printable banner

U.S. Department of State - Great Seal

U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--Africa Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
August 2007
Report
Share

Angola

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$8,570

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

19

11

18

$337,725

23

13

16

$289,277

Regional Centers

4

4

1

$8,176

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

25

17

20

$354,471

23

13

16

$289,277

Angola has one of Africa’s largest, most experienced, and well-equipped militaries, which can play a constructive role in ensuring a safe, peaceful, and democratic Angola, and potentially contribute to international peacekeeping operations. Four years after the end of a 27-year civil war, the Government of Angola (GRA) remains largely focused on rebuilding the country’s devastated infrastructure and economy. The GRA has made some progress on economic reform, and has demonstrated interest in regional stability. The country is preparing for general elections, postponed from 2006 to the end of 2007; the first elections since 1992. Rich in natural resources, Angola is the second largest oil producer in sub-Saharan Africa (1.4 million barrels per day), and the world’s fourth-largest producer of rough diamonds. Significant and growing U.S. investment in Angola highlights the importance of economic security.

U.S. military training assistance to Angola promotes development of an apolitical, professional defense force respectful of human rights. In FY 2006, the Department of State managed a $486,000 IMET operating budget for Angola. IMET programs focused on English language training and fostered more effective participation in military-to-military engagement and increased professionalism and familiarization with U.S. culture, military methods, and resources. Angolan participation in seminars and conferences sponsored by the African Center for Strategic Studies exposed military leaders to their counterparts throughout the region and helped promote a shared vision of regional and global security. A EUCOM Special Operations Conference in Stuttgart, Germany, improved understanding among senior Angolan military intelligence officers and built support for U.S. goals and objectives in combating terrorism.

Mutual understanding and goodwill were enhanced through theater security operation events. For example, the Africa Endeavor Telecommunication Conference Series sponsored three conferences in Ethiopia, Botswana, and South Africa. A Gulf of Guinea Maritime Ministerial conference took place in Benin. Bilateral relations were strengthened by the November visit of the Deputy Commander of U.S. EUCOM and by a separate five-day ship visit that included 1,200 sailors, the first ever by a U.S. naval vessel since Angolan independence. Progress was made toward Angolan participation in the Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program, and further discussions leading to a partnership are planned. ACOTA training events with Angola could begin by mid-FY 2007.

Benin

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ACOTA

2164

2164

8

$3,932,127

2571

2571

5

$0.00

CTFP

9

9

3

$24,256

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

6

3

6

$64,659

4

4

4

$56,618

IMET Multi-Year

3

3

3

$46,092

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

12

12

5

$147,324

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

2194

2191

25

$4,214,455

2575

2575

9

$56,618

Since the transition from a Marxist military regime after a National Conference in 1990, Benin has become a model, albeit imperfect, of democracy and stability in the region. Free and fair presidential elections in 1991 led to a peaceful transition of government to civilian authorities. The country since that time has been characterized by a lively and crowded political landscape. The Beninois military has returned to a subordinate role in society, fully respecting civilian control and the apolitical nature of the armed forces. During the 2006 Presidential elections, the Chief of Defense Staff and other key officers toured the country’s military installations to reiterate to the armed forces that they should not be involved in politics and that the role of the military was only to help ensure secure conditions for the conduct of the elections. At present, Benin faces no external threat to its stability and the armed forces have played an increasing role in regional peacekeeping activities.

The Beninois were enthusiastic participants in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) training, and military leaders continue to benefit from training opportunities presented under programs such as the Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program. Benin’s armed forces (BAF) have played a significant role in regional peacekeeping activities and programs like ACOTA will help them enlarge that role. We continue to encourage the Beninois to be engaged in the region, both on a political and military/peacekeeping level. They have been responsive, most recently deploying troops with the United Nations Operation in Cote d’Ivoire (ONUCI) and the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC), as well as observers to multilateral missions in Haiti and Sudan. Beninois troops have earned solid praise for their performance on these deployments, including the decision to name a Beninois general as ONUCI commander in the Fall of 2006. Beninois commanders have attributed the BAF’s peacekeeping success directly to the ACRI and ACOTA training provided. All of these deployments should continue in 2007, and Benin has indicated its readiness to conduct further deployments, if assistance with material and logistical requirements could be provided. We continue to seek to strengthen the capabilities of the BAF to provide international peacekeeping and humanitarian relief.

In July 2005, Benin signed an Article 98 agreement with the United States, which entered into force in August of 2005. IMET programs, which have played a key role in securing the Beninois military’s professionalism and apolitical role, were therefore able to restart in the fall of 2005 and continued throughout 2006. The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) also supports democratic governance in Benin by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States. Benin has been an active participant in ACSS programs, including as host of an 11-nation Ministerial Conference on Maritime Security and Safety in the Gulf of Guinea during November 2006.

We continue to explore other avenues for increasing security assistance cooperation with Benin on areas of common interest, such as peacekeeping and good governance, but also, for example, on promoting maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea, or in support of humanitarian demining training via the joint French-Beninois Demining School for Africa based in Ouidah, Benin. Programs such as IMET, the ACSS, ACOTA, and the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies will aid in increasing the BAF’s readiness for and participation in international peacekeeping, as well as in buttressing democratic government and good governance. Support via the Foreign Military Financing and Excess Defense Articles programs would also bolster the BAF’s capacity to serve in these roles.

Botswana

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

4

2

4

$55,205

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

39

38

7

$89,015

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

15

13

8

$113,424

9

5

9

$165,058

IMET

57

41

54

$905,374

57

40

50

$574,667

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

165

165

2

$744,853

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

6

6

5

$74,160

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

286

265

80

$1,982,030

66

45

59

$739,725

Botswana has one of the longest-running democracies and most fiscally prudent economic regimes on the African continent. Our efforts focus on supporting Botswana’s stable democracy, expanding U.S. business opportunities, advocating Botswana’s leadership in the region, and helping Botswana confront its HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the world’s worst.

Botswana has one of the region’s most professional and responsible military establishments and offers a model for civilian-military relations for the rest of Africa. The International Military Education and Training (IMET) program in Botswana provides for well-received regional military exchanges that have fostered a spirit of regional cooperation. In FY 2006 Botswana received $760,000 in IMET funding. Through our IMET and other security assistance programs, including the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) and Foreign Military Financing (FMF) or Foreign Military Sales (FMS) training cases, we seek to expand our connections with Botswana’s military leaders and support their interest in contributing to efforts to strengthen both regional civil-military ties and regional military-military relations. The Botswana Defense Force (BDF) uses IMET as the primary vehicle to obtain intermediate and senior professional military education (PME) for their officer corps. In FY 2006 Botswana received two intermediate and one senior PME seats.

FY 2006 saw the continuation of a program to enhance the professionalism and capabilities of BDF non-commissioned officer (NCO) Corps with over 18 lines of NCO-specific training. These courses not only support individual professional development, but also prepare the BDF to better execute peacekeeping operations (PKO) and humanitarian support operations while complementing other existing programs, such as the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program. Training included components on HIV/AIDS, civil-military relations, and legal aspects of combating terrorism. Ten of thirteen currently serving General Officers in the BDF are IMET graduates, including the new Commander of the Botswana Defense Force, who is a graduate of the Air Command and Staff College. The BDF has leveraged its CTFP funding to foster the development of an internal counterterrorism capacity with an emphasis on building the intelligence capabilities of the BDF.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Botswana by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Burkina Faso

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

9

9

4

$22,048

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

8

5

6

$121,558

2

1

2

$28,000

Regional Centers

7

7

5

$121,940

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

24

21

15

$265,544

2

1

2

$28,000

Military engagement with Burkina Faso continued to expand in FY 2006 after many years during which it was limited to participation in an occasional Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) event and infrequent contacts in the context of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) oriented regional training or development programs. The increased engagement follows Burkina Faso’s efforts during the past several years to play a more productive regional role and to improve relations with the United States, including signing an Article 98 Agreement. The Government of Burkina Faso (GOBF) has also demonstrated a willingness to cooperate on important USG policy priorities such as the war on terrorism, support of the peace process in Cote d’Ivoire, and bringing Charles Taylor to justice. As a result of the shift in the GOBF’s actions, the Department of State has re-started an Expanded IMET program as a means to expand bilateral military training efforts.

FY 2006 funding in the amount of $129,000 was used to fund books and other materials for a language lab and to train one civilian and a Burkinabe military officer through the Defense Language Institute English Language Center’s (DLIELC) Basic American Language Instructor Course. The equipment and the trained instructor both arrived in Burkina Faso in 2005, and language courses started in October 2006. English language training will be critical to increasing the interoperability of the Burkina military with Anglophone members of the Economic Community of West African States, as well as with the United States.

Burkina Faso sent three participants to various ACSS events in FY 2006. Military and civilians alike covet spots for these events and participation is a mark of distinction. ACSS provides an exceptional forum for engaging senior-level military and civilian officials in African countries. The Africa Center program promotes democratic governance in the defense and security sectors and fosters critical partnerships with African nations. The Burkinabe graduates of previous ACSS seminars have formed a local community chapter, which held an ACSS-funded local seminar on the importance of democracy and good governance. The seminar was opened by two ministers and attended by several service chiefs, military personnel and civilians. In December 2005, ACSS funded two civilians and one military officer to participate in the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) in Accra, Ghana. One army officer participated in the Medical Strategic Leaders course in the United States. ACSS held a regional seminar on small arms and light weapons (SA/LW) in Ouagadougou in December 2006.

In July 2006, the GOBF and the United States signed an agreement for Burkina Faso’s participation in the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance program (ACOTA.) A Strategic Training Conference was held in Ouagadougou in October 2006, producing a Training Action Plan which provides direction for follow-on ACOTA training and equipping activities with the GOBF. Burkina Faso’s ECOWAS Standby Force Headquarters staff participated in the ACOTA-ECOWAS Multinational Command Post Exercise at Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Center in December, 2006.

Burundi

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

55

54

3

$73,435

1

1

1

$18,446

Regional Centers

2

2

2

$39,801

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

57

56

5

$113,236

1

1

1

$18,446

Burundi’s three-year transitional government came to a successful conclusion with the election and inauguration of Pierre Nkurunziza on August 26, 2005. The restoration of democratic government resulted in the lifting of sanctions under section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, thus making Burundi eligible for IMET and other forms of military assistance. While security and stability improved throughout Burundi in 2006, one of the last remaining rebel groups -- the National Liberation Forces (FNL) -- signed a ceasefire agreement with the government of Burundi on September 7. True implementation of the ceasefire has yet to be seen. Burundi’s challenge is completing security sector reform, right-sizing the military and police force, and providing both with the training and equipment to defeat those few rebel forces who refuse to come into the fold and confront rising crime and banditry.

Despite the suspension of almost all forms of military cooperation with Burundi because of the 1993 assassination of Burundi’s first Hutu president, the subsequent civil war, and the poor human rights records of the army and rebels, the transitional government did benefit from continuing, limited military engagement in 2006. Burundi faithfully supported CENTCOM’s Golden Spear initiative - a program designed to develop a regional response mechanism for crisis prevention and disaster management in the Great Lakes Region, Horn of Africa, Egypt, and Seychelles. This initiative resulted in the official opening of the Regional Disaster Centre of Excellence in Kenya on August 15, 2005.

With the lifting of section 508 sanctions we have seen a limited expansion in military-to-military engagement with Burundi. Our challenge in 2007 will be to use IMET and other funding sources to continue to help professionalize the Burundian National Defense Force (FDN), building capacity in an institution that is suffering from over a dozen years of neglect caused by the civil war and the recent integration of a largely untrained rebel force.

Burundi is willing to support peacekeeping operations in Sudan and elsewhere, contingent on training in accordance with international norms. This willingness offers us an opportunity to collaborate with European partners, notably the Netherlands, to help the FDN transform and ultimately deploy in support of international peace operations. Burundi is also a member of the Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC), and has pledged to support the AU’s Standby Brigade; to participate effectively, Burundi requires training in staff operations. This is another opportunity to focus IMET funding in an effort to encourage sub-regional organizations.

Finally, we hope to use E-IMET to sponsor civil-military relations training in an effort to educate Burundi on the proper role of the military in a democratic society and avoid a repetition of Burundi’s coup history.

Cameroon

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

4

4

3

$36,609

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

11

7

11

$192,331

13

7

9

$116,438

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

49

49

3

$847,749

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

7

7

4

$77,880

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

5

5

4

$301,150

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

76

72

25

$1,455,718

13

7

9

$116,438

U.S. goals in Cameroon support the successful transformation of Cameroonian society into a democratic, pluralistic community, with a market-based economy integrated into the world economy. Cameroon’s political stability and relative economic development make it a leading sub-regional power. Construction of the Chad-Cameroon pipeline further integrates Cameroon into the regional petroleum economy, while its geographic location and national security interests make it a potentially key partner in Gulf of Guinea maritime security programs.

Cameroon’s military could play an important role in supporting regional peacekeeping initiatives and promoting peaceful resolution of border disputes with neighboring countries. This is especially true now that the Bakassi dispute with Nigeria has been resolved. Cameroon has expressed its willingness and intent to play a more active role in regional peacekeeping operations and has said it could contribute up to a battalion, though at present it would only be able to supply police in these numbers. Moreover, it is crucial to have military participation and cooperation as Cameroon undertakes additional political and economic reforms.

Military training provided to Cameroon is designed to promote professional military capacity, especially regarding the ability to increase regional stability. Training priorities include leadership, maritime security, border security, and peacekeeping. Cameroon is expected to become an ACOTA partner in 2007, and will also benefit from significantly increased U.S. engagement in the Gulf of Guinea. Cameroon values IMET courses and continues to fill every available course. Cameroon has a cadet at the U.S. Air Force Academy this year and continues to seek additional training opportunities. Other IMET programs in FY 2006 sponsored reform within the Cameroonian Armed Forces through professional training for junior- to mid-level military officers. Senior level course are rarely offered, but highly sought after by the Cameroonian senior leadership.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Cameroon by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States. Cameroon participated in an ACSS maritime security conference in November 2006. Also in November 2006, Cameroon hosted RECAMP V, a comprehensive staff training exercise for CEEAC forces that focused on peacekeeping and regional security. The two week exercise involved multinational and joint staffs from division to brigade to battalion level, and included all 11 CEEAC countries and some 13 Western nations.

Cape Verde, Republic of

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

8

5

8

$113,366

15

8

13

$190,880

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$21,029

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

9

6

9

$134,395

15

8

13

$190,880

Since gaining independence in 1975, Cape Verde has maintained domestic peace, as well as continual peaceful relations with its neighbors. Its military has consistently played a constructive role in civil society. The country’s physical isolation, poverty, and limited number of educational institutions make it heavily reliant on training from other countries to develop appropriate technical proficiencies. Their military is seeking to transform itself from a heavy Soviet-model land force, to one that focuses on maritime security and crisis reaction. This force will better be able to counter the transnational threats facing Cape Verde: drug smuggling, counterterrorism, maritime disaster, and the illicit movement of persons. Seeking to strengthen its ties to Europe and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Cape Verde hosted Steadfast Jaguar 2006, a large NATO military exercise that tested the capabilities of the NATO Reaction Force.

With the IMET program we are seeking to support the military’s constructive role in Cape Verde society by providing English language training and professional development to the military’s officer corps.

In the EUCOM Military-to-Military Contact Program, Marine Forces Europe conducted two events. During these they discussed U.S. doctrine and procedures for Reaction Force Operations with the Cape Verde Army. This helped the Cape Verdeans form their own ideas on how best to re-organize their army.

During ship visits in 2006, the U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Navy provided training to the Cape Verdean Coast Guard, and the U.S. Coast Guard participated in a combined patrol of Cape Verdean water with Cape Verdean Maritime Safety Coast Guard Riders.

Central African Republic

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

0

0

0

$0.00

12

8

10

$196,529

Totals:

0

0

0

$0.00

12

8

10

$196,529

On March 15, 2003, former military Chief of Staff General Francis Bozize seized power in a military coup from democratically elected President Ange-Felix Patasse. Bozize issued a decree suspending the constitution and other government institutions.

Section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act prohibits most direct assistance to the government of any country when the duly elected head of government is deposed by decree or military coup. In accordance with that provision, the U.S. government ended all military and other assistance covered by section 508 to the Central African Republic (CAR) in 2003, however, section 508 aid restrictions were lifted in September 2005 following the successful 2005 presidential election.

The lifting of aid restrictions allowed IMET funding, and especially English-language training programs to be reinstated. In 2006, a total of $105,000 of IMET was allocated to CAR for English Language, HIV/AIDS, and basic military professionalization training. In 2007, IMET will be used for additional professionalization training with a focus on civil-military relations.

Chad

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

2

1

2

$16,772

5

2

5

$53,459

CTFP

17

11

17

$150,729

6

3

6

$32,079

FMF

689

689

2

$678,829

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

29

20

23

$380,716

26

16

17

$324,870

Non-SA, Combatant Command

140

140

3

$203,000

0

0

4

$1,000,000

Regional Centers

5

5

2

$100,691

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$64,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

883

867

50

$1,594,738

37

21

31

$1,410,408

Chad occupies a strategic position west of Sudan and south of Libya, sharing borders with the Central African Republic, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger. In the course of the last ten years, all but one of Chad’s neighbors have suffered a coup d’état or been named state supporters of terrorism. A well-disciplined, effective military under civilian control will reinforce Chad’s role as a point of relative stability in a troubled region. U.S. assistance strengthens leadership and respect for rule of law within the military, which over time will contribute to the development of a military that supports civilian control and direction of the armed forces and whose members are cognizant of their duty with respect to human rights. Such a force would have a strong influence throughout the region, and would be able to contribute constructively to regional conflict resolution and counterterrorism initiatives.

The Government of Chad (GOC) feels that it has a stake in excluding potential terrorist elements from Chadian territory, particularly in as much as unsecured borders may harbor groups hostile to the current government. In March 2004, the Chadian military engaged members of the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC), an Algerian terrorist cell, in a firefight in northern Chad. During this skirmish more than forty GSPC and five Chadians were killed. Several of the GSPC, including their leader Al-Para, escaped and were captured by a Chadian rebel group in the Tibesti region of Chad. The GOC was instrumental in facilitating the eventual turnover of this terrorist leader to the Algerian government. The GOC has also been supportive in sharing anti-terrorism information with its partners in the War on Terror, and raising awareness of regional threats.

Chad, a committed member of the Pan-Sahel Initiative (PSI), and now the Trans-Sahara Counter-Terrorism Partnership (TSCTP), has participated in several peacekeeping operations in the region and possesses the most operational airlift capability among other Sahelian countries. From June to August 2005 and again from July to September 2006, U.S. Special Forces provided training for select members of the Chadian Army in order to develop an anti-terrorism unit known today as the PSI Regiment, comprised of two PSI battalions totaling 450 soldiers. The U.S. Special Forces Joint Planning Advisory Teams (JPAT) conduct continual training with the PSI Regiment. The training focuses on small unit tactics, first aid, command and control, and cross border coordination. The end state goal of TSCTP is to enable the Government of Chad to detect and defeat existing terrorist and extremist groups as part of the War on Terror. In 2005, a key officer in the unit attended a conference on counterterrorism for junior officers. Throughout 2006, the Chadian military has been active in providing security in eastern Chad where Chadian rebels aiming to overthrow the regime have staged numerous incursions.

Additional Foreign Military Financing (FMF) will be necessary to adequately support mounting USG efforts to engage with the Chadian military during the coming year. The process of restructuring the Chadian Armed Forces is ongoing. In April 2005, the Chadian military conducted an internal review and made a series of recommendations including downsizing, demobilization of soldiers, and improving professionalism. These recommendations have yet to be implemented. U.S. training supports our objectives of strengthening the rule of law and respect for human rights within the security forces. A well-trained and professional military is crucial to Chad’s democratic development and stability. Chad’s oil production is attracting attention from foreign businesses; improved security and rule of law will promote domestic and foreign investment in Chad. In 2005, two Chadians participated in seminars on security issues in oil producing countries, and a Chadian officer and the head of the National Assembly’s Budget Committee are part of another Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminar on budgeting and managing security resources.

Comoros

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$2

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

31

31

7

$105,602

4

2

4

$47,065

Regional Centers

5

5

5

$81,961

2

2

2

$26,743

Totals:

38

38

13

$187,564

6

4

6

$73,808

A small island nation in the Indian Ocean, the Union of Comoros has a history of political instability and military intervention in politics. This background has given particular importance to U.S. efforts to promote democracy and stability in Comoros and to strengthen the professionalism of the Comorian Defense Force, including respect for civilian control. A modest IMET program for Comoros is an important element in U.S. policy toward, and bilateral relations with, the Comorian government, particularly since the United States has no resident diplomatic presence in the Comoros. Comoros is a Muslim country with historic trade ties to the Middle East that condemned the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. In addition to strengthening democracy, enhancing Comoros’ counterterrorism capabilities is a USG priority.

In April 1999, Comoros experienced a military coup that overthrew the civilian government elected in March 1996. Assistance to Comoros was suspended consistent with section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financial and Related Programs Appropriations Act until December 2003, following the previous year’s flawed but fair presidential election. In 2006, Ahmed Abdallah Sambi, a Sunni Muslim cleric, was elected President in what is regarded as Comoros’ first free and fair democratic elections and peaceful transfer of power.

The IMET program received an allocation of $82,000 in FY 2005 and continued in FY 2006 with $53,000. Goals of the training program included inculcating the proper role of the military in a democracy in order to reduce the likelihood of inappropriate military involvement in politics. The program also sought to strengthen military and civil capabilities in the areas of counterterrorism, drug/weapon trafficking and illegal immigration, and improve the English language capabilities of the military to promote greater interaction with the United States and other militaries in the region. Comorian soldiers continued to train at the English lab opened in 2004 and participated in military exercises organized by the Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF - HOA).

The FY 2005 IMET program funded a military officer to attend a five-month intelligence training program at Fort Huachuca. He is currently the military and counterterrorism advisor to the Comorian president. A counterterrorism section is in the process of being established within the Defense Ministry and will be headed by the senior military officer.

Comoros received a modest appropriation in FY 2006 Foreign Military Financing funds earmarked for maritime security. Comorian maritime laws are not enforced, and the nation’s porous coastline and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) are entirely unmonitored due to the lack of a coastal defense force. This appropriation addresses these issues by providing Comoros with some semblance of a coastal defense force.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Comoros by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continued interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Cote d'Ivoire

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$2,650

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

6

6

5

$96,145

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

8

8

6

$98,794

0

0

0

$0.00

Until late 1999, Cote d’Ivoire had experienced a level of political stability and economic growth that made it a model for its neighbors. With the third largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa, it was the economic engine for the sub-region. The Ivorian Armed Forces had begun to participate in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI), and Cote d’Ivoire had established an important regional center for peacekeeping training. But the country’s era of tranquility ended with a military coup in December 1999 that ousted the elected government of President Henri Konan Bedie.

Since then, Cote d’Ivoire has been in a state of political upheaval. Ten months after the coup, scores of people died in violence associated with the deeply flawed elections that brought current President Laurent Gbagbo to power. On September 19, 2002, an armed rebellion erupted, splitting the country in two. Although rebels and the government eventually signed a cease-fire and formed a government of national reconciliation, the country remains divided. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and France sent peacekeeping troops to help stabilize the situation and implement a peace agreement concluded in January 2003. In 2004, the ECOWAS forces became the core of the United Nations Operation in Cote d’Ivoire (ONUCI), a UN Peacekeeping Mission. In June of 2005, the United Nations increased the size of the peacekeeping force and adjusted the ONUCI mandate to assist with upcoming elections. In 2006, the United Nations authorized an increase in the force strength by 1500 troops.

As of this writing, the 2003 peace agreement and subsequent agreements have yet to be fully implemented and disarmament of former combatants has not begun. Bilateral assistance to Cote d’Ivoire was suspended consistent with section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, which restricts direct assistance to the government of any country whose duly elected head of government is deposed by decree or military coup until such time as the President determines and certifies to Congress that a democratically elected government has taken office. A Presidential election was originally scheduled to take place in October 2005. However, because of the continuing crisis and a failure to undertake election preparations, the UN Security Council approved a postponement of the election until October 2006 and, then again, until October 2007.

If eligible and not otherwise restricted, Cote d’Ivoire’s participation during FY 2007 in Africa Center for Strategic Studies programs and potential E-IMET training stressing good governance, civilian rule, the rule of law, and democracy will be considered as those seminars are scheduled, taking into consideration if and how the rebellion is resolved. These types of programs support democratic governance throughout the region by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Participation in these types of events also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Language training continues in-country on a much reduced and limited basis at both the National Gendarme School and at the Armed Forces Headquarters. However, given the lack of potential for IMET-funded schooling, English language training has been reduced to a part-time endeavor by those students willing to undertake instruction during non-duty hours and on a voluntary basis. All costs associated with this training are borne by the Ivorian government. Equipment and books are obsolete and once IMET is recommenced, will need to be replaced. Because of the war, the language lab in Bouake is no longer operational.

Democratic Republic of Congo

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$8,570

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

23

15

21

$266,553

22

11

18

$228,637

Regional Centers

7

7

3

$53,642

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

32

24

25

$328,765

22

11

18

$228,637

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is transitioning from a transitional government to a democratic republic based on a parliamentary system of government with an elected president as its head. Voter registration for Congo’s first democratic elections took place in early to mid-2006. The Independent Electoral Commission, charged with organizing elections, is operational in all of the DRC’s eleven provinces, and the election process enjoys broad political support among transitional players. With the help of the international community, as represented by the Committee to Accompany the Transition (CIAT), police are being trained to provide security for elections, and the army is being restructured to break preexisting links with political party leaders.

Despite two survey processes currently underway (one conducted by South Africa, the other by the Congolese military), the exact size of the DRC military is unknown, although experts now believe that the number of soldiers is closer to 150,000 than to the 300,000 originally estimated; and that number could further decline as some current military members take advantage of the ongoing demobilization program. The vast majority of the Congolese military are army personnel, with a small air force and navy. The Congolese Armed Force (FARDC) currently have 14 Integrated Brigades, each with approximately 3,000 soldiers. The military is also trying, again with international assistance, to better define appropriate missions and to address logistical problems, such as regular payment of salaries and food rations. The international community hopes that as the size of the military continues to decrease, it will be possible to use the existing military budget to increase the basic salary for soldiers, thereby bringing them up to a minimum living standard. While the main mission of the restructured Congolese Armed Forces will be to defend the country’s borders, the military will likely also be tasked to provide domestic disaster relief and designated humanitarian operations. At this time the DRC is largely incapable of securing and defending its borders, coastal waterways, and territorial waters. Poor maritime, airport and border security, corruption, and weak to non-existent infrastructure and laws make the DRC a potential haven for transnational terrorists, smugglers, and traffickers of all sorts.

Democratic reform and human rights are the most significant U.S. interests in the Democratic Republic of Congo, followed by concern for the humanitarian situation, protection of American citizens, and global issues including promoting health and economic development. Sustaining a peaceful democracy contributes to U.S. humanitarian interests and regional security by creating the mechanisms for peaceful resolution of disputes and by providing a fertile environment to foster a growing economy. Using limited FMF and IMET funds, Post has reestablished a military English language lab in the DRC, provided English language instructor and laboratory technician training, and funded Mobile Training Team (MTT) visits.

The DRC continues to be eligible to receive Excess Defense Articles (EDA) on a grant basis under section 516 of the Foreign Assistance Act. The USG looks at ways, given availability of materials, to use the EDA program to support Congolese military equipment and restructuring needs.

The priority for our military assistance programs will continue to be to support the modernization and professionalization of the FARDC, leaning heavily toward creation of a moderate force trained to carry out and support regional and international peace keeping operations. With an end of FY 2006 supplemental the USG trained and enhanced the FARDC’s Military Law and Military Justice programs. Other objectives include enhancing the FARDC’s ability to react to natural disasters and carry out humanitarian operations, and increasing interoperability with regional and international forces - mainly through development of a robust English language training program. Program objectives also seek to contribute to the development of a professional officer and noncommissioned officer corps.

The DRC in FY 2006 continued participation in United States government-funded programs such as the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminars. ACSS supports democratic governance in the DRC by offering senior government civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Djibouti

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

6

6

4

$23,864

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

60

60

2

$170,445

0

0

1

$138,666

IMET

44

36

18

$439,594

10

4

10

$104,390

Regional Centers

4

4

4

$56,307

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

114

106

28

$690,210

10

4

11

$243,056

Djibouti, strategically located at the entrance to the Red Sea, next to Somalia and facing Yemen, is the home of the only U.S. military base in Sub-Saharan Africa (Camp Lemonier). It also hosts France’s largest military base overseas. Djibouti has played a strategic role in the War on Terror (WOT) and currently has forces from eight countries (Germany, United Kingdom, France, Romania, Kenya, Pakistan, South Korea, and the United States) participating in the coalition effort against terrorism. It also serves as the main seaport for Ethiopia – which has also been a staunch ally in the war on terrorism. Annually, emergency food aid from the United States passes through the Port of Djibouti to Ethiopia.

Djibouti has become an important refueling point for U.S. military aircraft and a training area for U.S. military personnel as well as ships and aircraft. The new Doraleh Port facility, where the U.S. Navy has leased several storage tanks, will support refueling of naval vessels and markedly increase the number of U.S. Navy ship visits to Djibouti. This will make Djibouti one of the more active African ports for U.S. naval vessel activity. The Port of Doraleh began operations in early 2006. Bouffard French military hospital is a key trauma care center in the area and helped stabilize victims after the terrorist attack on the USS Cole in October 2000.

IMET training is a core program for Djibouti and has been one of the most successful programs in the region. Graduates now hold key policy and operational positions within the Djiboutian military, including chief of staff and major command positions. Djiboutian mid- and senior-grade officers have attended Command and General Staff, and War College courses.

Access to this highly supportive Arab League nation and critical base of support for the U.S. military merits our serious commitment to the continuation and expansion of the IMET program. IMET helps U.S. strategic interests by expanding relations and our influence in a frontline state in the WOT. The Djiboutians benefit from the training in meeting their core objectives of creating a professional and well-trained force with shared commitments to democratic values and security objectives.

Djibouti’s strategic position adjacent to the Bab el Mandeb strait provides the United States access, basing, and over-flight rights. Djibouti works closely with the Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) to prosecute the WOT. The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) continues to foster bilateral relations with Djiboutian Armed Forces and is an integral part of U.S. Central Command’s Theater Security Cooperation Strategy. The CTFP helps to promote access, while serving overall U.S. strategic interests associated with this important littoral nation.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) has become an important complement to IMET in exposing senior Djiboutian leaders to core U.S. values on civil-military relations and national security and defense concerns. This program also enhances interaction between our countries, and expansion of this program will promote closer bilateral cooperation and trust.

Equatorial Guinea

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

7

7

3

$70,388

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

7

7

3

$70,387

0

0

0

$0.00

To date, virtually all forms of military assistance to Equatorial Guinea have remained suspended. In the past two years, some genuine progress has been made in the EG government’s historically poor human rights record, governance problems, and democratic reforms. However, the country’s leadership and political power have continued to remain in the hands of a small group headed by President Teodoro Obiang. The legitimacy of this group is questionable, as it has held power without meaningful opposition since a successful coup in 1979. Consequently, no military-to-military engagements with EG have taken place, except for occasional participation at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) and at Gulf of Guinea conferences.

Beginning in November 2006, a permanent Ambassador, Donald C. Johnson, is now in place at the Embassy in Malabo, and he wishes to build slowly on the results of a recent visit by a USEUCOM general officer to the EG military leadership, which clearly conveyed the steps they need to take in order to qualify for bilateral military programs. Equatorial Guinea has taken some steps already, and appears amenable to continue on this path, especially with strong and consistent U.S. encouragement and pressure.

As Equatorial Guinea’s oil production continues to surge, to the point of it being the third largest source of oil in Sub-Saharan Africa and of increasing importance to the U.S. energy supply, both the military and the civilian leadership are more acutely aware of the need for greater security in the Gulf of Guinea. All of the production rigs are offshore and vulnerable, and Ambassador Johnson feels that we can use this leverage to push the country into more meaningful reform, beginning perhaps in the first quarter of 2007. He recommends starting with basic IMET programs, and progressing from there as warranted by results. Continued and increased participation in ACSS programs would also become more important, as they contribute to long-term improvements in defining the military’s role in developing democratic governance. Further, the country has the resources to contribute strongly to maritime security in the region.

Ethiopia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

4

4

3

$10,336

2

2

2

$75,521

FMF

62

62

4

$2,983,216

1

1

1

$2,300,000

IMET

68

17

36

$476,398

23

9

23

$182,217

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

90

90

1

$150,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

180

180

3

$400,000

0

0

3

$1,200,000

Regional Centers

2

2

2

$23,502

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

406

355

49

$4,043,452

26

12

29

$3,757,738

Ethiopia is arguably the key to U.S. security interests in the Horn of Africa, a turbulent region threatened by Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism. Ethiopia remains a staunch ally in the war on terrorism and the Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) has been our most effective partner in the counter-terrorist fight within the region. Ethiopia’s internal stability and its role as a regional and international leader remain critical for the stability of the Horn as a whole. The long-term goal of transforming the Ethiopian military into a professional, apolitical modern force remains important.

The ENDF is one of, if not the most capable military forces in sub-Saharan Africa and has clearly established itself as the dominant military power within the Horn of Africa. In 2006, Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) continued to use Foreign Military Financing (FMF) to train ENDF company-size units in counterterrorism skills and large groups of individual soldiers in border logistics skills using FMF. This effort will pay dividends in controlling the region’s volatile and porous borders and enabling the host nation to strike trans-national terrorist networks when and where they are found.

Further, the Ethiopians have a long history of successful participation in United Nations military efforts, spanning the spectrum from the Korean War to combating genocide in Rwanda. Ethiopia currently has a reinforced battalion (900 soldiers) deployed to Burundi as peacekeepers in the UN Mission in Burundi (formerly the African Union (AU) African Mission in Burundi (AMIB)). This battalion was the first Ethiopian battalion trained under the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program. Affirming their commitment to international peacekeeping, Ethiopia has also deployed over 2,000 peacekeepers to Liberia for the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL).

In FY 2006 ACOTA training continued focusing on train-the-trainer training to build Ethiopia’s own peacekeeping training capability. Ethiopia has peacekeeping battalions deployed in Liberia as part of UNMIL and in Burundi. Ethiopia rotates its peacekeeping battalions every six months. Ethiopia’s own cadre of ACOTA-trained trainers now trains their own battalions to rotate to Burundi or Liberia or to be available for future peacekeeping missions. However, the ENDF has asked for additional assistance to enhance the capability of their peacekeeping trainers, specifically to provide simulation software that ACOTA trainers use. In FY 2006 under ACOTA, the USG monitored and mentored the Ethiopian cadre of trainers as they trained two more battalions, provided battalion-level equipment for their peacekeeping units, and built toward ACOTA’s goal of a sub-regional multi-lateral peacekeeping exercise.

As principally a former-guerrilla army, the ENDF lacks strong organic training institutions – a deficiency of which the Ethiopian senior leadership is painfully aware and is working hard to correct. Not only does this lack of formal military schooling hinder the professional growth of the military, it drastically reduces proper use of defense resources, which is critical to a poor nation like Ethiopia. During the past several years, the Ethiopians have increasingly turned to the U.S. military for assistance in addressing these shortcomings. The ENDF Chief of General Staff requested U.S. military assistance in helping reform the Ministry of National Defense. U.S. Army Central Command (ARCENT) has sent several mobile training teams (MTTS), specifically the Law of Land Warfare and Human Rights, the Role of the Military Lawyer, and Public Affairs, to assist this reform effort. IMET assists in increasing the professionalism of the Ethiopian military and strengthens the U.S.-Ethiopian military relationship. The focus of the IMET program in Ethiopia is on building host-nation training institutions. Increasing the English-speaking capability of the military is achieving this by training instructors at U.S. military training institutions and by bringing U.S. military trainers to Ethiopia. The ACOTA training management workshop and drafting of the ENDF training doctrine have also assisted greatly in specifically addressing the ENDF’s training shortcomings. The ENDF requested U.S. assistance using FMF to help establish their own Command and General Staff College and National War College for professional military education of mid-rank and senior officers. During FY 2006 a MTT augmented ENDF instructors completing the first ever Command and Staff College course, and in the fall of 2007 another MTT is scheduled to provide train-the-trainer and full-time instruction to the Command and Staff College. FMF provided the funds for this significant project that will pay great dividends in the future for the U.S. military’s interoperability with the Ethiopians and the long-term professionalization of the ENDF. Enhancing ENDF professionalism will better position them for the future in the war on terrorism.

Ethiopia has taken an aggressive stance against terrorism in Somalia and has supported the United States with operational access and invaluable intelligence sharing. Ethiopia’s participation in the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) strengthens U.S. and Ethiopian bilateral relations, especially in areas of counterterrorism training and education. The ENDF continues to work closely with, and enjoys ever-increasing interoperability with, CJTF-HOA in the prosecution of the War on Terror. The ENDF sent liaison officers back to CJTF-HOA and to CENTCOM Headquarters in the winter of FY 2006.

The Marshall Center, National Defense University, and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Ethiopia by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Senior Ethiopian civilian and military leaders continue to benefit from participation in these events and conferences. Participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States. On a regional scale, Ethiopia participated in U.S. Central Command’s annual regional seminar, GOLDEN SPEAR 06, in Nairobi, Kenya. GOLDEN SPEAR brings together senior military and civilian leaders from eleven east African countries focused on disaster preparedness and management. Ethiopia plans to continue future participation. ACSS opened its first satellite office in Addis Ababa in September 2006.

The scourge of HIV/AIDS transcends political and geographic boundaries, making it more a global humanitarian issue rather than only a medical one. The training support provided through OSD’s HIV/AIDS Prevention Program to ENDF medical personnel is not limited to the transfer of skills and knowledge during the duration of training. It has developed into a network of close person-to-person professional contacts, establishment of bilateral research studies, and access to ENDF military hospitals. This has established an effective, tightly knit team of American and Ethiopian military health professionals working together on common issues. Every indication is that the HIV prevalence rate within the Ethiopian military remains lower than that of the general population, a rare, if not unique, situation in sub-Saharan Africa.

Gabon

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

3

3

2

$12,130

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

24

15

17

$366,253

14

7

13

$139,349

Regional Centers

7

7

4

$59,102

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

34

25

23

$437,484

14

7

13

$139,349

The Gabonese Republic is a politically stable and influential regional leader. President Bongo has led mediation efforts in several neighboring conflicts. These efforts include the conflict in the Central African Republic where Gabon has led the peacekeeping mission of the Economic and Monetary Community of Central African States (CEMAC) and where Gabonese troops have comprised the majority of CEMAC’s deployed forces. On several occasions Gabon has served as a safe haven in times of conflict in the region, and the government has authorized the United States to use its facilities as a staging area for evacuations of Americans and other Westerners in case of need. Gabon has hosted a standby component of the European Force to provide security for DRC elections, and hosts the headquarters of the Central African component of the African Union standby force. Oil production, the basis of the national economy, is declining, although the consequences of this change have not had the anticipated impact because of the rise in oil prices. If social indicators remain skewed, and the economy does not become more diversified, stability and democratic progress could be undermined.

IMET in FY 2006 focused on improving the English language capability of Gabonese military personnel and increasing the level of professionalism in the military, enhancing peacekeeping capability, and increasing maritime security. By fostering effective relations between the Gabonese and the U.S. military, and by exposing the Gabonese participants to U.S. professional military organizations and procedures, and the manner in which the U.S. military functions under civilian control, Gabon’s military efficiency and effectiveness should be enhanced. This in turn will support the goal of regional stability, particularly in peacekeeping operations in which the Gabonese participate. Training programs include students sent to the United States in FY 2006, as well as six visits by the USS Emory S. Land and USS Carr, which provided training to Gabonese naval personnel in maintenance and operations. Three Gabonese naval officers were embarked on the vessel for several weeks for more intensive training. Gabon continued its participation in the African Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program in 2006, including field training for 100 Gabonese soldiers and computer-assisted staff training for 55 officers.

Participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) also supports democratic aims in Gabon by reinforcing the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders. Three members of the Gabonese military participated in 2006; further invitations are expected in 2007. In addition, creating military-to-military contacts will increase the likelihood that Gabon will remain willing to serve as a staging area for evacuation operations in the region. Following successful ship visits in FY 2005 and 2006, two ship visits are tentatively planned for Spring 2007. EUCOM sponsored the visit of the Gabonese Minister of Defense to Washington DC and Fort Irwin, California. Gabon will host a MEDFLAG exercise during FY 2007.

Gambia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

4

4

2

$11,628

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

12

7

10

$175,415

6

4

6

$96,421

Regional Centers

6

6

5

$97,244

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

22

17

17

$284,287

5

4

6

$96,421

Since gaining independence in 1965, The Gambia has maintained continual peaceful relations with its neighbors. Until a military coup in 1994, The Gambia was one of the oldest existing multi-party democracies in Africa. The current military contingent is approximately 1,000 men strong. The country has committed troops to several peacekeeping missions inter alia, Bosnia, Kosovo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DROC), Sierra Leone, Eritrea, East Timor, Liberia, and most recently they contributed a 196-man contingent to the United Nation’s Peacekeeping Mission in Darfur, Sudan. The country is keen for western military, especially U.S. military, cooperation to assist with training soldiers and updating broken or outdated equipment.

During FY 2003, following the lifting of section 508 sanctions that resulted from the 1994 coup, the United States resumed a modest IMET program to expose the next generation of Gambian military officers to U.S. military organizations and procedures, civil-military relations, and the role of the military in a democracy. Until the lifting of those sanctions, the only military-to-military cooperation between the United States and The Gambia was through the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) programs. ACSS continues to support democratic governance in The Gambia by offering senior Gambian military and civilian leaders practical programs in civil-military relations, national security strategy, defense economics and related topics.

In FY 2006, the initial IMET allocation was for $99,000. This allowed six officers to attend the Marine Corps Officer Basic Course, one NCO to attend the Marine Sergeants’ Course, and two individuals to participate in a 3-week observation program at Quantico, Virginia. These courses are an effort to train a new generation of leaders, who will respect human rights and the role of a military in a democratic society. The Gambia also participated in Mobile Education Training (MET) provided by the Defense International Institute of Legal Studies held in Senegal.

Ghana

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ACOTA

1323

1323

2

$391,942

1300

1300

2

$0.00

ALP

2

1

2

$29,821

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

24

20

9

$164,824

1

1

1

$70,559

FMS

7

6

7

$144,902

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

43

32

42

$712,325

49

27

44

$453,433

Regional Centers

16

16

8

$163,321

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

1415

1398

70

$1,607,132

1350

1328

47

$523,992

The Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) is one of the more reliable and professional armies in Africa. It has a long and commendable record in peacekeeping operations, participating in operations around the globe. The GAF currently deploys battalions in Lebanon, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, and the Ivory Coast, and has had United Nations (UN) military observers in the UN peacekeeping missions in the Western Sahara, East Timor, Angola, Tajikistan, Kuwait, the Balkans, and Ethiopia/Eritrea. Because of its history of political stability and its use of English as an official language, the Republic of Ghana provides an ideal platform for staging humanitarian operations and regional peacekeeping training activities.

U.S. military assistance programs in Ghana seek to strengthen democracy through enhanced military professionalism by reinforcing proper civil-military relationships, increasing and improving the ability of the Government of Ghana (GOG) to support U.S. government non-combatant evacuation operations (NEO), increasing and improving the GAF’s ability to project and support peacekeeping operations, and increasing and improving the GOG’s ability to support the War on Terror (WOT) by increasing interoperability with U.S. forces.

Military cooperation under the IMET program, the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), the African Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program, and the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) program all reinforce the GAF’s ability to play a constructive role in the development of Ghana as a democratic society and to contribute to peacekeeping efforts in the region and beyond. The GAF was one of the prime organizers behind the West African response to the recent Liberian crisis and the Economic Community of African States (ECOWAS)-sponsored deployment in Cote d’Ivoire, and has played an integral part in African Union (AU) initiatives to develop an African Stand-by Force.

Training provided by funding under the IMET program enables Ghana to build a network of graduates from U.S. education and training programs. These graduates can pass on their knowledge and expertise and assist Ghana in building the institutions needed to play a constructive role in regional leadership. These courses also help strengthen the GAF’s apolitical role in a democratic society.

Ghana’s armed forces were the first to be trained under the ACOTA program, and ACOTA-trained GAF trainers have trained all deploying GAF peacekeeping units since April 2003. The GAF continues to be supported by ACOTA training and equipment ($1.6 million in FY 2006, $1.2 million planned for FY 2007), which helps ensure that it is up-to-date on training modules, and that there is continuity of its trainer force. Based on a feasibility study conducted in 2005, the ACOTA team provided funding for the construction of a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) site at the GAF training center. The structures were completed in 2006.

In addition, the United States previously provided over $1 million in Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) funds in support of the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Center (KAIPTC), where commanders and staff from throughout the world train together for future peacekeeping missions. In 2006, the U.S. military permanently assigned a military liaison officer to the KAIPTC and provided $112,000 in support. Previous support included $100,000 worth of Automated Data Processing (ADP) equipment upgrades (additional server capability) and funding of a graphic reproduction center and training and equipment for JANUS war-fighting exercise simulation capability.

Peacekeeping training capability development programs, such as ACOTA and GPOI increase the GOG’s ability to more effectively cooperate with ECOWAS and other partners in regional security, peacekeeping, and humanitarian operations.

The GAF was allocated $495,000 in Foreign Military Financing (FMF) in 2006. The Embassy’s Office of Defense Cooperation is working with the GAF to help them reach a decision on how best to use unobligated funds from FY 2004 and 2005 totaling approximately $1.7 million, and has recommended that the GAF establish a prioritized list of possible uses. The GAF is preparing Letters of Request establishing a blanket order training case for the navy, EDA vessel availability, EDA M16 availability, and EDA ammunition availability.

Guinea

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

5

5

2

$13,571

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

58

46

29

$461,344

16

7

15

$237,310

Regional Centers

6

6

4

$124,206

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

69

57

35

$599,120

16

7

15

$237,310

U.S. diplomatic efforts in Guinea are primarily directed towards democracy, good governance, and economic development, as well as reinforcing Guinea’s ability to play a more effective role in regional conflict-resolution and peacekeeping efforts. Because the armed forces play a critical role in Guinean society, assisting the Government of Guinea to continue to reform its military institutions by engaging in closer military-to-military cooperation and by increasing appropriate military assistance serves U.S. interests.

In 2001, through the West Africa Stabilization Program, the U.S. government (USG) trained and partially equipped an 800-man counterinsurgency battalion that assisted in the containment of former Liberian President Charles Taylor. Guinea’s “Ranger” Battalion, which is deployed along the borders with Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, Senegal and Liberia, continues to receive accolades from NGOs and civilians for its service and professionalism, in spite of the fact that it has received no sustainment training.

A moderate and tolerant Muslim country, Guinea is pro-U.S. and supported the United States on UNSCR 1441 and on the passage of numerous anti-terrorism resolutions. The USG witnessed the indirect benefit of U.S. military engagement when Guinea agreed to participate in the West Africa Training Cruise (WATC), a multi-lateral Navy and Marine Corps military exercise, conducted within Guinean territory between the United States, Guinea, Italy, and Spain in October 2005. This was the first time that the Guinean government had allowed a foreign military to participate in an exercise within its national borders. In March 2006, Guinea hosted the first annual U.S.-Guinea bilateral consultations, designed to deepen our diplomatic, strategic, and commercial relationships.

Guinea has a long history of assisting other African countries, but its contributions and effectiveness in peace operations are limited by its army’s organic capabilities. To the extent that the USG can help Guinea develop its armed forces, we will witness improved participation in African multilateral contingency operations. Guinea has participated in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and UN peace operations in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Burundi, Haiti, and Rwanda. Through combined training and exercises, West African countries may be able to avoid conflict in the future, and failing that, will be better able to conduct multilateral peace/humanitarian operations. In this context, Guinea should also be considered for invitation into the Africa Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) and the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) programs.

English is the operational language for international peace/humanitarian operations and the Guinean Armed Forces are finally seeing the value of having English-speaking personnel. To assist in this endeavor, the Defense Attaché Office (DAO) has committed to improving the military’s two existing language laboratories with an infusion of updated training materials and English language instructor training, as well as building a third language lab outside of Conakry.

Collectively, in-country training has included components on human rights, the rule of law, law of land warfare, civil-military relations, and the role of a military in a democratic society. The USG has also successfully used E-IMET to fund seminars in Guinea in which these topics were reinforced. The most recent such event was a civil-military relations seminar held in Conakry in June 2006. The seminar bolstered confidence and mutual respect between the Guinean military establishment and civilian leaders. It served as a catalyst for a joint civil-military follow-up committee that continues to engage in open dialogue and sponsor events including “open-door” visits for civilians to military bases. It was the first time that many of Guinea’s political, labor, and community leaders had ever gained access to these locations.

Guinea’s E-IMET budget for 2006 was $347,000, augmented by approximately $29,000 in fall-out funds from nations that were ineligible due to their failure to sign Article 98 agreements. Guinea was the sixth largest recipient of E-IMET funds in Sub-Saharan Africa.

With the assistance of the Defense Attaché Office and other donors, Guinea continues its HIV/AIDS Education and Awareness Program. This program is funded by the Department of Defense and managed by the DAO’s implementing partner, Population Services International. During its first two and one-half years of existence, this program has resulted in the creation of the Guinean Armed Forces’ first HIV/AIDS policy. It has also produced peer educators throughout the country, promoted condom usage and distribution, and inaugurated the military’s first voluntary counseling and testing facility. The program remains a great success.

Guinea continues to be a strong supporter of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). Guinea participated in ACSS events in FY 2006 and looks forward to continuing its participation in FY 2007. ACSS supports democratic governance in Guinea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Guinea-Bissau

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

3

3

1

$4,850

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

0

0

0

$0.00

2

1

2

$30,331

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$22,501

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

4

4

2

$27,351

2

1

2

$30,331

Following eleven months of internal conflict in 1998-99, Guinea-Bissau held elections in 2000. That government ruled until the September 14, 2003, military intervention. A democratically elected legislature took office in Guinea-Bissau on May 12, 2004, and a new president was elected in 2005. In August 2004, the U.S. lifted sanctions against Guinea-Bissau under section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act (FOAA), which had been imposed due to the September 2003 military coup that removed former President Kumba Yala.

Guinea-Bissau now faces three major challenges: 1) down-sizing and reforming the military, and bringing it under civilian authority, 2) promoting economic development, and 3) strengthening democratic institutions. Considering these priorities, any U.S. military cooperation with Guinea-Bissau should focus on human rights and the role of a military in a democratic society. After the resumption of IMET in 2005, Guinea-Bissau participated in a Defense International Institute of Legal Stufies (DILLS) seminar in January 2006 and is scheduled for English language training in 2007.

Additional challenges in Guinea-Bissau include an extremely poor public health system, making it difficult to prevent and combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and other tropical diseases. HIV/AIDS control and other health programs conducted with USG assistance would contribute to regional stability as well as basic humanitarian needs. USG assistance to Humanitarian Demining efforts in Guinea-Bissau has resulted in the removal of nearly all mines from the city of Bissau. The remaining landmines and unexploded ordnance are in two-dozen well-known locations spread throughout the country. There are also an undetermined number of mines scattered along the border with Senegal resulting from the long-standing conflict in Senegal’s Casamance region, which occasionally involves people and locations in northern Guinea-Bissau.

Assistance provided under the Humanitarian Assistance (HA), Excess Property (EP), and HA/Other activities programs for schools, health centers, and bridges have been very well received by Bissau-Guinean authorities and local populations. Continued HA activities in Guinea-Bissau would further enhance U.S. relations with the country and contribute to long-term economic development goals.

Kenya

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

83

74

28

$345,571

27

19

24

$250,945

FMF

0

0

0

$0.00

1

1

1

$0.00

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

77

77

2

$34,602

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

355

355

4

$150,000

0

0

2

$800,000

Regional Centers

16

16

13

$64,471

1

1

1

$8,673

Service Academies

1

1

1

$54,575

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

532

523

48

$649,219

29

21

28

$1,059,618

Kenya is the linchpin of East African stability and security, and has been a solid partner in the War on Terror (WOT). Kenya has the significant challenge of securing its porous borders with Sudan and Somalia, as well as improving its maritime security. The purpose of military training for Kenya is to improve the professionalism of the Kenyan military and Kenya’s capabilities in supporting the WOT and Peacekeeping Operations (PKO). Kenya is a major contributor to PKO, with troops participating in all current UN PKOs in Africa. A key aspect of U.S. engagement with Kenya is maintaining access to Kenya’s sea and air facilities for contingencies and training exercises. Access to the Horn of Africa region and the Indian Ocean remains important for current operations, as well as for enhancing USG capabilities to respond to future humanitarian and other emergencies in the region.

Training engagement for Kenya has included the DoD Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) activities, U.S. Central Command exercises, and the Africa Contingency and Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program. FMF and IMET were suspended in 2005 following Kenya’s ratification of the Rome Treaty without concluding an Article 98 bilateral agreement. Prior to this freeze, the IMET training program helped promote excellent military-to-military relationships through resident courses and mobile training teams in Kenya. Senior and intermediate-level professional military education (PME) courses and technical courses were balanced with mobile courses in country to provide a diverse training program for Kenya’s Armed Forces. Most of the top Kenyan military leaders have attended U.S. resident PME in the past and, if funding becomes available again, PME will continue to be a key ingredient for a balanced approach to professional development.

Kenya’s porous borders are exposed to external threats such as terrorists and insurgents. Even though Kenya’s small armed force of 30,000 personnel is focused on external threats, they are transitioning to more multifaceted missions against terrorism following the bombing of the American Embassy in Nairobi in August 1998, the bombing at a tourist hotel in Mombasa, and the attempt to shoot down an Israeli civilian aircraft. The CTFP was instrumental in training key Kenyan Department of Defense (KDOD) leaders at the National Defense University’s Counterterrorism Fellows course and the Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR) course on combating terrorism. These alumni are now responsible for helping to fight terrorism and in coordinating KDOD/U.S. CT operations within the Horn of Africa region. Kenya has also received CT training through Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) activities. The CTFP also trained key, promising mid-level officers in such areas as advanced infantry, armor, and military police functions and shipyard management focusing on CT. Under the CTFP, Kenya benefited from a very well conducted mobile training course on emergency medical trauma system management that addressed hands-on emergency care and consequence management. In FY 2007, the United States will continue to help improve Kenya’s capabilities in disaster preparedness and response.

Kenyan military and civilian leaders participated in ACSS events focused on defense management and small arms proliferation. The USCENTCOM Golden Spear Seminar, supported by ACSS, promoted the exchange of ideas and continued interaction among the regional participants. U.S. Central Command exercises such as Edged Mallet and Natural Fire continue to build on excellent cooperation between Kenya and the United States. In addition, the Joint Combined Exchange Training (JCET) NOBEL PIPER has helped the Kenyan Army’s Strike Force Company to improve its capabilities. All levels of the Kenyan Armed Forces participate in these events, and the ultimate result is an increase in Kenyan capabilities and interoperability with U.S. Forces.

The African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) successor, ACOTA, focused on training of personnel and providing equipment for a Battle Simulation Center at the Kenya Peace Support Training Center near Nairobi. The training emphasized “train-the-trainer” skills for junior commanders and staff officers in peacekeeping operations. ACOTA training for Kenya is shifting to direct training of units preparing for deployments to mandated PKOs. In FY 2007, ACOTA assistance will support multinational peace support exercises, reinforcing interoperability and commonality in a multinational context.

Lesotho

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$8,570

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

3

3

2

$59,065

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

5

5

3

$67,634

0

0

0

$0.00

Prior to the turn of the century, Lesotho’s army had been a highly politicized force, vulnerable to influence by political parties. Military involvement in political destabilization and coups d’état had been a problem since independence in 1966. The political/security crisis of 1998, for example, included an army mutiny and junior officer complicity in an unconstitutional attempt to overthrow the elected government. The crisis demonstrated that, at that time, a significant segment of the Lesotho Defense Forces (LDF) neither understood nor accepted the subordinate role of the military in a civilian-led democracy.

Since the political upheaval and violence of 1998, the military has avoided involvement in political issues. Lesotho’s current government has undertaken a comprehensive program to reform and professionalize the LDF and other security services. The United States has an interest in supporting this program because it advances our foreign policy goals of promoting democracy and human rights as well as humanitarian response skills.

In 2006, as it did in 2005, Lesotho participated in African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) programs. Participation in these programs support democratic governance in Lesotho by offering senior officials practical instruction in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Lesotho also sent two representatives to EUCOM’s joint “African Endeavor” exercise in 2006.

Liberia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

4

4

2

$8,260

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

42

40

3

$74,020

3

2

3

$28,383

Totals:

46

44

5

$82,280

3

2

3

$28,383

After 14 years of civil war and two years of an interim government, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf was declared the winner of multiparty presidential elections on November 23, 2005 and took office on January 16, 2006. Her election marked a significant milestone in the country’s transition to democracy. With over 15,000 United Nations peacekeeping and police forces on the ground in Liberia, efforts to restore Liberia’s capacity to provide for its own security is essential. The United States has taken the lead in Security Sector Reform (SSR) for Liberia. We will provide the appropriate equipment, support, and training for a new 2,000 strong Liberian military along with the establishment of a trained Ministry of National Defense staff. The new Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) will be a fiscally sustainable, professional, civilian-led national military force to supplement border control and to interdict arms traffickers and regional paramilitaries.

A weak Liberia could fuel regional instability in West Africa. We need to reduce the potential for terrorists to threaten Liberia’s fragile peace or to take advantage of Liberia as a haven for money laundering, arms smuggling, and other activities supporting terrorism. Liberia has a newly trained, but insufficiently equipped and poorly managed police force; in addition, the military has been demobilized, and the new government has almost no current capacity to control its borders or to enforce customs and other laws.

Liberia’s military is beginning from scratch. Over 9,000 war recruits have been demobilized, former AFL members have received severance pay, and those eligible are awaiting pensions. A recruiting and vetting process has been developed to bring in the best candidates available, and the first initial entry training class of the new AFL graduated on November 4, 2006. International Military Education and Training (IMET) funding will be critical to allow for the continuation of training beyond the basic recruit level. Courses could include professional technical and leadership training, human rights training, defense budgeting, and improved English language training for the military’s new officer and mid-level NCO corps to facilitate their providing effective, appropriate cooperation in civil defense, maritime security, border patrolling, and other activities. Foreign Military Financing will be used to enhance the IMET program by funding MTTs and long-term (3-5 yr) mentorship for the fledgling military. Primarily non-lethal FMF and EDA would be necessary to help equip these forces.

Participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) programs and E-IMET training provide a low-cost investment to build professionalism within Liberia’s military under civilian, democratic leadership. FY 2007 funding would enable AFL members to participate in ACSS conferences, which would support democratic governance in Liberia by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, respect for human rights, and defense economics, as well as engagement and interaction with USG and fellow African civilian and military officials.

Madagascar

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

4

4

3

$12,131

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

67

66

13

$237,394

3

2

3

$26,764

Regional Centers

5

5

5

$67,493

3

3

3

$33,998

Service Academies

1

1

1

$54,575

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

77

76

22

$371,593

6

5

6

$60,762

After the failure of its socialist experiment (1975-1991), Madagascar has continued its transition to democracy and economic liberalization, showing much greater openness towards the United States and the West. Throughout the political turmoil of the early and mid-90’s, the military remained disciplined, apolitical, and respectful of civilian authority, despite calls for it to intervene. The resolve of their apolitical posture was again tested in early 2002 during the political standoff over disputed presidential election results. The dispute was resolved democratically and peacefully, without causing significant damage to civil-military relations. Following an unsuccessful coup attempt in November 2006 led by a former Malagasy general, Madagascar held presidential elections in early December 2006.

The world’s fourth-largest island, but one of the poorest countries on earth, Madagascar lacks the capability to protect its 5,000 kilometer maritime border against smuggling and other threats. This inability deprives the government of significant tax revenues, contributes to the endangerment of many rare species found nowhere else, and creates an unintended permissive environment for transnational terrorists.

The Malagasy are traditionally inward looking, but have sought to play a more active role in regional and international affairs. In 1999, Madagascar hosted an African Union (AU) conference that sought to promote reconciliation in the Comoros, and the government has expressed willingness to participate in peacekeeping operations under UN or AU auspices. IMET-funded training for Madagascar has enabled Malagasy officers to attend training that offers basic military skills for junior officers and mid-level officer staff operations, especially for the navy. It has also trained English language instructors at the basic and advanced levels. Madagascar is a French-speaking country and mastery of English is a prerequisite for U.S. military training courses and participation in multinational peacekeeping operations.

The FY 2006 IMET program contributed to the U.S. strategic goals of supporting counterterrorism and combating international crime, as well as of reinforcing democracy. Using IMET, the USG has provided mobile training teams on coastal defense and the legal aspects of peacekeeping operations. The U.S. strategy for bolstering democracy in Madagascar includes a focus on enhancing the professionalism of the Malagasy military. In FY07, IMET programs will provide training on civil-military relations, coastal security, military justice, officer professionalism, and defense resources management.

The Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS) and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Madagascar by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. APCSS and ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in the Asia Pacific region and the United States.

Malawi

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ACOTA

1007

1007

1

$469,544

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

3

3

1

$12,855

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

35

23

32

$343,167

35

26

30

$400,414

Regional Centers

4

4

3

$39,467

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

1049

1037

37

$865,032

35

26

30

$400,414

With just over a decade of democratic rule under its belt, a professional and apolitical military is essential to continuing stability in Malawi, one of the world’s poorest countries. Malawi held its second free and fair national multi-party elections in June 1999 and its first-ever local multi-party election in November 2000. Presidential and parliamentary elections took place in May 2004 within a relatively free and fair environment. The country faces increasing and significant external threats from both the rise of terrorism in East Africa and from transnational crime. Malawi has steadily improved relations with its neighbors since its democratic transition and has sought to play a stabilizing role in the region and the continent.

Malawi takes seriously its cooperative military relationship with the United States and has been an active participant in the IMET program. Its military is small and under-funded, yet has maintained an apolitical and highly professional character. The Malawi Defense Force (MDF) has been an exemplary participant in a very active slate of programs. One of the first countries to join the Africa Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI), Malawi was the only country in southern Africa in the program and also has participated in ACRI’s successor program, holding in-country ACOTA training in February of 2006 for over 800 soldiers. The MDF joins the equally resource-strapped national police force in select operations to fight crime and has distinguished itself in peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance missions. Malawi sent a mixed company of 110 peacekeepers to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in September 2005, and hopes to send a company or battalion to a UN mission in the Sudan or possibly Somalia. Malawi was also the first country in the region to provide flood relief (helicopters and supplies) to Mozambique.

In addition to traditional professional military skills training, IMET and other security assistance programs are allowing the Malawi Army to bring significant resources to bear on key issues, including HIV/AIDS, structural reform, civilian-military relations, and human rights.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Malawi by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Security assistance programs and military exercises provide excellent opportunities and resources in Post’s efforts to assist in the battle against HIV/AIDS in Malawi. All in-country training includes a session on some aspect of the disease. In addition, we have been intimately involved with the new USG HIV/AIDS planning exercise to develop a 5-year strategy and one year Country Operating Plan, as all in-country HIV/AIDS activities come under the purview of the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator. As part of the strategy, we are working with the Naval Health Research Center (NHRC) to develop and implement a targeted prevention program aimed at, and in conjunction with, the MDF.

Mali

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ACOTA

1176

1176

6

$929,480

675

675

2

$0.00

ALP

4

1

4

$47,821

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

13

9

12

$166,700

5

4

5

$29,212

IMET

0

0

0

$0.00

2

2

1

$6,360

Non-SA, Combatant Command

262

262

2

$647,429

0

0

3

$590,000

Regional Centers

12

12

7

$196,380

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

1467

1460

31

$1,987,811

682

681

11

$625,572

Over the past decade the Malian Armed Forces have evolved into a professional organization, which supports human rights, economic development, and conflict resolution. Although Mali has made strides in military professionalism, the overall military capability is hampered by a severe lack of resources, which directly impacts military readiness and ability to deploy. U.S. security assistance programs in Mali serve to institutionalize these changes, providing training in civil-military affairs, coordinating ongoing peacekeeping training, and conducting seminars on the role of the armed forces in a democracy. U.S.-sponsored training of senior- and mid-level officers contributes to the professional development of current and future Malian military leaders to reinforce and perpetuate the subordinate, apolitical role of the military.

Mali has been an effective interlocutor, mediator, and staunch supporter of regional security issues within the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Mali deployed a 250-man contingent to Liberia as part of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) presence in that country. In FY 2005, Mali participated in and hosted key U.S. air and ground elements during the FLINTLOCK exercise.

Mali was the first country to participate in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI), which provided training on basic capabilities in responding to crises. While the program has done well in establishing a core of trained officers, further training under the ACRI successor, the African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) program, continued in FY 2006. Malian leaders remain committed to and seek a greater role for Mali as a force for regional stability and peace.

Mali has become one of the key U.S. War on Terror (WOT) partners in West Africa and a major participant in regional efforts to identify and stop the transit of weapons and terrorist movements throughout the Sahel region. The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) will help to provide Mali an effective cadre of mid-level and senior officials capable of participating with the United States in the WOT. Mali eagerly participates in all training opportunities offered by CTFP.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Mali by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States. Mali has participated in all available ACSS programs and has an active chapter of ACSS graduates.

Mauritania

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

25

19

10

$228,360

4

4

1

$31,034

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

0

1

$0.00

0

0

5

$1,192,000

Regional Centers

9

9

5

$46,529

3

3

2

$0.00

Totals:

34

28

16

$274,889

7

7

8

$1,223,034

Since 1999, Mauritania has been a recipient of U.S. military and security related support. However, on August 3, 2005, a small group of Mauritanian military and security officials carried out a successful coup d’état, overthrowing the government of President Maaouiya Ould Taya. The self-appointed Military Committee for Justice and Democracy (CMJD) took control and appointed an interim civilian government. The United States condemned the coup d’état and has limited its engagement with the government except that which specifically relates to issues of vital U.S. interest such as protection of U.S. citizens, some cooperation on counterterrorism, and humanitarian assistance.

Mauritania has been an active participant in the Trans-Sahel Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP), which superseded the Pan-Sahel Initiative (PSI), a regional counterterrorism program including Mali, Niger, and Chad. The TSCTP program now includes additional countries and is intended to assist Sahelian countries in better coordinating their efforts and strengthening their capabilities to protect their borders, thereby enhancing regional peace and security.

Mauritania received Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds of nearly $230,000 in FY 2006. In FY 2006 Mauritania sent ten students to CONUS for English language training, a number of whom stayed on for language instructor training, to enhance their communication skill and capacities across the different defense and security services.

Senior Mauritanian civilians and military leaders continue to benefit from the efforts of the Marshall Center and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). ACSS offers a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Additionally, ACSS helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction amongst participants by offering exchanges, research opportunities, and seminars in the United States, Africa, and Europe. Mauritanians participated in six different regional center seminars in FY 2006.

Mauritius

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

2

2

2

$3,561

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

3

3

2

$25,070

1

1

1

$6,735

Regional Centers

6

6

6

$65,147

1

1

1

$12,869

Totals:

11

11

10

$93,778

2

2

2

$19,604

Located 600 miles east of Madagascar, Mauritius is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. The economy relies heavily on exports of sugar and textiles as well as tourism and financial services. Mauritius has one of the strongest economies and highest per capita incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa. While Mauritius has no military, approximately 11,356 active duty personnel under the command of the Police Commissioner are divided into various units including the National Police, a VIP Protection Unit, a Police Helicopter Squadron, a paramilitary Special Mobile Force (SMF), and a National Coast Guard (NCG). Officers on loan from India head up the Coast Guard and the Police Helicopter Squadron.

U.S. military training assistance has focused on the Coast Guard. Through U.S. assistance, it is hoped that the National Coast Guard, created in 1989, will grow into a Mauritian-led organization capable of effectively patrolling territorial waters, stemming narcotics trafficking and illegal fishing, and mounting successful search and rescue operations. Other U.S. foreign policy goals in this area include increasing capability and support for the War on Terror and protecting Mauritius’ fragile coastal environment.

IMET funded Mauritian participation in an HIV/AIDS Conference and a Sub-Saharan Civil Military Strategy for Internal Development course in the United States. DoD funds supported their participation in a number of regional center seminars and executive courses for senior leaders.

Mozambique

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ACOTA

475

475

2

$701,275

299

299

1

$316,112

CTFP

3

3

2

$4,287

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

44

36

19

$257,250

11

9

9

$214,595

Regional Centers

2

2

2

$38,869

1

1

1

$8,673

Totals:

524

516

25

$1,001,681

311

309

11

$539,380

Mozambique is considered a post-conflict success story. Since the signing of the 1992 Rome Peace Agreement that ended sixteen years of civil war, Mozambique has made significant progress in promoting economic reform and advancing democracy. In December 2004, Mozambique held its third multi-party presidential election since independence in 1975. The result was the peaceful transfer of power from a President in office for 18 years to his duly elected successor. Since 1992, U.S. policy has been to encourage democratic consolidation and socio-economic reform. Success in achieving these goals is essential for lasting peace and prosperity for the Mozambican people and for regional stability. While there is still work to be done, Mozambique is moving in the right direction and has developed into one of Africa’s fastest growing economies.

Mozambique has remained active on the regional stage. Two hundred fifty Mozambican troops sent to Burundi in 2003 for peacekeeping activities were withdrawn in December 2005. Mozambique actively seeks to participate in observer missions and to develop the capabilities necessary to participate in other peacekeeping missions and the South African Development Community (SADC) Brigade of the African Union Standby Peacekeeping Force. In July 2006, Mozambique contributed a 12-man team as part of SADC’s contingent monitoring the presidential elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Under the African Contingency Operations Training Assistance program in Mozambique, the U.S. government has provided peacekeeping operations support training for the 3rd Mozambique Battalion.

HIV/AIDS poses a threat to this progress as trained and ready personnel become unavailable for service and causes liabilities to the health care system. The Mozambican military is actively participating in the President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) initiative. Through PEPFAR, the capabilities and infrastructure of the Mozambican Military Health Service have been improved, and International Military Educational and Training (IMET) funds have been used to provide HIV-related training in the United States.

The consolidation of democracy in the post-war period requires that the military play a constructive role by becoming an apolitical and professional military that respects the rule of law and human rights. The FY 2006 IMET program contributed to the U.S. strategic goals of supporting counterterrorism and combating international crime and corruption as well as to reinforcing democracy. IMET has provided training on crisis command and control, defense management, infantry officer, and maritime officer training.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Mozambique by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States. Mozambique has participated in all available ACSS programs and has an active chapter of ACSS graduates.

Namibia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ACOTA

48

48

1

$82,980

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

1

1

1

$4,285

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$21,010

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

50

50

3

$108,275

0

0

0

$0.00

The primary goals of the U.S. Mission to Namibia are global health, democracy, and economic growth and development, including natural resource management. Independent since 1990, Namibia has made significant strides in developing a stable, democratic political system and free-market economy. Assisting Namibia in its efforts to address the HIV/AIDS crisis and to overcome the legacy of apartheid provides a basis for enhanced regional stability, economic development, trade and investment opportunities, and advancement of U.S. global interests. Namibia is of growing importance as a provider of peacekeeping troops; it is contributing 650 troops to Liberia and has offered to provide a similar contingent in the event of a UN peacekeeping operation in Sudan. In mid-2006, Namibia became a partner in the Africa Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program, which provides training to enhance the ability of the Namibia Defense Force to participate in peace support operations

In 2006, the U.S. Department of Defense continued to led the fight against HIV/AIDS in the Namibian military by managing a program that provided annual prevention training and treatment awareness to nearly 10,000 Namibian soldiers, sailors, and airmen at 23 different bases and camps throughout the country. The DoD initiated this program in 2001 and, to date, it remains the Namibian military’s only foreign assistance for HIV/AIDS prevention.

One Namibian military/government official attended the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS), which supports Namibia’s young democracy by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a program in national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Niger

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

25

14

21

$74,954

6

5

5

$43,570

Non-SA, Combatant Command

290

290

3

$316,942

0

0

4

$995,000

Regional Centers

11

11

6

$200,064

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

326

315

30

$591,962

6

5

9

$1,038,570

According to the United Nations, Niger is the poorest country in the world, with limited resources. Niger also has long porous borders with vast tracts of uninhabited desert and savannah. It is geographically situated to the south of Algeria and Libya, north of Nigeria, and lies between Chad and Mali, making it a high-transit area for traffickers and terrorists. Since FY 2002, IMET and other military-to-military programs have contributed to continued engagement. Such programs provide a vehicle to enhance the armed forces’ positive role within civil society and assist the country in its continued democratic transition. However, Niger has not signed an Article 98 agreement with the United States. As a result, the Nigerien military remained ineligible for IMET-funded assistance for most of FY 2006.

The only U.S.-funded training provided to Niger in FY 2006 were under the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) and Joint Combined Exchange Training (JCET). Under CTFP, Nigerien company grade officers attended military police, intelligence, and infantry officer basic courses as well as airborne, ranger, and CID special agent training in the United States. Additionally, Niger was also able to send senior officers to regional center seminars in the United States and others to civil-military relations training seminars in Ghana and Senegal. U.S. forces conducted three JCETs in Niger in FY 2006.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Niger by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States. Nigerien military officers participated in two ACSS-sponsored seminars in FY 2006.

Nigeria

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ACOTA

202

202

3

$1,202,813

650

650

1

$0.00

CTFP

47

46

11

$277,726

2

2

2

$98,587

FMS

33

27

12

$941,204

2

2

1

$832,620

IMET

51

49

11

$330,024

37

26

32

$694,540

Non-SA, Combatant Command

50

50

2

$243,400

0

0

3

$427,000

Regional Centers

23

23

10

$228,149

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

406

397

49

$3,223,316

691

680

39

$2,052,747

U.S. engagement with Nigeria on political, economic, and security issues is vital to the stability and prosperity of West Africa and the entire continent. Nigeria is Africa’s most populous nation, a key source of U.S. oil imports, and a crucial security partner. Two U.S.-trained battalions of the Nigerian Army played a key role in ending the civil war in Liberia and created conditions for a peace settlement in Sierra Leone. Nigeria has three battalions of peacekeepers--the largest contingent--in the AU Mission in the Darfur region of Sudan (AMIS). Of note, as part of its historic exemplary border agreement with Cameroon, Nigeria withdrew its 3,500 troops from the once-disputed Bakassi Peninsula last August.

Despite Nigeria’s position as the anchor of U.S.-supported peacekeeping operations in the region, successive sanctions for the October 2001 Benue massacre (lifted in 2004) and the prolonged presence of Liberian ex-president Taylor dramatically curbed what had been our second largest security cooperation program in sub-Saharan Africa. With the Taylor sanctions lifted in June 2006, we must fully resuscitate our programs to help the Nigerian military focus on military tasks and the creation of a professional, apolitical leadership. We also must continue to support the participation of the armed forces in international and regional peacekeeping and as a strong and willing ally in the war on terrorism. The Nigerian military has seen participation in peacekeeping missions, especially UN operations, as a means of restoring institutional pride as well as public confidence.

The IMET program in Nigeria will focus on defense resource management and professional military training for mid- to senior-level personnel. This training will be a key component of our effort to professionalize the Nigerian military. Every effort should be made to help Nigeria increase the professionalism of its armed forces. Similar training in FY 2000 and 2001 successfully helped shape the attitudes of the Nigerian officer corps after years of military rule and instilled a sense of their role in a democratic, civilian government. This is a key component of our strategy to consolidate democratic gains, especially before the April 2007 elections.

U.S.-Nigerian security cooperation remains strong in several areas. Department of Defense Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds have been used to train Nigerian officers and officials in regional counterterrorism issues and to conduct high level, in-country training on how to conduct domestic operations in accordance with the rule of law. Because of continued U.S. support for the Nigerian Air Force’s C-130 fleet, Nigeria was largely able to self-deploy its own peacekeepers to Darfur. A seminar with the Nigerian Air Force to develop a strategic vision, a robust DoD HIV/AIDS program, and an active humanitarian assistance program are in operation.

Several new programs are underway, one of which links the Nigerian military with the California National Guard as part of the State Partnership Program. U.S. support of a tactical simulation center has enabled the Nigerian military to improve command and control, tactical planning, execution of tactical and peacekeeping missions, and enhanced coordination with other government agencies. In view of Nigeria’s major peacekeeping commitments, the Nigerian military began training in April under the Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) Program, a component of the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI). Participation in ACOTA will further enhance Nigeria’s peacekeeping capabilities and support the military re-professionalization goals of the military’s senior leadership.

Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

70

70

2

$118,441

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

13

8

12

$159,459

11

8

10

$109,237

Regional Centers

8

8

3

$83,829

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

91

86

17

$361,729

11

8

10

$109,237

Emerging from a five-year period of instability that included a civil war, the Republic of Congo has made considerable progress in moving towards more democratic political and economic systems and a more peaceful and stable country. Presidential and legislative elections were held in 2002, and a peace agreement was signed in March 2003 with the last vestiges of the rebel factions known as the “Ninjas.” Since the 2002 elections, the government has made some progress in rebuilding institutions destroyed during the years of civil conflict in an attempt to restore the faith and confidence of the Congolese people in the government. The country continues to require considerable repair of its infrastructure and basic social services. As a post-conflict country, Congo still faces challenges to ensure that it remains on the path to develop fully transparent procedures and expand efforts on good governance. Over the past year, the country continued to address anti-corruption issues and improve transparency in the economic and oil sectors as outlined in its International Monetary Fund program.

IMET funds have historically been used to support Congolese efforts to restructure and professionalize the Congolese military. In FY 2006, Brazzaville’s limited IMET was used to further enhance English language capabilities that prepare Congolese military officers and non-commissioned officers for professional military education (PME) courses. In FY 2006, the Defense International Institute of Legal Studies (DIILS) convened a rule of law conference in the Republic of Congo for senior-level military officers.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Congo-Brazzaville by offering senior African civilian and military leaders courses in civil-military relations and technical issues. In FY 2006, two government officials, one from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and one from the Ministry of Defense, participated in ACSS regional seminars. ACSS participation helps build and maintain long-term interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States. Additionally, the Defense Institute of International Studies trained Congolese with a seminar on Military Justice and Combating Terrorism.

Rwanda

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ACOTA

3101

3101

5

$3,495,510

2120

2120

8

$0.00

CTFP

4

4

3

$94,408

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

69

66

10

$344,995

9

6

9

$96,338

Regional Centers

3

3

3

$31,903

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

2

2

2

$118,575

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

3179

3176

23

$4,085,391

2129

2126

17

$96,338

U.S. programs in Rwanda aim at preventing the recurrence of genocide (which claimed some 800,000 lives in 1994) by helping to create the political, economic, and social conditions that will lead to a prosperous civil society that embraces democratic governance and respect for human rights. To achieve these goals, the United States has implemented a variety of political, humanitarian, military, and economic assistance programs that support U.S. interests in aiding Rwanda’s transition to sustainable development while securing regional peace and stability in Africa’s Great Lakes Region.

Following a two-year period of suspension, IMET was reinstated for Rwanda on March 5, 2003, but was limited to Expanded IMET (E-IMET). Now, there are no restrictions for Rwanda. Rwanda has just recently qualified to become a full ACOTA partner. The U.S. military provided significant training in support of Rwandan troops deploying to Darfur for peacekeeping operations as part of the Africa Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS).

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Rwanda by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Sao Tome And Principe

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

3

3

2

$12,130

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

32

27

10

$170,173

22

9

18

$311,467

Regional Centers

6

6

4

$55,576

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

41

36

16

$237,879

22

9

18

$311,467

Sao Tome and Principe (STP) is a maturing multi-party democracy that observes political and civil liberties. In July 2003, some members of the military supported a coup attempt that was resolved through successful talks between the rebels and a multinational negotiating team, including the United States. In June 2005, the cabinet resigned in protest of alleged corruption in the awarding of oil concessions to consortiums with ties to Nigeria. The President reached an agreement with the majority party in the National Assembly and was able to appoint a new government the same month. In March 2006 the President’s party won a majority of seats in the National Assembly. In July 2006, President Fradique de Menezes was reelected in a free and fair election. STP is one of the poorest and most heavily indebted nations in Africa, and its economic problems could undermine its long-term stability and democratic institutions. At the same time, the country’s social indicators are strong for such a poor country. The possibility that there could be large oil reserves in STP’s coastal waters offers hope for considerable new revenues. It could also make Sao Tome and Principe a major player in the economically and strategically important Gulf of Guinea.

IMET facilitates the building of effective relations between the STP and the U.S. militaries. It exposes the trainee-participants to U.S. professional military organizations and procedures and the manner in which the U.S. military functions under civilian control. IMET in FY 2006 focused on improving military professionalism and maritime security while continuing to develop the English language capability of STP military personnel, thereby enhancing STP’s ability to participate in other IMET courses. The U.S. Coast Guard provided training to 20 members of the Sao Tomean Coast Guard. In addition, participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic aims in STP by reinforcing the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders. The USS Emory S. Land visited Sao Tome twice and also embarked two Sao Tomean Coast Guard Officers for several weeks of more intensive training. A 27-foot Boston Whaler was delivered to the Sao Tomean Coast Guard in February 2006.

Senegal

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ACOTA

4394

4394

15

$4,017,227

1350

1350

4

$0.00

ALP

1

1

1

$23,674

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

37

37

5

$135,904

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

0

0

0

$0.00

30

30

1

$192,000

IMET

88

45

84

$1,465,227

68

30

57

$702,601

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

28

28

6

$484,428

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

120

120

1

$361,863

0

0

2

$512,000

Regional Centers

10

10

6

$136,056

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

0

0

0

$0.00

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

4678

4635

118

$6,624,378

1450

1412

65

$1,406,601

Senegal is our most important Francophone partner in sub-Saharan Africa, a supporter of key U.S. foreign policy initiatives, and a consistent voice for moderation and compromise in multilateral and Islamic organizations. Senegal was the first sub-Saharan country to offer troops to Operation Desert Shield. Senegal plays a key role in ensuring a vital U.S. interest: regional stability. Senegal is a participant in the African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) program and participated in Operation Focus Relief (OFR). It hosted the first Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminar in November 1999, the first brigade-level exercise under ACRI (ACOTA predecessor) in October 2000, and has been a leader in the program ever since. The Senegalese military has distinguished itself in peacekeeping operations in Sudan, Cote d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Liberia, Sierra Leone, Lebanon, Rwanda, Bosnia, and the Sinai. They currently have four battalions, about 25% of their army, deployed supporting PKO.

IMET underpins all U.S.-Senegalese cooperation. The continuing development of a cadre of professional officers through the IMET program is in the interest of the United States and will reinforce Senegal as a full partner with its neighbors in peacekeeping operations in the sub-region. IMET training and ACSS programs have complemented training under ACOTA to strengthen the level of professionalism within the Senegalese officer and NCO corps. Reinforcing the traditions of a professional civilian-controlled military that emphasizes respect for democratic principles, human rights, and the rule of law will set an example for other nations in the sub-region. By working with Senegal to further democracy and economic liberalization, the United States helps strengthen the democratic foundation of a country whose growth and successes are extremely important.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Senegal by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Senegal is a strong supporter of the United States in the War on Terror. During FY 2006, Senegal completed the education of one officer at the National War College at Fort Leslie McNair, three at Command and General Staff Colleges, and nine at officer advanced courses. They also sent a number of officers for train-the-trainer gendarme training at the Center for Excellence for Stability Police Units (COESPU) located in Vicenza, Italy.

Seychelles

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

3

3

2

$3,562

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

9

7

9

$137,707

5

3

5

$55,758

Regional Centers

2

2

2

$26,608

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

14

12

13

$167,877

5

3

5

$55,758

Seychelles, an archipelago located in the Indian Ocean, has a population of 80,000 inhabitants. Tourism and seafood are the primary sources of income. In July 2006, President Michel won his first elected term in elections, which were deemed credible by international observers.

The purpose of U.S. sponsored military training in Seychelles is to professionalize the Seychelles Peoples Defense Forces and improve the skills necessary to enforce maritime law and protect the marine environment and local fisheries. An important by-product of U.S. military engagement with Seychelles is access to air and seaports.

IMET training, administered by the Kenya-United States Liaison Office (KUSLO) in Kenya, has primarily focused on maritime training for the Seychelles Coast Guard. In the past, this has included classes on coastal security, search and rescue, and maritime law courses on the environment and fisheries issues. The program continues to have a positive influence on continued access to the island. Mobile Training Team (MTT) courses have generally been viewed as being more productive and cost efficient, as they allow for greater numbers of the Seychelles military to participate. However, in FY 2006 emphasis was placed upon resident training in the United States for professional military education (PME) courses. PME continues to be the top IMET priority, while resident professional courses and individual skills training occupy the remainder of the program. Army courses aimed at increasing military professionalism are also being added to the portfolio to provide influence on the Seychelles military land component. Seychelles received FY 2005 FMF funding that was earmarked to support maritime and coastal security capabilities.

Seychelles was identified in FY 2006 as a recipient for Global Secuity Affairs (GSA) Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds, which are also administered by the KUSLO. As part of this program, Seychelles was invited to participate in a regional conference on maritime security, but due to national elections was not able to participate. As CTFP support for Seychelles continues, courses will be offered that focus on developing CT awareness and expertise within military and government entities.

In 2006, one officer from the Seychelles People’s Defense Force participated in a seminar conducted by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). ACSS supports democratic governance in Seychelles by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Sierra Leone

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$8,570

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

156

156

9

$337,175

2

2

2

$63,694

Regional Centers

5

5

3

$78,590

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

163

163

13

$424,334

2

2

2

$63,694

Our priorities in Sierra Leone are to consolidate peace by enhancing political and economic governance, reducing corruption, building national capacity for conflict prevention (including training a professional, civilian-led military), and preparing for elections in 2007. The security situation in Sierra Leone continued to improve in 2006. With the departure of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) in December 2005, the UN Integrated Office (UNIOSIL) assumed its peace-building mandate.

Over 45,000 combatants were disarmed in a UNAMSIL-supervised disarmament program that was declared complete in January 2002. Parliamentary and presidential elections are scheduled for July 28, 2007; elections were last held in May 2002 without any violence. The Special Court for Sierra Leone continues to try those most responsible for crimes during the 11-year long civil war under international humanitarian law. Notably, the trial of former Liberian leader Charles Taylor is scheduled to commence in April 2007 in The Hague. The Government of Sierra Leone’s (GoSL) efforts to consolidate constitutional order and state authority by improving its diamond industry and by decentralizing administrative machinery have been commendable, though greater reforms are needed. Although Sierra Leone is no longer considered a “post-conflict” country, many root causes of its civil war are yet to be addressed, including poverty, youth unemployment, illiteracy, and the lack of basic infrastructure. They also need to establish a culture of respect for human rights by enacting recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Sierra Leone is one of two countries selected to work with the newly formed UN Peace building Commission to address the challenges faced by countries following the “post-conflict” state of rebuilding. The Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF) has benefited from British training and has deployed to the borders with Liberia and with Guinea, where border demarcation is ongoing.

IMET-funded training focused on resident professional courses, individual skills training, and participation in Mobile Education Training seminars provided by the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS).

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Sierra Leone by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

South Africa

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ACOTA

123

123

3

$0.00

248

248

12

$0.00

CTFP

6

6

5

$40,744

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

64

64

16

$200,492

12

12

4

$41,400

FMS

3

3

1

$885

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

0

0

0

$0.00

2

1

2

$12,949

Regional Centers

5

5

3

$17,526

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

201

201

28

$259,647

262

261

18

$54,349

After South Africa’s first democratic elections in May 1994, the new government undertook a sweeping transformation of its military. The transformation has included incorporating ten former homeland militaries and anti-apartheid militant groups with the regular armed forces into what is now known as the South African National Defense Force (SANDF). The SANDF leadership struggles with issues of racial representation within the military; differences in levels of training, education, and promotion criteria among the various groups; and limited resources as the new government focuses on providing services to the historically disadvantaged majority.

The South African government is also struggling to define an appropriate mission for the SANDF and to structure the force to accomplish that mission. In recent years, SANDF forces have been deployed for border control, police support, and peace support operations in Burundi, DRC, Sudan, Lesotho, and elsewhere in Africa. A controversial multi-billion dollar defense acquisition program is adding corvettes to the naval fleet and replacing old submarines, jet fighters, trainers, and helicopters in the SANDF arsenal. At the same time, downsizing efforts are expected to bring SANDF forces from a peak of 100,000 personnel to around 70,000 active personnel.

U.S. interests are served by assisting South Africa to transform its military into a professional, apolitical force capable and willing to undertake a regional leadership role commensurate with the country’s size, population, and level of development. A successful transformation will serve as a model for other African countries with which the United States can cooperate on conflict resolution and peacekeeping. South Africa and the United States enjoy an active military relationship, meeting bi-annually to exchange views at the Defense Committee.

With the resumption of IMET training in 2007 we expect to send SANDF personnel to professional military education courses at the mid and senior levels. Additional IMET training is also possible in technical fields. The 2007-2009 IMET training plan still needs to be coordinated with the SANDF through the formal Bilateral Training and Assistance Conference (BTAC) process. The BTAC was defined at the June 2006 DEFCOM. The first official BTAC was held in November 2006 and the next meeting was in February 2007.

ACOTA training for South Africa began in September 2006 with brigade staff training for 43 Brigade. The 2006/2007 ACOTA training schedule includes 15 events. Most initial training will focus on brigade staff training for the SA Army and emergency medical training for the South African Military Health Service. The DAO and ODC use the ACOTA program to push additional EUCOM Theater Security Cooperation programs, specifically mil-to-mil engagement events focusing on peace support and military disaster and consequence management operations.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in South Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Swaziland

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

4

4

3

$21,043

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

9

6

9

$96,814

14

7

14

$124,030

Regional Centers

4

4

3

$76,498

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

17

14

15

$194,356

14

7

14

$124,030

U.S. government funding for military training in Swaziland is designed to promote democracy, human rights, and professional development. During the past year, the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program sent six members of the Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (USDF) to the United States to improve the professional competencies of the officer corps.

Over the past several years, there has been increasing pressure both internationally and domestically for Swaziland to move from its current system of absolute monarchy toward democracy. In a first step towards this end, King Mswati III recently ratified Swaziland’s first constitution in over 30 years. The IMET program, by promoting the professionalization of the Swazi defense force and the role of an apolitical military that respects human rights, will be of vital importance for the rule of law to take hold in this country.

In addition, USG funding has been helping the USDF combat its growing HIV/AIDS problem by training lab technicians to provide in-house services for HIV positive members of the USDF. Swaziland’s current prevalence rate is 42.6% - the highest in the world. Although the USDF has not been specifically surveyed, UNAIDS estimates that in the military HIV can be 2 to 5 percent higher than other populations.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Swaziland by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Swaziland has benefited from training designed to assist the next generation of African military leaders to address successfully complex domestic and regional security challenges, as well as training for the legal aspects of conflict prevention and combating terrorism.

Tanzania

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

38

38

9

$187,816

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

2

2

2

$10,209

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

40

40

11

$198,025

0

0

0

$0.00

Tanzania is in a critically important location in Africa. Porous borders and easy access into Tanzania from neighboring countries and overseas make Tanzania a prime target of terrorist threats, as demonstrated by the tragic bombing of the U.S. Embassy in August 1998. The port in Dar es Salaam serves as the entry point for shipment of goods to other parts of central Africa. Tanzania is also the main reception point for refugees fleeing instability in neighboring countries, most notably Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Indeed, Tanzania has the most refugees of any African country. The numbers have decreased as the region slowly stabilizes, but Tanzania still hosts approximately 400,000 refugees. The economic, criminal, and possible military problems of such a large refugee group present serious security issues for Tanzania.

Tanzania also serves a crucial political role, serving as the seat for the Arusha peace talks aimed at ending the ethnic bloodshed in Burundi and for the International Criminal Court for Rwanda. The Government of Tanzania is frequently called upon to mediate between its neighbors. Tanzania also serves as an important partner with Uganda and Kenya in the development of the East Africa Community (EAC). In addition to integrating the markets and economic policies of these three countries, the EAC envisions facilitating security cooperation among the three nations through a military liaison office.

Tanzania is a relatively stable country, favorably disposed to U.S.-led initiatives and training programs, such as within the law enforcement and health sectors. Tanzania, a President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) focus country, received over $100 million USD through the Global HIV/AIDS Initiative for increased HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment. Tanzania has been a cooperative partner in the War on Terror effort.

The IMET program is crucial to Tanzania-U.S. relations because it helps professionalize its armed forces and enables Tanzania’s armed forces to look closely at cooperation at the regional level in organizations like the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). The counterterrorism resident training courses provided by the United States and funded by SOLIC have helped train Tanzania’s mid-level and senior military and civilian leaders. This is helping to provide the leadership, concept, and instructor base for Tanzania’s establishment of a National Counterterrorism Center, planned for the near future. The existence of Islamic extremists in Tanzania makes this effort critical for the protection of American interests in the area. The fact that Tanzania has not signed an Article 98 agreement limited their participation in U.S. military training opportunities in FY 2006.

Although ASPA prohibitions preclude training funded through FMF, the Tanzanian military, through SOLIC funding, participated actively in the Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program. In FY 2006, 28 members of the Tanzanian military, police force, maritime institute, and revenue authority participated in a Port Security course provided by a Mobile Training Team. One TPDF military officer also participated in the International Special Forces Training Course. For FY 2007, the U.S. Coast Guard plans to send a Mobile Training Team to Tanzania to train about 30 military, political, and other port security officials under the Coast Search and Rescue Operations. All of the training programs projected for FY 2007 are exempt from ASPA restrictions.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) continued to support democratic governance in Tanzania by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Tanzanian participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities. In FY 2006, Tanzania sent two civilians and one TPDF military officer to the Senior Leader Seminar in Atlanta Georgia. During FY 2007, Tanzania is slated to send one military officer and one civilian to the Senior Leader Seminar in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in February, two military officers (majors or lieutenant colonels) to the Next Generation of African Military Leaders Course in Washington D.C. in June/July, and numerous participants to a Small Arms and Light Weapons Workshop in Tanzanian in July.

Tanzania also participated in the Golden Spear 2006 Ministerial Conference in Cairo Egypt from August 26-31, 2006 and will participate in another Golden Spear Symposium in Cairo, Egypt from December 5-6, 2006.

Togo

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

7

7

3

$17,388

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

0

0

0

$0.00

5

3

5

$68,801

Regional Centers

5

5

2

$23,735

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

12

12

5

$41,123

5

3

5

$68,801

Thirty-eight years after seizing power in a military coup, former President Gnassingbe Eyadema unexpectedly died in February 2005. During his reign, the rule of law was not respected, human rights abuses were de rigueur behavior, and the military was used as a tool of repression. After Eyadema’s death, the military installed his son, Faure Gnassingbe, as the president in contravention of the constitution. After sustained international pressure, Faure stepped down and Togo held presidential elections. In a hotly contested election marred by serious irregularities, Faure was declared the winner.

The Government of Togo, under Eyadema, had begun formal political consultations with the European Union in 2004, promising to make improvements in the areas of democracy, civil liberties, and human rights. The current government is working within the same framework in the hopes of resuming bilateral aid programs. Faure issued statements urging reconciliation between the ruling and opposition parties, but nothing materialized until the national dialogue convened in August 2006, resulting in the global political agreement. Pursuant to the terms of the agreement, the government, the opposition, and civil society established the framework for forming a government of national unity in Togo. The committee following the progress of the global political agreement continues to study the key issues of judicial and military reform and will formulate a plan of action, as per the terms of the agreement.

In spite of its political and economic problems, Togo has played a major role - disproportionate to its small size - in the sub-region to promote peace and stability. Togo’s troops continue to support both Cote d’Ivoire and Liberia in their peacekeeping efforts. In September 2005, Togo dispatched peacekeepers to Haiti.

In FY 2006, the USG provided funding assistance for HIV/AIDS activities for officials from Togo’s Gendarmerie and Ministry of Security to participate in Mobile Education Team seminars in Ghana and Senegal as well as in regional center seminars hosted by ACSS. Because of Togo’s difficult transition to democracy and because of the role the military played in the 2005 constitutional machinations and election-related violence, the USG had suspended all military assistance until recently. As a result of the progress on the global political agreement, a five-day seminar on civil and military relations, cancelled as a result of the military’s role in the election related violence in 2005, has now been rescheduled for Spring 2007.

Uganda

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

4

4

2

$16,415

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

100

100

1

$45,000

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

94

92

16

$390,739

12

10

12

$147,396

Regional Centers

5

5

5

$52,201

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

203

201

24

$504,355

12

10

12

$147,396

Uganda continues to play an important role in East Africa and the Great Lakes region. Over the past two years, President Yoweri Musveni pushed a new Somali transitional government to reinstall itself in Somalia, maintained international pressure on Burundi to see through its peace accord and elect a new government, and worked with Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to enact confidence-building measures and move forward to disarm and demobilize militias in eastern Congo. Uganda also cooperated closely with the Government of South Sudan (GoSS) to end the 20-year long conflict with the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA). In the meantime, Uganda continues to professionalize its military, including notable improvement its human rights record in northern Uganda over the past year. Uganda has been a staunch backer of the War on Terror.

The Ugandan Peoples’ Defense Force (UPDF) withdrew its forces from the DRC in mid-2003. Since then, however, the Ugandan government has complained that the DRC is unstable and provides a haven for remnants of anti-government rebel groups, the Allied Democratic Force (ADF), the People’s Redemption Army (PRA), and since late 2005, the LRA. Uganda has stepped up its joint monitoring and coordination efforts with DRC and the United Nations Mission in Congo (MONUC). In 2005, Uganda’s improved relations with Sudan enabled the UPDF to continue to score successes against the LRA, by splintering and reducing their ranks and driving the LRA’s leadership out of northern Uganda and southern Sudan into DRC. In July 2006, the Ugandan government and the LRA entered into GoSS-mediated peace talks. Improved security in northern Uganda has encouraged thousands of internally-displaced persons to begin returning to or close to their homes. The UPDF provides security for the more than 1.3 million Ugandans displaced by the conflict in the North. In an election with opposition party participation for the first time in 20 years President Museveni was re-elected for a third term in February 2006.

As a result of Uganda’s withdrawal from the DRC, the State Department relaxed restrictions on the International Military Education Training (IMET) program. In 2004, the U.S. government lifted the last restrictions on Ugandan participation in regular IMET training. In FY 2006, Ugandan students attended training at the following schools or classes: Army War College; Adjutant General Captains Course; Infantry, Armor, and Field Artillery Officer Basic Courses; Marine Officer Basic Leader Course; Air Command and Staff College; Civil Military Strategy for International Development: Sub-Saharan Region; Army Sergeants Major Academy; and International Law of Military Operations. In March 2006, another Civil-Military Affairs Seminar included 79 participants of which 49 were UPDF and 30 were from various civil society, international and non-governmental organizations, and local governments.

Foreign Military Funded (FMF) training included vehicle maintenance and driver’s training for 25 instructors and 100 military drivers and mechanics from August to September 2006. An FMF transfer of 36 trucks, three wreckers, 15 trailers, and spare parts occurred in August 2006. The Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) established a non-commissioned officer training academy that graduated 98 students in 2006. Two companies of UPDF soldiers received advanced infantry training.

Zambia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

3

3

1

$12,855

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

91

85

21

$281,717

19

14

18

$189,824

Regional Centers

2

2

2

$24,960

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

96

90

24

$319,532

19

14

18

$189,824

Zambia has been a commendable example of peace and stability in southern Africa. Not only has Zambia avoided involvement in the civil conflicts of two of its neighbors, Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), but it also has played a role in efforts to broker and implement a cease-fire agreement for DRC.

Zambia must confront a host of domestic political and economic challenges. The economy contracted sharply for over two decades because of irresponsible economic management and over-reliance on one commodity: copper. Zambia returned to multi-party democracy in 1991 after nearly two decades of one-party rule, but corruption and cronyism undermined the rule of law throughout the ensuing decade. Thanks to better economic management and strong world copper prices, Zambia has enjoyed annual economic growth of about 5 percent in recent years, but this is still not sufficient to alleviate widespread poverty. Zambia held its fourth multiparty national elections in September 2006. The United States and other donor countries work with the public and private sectors in Zambia to support market-driven growth, develop good governance, and combat the HIV/AIDS epidemic. A more prosperous, democratic Zambia can serve as a strong model in a region of increasing economic and political importance to the United States.

The Zambia Defence Force (ZDF) strives to be a professional military but is hampered by a lack of resources, resulting in a force that is poorly trained and ill-equipped. U.S. military training assistance has been, and continues to be, exceptionally beneficial to improving the ZDF’s capabilities and professionalism. The International Military Education and Training (IMET) program is the cornerstone of this U.S. assistance.

IMET provides technical training in both operations and support fields. Previous training has been conducted which dealt with armor, infantry, logistics, aircraft maintenance, and air traffic control. Programs completed in FY 2006 included air traffic control and aircraft maintenance, criminal special agent training, peacekeeping operations, and the legal aspects of counter terrorism programs. Additionally, junior company grade officers as well as non-commissioned officers will attend professional military education courses. Additionally, Zambian senior and mid-grade officers participate in seminars sponsored by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). These seminars, whose topics vary but focus on cooperation, are held both in the United States and abroad.

The Government of Zambia has agreed to participate in the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program. Most of the groundwork for Zambia’s participation has been completed and training is expected to begin in mid-2007. This training will not only serve to improve the ZDF’s peacekeeping abilities, but it will also improve the overall capabilities and professionalism of the force.

The ZDF has an HIV/AIDS prevalence of approximately 29 percent. USDAO Lusaka administers a program valued at almost five million dollars to increase HIV awareness and to improve prevention and treatment programs for active duty ZDF personnel and their families. This program is under the joint auspices of the President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DoDHAPP).



Back to Top
Sign-in

Do you already have an account on one of these sites? Click the logo to sign in and create your own customized State Department page. Want to learn more? Check out our FAQ!

OpenID is a service that allows you to sign in to many different websites using a single identity. Find out more about OpenID and how to get an OpenID-enabled account.