and flight safety officer training, and armament maintenance training, among other programs. By providing both technical expertise and exposure to U.S. military culture and personnel, these programs significantly strengthen U.S.-Israel military ties and bolster Israel's ability to protect itself.

By its own terms,  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit the provision of military assistance to Israel.


Jordan

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ALP

1

$21,341

1

$36,391

CTFP

162

$960,227

46

$432,279

EIPC

3

$40,982

0

$0

FMF

59

$39,479

51

$1,281,657

IMET

250

$3,813,283

231

$3,243,634

Regional Centers

16

$77,207

12

$25,104

Service Academies

2

$116,715

0

$0

TOTAL

493

$5,069,234

341

$5,019,065

Stability and economic prosperity in the Middle East support U.S. national security objectives. Jordan is in a position to play a pivotal role as a stabilizing influence in the region because of its moderate, pro-Western stance and its borders with Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Syria, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Political stability and economic development, however, are necessary prerequisites for enhancing Jordan's ability to exert a moderate influence in the region. King Abdullah II has made significant progress increasing Jordan's governmental accountability and moving Jordan towards international economic integration. Jordan continues to lead the region in its quest for moderation and accountability in religious and lay institutions.

Peace in the Middle East is one of Jordan's highest priorities, especially in light of its significant Palestinian population and its peace treaty with Israel. Jordan is also in a unique position to contribute to collective regional security goals. Jordan is playing a key role in support of Iraq stability and reconstruction, to include facilitating training for up to 32,000 Iraqi police cadets and providing training for some 2,000 Iraqi military officers at Jordanian military colleges. Jordan has deployed a field hospital to Fallujah, which has, so far, treated over 528,975 Iraqi civilians and conducted 1,693 operations. Jordan has been a strong supporter of the Global War on Terrorism and deployed an airborne company, field hospital, demining unit, and a Special Operations Battalion to Afghanistan in support of coalition operations. Jordan receives Coalition Support Funding for its incremental operational costs associated with providing direct support to ongoing operations. Jordan has relatively porous borders with Saudi Arabia, Syria and Iraq where transnational terrorism is a major consideration and threat. Jordan is especially critical to the Middle East Peace Process, considering approximately 62% of the country's population is Palestinian. The Jordanian Armed Forces' (JAF) main mission is to protect against external threats; however, the JAF maintains close ties with Jordan's Public Security Directorate over transnational threats, although increased, appropriate focus is on the JAF's role against internal threats. The JAF maintains close ties with Jordan's Public Security Directorate over transnational threats, which could jeopardize internal security of the Kingdom. The JAF's efforts to curb transnational terrorism within the region directly support U.S. security interests within the Middle East.

The U.S.-Jordan military-to-military relationship is excellent, and Jordan has been designated a Major Non-NATO Ally. FMF helps the Jordanian armed forces address their readiness and sustainment requirements as well as interoperability with U.S. forces, and this program remains the only source of funds for Jordanian military modernization programs as outlined in their Five-Year Plan. FMF also supports counterterrorism and border security requirements. Jordan's successful efforts at border control are critical to prevent illicit trafficking of arms, explosives, drugs, terrorists, and equipment for use in the production of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. Improved security for Jordanian borders translates into enhanced domestic stability for Jordan, improved security for Israel and for the U.S. interests in Saudi Arabia as well as for coalition forces in Iraq.

Jordan has one of the most robust combined education and training programs in the world. Through its IMET program—thesecond largest in the world—it regularly sends officers to U.S. senior service schools, command and staff schools and other key professional military education (PME) as well as numerous resource management and technical courses. IMET training reinforces democratic principles of civilian control of the military, enhances interoperability with U.S. forces, promotes professionalism, and reinforces among core supporters of the regime the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. Jordan is also the second largest recipient in the world of Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funding. This program has greatly contributed to the U.S. building long-term relations with members of JAF who are directly involved in counterterrorism operations. The exercise program is also robust, and Jordan participates in multiple bilateral and multilateral exercises annually, the largest exercise program in the CENTCOM AOR. The exercises have a major impact on U.S.-Jordan interoperability, development of Jordan's Armed Forces proficiency in a wide range of skills, and increased capabilities for conducting counter-terrorist/counter-smuggling operations in Jordan. In close association with exercises, component commanders use Traditional Commander's Activities (TCA) funds to augment the exercise-training opportunities. TCA events allow Jordanian units to participate in their exercises with a higher level of proficiency and achieve a greater level of benefit from them.

By its own terms,  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit the provision of military assistance to Jordan.


Kuwait

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

1

$0

4

$0

FMS

430

$16,062,919

737

$28,813,969

Regional Centers

2

$0

8

$0

TOTAL

433

$16,062,919

749

$28,813,969

The United States has a demonstrable interest in maintaining access to Kuwait's facilities, land and airspace. Kuwait faces the difficult task of securing its Iranian and Iraqi borders, and a continuous U.S. presence has been key to Kuwait's security since the first Gulf War.

In January 2004, the President designated Kuwait a Major Non-NATO Ally for its consistent support to our operations in the Gulf and in South Asia, as well as for its international counterterrorism efforts. Kuwait hosts the forward headquarters of CENTCOM's ground forces and approximately 25,000 U.S. and coalition military personnel operating in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. The open access to facilities, land and airspace needed to support contingency operations, including joint task force and fleet operations, are critical to the U.S. presence in the region and ongoing military operations there. Kuwait is an important ally in the Global War on Terrorism.

The continued participation of Kuwaitis in military-to-military training initiatives and joint military exercises promotes interoperability with U.S. and Gulf Cooperation Council forces, recognizes Kuwait's invaluable support for U.S. force deployments and helps Kuwait to assume greater responsibility for its own defense and regional security by encouraging the development of its professional military command.

Military-to-military contacts facilitated by the IMET program are particularly important in the case of Near Eastern countries because they pay high dividends, far into the future, as students ascend the military and political ranks of their respective countries. The difficulties Arab-speaking students have in leaning English means that Kuwait must invest substantial amounts of money into language training for students to be sent to the U.S. for technical and professional military schools. Due to Kuwait's limited training budget, the long-term future benefits of U.S. educated Kuwaiti military and political leaders has been overtaken by the current prohibitive course costs. Each year the Kuwait military diverts more of its officers and enlisted personnel to other nations around the globe for more cost-effective professional and technical training.

By its own terms,  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit military assistance to Kuwait.


Lebanon

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

91

$314,398

10

$314,122

IMET

138

$783,619

121

$1,107,769

Non-SA, Combatant Command

287

$885,000

0

$0

TOTAL

516

$1,983,017

131

$1,421,891

The year 2005 brought tremendous opportunity in Lebanon as occupying Syrian forces withdrew and free elections were held for parliament. Despite the progress, however, a dozen unsolved bombings have occurred in the aftermath of the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri in February 2005. A UN sponsored commission investigating Hariri's assassination precipitated the arrest of four former security heads in August 2005, all with close ties to Syria. For the first time in nearly 30 years, the Lebanese Armed Forces are responsible for securing the border with Syria against transiting terrorists, human and narco-trafficking, and other potential threats. While the mission of the Lebanese Armed Forces has greatly expanded in 2005 with the departure of Syrian troops, the resources have significantly declined. Conscription, historically making up one third of the force, started to be rapidly phased out in 2005 and will end completely within two years. New military acquisitions have been virtually non-existent for five years due to debt servicing and constrained military budgets. Because of budget constraints, U.S. foreign military sales have declined from an average of 20 million dollars per year in the nineties to two million dollars per year since 2001. Current sales are focused primarily on limited numbers of repair parts. Personnel costs absorb over 90 percent of the military budget leaving little for operations and maintenance.

U.S. interests lie with a free and independent Lebanon at peace with its neighbors, especially Israel. Peace between Israel and Lebanon, while largely tied to the Israel-Syria peace track, is a critical component of a comprehensive Middle East peace. We continue to support the development of independent Lebanese institutions, in part to minimize the influence of external forces such as Syria and Iran. Lebanon continues to rebuild after its 16-year civil war, which ended in 1991; there remains, however, a long way to go. Israeli forces withdrew completely from south Lebanon in May 2000, as recognized by the United Nations Security Council. Reflecting the influence of Syria and indirectly through Hizballah, Iran, the Government of Lebanon maintains that Israel continues to occupy some Lebanese territory in the area of Sheba'a Farms. This territory continues to be contested between Lebanon and Syria. The Government of Lebanon has made some progress toward rebuilding its civil institutions and reestablishing the rule of law following the end of the civil war and the Syrian military withdrawal. Still, armed militias (in particular Syrian and Iranian supported Hizballah, as well as Palestinian groups) remain largely outside the control of the central government. The poor economy remains a serious problem for Lebanon. At the end of 2005, many analysts believed that Lebanon required comprehensive economic and financial reforms to overcome the dynamic that led to the accumulation of over $35 billion in public debt. A secure and independent Lebanon could help weaken forces supporting global terrorism and contribute further to the fight against illegal drugs and counterfeiting.

IMET funding was reinstated for Lebanon in 1993. The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) has taken full advantage of the opportunity for professional military education (PME) and technical training. The Country Team reports that IMET graduates are employed in positions of command and responsibility and achieve proportionally higher rank and influence than their non-IMET peers. In addition, USG assistance to the LAF counters the prevailing tendency to break down society along strictly sectarian/confessional lines in one of the country's major functioning institutions. IMET training also provides an important alternative to military training with Syria and other countries. In FY 2005, Lebanon sent 222 students to various PME and technical courses. Lebanon is one of the few countries in the region that places such a high value on IMET that they participate in the program on a cost-sharing basis by funding all per diem costs themselves. Lebanon also continues to benefit from non-security assistance humanitarian mine action de-mining training, which helps finance an on-going program to remove landmines throughout Lebanon (especially in southern Lebanon where we strongly urge increased deployments of the armed forces in order to stabilize the border areas). A small amount of FMF funding will be provided in FY 2006, the first such support in many years, to demonstrate U.S. support for the expanding role of the Lebanese Armed Forces.

As of the publication date of this report, Lebanon is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Service members' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Morocco

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

8

$189,789

9

$71,921

EIPC

2

$6,808

0

$0

IMET

122

$2,219,193

81

$1,820,204

Regional Centers

13

$60,604

8

$22,288

TOTAL

145

$2,476,394

98

$1,914,413

Strategically located on the south side of the Straits of Gibraltar, Morocco remains a staunch partner in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). From the start of his reign in 1999, King Mohamed VI has shown himself to be a progressive monarch. He has introduced legislation and practices that advance human rights, as well as economic and political reform. However, he has inherited a kingdom that is poor - a middle-ranked developing country - and a political system whose reform is real but far from complete. The United States seeks to support democratic and free-market changes and encourage a Morocco that is stable, prosperous and free. Morocco will be a key bilateral trade partner now that a Free Trade Agreement is near implementation.

Morocco has provided counterterrorist assistance that enabled an Al Qaeda plot against U.S. shipping interests in the Straits of Gibraltar to be foiled. Morocco has solicited U.S. assistance to combat terrorist financing, and new anti-money laundering legislation is pending. Morocco's moderate policies on the Arab-Israeli conflict and direct overtures toward Israel assist regional peace efforts. It is in the U.S. interest to support Moroccan stability and Moroccan foreign policy. As the active dialogue between NATO and Morocco affirms, stability in Morocco and the Maghreb is of vital importance to our Southern European NATO allies.

The IMET program increases awareness of international norms of human rights, fosters greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military and helps Moroccan military officers understand U.S. foreign policies. Morocco sends students to professional military education (PME) courses including U.S. senior service schools, command and staff colleges and other key training activities. Moroccan attendance at these PME courses fosters one-to-one relationships that pay invaluable dividends in the form of interoperability, coordination and mutual understanding. Also, IMET-funded defense management and logistics technical courses, as well as English language training, enhances Morocco's value as a partner in multinational training exercises, peacekeeping missions and potential future coalition contingency actions. Moroccan participation in IMET programs has become even more important in the last year since the King ordered all Moroccan officers to learn to speak English. Morocco has participated in numerous peacekeeping operations and currently has peacekeepers in Bosnia, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DROC), Cote d'Ivoire and Haiti.

The Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA) in Washington supports democratic governance in Morocco by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. NESA participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in the Middle East.

As of the publication date of this report, Morocco is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Oman

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

23

$49,097

5

$35,298

FMS

142

$15,413,033

91

$2,534,304

IMET

74

$1,127,227

5

$71,497

Regional Centers

6

$40,190

8

$38,400

Service Academies

2

$104,280

0

$0

TOTAL

247

$16,733,827

109

$2,679,499

Oman remains committed as a valuable ally in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). Oman's long coastlines and borders offer significant challenges as they remain vulnerable to illegal transit by terrorists, illegal immigrants, smugglers, and individuals involved in the traffic and sale of illegal drugs. Currently the Omani Defense Forces are working hard to stem this flow. However, due to Oman's geostrategic position and the increasing flow of illegal transit originating from Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan, it is imperative that the Omani security forces receive the equipment and training necessary to give them the capability to combat this particular growing threat. The Government of Oman increasingly uses FMF funding to enhance Omani capabilities that support U.S. regional efforts in the Global War on Terrorism, such as bolstering coastal patrol efforts, modernizing Oman's coastal surveillance system, enhancing the capabilities of the Sultan's Special Force and making Oman's remote inland borders with Yemen, Saudi Arabia and the U.A.E. less porous and more observable.

Oman's bases remain important for current U.S. operations and to support future contingencies in the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Gulf or in South Asia. A strong military-to military relationship increases the likelihood that Oman will be prepared to commit resources to support USCENTCOM efforts in contingency operations and the GWOT. Omani forces support U.S. and coalition operations in areas ranging from force protection to basing and logistics, and communications.

Oman's ability to monitor and seal its land borders (particularly the border with Yemen) reduces the ability of terrorists to evade government control in the GWOT. Oman's control of its maritime borders mitigates the vulnerability of the Sultanate to instability caused by illegal immigrants from South Asia and Iran, as well as stems the flow of drugs, weapons and/or terrorists who use the traditional smuggling routes. Oman's internal command and control architecture also support the GWOT by allowing the Sultanate to coordinate efforts across the breadth of various organizations that monitor and secure its borders.

Oman is a key ally in supporting U.S. efforts to support moderate Muslim voices in the region. In a very volatile part of the region, Oman has been and continues to be a key, moderate state that holds influence among other Muslim bodies, to include Iran, to whom it continues to state its moderate viewpoints. By providing the resources to insure its legitimate self-defense and security, the USG assists the Omani government in this capacity and should continue as a key program in the U.S. GWOT strategy.

As of the publication date of this report, Oman is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Qatar

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMS

19

$830,176

2

$138,680

Regional Centers

2

$0

8

$0

Service Academies

1

$0

0

$0

TOTAL

22

$830,176

10

$138,680

Qatar remains one of the closest U.S. allies in the Middle East. The Amir, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, continues to pursue democratic principals in governance and to strengthen the ties with the United States, particularly in the military arena. The U.S.-Qatar Defense Cooperation Agreement, which was signed in 1992, established the basis for our growing military-to-military relationship. Qatar has hosted CENTCOM's Command Forward Headquarters since 2002. Qatari support to Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom has not only been outstanding, but vital to our efforts in the region. Qatar has, without question, the most impressive infrastructure for pre-positioned equipment in the Middle East. In 2002, Qatar concluded an Implementing Agreement outlining the use of Al Udeid Air Base by U.S. forces. Over the last several years, Qatar has also hosted a number of Air Expeditionary Forces (AEF) and related deployments. The base which is currently home to U.S. Central Command Air Forces Combined Air Operations Center (CAOC) features one of the longest and most capable runways in the region.

Strategically located in the Gulf, it is vital that the U.S. continues to support military-to-military cooperation and training as well as joint training exercises. The principles and doctrine which future leaders of Qatar's military develop in this bilateral engagement program will enhance future coalition understanding, capabilities and interoperability. Qatar has been host to Exercise EAGLE RESOLVE in 2002, 2003, 2005, and has volunteered to host the exercise in 2006. The exercise is a CJCS-sponsored USCENTCOM- executed regional exercise for the Arabian Peninsula. The exercise is designed to address regional needs with respect to security and consequence management. Qatar has used its influence with other countries in the region to convince them to participate in the exercise. The exercise has grown to include twelve additional observer countries, such as Iraq and the South Central Asian States. In 2006 more than twenty-five military chiefs of staff will be invited to attend the Qatari-led executive seminar.

The Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA) in Washington supports democratic governance in Qatar by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. NESA participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in the Middle East.

As of the publication date of this report, Qatar is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Service members' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Saudi Arabia

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

3

$8,349

12

$14,000

FMS

220

$9,604,289

696

$22,540,330

FMS (Saudi Arabia National Guard)

186

$1,588,104

205

$2,289,715

IMET

1

$6,955

0

$0

Regional Centers

6

$21,004

24

$28,000

TOTAL

416

$11,228,701

937

$24,872,045

Saudi Arabia is an increasingly important ally in the Global War on Terrorism and plays a central political role in any security initiatives in the region. Despite post 9/11 strains, military-to-military relations remain positive, based on decades of cooperation and close consultation, as well as years of U.S. support to Saudi Arabia's military programs including training, joint exercises, FMS and commercial arms sales. Providing minimal IMET to Saudi Arabia ensures a continued high level of Saudi attendance at U.S. military institutions; enhances technical capabilities; exposes Saudi military personnel to U.S. values, ideas and policies; and increases awareness of international norms of human rights, the principle of civilian control of the military and the rule of law. Continued military-to-military contacts and joint military exercises will encourage the development of a professional military command and armed forces compatible with and favorably disposed towards its U.S. counterparts. This continued cooperation will allow the Kingdom to assume a greater role in self-defense, assist the U.S. in achieving its policy goals in the region and support our efforts to promote security cooperation among the Gulf Cooperation Council members.

As of the publication date of this report, Saudi Arabia is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Tunisia

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ALP

2

$35,576

0

$0

CTFP

7

$52,307

17

$141,277

IMET

100

$2,432,659

74

$1,923,213

Regional Centers

25

$357,436

12

$21,568

Service Academies

8

$468,489

0

$0

TOTAL

142

$3,346,467

103

$2,086,058

Located at the Africa-Sicily chokepoint of the Mediterranean, Tunisia is a natural economic and strategic bridge to Europe. A close regional ally of the United States, Tunisia considers the U.S. to be one of its closest military partners. Our interest is to ensure a strong, durable fabric of bilateral relations which include active Tunisian participation in efforts to promote regional stability, particularly in Middle East peace efforts; bilateral military cooperation; peacekeeping operations; counterterrorism cooperation, including improved border security and littoral defense; and continued access by U.S. forces to Tunisian facilities.

Joint training exercises are an important feature of our relationship, as Tunisian troops typically engage in five to eight combined exercises with U.S. forces annually. With over 70% of Tunisian military equipment of U.S.-origin, the Tunisian Army and Air Force have based their structure and operational doctrine on the U.S. Army and Air Force. This greatly enhances the ability to integrate Tunisian forces into operations with U.S. forces. However, FMF covers only a fraction of the spare parts for this equipment, and so more and more airplanes and border control vehicles in Tunisia are being grounded or mothballed. FMF funding helps Tunisia to improve its border security, and thus better prevent the smuggling of illicit materiel and terrorists. This is important to U.S. security efforts in the region. Tunisian training with U.S. forces enhances their value as a potential coalition partner and recently proved instrumental to Tunisia's participation in Kosovo in support of UN humanitarian efforts. Tunisia currently has peacekeepers and observers in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Eritrea-Ethiopia and Cote D'Ivoire.

IMET provides basic and advanced English language training and special technical courses for Tunisian military officers and noncommissioned officers. Many senior Tunisian officers have attended U.S. senior service schools, command and staff colleges, and other major professional military education (PME) courses. They have also participated in programs sponsored by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) and the Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA) promoting civil-military affairs, national security strategy, and defense economics, thus supporting democratic governance in Tunisia. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States. These opportunities promote U.S. goals of stability and democracy, and increase the Tunisian officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. This reinforces the fact that the Tunisian military is a highly professional and totally apolitical force, a significant exception in Middle East and African countries. IMET-funded maintenance, logistics and specialist training enhances Tunisia's value as a training and potential coalition partner.

As of the publication date of this report, Tunisia is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


United Arab Emirates

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

4

$39,012

4

$0

FMS

341

$52,159,519

94

$1,399,037

Regional Centers

4

$0

8

$0

TOTAL

349

$52,198,531

106

$1,399,037

The United States continues its strong security relationship with the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The UAE is a key regional partner in the Gulf region and supports U.S. policy initiatives in the region. The UAE is a major procurer of advanced U.S. military technologies and the Emirati military continues to make strides toward interoperability with U.S. forces. Therefore, military-to-military education opportunities are a top priority for the UAE. At the same time, attendance at training schools by UAE officers supports the Central Command's objective of forward engagement and interoperability. A highlight of U.S.-UAE military cooperation is the Gulf Air Warfare Center at Al Dhafra Air Base outside Abu Dhabi, which opened in January 2004.

As of the publication date of this report, the United Arab Emirates is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Yemen

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ALP

2

$15,514

0

$0

CTFP

6

$70,836

6

$134,108

FMF

177

$1,066,062

0

$0

FMS

6

$21,902

28

$54,170

IMET

84

$1,116,225

42

$1,390,821

Regional Centers

8

$47,807

8

$35,760

TOTAL

283

$2,338,346

84

$1,614,859

Yemen is a proven ally in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), and is fighting a day-to-day campaign against terrorist elements within its own borders. U.S. support for that campaign is essential to help ensure its success. Due to its location adjacent to the Bab al-Mandab, one of the world's most important shipping routes, as well as its proximity to U.S. allies Saudi Arabia and Oman, Yemen's security has a direct affect on U.S. interests in the region. Yemen is the most populous and the poorest nation on the Arabian Peninsula, and is undergoing a slow process of political and social reform under President Saleh aimed at making it the first fully functioning democracy in the region. It held successful parliamentary elections in April 2003. Support for Yemen's democratic and economic reform programs, professional military training and a humanitarian demining program not only promote our national values in Yemen, but also further our national security interests, particularly with regard to the GWOT. The Yemeni Government responded to the attacks on the USS Cole, Vessel Limburg, and the Jiblah Missionary Hospital by greater cooperation in the fields of security and counterterrorism (CT). Yemen provides a unique location to conduct Horn of Africa operations and maritime interdiction missions in and around the Gulf of Suez, the Red Sea and Indian Ocean areas (the Red Sea, Bab-al-Mandab Straits and the Gulf of Aden are the second busiest shipping lanes in the world). U.S. policy has supported the Yemeni Government to eradicate terrorism/support for terrorism in Yemen and to create an environment that deters the return of any terrorist elements, indigenous or transnational. FMF resources are focused on improving Yemen's ability to counter terrorism and improve border security. FMF assistance has resulted in the creation of the Yemen Coast Guard and an effective counter-terrorist unit within MOI's Central Security Forces. The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program has been instrumental in training Yemeni military officers who will work closely with in-country U.S. personnel on security and CT-related issues.

IMET funds U.S. training and education for Yemeni military personnel, particularly in the vital areas of counter terrorism and for Yemen's nascent Coast Guard. The IMET program assists the military leadership in Yemen to better understand U.S. policies, increases their awareness of international norms for human rights and fosters a greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military. Sending Yemenis to professional military education in the U.S. helps establish one-to-one relationships with counterparts that will pay invaluable rewards later in the form of interoperability, coordination and mutual understanding. Increased IMET-funded English language training will also improve the Yemeni military's interoperability with U.S. forces and prepare them for increased training opportunities.

As of the publication date of this report, Yemen is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.



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