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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--South Asia Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2005 and 2006
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
September 2006
Report
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Afghanistan

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

23

$64,673

33

$304,856

FMF

217

$803,868

17

$139,117

IMET

65

$1,276,787

48

$1,786,610

Regional Centers

57

$51,768

50

$44,280

Section 1004

205

$7,190,000

1396

$1,820,000

Service Academies

1

$64,575

0

$0

TOTAL

568

$9,451,671

1544

$4,094,863

The Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) Coalition destroyed the Al Qaeda infrastructure and Taliban regime in Afghanistan. Terrorism and other threats to stability continue, and an important goal of the continued U.S. military and diplomatic presence in Afghanistan is to set the conditions that will permit the new government in Afghanistan to establish a secure and stable environment that will prevent Afghanistan from again becoming host for terrorist organizations and operations. Key to this endeavor is establishing and maintaining an Afghan National Army (ANA) that is truly representative of the population, subject to central civilian authority and supportive of human rights, rule of law and democracy. The ANA must also be capable of protecting the newly elected government of Afghanistan from internal threats and ensuring regime survivability.

A stable and secure Afghanistan is extremely important for regional security. A strong military to support the national government will prevent dissension, regional rifts and ethnic feuds that have often spilled over Afghanistan's borders to neighboring countries. A weak security sector could re-ignite domestic support for the Taliban and reinvigorate Al Qaeda sympathies along the Afghan-Pakistan border. This would have a significant impact on the Pakistan government's (GOP) continuing efforts to uproot Al Qaeda along the Afghan border. GOP's failure in this endeavor could have serious repercussions on the larger stability picture for the region. Likewise, a weak national government in Kabul would embolden both poppy growers and narcotics smugglers - which would negatively impact all of Afghanistan's neighbors as well as to Afghanistan's long-term stability. A long-term and well-rounded program to build and train the ANA is essential to the USG's objectives in Afghanistan and the region.

The IMET program is an integral part of the long-term ANA training program. We have provided sufficient funds for English language labs, their installation and use. Moble Training Teams (MTTs) provide training on military equipment. The ANA has also sent officers to the National Defense University's International Fellow's program, the Near East South Asia (NESA) Center Regional Seminar and the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.

Although FMF-funded MTTs still meet most of the ANA training needs, the IMET program will continue to grow as the capacity of the ANA allows for increased participation in CONUS-based classes and as an integral part of our efforts to introduce military leadership to civilian control, a professional military ethos and recognition of internationally accepted human rights.

The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) directly supports U.S. strategic objectives by providing the ANA with the military training necessary to maintain the country's sovereignty in its fight against insurgency and terrorism. The current emphasis on developing in-country English language training capabilities, will enable the ANA to spend less on language training in the U.S. and more on training courses that will improve ANA's interoperability with U.S. forces and increase their participation in future CTFP opportunities. CTFP promotes future U.S.-ANA interoperability which is necessary to prosecuting the war on terrorism in the South Asia region.

The President has waived the prohibition, in  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.), of the provision of military assistance to Afghanistan, a State Party to the Rome Statute, for as long as it is party to an Article 98 agreement with the United States.


Bangladesh

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ALP

2

$39,135

1

$27,836

CTFP

72

$186,191

11

$201,639

IMET

71

$901,130

40

$1,047,356

Regional Centers

9

$46,025

11

$28,800

TOTAL

154

$1,172,481

63

$1,305,631

The priority in Bangladesh is combating terrorism. Primary U.S. interests in Bangladesh are security and stability, economic prosperity and democracy. Sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction will maximize benefits for U.S. companies and decrease reliance on external assistance. Greater respect for human rights and the rule of law, curbing corruption and the strengthening of democratic institutions are essential to ensuring political stability and are basic foundations of economic growth. Other U.S. interests include environmental concerns, fighting the trafficking of women and children and combating piracy.

IMET funds facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts through attendance at professional military courses in the U.S. and by participation in U.S. mobile training team (MTT) training in Bangladesh. Development of an apolitical, well-trained and professional military contributes to political stability, a closer relationship between our two countries and increased participation in UN peacekeeping operations. Specifically, Bangladesh uses its IMET funding to send students to a variety of mid-level and senior U.S. service schools, peacekeeping-type courses, and numerous courses in support of the war against terrorism. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of a professional and well-trained military, peaceful relations with the U.S. and other states, increased interoperability, respect for human dignity and increased Bangladeshi officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Bangladeshi military personnel also take part in courses on defense management, civil affairs, logistics, maintenance and operations, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants and their value as potential future partners with the United States. Bangladeshi participation in executive courses at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the National Defense University's Near East South Asia (NESA) Center for Security Studies, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, are an effective means of strengthening defense ties with Bangladesh. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Bangladesh.

The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) is providing important training and education to assist Bangladesh in integrating its interagency (military and civil-military) approach to combating terrorism. These funds are being focused on the counterterrorism and counter-smuggling effort (led by the Bangladesh Coast Guard) in the vast inter-coastal and riverine waterways system. These waterways are the primary way of transporting people, weapons, drugs and other goods into and out of the country. The CTFP brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the counterterrorism (CT) spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, Bangladesh is building a more comprehensive and cohesive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism; other countries in the region are gaining an understanding of the challenges, successes and failures of CT efforts in Bangladesh; and the U.S. is building Bangladesh's long-term CT capacity.

As of the publication date of this report, Bangladesh is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


India

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ALP

1

$19,426

0

$0

CTFP

62

$426,896

34

$512,296

EIPC

1

$14,040

1

$17,349

FMS

5

$34,139

16

$3,084,888

IMET

46

$1,711,753

75

$2,173,834

PME Exchanges

0

$0

2

$41,816

Regional Centers

7

$37,184

12

$32,400

TOTAL

122

$2,243,438

140

$5,862,583

India is the world's second most populous nation and the predominant military power in South Asia and the Indian Ocean. The Indian Government was among the first in the world to offer support to the Global War on Terrorism after the September 11 attacks. Tensions with Pakistan have eased during the past year as diplomatic efforts continue to proceed. India also offered humanitarian assistance to Pakistan during the aftermath of the devastating October earthquake.

The U.S. and India continue to work closely together in the fight against terrorism, as evidenced by continuing meetings of the Indo-U.S. Joint Working Group on Counterterrorism. The Indo-U.S. commercial relationship has been growing steadily too, as has the bilateral diplomatic relationship.

The U.S. and India announced the completion of the major tenants of the NSSP in July 2005. The NSSP laid out an ambitious path of cooperation in four strategic areas: civil nuclear energy, civilian space programs, high-technology commerce and missile defense. The U.S. continues to urge India to adhere to global nonproliferation norms and stem a South Asian arms race.

IMET funds are used to facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assist in training exercises. India has used IMET funding to send students to the Army, Air Force and Navy Command and Staff Colleges, the Army and Air War Colleges and various other officer-training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of stability and democracy, and increase the Indian officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Indian military personnel also take part in courses dealing with areas of combat service support, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants.

As a means of strengthening defense ties with India, during the past year the U.S. and India have held numerous joint exercises, including several in India where U.S. forces participated, and in the U.S. where Indian forces took part. The U.S. welcomed continued Indian participation in FY 2005 at both the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the National Defense University's Near East South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from India. The U.S. proposes Indian participation at these executive courses in FY 2006, as well.

The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) is providing important training and education to assist India in integrating its interagency approach to combating terrorism. This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the counterterrorism (CT) spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, India is building a more comprehensive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism; other countries in the region are gaining an understanding of the challenges, successes and failures of CT efforts in India; and the U.S. is building India's long-term CT capacity In FY 2002 (why mention 2002 in a report covering 2005 and 2006?) India received grant funding under the Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) program. EIPC is funding provided by the State Department designed to enhance India's capabilities in peacekeeping operations. India used those EIPC funds primarily for training courses and instructional equipment (computers, software, and audio-visual equipment).

As of the publication date of this report, India is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Maldives

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

0

$0

2

$11,800

IMET

10

$175,298

9

$149,084

Regional Centers

1

$8,301

4

$23,600

Service Academies

2

$121,403

0

$0

TOTAL

13

$305,002

15

$184,484

The Maldives provides important access for U.S. vessels and allows aircraft transit rights in its airspace. This moderate Muslim nation provided airport access during Operation Desert Storm, and offered to do so again during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. It is in the U.S. national security interest to maintain stability in this small island nation by strengthening its democratic institutions. The USG is also working with the Maldivian Government to coordinate policies in international organizations, especially on such issues of shared interest as global warming, drug trafficking, nonproliferation and international crime and terrorism. Because the U.S. has no resident Mission in Maldives, the U.S. will continue to pursue its national interests there through regular diplomatic exchanges managed by the U.S. Embassy in Colombo, through the IMET program and through Regional Democracy Fund programs.

U.S.-funded training facilitates U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assists in training exercises. Development of an apolitical, professional military contributes to political stability and allows for increased participation in peacekeeping exercises. The Maldives uses its IMET funding to send students to the basic officer career courses, maritime training and various other officers and technical training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of enhancing stability and democracy, and increase the Maldivian officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Maldivian military personnel also take part in courses on maintenance and instructor training, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants.

The United States welcomed continued Maldives participation in FY 2005 at both the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the National Defense University's Near East South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from the Maldives.

As of the publication date of this report, the Maldives is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.


Nepal

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

8

$134,552

6

$120,340

FMF

2

$13,292

5

$22,466

IMET

159

$587,158

33

$611,022

Regional Centers

6

$33,680

8

$35,248

TOTAL

175

$768,682

52

$789,076

Nepal is a small, poor country wedged between two giants. Relations between the U.S. and Nepal have been historically friendly, but King Gyanendra's imposition of direct rule on February 1, 2005 is a setback. The USG wants to help the GON restore multi-party democracy and civil liberties, combat the Maoists and bring about a settlement to the conflict, implement economic development programs and improve the Royal Nepal Army's (RNA) human rights record.

Nepal faces a Maoist insurgency that seeks to establish a totalitarian one-party state. The nine-year-old insurgency has grown increasingly violent and destructive in the past couple of years, costing more than 13,000 lives. Improvements in RNA equipment and training have blunted Maoist advances, but the RNA needs time, better intelligence gathering and operational planning skills and better mobility to become an effective counter-insurgency force. Our military training programs are part of a multi-track program of economic and security assistance to Nepal that includes, among other things, the provision of equipment and training to improve the Army's ability to address the Maoist military threat. U.S. training and equipment have made a significant contribution in a relatively short time to increasing the effectiveness of the RNA.

Nepal uses IMET funding to send students to various officer-training courses that provide professional military education (PME) as well as familiarize the Nepali officer corps with U.S. values and military practices. The courses provide the opportunity for military-to-military professional contacts, and facilitate cooperation on training exercises and in peacekeeping operations. The USG has specifically tailored its IMET program to address the most pressing needs of the RNA with respect to quelling the Maoist insurgency. Nepali military personnel take courses on life saving skills as well as civil affairs, infantry, ranger, and psychological operations training, with a special emphasis on establishing and adhering to rules of engagement during military operations that protect human rights. This training significantly enhances the RNA's capabilities as peacekeepers and in pursuing domestic stability.

The RNA continues to participate in peacekeeping operations (PKO) even though it is stretched thin by domestic operations battling the Maoist terrorists. The Bijendra Peace Operations Training Center established in Panchkal provides excellent predeployment training for units participating in upcoming PKOs.

The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provides important training and education to assist Nepal in integrating its interagency approach to combating terrorism. This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the CT spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, Nepal advances a more comprehensive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism, and other countries in the region gain an understanding of the challenges, successes and failures of CT efforts in Nepal.

As a means of strengthening defense ties with Nepal, the U.S. welcomed Nepali participation at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the National Defense University's Near East South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Nepal. The U.S. proposes increased Nepali participation in Asia-Pacific Center executive courses in FY 2006 and beyond, as well as continuing to fund students to attend the Near East South Asia Center and other institutions.

As of the publication date of this report, Nepal is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.

Pakistan

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ALP

2

$32,713

1

$24,695

CTFP

31

$258,610

50

$382,939

FMF

68

$7,375,498

37

$1,418,261

FMS

0

$0

33

$147,315

IMET

95

$1,969,179

157

$2,758,730

Regional Centers

28

$57,915

28

$31,296

Service Academies

4

$217,936

0

$0

TOTAL

228

$9,911,851

306

$4,763,236

The United States has vital interests in Pakistan, a key ally in the war on terrorism. Continued strong support from Pakistan's military in fighting the war on terrorism, promoting stability in nuclear-armed South Asia and advancing Pakistani political and economic reforms are all priority U.S. foreign policy interests. None can be achieved without the support of the Pakistani military, which has, and will retain, broad political influence in Pakistan, even after the transition to full civilian rule.

A supporter of U.S. efforts since the beginning of the war, Pakistan's efforts continue to expand. The U.S. military benefits from transit rights over Pakistani territory, the use of certain bases and facilities and shared information. The majority of high-level terrorists captured in the past year were caught by Pakistan. Pakistan's support to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) remains crucial to rooting out terrorists operating in Pakistan's border areas with Afghanistan. Pakistan also is playing a key role in Afghanistan's reconstruction process.

Due to sanctions in place for a ten-year period, Pakistan's military was denied training in the U.S. and exposure to U.S. military doctrine, relationships and culture. For democratization and economic growth to take root, the military must become more open to transparency and accountability in budgeting and civilian decision-making. Pakistan's IMET program was renewed in October 2001 after Foreign Operations Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act section 508 sanctions against Pakistan were waived. IMET funding increases opportunities for military-to-military professional contact, improves interoperability, enhances respect for civilian rule and improves technical capabilities. IMET courses also focus on professionalism, as well as exposure to U.S. ethos, military doctrine and management. A portion of IMET is also earmarked for E-IMET courses as a means to increase exposure to issues related to human rights and the law of war.

The Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and the National Defense University's Near East South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses continue to emphasize the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build relationships with counterparts from Pakistan that will extend to the post-military government era.

The Pakistan Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) supports current efforts in the war on terrorism by educating officers directly involved in counterterrorism (CT), thus allowing the country to develop policy and plans that support coalition efforts. Through CTFP, the Pakistanis will gain the necessary tools and capabilities to improve not only their CT abilities, but also their military as a whole.

By its own terms,  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) does not prohibit military assistance to Pakistan.


Sri Lanka

 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CTFP

60

$365,359

46

$311,367

FMS

18

$39,411

0

$0

IMET

23

$476,695

31

$569,356

Regional Centers

7

$35,237

8

$50,304

Service Academies

5

$285,570

0

$0

TOTAL

113

$1,202,272

85

$931,027

Sri Lanka has a long tradition of vigorous democracy and was the first country in the region to liberalize its economy. Sri Lanka is a strategically located island in the Indian Ocean which, if its peace process progresses, could serve as an anchor of stability in the South Asian region. Ceasefire implementation talks between the government of Sri Lanka and the terrorist designated organization Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) are scheduled to take place. The USG's top priority remains the protection of the lives, rights and property of American citizens. Other U.S. interests in Sri Lanka are strengthening democratic institutions, increasing respect for human rights, improving U.S.-Sri Lankan economic ties and cooperation and enhancing regional stability. The United States and Sri Lanka also share interests in environmental protection and the suppression of international terrorism. Sri Lanka has been cooperative in allowing passage through airspace, husbanding of ships and aircraft and supporting operational missions such as Desert Storm, Desert Shield and, more recently, Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF).

USG assistance to Sri Lanka includes funds to facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assist in training exercises. Developing an apolitical, professional military contributes to political stability and allows for increased participation in peacekeeping exercises. Specifically, Sri Lanka uses its IMET funding to send students to the Army, Air Force and Navy Command and Staff Colleges and various other officer training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of enhancing stability and democracy, and increase the Sri Lankan officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Sri Lanka's interoperability with U.S. forces improves through IMET-funded specialized English language training. Sri Lankan military personnel currently take part in career courses for engineer, field artillery, and military intelligence, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants and increase professionalism within the force. Further, U.S. co-sponsored training events contributed to the development of the Sri Lankan peacekeeping training center at Kukuleganga and, as a result, the military has increased its capacity and capability to provide troops for UN peace support operations.

The Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provided important training and education to assist Sri Lanka in integrating its interagency approach to combating terrorism. This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the counterterrorism (CT) spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, Sri Lanka is building a more comprehensive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism; other countries in the region are gaining an understanding of the challenges, successes and failures of CT efforts in Sri Lanka; and the U.S. is building Sri Lanka's long-term CT capacity.

The U.S. welcomed continued Sri Lankan participation in FY 2005 at both the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the National Defense University's Near East South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Sri Lanka.

As of the publication date of this report, Sri Lanka is not a State Party to the Rome Statute; therefore, it is not prohibited by  � 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq.) from receiving military assistance.



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