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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--East Asia and Pacific Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
August 2007
Report
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Brunei

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

FMS

2

2

2

$33,261

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

3

3

3

$13,060

2

2

2

$10,440

Service Academies

1

1

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

6

6

6

$46,321

2

2

2

$10,440

The Royal Bruneian Armed Forces (RBAF) consist of infantry, navy, and air combat units. A British armed forces Ghurka battalion permanently stationed in Brunei near the center of the country's oil industry provides oil facilities' security. Because of the country's small size, Bruneians regard a continued U.S. presence in the region as critical to their long-term security and prosperity. Since the signing of a November 1994 Memorandum of Understanding on Defense Cooperation, the RBAF have engaged in joint exercises, training programs, and other military exchanges with the United States, including revival of Special Forces training in 2004 after a ten-year hiatus. Their continued participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's courses and in training they purchase through Foreign Military Sales (FMS) enables the USG to help Brunei train future leaders for its armed forces. This training also increases Brunei's awareness and understanding of U.S. policies and facilitates lasting relationships between Bruneian military leaders and their counterparts from the United States and the Asia-Pacific region.

During the Sultan of Brunei's visit to the United States in December 2002, we agreed on a number of initiatives to enhance military cooperation. These include raising the level of the bilateral security dialogue and the resumption of the Joint Working Committee on Defense meetings. The Bruneian government has a cadet at West Point (class of 2009), with the cost of training underwritten by the GOB.

Cambodia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

75

75

5

$54,767

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

4

2

3

$4,392

3

3

3

$40,904

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

4

4

1

$37,471

0

0

1

$0.00

Regional Centers

17

17

10

$125,438

8

8

7

$69,678

Totals:

100

98

19

$222,068

11

11

11

$110,582

U.S. military assistance to the Cambodian military ceased in 1997 because of U.S. legislation restricting the provision of foreign assistance to the central government of Cambodia, following factional fighting. Since then, the United States has only invited a select few Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF) representatives to attend multilateral meetings on humanitarian issues and select academic-based or humanitarian conferences. Following a review of U.S.-Cambodian military relations in 2004, U.S. engagement was planned to expand modestly in the areas of counterterrorism (CT) and counter-narcotics (CN). In the future, the United States hopes to sponsor the attendance of an increased number of Cambodian military members at multilateral events, seminars, workshops, and counterpart conferences. In FY 2006, DoD provided over $50,000 in Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funding to Cambodia. The State Department also provided funding in support of demining (NADR-HD) and weapons destruction programs that include training components.

In its Congressional Budget Justification for FY 2006, the State Department proposed the use of IMET funds for human rights and rule of law training to help professionalize the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces. Funds were also requested to provide training and education to the Cambodian military in order to combat terrorism and to improve its border surveillance and control. These activities are relevant to improving Cambodia's counter-terrorism, counter-narcotics, and anti-piracy efforts. Expanded IMET (E-IMET) training in civil-military relations, human rights, the military justice system, and establishing democratic values in the military would assist in the professionalization of the RCAF. The State Department proposed FY 2007 FMF funding for Cambodia's CT efforts that would provide training and military equipment to increase the operational capability of the RCAF's CT units, border units, and naval units.

China, People's Republic Of

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

3

3

2

$1

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

0

0

1

$1,180

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

0

0

0

$0.00

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

3

3

3

$1,181

2

2

1

$0.00

The United States seeks a candid, constructive and cooperative relationship with China, which contributes to peace in Asia and elsewhere. We share common interest in a number of areas, such as the maintenance of stability in Asia, permitting the continuation of that region's economic development, the maintenance of peace on the Korean Peninsula and in South Asia, and combating the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

Dialogue with the PRC is key to ensuring a clear understanding of one another's regional security interests and concerns and in helping promote behavior by the PRC which is in line with the norms of the international community. Although we have differences with China, dialogue allows us to address areas where we agree and to address more effectively cross-cutting security issues that promote broader stability, including the discussion of more effective methods to combat transnational terrorism.

Cook Islands

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

2

2

2

$22,501

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

2

2

2

$22,501

0

0

0

$0.00

The United States welcomes the continued participation of the Cook Islands in the Asia-Pacific Center's courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from these islands.

East Timor

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

40

7

7

$146,355

10

7

8

$159,549

Regional Centers

0

0

0

$0.00

1

1

1

$12,869

Totals:

40

7

7

$146,355

11

8

9

$172,418

East Timor has established a modest defense force (F-FDTL) comprised of about 1,000 active duty personnel. Although East Timor's security will ultimately depend in large measure on good relations with neighboring countries, the country requires armed forces with a defined mission and basic equipment for defense, support, communication, disaster management, humanitarian relief, and transportation. As the military is less than five years old and is rebuilding after the security crisis of April-May 2006, the F-FDTL needs training for its new officers. International Military Education and Training (IMET) and Enhanced International Military Education and Training (E-IMET) funds will provide opportunities for civilian and F-FDTL attendance at courses that discuss transparent, efficient, and effective budgeting, logistics, acquisition, and resource management processes. It will also provide opportunities for civilian and F-FDTL attendance at courses that emphasize the principles of a civilian-led military, respect for human rights, and the law of war. This training will help institutionalize these concepts in the Ministry of Defense and the military, and assist the Government of East Timor in establishing effective and sustainable defense management systems.

Fiji

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

32

18

28

$332,556

10

7

10

$98,952

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

51

51

1

$477,752

0

0

6

$0.00

Regional Centers

8

8

6

$66,063

2

2

2

$22,743

Totals:

91

77

35

$876,371

12

9

18

$121,695

On December 5-6, 2006, the Fiji military overthrew the lawfully elected government of Fiji. The United States has called on the leader of the coup, Commodore Bainimarama, to abandon his extra-judicial activities, withdraw completely from politics, and restore Fiji's legitimate democratically-elected government.

After the coup, the United States reviewed its assistance programs and policy options under section 508 of the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act and determined it appropriate to cease all applicable U.S. assistance directed to the Government of Fiji. This decision covers approximately $2.5 million in primarily military-related assistance, such as the Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and International Military Education and Training (IMET) programs. This action further precludes new economic assistance programs to the government of Fiji under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act, including the Millennium Challenge Account. The United States also will suspend all deliveries and sales of lethal military equipment to Fiji, official visits to the United States and U.S.-sponsored events in third countries by senior Fiji military officials and members of the illegitimate interim government, and the Fiji military's participation in and planning for joint military exercises and U.S.-sponsored conferences and courses. Visa sanctions will be imposed on coup and interim government leaders. These measures will remain in place until the President or Secretary of State determines that a democratically-elected government has taken office. Other U.S. actions taken in response to the coup are subject to further review as circumstances in Fiji merit.

Hong Kong

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

DOHS/USCG Activities

1

1

1

$8,748

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

1

1

1

$8,748

0

0

0

$0.00

The United States is committed to strengthening the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region's (HKSAR) autonomous structures. The HKSAR government police, maritime, and flying services are all highly professional organizations with little to no contact with their mainland counterparts. It is in the USG interest to see that these entities are capable of remaining independent from the mainland. Training of this nature helps to cement the already strong relationship in existence between the United States and Hong Kong government forces.

Indonesia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

67

60

33

$715,844

9

6

12

$137,527

IMET

54

36

50

$1,150,846

36

25

34

$578,339

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

4

4

1

$37,471

0

0

5

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

175

175

5

$612,036

24

24

8

$2,340,000

Regional Centers

16

16

8

$115,723

15

15

7

$140,261

Totals:

316

291

97

$2,631,919

84

70

66

$3,196,127

As the world's fourth most populous nation, and the country with the largest Muslim population, Indonesia has considerable influence in Southeast Asia. Indonesia is undergoing an historic transition to democracy while attempting to foster economic recovery and reform; it is critical that military reform keep pace with broader democratic reform. Indonesia's future political and economic path will have profound implications for U.S. strategic interests in the region such as combating terrorism, preserving regional stability in Southeast Asia, strengthening democracy and respect for human rights, and expanding access for U.S. exports and investment. Our IMET program and other engagement activities are designed to enhance military professionalism, improve interoperability (critical in disaster relief, peacekeeping, and other operations), and provide opportunities for Indonesian military and civilian personnel to attend courses in, and have other exposure to, our norms of civil-military relations, defense budget formulation, military reform, and respect for internationally recognized human rights.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) is providing important training and education to assist Indonesia in integrating its interagency approach to combating terrorism. This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the counterterrorism (CT) spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization Indonesia is building a more comprehensive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism; other countries in the region are gaining an understanding of the challenges, successes, and failures of CT efforts in Indonesia; and the United States is building Indonesia's long-term CT capacity.

The United States welcomes the continued participation of Indonesia in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from Indonesia.

Kiribati

   

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

2

2

2

$25,372

1

1

1

$12,869

Totals:

2

2

2

$25,372

1

1

1

$12,869

As a means of strengthening defense ties with Kiribati, the United States welcomes its continued participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from Kiribati.

Korea, Republic of

   

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

1

1

1

$1

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

1089

706

498

$3,218,744

634

412

270

$1,673,971

IMET Multi-Year

1

1

1

$44,398

0

0

0

$0.00

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

7

7

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

517

517

4

$320,950

200

200

3

$556,000

PME Exchanges

10

5

9

$0.00

3

1

3

$0.00

Regional Centers

3

3

3

$11,401

2

2

2

$10,440

Service Academies

6

6

5

$163,725

3

3

2

$54,575

Totals:

1634

1246

522

$3,759,219

842

618

280

$2,294,986

Since the Korean War, the Republic of Korea (ROK) has proven a strategically important and reliable defense treaty ally. While efforts to reduce tensions on the Korean Peninsula are underway, the United States and the ROK continue to maintain and strengthen the three major elements of our security alliance: the 1953 Mutual Defense Treaty, strong bilateral ties, and combined military forces. U.S. and ROK forces unified under the Combined Forces Command continue to enhance their capabilities to deter and, if necessary, defeat aggression. To sharpen readiness, the Command is continually refining its vigorous program of training and exercises.

A key objective of U.S. training is maintaining the strong sense of shared values and purposes that underlies the U.S.-ROK alliance. Toward that end, the United States and the ROK signed a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for professional military education (PME). The PME Reciprocal Exchange Program is comprised of an annual exchange with the Army Command and General Staff College (CGSC) and USMC Command and Staff College and a bi-annual exchange with the Air Command and Staff College. In addition to these programs, the ROKAF receives an additional annual slot at the Joint Forces Staff College. The ROK services receive one National Defense University slot each year and the ROKA and the ROKAF each receive an annual U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force Senior Service College slot. The ROKN receives one Naval Command College and one Naval Staff College slot per year.

The United States welcomes the continued participation by ROK in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from the ROK.

Laos

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

4

4

2

$48,518

2

2

1

$24,610

Totals:

4

4

2

$48,518

2

2

1

$24,610

The inclusion of Laos in military programs outside POW-MIA operations is decided on a case-by-case basis. Programs supporting our POW-MIA accounting and recovery missions will be given the highest priority. Since FY 2001, we have offered the Government of Laos an IMET program to teach English in Laos to a small group of Lao military. The Lao accepted the offer in principle in January 2007. Representatives of the Lao government also attended the executive course at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies in FY 2006 and will be invited to continue their participation in FY 2007.

The Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. They increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from Laos.

Malaysia

   

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

168

167

18

$389,990

8

7

7

$105,817

FMF

4

4

3

$41,680

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

61

55

14

$187,597

9

3

7

$37,182

IMET

72

49

54

$735,300

45

33

41

$322,142

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

4

4

2

$35,415

0

0

5

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

200

200

4

$413,244

0

0

6

$1,380,000

Regional Centers

32

32

11

$179,330

11

11

7

$104,121

Service Academies

1

1

1

$64,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

542

512

105

$2,046,556

73

54

73

$1,949,262

The United States has important security interests in Malaysia, which is currently chair of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). A key counterterrorist partner, Malaysia borders and helps to safeguard one of the world's most important maritime waterways. U.S. military response to the Aceh tsunami crisis benefited from transit rights over Malaysian territory and access to Malaysian airfields.

IMET contributes significantly to the strengthening of our military-to-military ties and familiarizes the Malaysian military with U.S. doctrine, equipment, and management techniques. IMET training also reinforces the Malaysian military's commitment to human rights and good civil-military relations and helps expand our access to, and cooperation with, Malaysian military leaders. Malaysia participates actively in, and provides other nations training for, multinational peacekeeping operations, which necessitates U.S.-funded training that promotes interoperability. It is also engaged in training that will improve the military's ability to combat narcotics trafficking and money laundering operations.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) is providing important training and education to assist Malaysia in integrating its interagency approach to combating terrorism, with a focus on enhancing maritime security. This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the counterterrorism spectrum and, through this cross-fertilization process, builds a more comprehensive approach to addressing regional concerns in combating terrorism.

The United States welcomes the continued participation by Malaysia in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Malaysia.

Marshall Islands

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

0

0

$0.00

0

0

1

$250,000

Regional Centers

2

2

2

$23,566

2

2

2

$22,581

Totals:

2

2

2

$23,566

2

2

3

$272,581

As a means of strengthening ties with the Marshall Islands, the U.S. welcomes its continued participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from the Marshall Islands.

In FY 2007, the United States will assist the Marshall Islands security forces in building domestic capacity to combat manufacturing of and trafficking in narcotics.

Micronesia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

5

5

3

$63,172

3

3

2

$33,703

Totals:

5

5

3

$63,172

3

3

2

$33,703

As a means of strengthening ties with Micronesia, the United States welcomes its continued participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from Micronesia.

Mongolia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

7

7

6

$16,021

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

90

90

3

$872,193

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

180

156

58

$1,315,473

24

11

24

$259,306

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

225

225

2

$1,873,536

0

0

8

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

0

0

$0.00

0

0

1

$1,000

Regional Centers

31

31

18

$151,338

9

9

7

$88,495

Totals:

533

509

87

$4,228,561

33

20

40

$348,801

Continued support of Mongolia's transformation into a secure, democratic, and stable country greatly serves the U.S. national interest. This support facilitates Mongolia's contribution to the security and prosperity of the Asia-Pacific region, its participation in international peacekeeping, and support for Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF), as well as its participation in the War on Terror. For a modest investment Mongolia has become a reliable Coalition Partner.

With a trained cadre and training equipment provided from the now defunct Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) program, the Mongolian General Staff established a Department of Peacekeeping Operations that developed and trained a Mongolian peacekeeping battalion for participation in international peacekeeping deployments and multinational training events. Building on this experience, Mongolia has deployed peacekeeping forces to Iraq, Afghanistan, Sierra Leone, and Kosovo, and has contributed military observers to UN peacekeeping missions in other countries. With Global Peace Support Operations Initiative (GPOI) funding, Mongolia improved its Five Hills peacekeeping training facility and hosted the regional capstone peacekeeping training exercise in August 2006. Funds from the Coalition Solidarity Fund are being used to purchase equipment that will increase the deployment capabilities of the current peacekeeping battalion and lay the groundwork for the planned standup of a second battalion.

IMET training for Mongolia promotes civilian control of the military, military justice and law, and respect for international human rights standards. IMET-funded language and professional military training not only strengthen U.S.-Mongolian military ties but continue to build a cadre of pro-U.S. reformers in the most critical leadership positions in the armed forces. IMET programs have been largely responsible for the English language skills of the officers and NCOs in Iraq, and build on the knowledge and experiences of previous students. The commanders of all the rotations to Iraq have been IMET graduates. IMET-funded coursework included training in infantry, engineer, civil affairs, military medicine, intelligence, defense and resource management, ranger, civil military relations, and senior service education. The State Partnership Program between Mongolia and Alaska also contributed to Mongolia's training, including through Medical Readiness exercises.

The United States welcomes the continued participation by Mongolia in both the Asia-Pacific Center and the Marshall Center's regular and executive courses that focus on the peacetime aspects of security and international relations. These executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Mongolia.

Palau

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

3

3

3

$26,226

1

1

1

$10,832

Service Academies

1

1

1

$64,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

4

4

4

$90,226

1

1

1

$10,832

As a means of strengthening ties with Palau, the United States welcomes its continued participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from Palau.

Papua New Guinea

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

52

46

9

$284,124

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

7

7

5

$70,412

3

3

3

$29,515

Totals:

59

53

14

$354,536

3

3

3

$29,515

U.S. national interests in Papua New Guinea (PNG) derive from our overarching interest in regional stability and from PNG's status as home to one of the world's greatest remaining tropical rain forests and biodiversity reservoirs. PNG is the largest and most populous island nation in the South Pacific and neighbor to the troubled Indonesian province of Irian Jaya. U.S. interests include strengthening democratic institutions, assisting with development of disaster relief capabilities, supporting peaceful transition from civil strife to rule of law in Bougainville, supporting the nation's pursuit of a free enterprise tradition, and fostering stewardship of diverse natural resources. The benefits of a stable, lawful, and prosperous PNG include reduced prospects of human rights violations, environmental degradation, and international organized crime.

FY 2006 IMET-funded activities continued to focus on professional military education (PME) for the PNG Defense Force (PNGDF), contributing to better discipline, and increasing PNG's ability to engage in cooperative international military-related efforts, including peacekeeping. FY 2007 IMET will focus on training non-commissioned officer for the PNGDF.

Normalized military-to-military relations were resumed in November 2003, and U.S. Embassy Port Moresby was instructed to dampen any expectations that this meant significantly increased U.S. activity, funding, or military presence in PNG. Each proposed military-to-military activity will be reviewed on its merits by the appropriate U.S. government departments.

The United States welcomes the continued participation of Papua New Guinea in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Papua New Guinea.

Philippines

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

1

1

1

$18,027

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

42

34

21

$351,176

4

4

5

$183,424

FMF

3

3

2

$3,665,608

16

12

13

$129,016

FMS

6

4

5

$677,184

1

1

1

$900,000

IMET

438

312

239

$4,106,914

129

84

110

$1,171,412

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

0

0

0

$0.00

0

0

1

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

465

465

6

$1,725,944

120

120

6

$1,667,000

Regional Centers

31

31

12

$202,673

14

14

7

$124,372

Service Academies

5

5

4

$301,150

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

991

855

289

$11,048,675

284

235

143

$4,175,224

The Government of the Philippines is a key player in the War on Terror. In her September 14, 2005, address to the UN Security Council, Philippine President Arroyo said the United States had helped the Philippines combat terrorism. Various terrorist groups including the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) and the Communist Party of the Philippines/New People's Army (CPP/NPA) are based in the Philippines and have targeted Philippine facilities, killing both Philippine and U.S. citizens. In October 2002, the United States government designated the Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) organization a Foreign Terrorist Organization. JI is an extremist group with cells operating throughout Southeast Asia, including the Philippines. JI members recently arrested in the region have revealed links with al-Qaeda, other regional terrorist groups, and previous terrorist attacks in the region. The Moro Islamic Liberation Front, which is active in the southern islands, is believed to have some ties to ASG and JI, but is currently observing a cease-fire during peace negotiations with the Philippine government. Since August 2006, the AFP has been engaged in a major CT offensive against Al Qaeada-linked ASG and JI terrorists on the southern island of Jolo. This offensive has achieved some remarkable successes, including the neutralization of ASG leaders Khadafy Janjanjani and Abu Solaimna, both of whom are responsible for the deaths of American citizens.

Building on already longstanding bilateral counterterrorism cooperation and stemming from commitments made during President Arroyo's visits to the United States and President Bush's October 2003 visit to Manila, the United States and the Philippines have embarked on a comprehensive military-to-military program to enhance the Armed Forces of the Philippines' (AFP) capability to combat terrorism. As U.S. military cooperation under this counterterrorism program grows, IMET funds have become an even more important part of our effort to maintain and enhance the professionalization of the AFP.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) is providing important training and education to assist the Philippines in integrating its interagency approach to combating terrorism. This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the counterterrorism (CT) spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, the Philippines is building a more comprehensive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism; other countries in the region are gaining an understanding of the challenges, successes, and failures of CT efforts in the Philippines; and the United States is building the Philippines' long-term CT capacity.

In addition to our counterterrorism cooperation with the Philippines, the United States has important security, commercial, and political interests in the Philippines, a treaty ally that straddles important air and sea-lanes. As a nation-state committed to democratic political principles and confident in its exercise of regional leadership, a stable Philippines is an important force for stability in Southeast Asia. The Philippines is committed to close relations with the United States in support of regional peace and security in Southeast Asia. It seeks to promote regional, economic, and political cooperation through the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the ASEAN Regional Forum, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).

IMET funds have contributed to overall regional stability and focus on positively influencing the Philippine military's professionalism and discipline. IMET training also has helped further strengthen civilian control over the military, contributing to a decline in the number of reported incidents of human rights abuses. The steady advancement of IMET graduates helps ensure the continued understanding and cooperation of the Government of the Philippines on U.S. views toward regional issues. IMET graduates who populate the top ranks of the AFP contribute to building the close professional military-to-military relations that exist between the U.S. military and the AFP. With the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA) in force, the U.S. military is actively engaged in ship visits and joint training exercises with the AFP.

These cooperative bilateral military activities constitute important steps toward normalizing our military-to-military ties and increasing interoperability and standardization with the AFP. It also enables the AFP to defend the national borders against external aggression, counter Communist and Muslim separatist insurgencies, participate in regional peacekeeping operations, and combat terrorism. In support of these goals, and in keeping with our treaty ally relationship, Philippine officers have participated in a range of operational, officer training, and leadership courses. These include courses related to military medicine, aviation, aircraft maintenance, amphibious training, field artillery, maritime and coast guard training, psychological operations, ranger operations, signals, supply, service and maintenance, and other similar courses.

Officer professionalization and leadership development are the aims of Command & Staff College and military law courses. Such training increases Philippine military exposure to the U.S. system of civil-military relations and respect for human rights. International staff officer and related courses are aimed at increasing Philippine officers' ability to participate effectively with the United States in international peacekeeping and related operations. A Joint Defense Assessment (JDA) conducted by the U.S. and Philippine militaries of the AFP's status and capabilities was accepted in September 2003 by President Arroyo as the basis for a further expansion of military cooperation through the jointly-funded Philippine Defense Reform (PDR) program. The Department of National Defense in November 2004 deposited $17.45 million in a Foreign Military Sales account as its initial contribution to PDR. U.S. subject matter experts are now on the ground advising Philippine counterparts on a wide range of issues from operations to strategic communications.

DoD has also funded Philippine participation in joint exercise training and a military training team assessment of defense needs and requirements. These also increase interoperability and provide the Philippines with a realistic assessment of how to shape their defense strategy.

As another means of strengthening our defense cooperation with the Philippines, the United States welcomes continued Philippine participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from the Philippines.

Samoa

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

2

2

2

$23,175

1

1

1

$12,869

Totals:

2

2

2

$23,175

1

1

1

$12,869

The U.S. national interests in Samoa directly support the U.S. government's national security interests in regional stability. Samoa is a close neighbor of American Samoa, with which it has long-standing ties. Starting in FY 2007, IMET funds will help Samoa develop an effective maritime law enforcement and surveillance capability including proposed training in basic coastal surveillance and seaborne law enforcement skills.

As a means of strengthening ties with Samoa, the United States welcomes its continued participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from Samoa.

Singapore

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

1250

1171

442

$35,785,704

27

16

18

$1,534,979

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

5

5

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

30

30

3

$143,868

0

0

1

$280,000

Regional Centers

3

3

3

$12,768

2

2

2

$10,440

Service Academies

6

6

5

$218,300

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

1296

1217

455

$36,160,640

29

18

21

$1,825,419

Singapore's prosperous economy and extensive cooperation on a broad range of issues have made it an important U.S. security partner and an important force for stability and economic progress in Southeast Asia. In July 2005, President Bush and Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong signed the "Strategic Framework Agreement" (SFA), which formalizes and enhances an already robust security relationship. The SFA serves as a statement of principles to guide our bilateral security relationship and reflects the convergence of strategic views between our two countries. The value of the familiarity, interoperability, and access afforded by our close military relationship was apparent during the rapid and successful mobilization of U.S. forces for the Indian Ocean tsunami relief operation in January 2005. Singapore has supported efforts to bring stability and security to Iraq. The Singaporean government has deployed C-130 transport planes, Landing Ship Tanks, and KC-135s to provide logistics support for the multinational Iraq stabilization effort. Singapore deployed four CH-47 Chinook helicopters to support Hurricane Katrina rescue operations in the United States.

Singapore has been unfailing in its support for continued U.S. forward deployment in the region, including the provision of ready access to its military facilities following closure of U.S. bases in the Philippines. In 2001, Singapore inaugurated a pier at its new Changi Naval Base, which was augmented at Singapore's expense to accommodate U.S. aircraft carriers. Singapore has provided staunch military support for the War on Terror since the September 11 attacks, including blanket overflight clearance and tanker fueling to form an air bridge in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Approximately 150 U.S. logistics personnel stationed in Singapore support regular combined air exercises and more than 100 U.S. ship visits in a typical year. Singapore turns to the United States for approximately 85 percent of its total imports of military equipment. In September 2005, Singapore announced its selection of the F-15 Strike Eagle to be its Next Generation Fighter. Spending $155 million in FY 2005 at Foreign Military Sales (FMS) incremental rates, Singapore is a major FMS training customer and has training detachments in CONUS. It has 48 open FMS training cases supporting 1,000 students a year. Strengthening our defense ties with Singapore has included FMS training, participation at U.S. Service Academies, and improved interoperability through combined exercises with U.S. forces. The United States proposes further strengthening of our ties with Singapore in all these areas in FY 2007.

The United States welcomes the continued participation by Singapore in the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS) executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Singapore.

Solomon Islands

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

29

27

5

$146,884

4

2

2

$15,724

Totals:

29

27

5

$146,884

4

2

2

$15,724

U.S. national interests in the Solomon Islands emphasize strengthening the nation's capabilities to secure its maritime borders, encouraging its democratic institutions, and preserving its biodiversity. Though the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI) has restored law and order to the country and is deemed by many to be a stunning success, the continued U.S. engagement in the Solomons is all the more important as it works with its Pacific Island neighbors to revitalize its security capabilities and rebuild systems of governance.

Continued IMET training will ensure meaningful U.S. participation in the international effort to bring the Solomon Islands back from the brink of complete collapse. It also increases the country's ability to maintain control of its own fishery resources. To these ends, IMET-funded courses have focused on maritime and aviation issues.

The United States welcomes the continued participation of the Solomon Islands in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from these islands.

Taiwan

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

FMS

4608

3518

455

$8,092,903

145

90

98

$1,629,677

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$3,309

1

1

1

$5,220

Service Academies

6

6

5

$163,725

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

4615

3525

461

$8,259,937

146

91

99

$1,634,897

Consistent with the Taiwan Relations Act of 1979, it has been long-standing U.S. policy to make available to Taiwan defense articles and services to enable Taiwan to maintain a sufficient self-defense capability. This policy also seeks to reinforce regional stability. Training of Taiwan armed forces personnel can play a major role in the enhancement of Taiwan's security. For senior professional military education, Taiwan has been approved in principle for slots at the Naval Command College, Army War College, and Air War College; one slot each at the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps Command and General Staff Colleges; and one NDU International Fellow. During FY 2006, officers from Taiwan completed courses at the Air War College and the Navy and Air Force Command and General Staff College. These programs increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency and confidence.

Thailand

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

81

77

18

$363,293

5

5

4

$77,879

FMF

72

72

6

$686,039

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

46

40

13

$383,241

3

3

1

$0.00

IMET

223

142

176

$3,181,888

80

51

70

$767,664

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

287

287

3

$622,818

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

221

221

3

$369,556

45

45

3

$1,010,000

PME Exchanges

26

26

2

$96,814

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

27

27

11

$185,073

13

13

7

$117,602

Service Academies

6

6

5

$346,300

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

989

898

235

$6,235,025

148

119

86

$1,973,145

One of five treaty allies in Asia, Thailand hosts over 40 joint military exercises, provides crucial access to Thai facilities when needed, and has contributed troops to U.S.-led coalition operations. Thailand hosts Cobra Gold, our largest multi-national exercise in Asia, and, by so doing, allows us to engage not only with the Thai military, but also the militaries of Singapore, Japan, Indonesia, and others. Thailand has made critical contributions to the War on Terror, including allowing access to its airspace and bases for Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom as well as deploying military engineers and medical personnel to Iraq. In December 2003, Thailand was designated a Major Non-NATO Ally. Thailand permitted the United States to use Utapao Naval Air Station as the hub for relief operations in response to the December 26, 2004, tsunami that devastated the Indian Ocean region in Operation Unified Assistance.

Thailand has traditionally been one of the top recipients of IMET funds each year. Following the military coup d'etat of September 19, 2006, Thailand's IMET program was suspended, as required by section 508 of the Foreign Operations Authorization Act. IMET funding for Thailand can resume once the Secretary of State certifies that Thailand is again led by a democratically elected government. IMET graduates dominate the top levels of Thailand's Defense Ministry, Supreme Command headquarters, and all of the services. IMET assistance has helped to develop and maintain a professional Thai military that is capable of participating in international peacekeeping operations. Two U.S.-educated and trained Thai Generals served as UNTAET force commanders in East Timor. The Thai General serving as Deputy Chief of the EU-ASEAN Interim Monitoring Mission in Aceh is an IMET graduate. Courses that have contributed to these goals include training at command and general staff and service colleges, and in civil affairs, defense management, manpower management, information management, English language and instructor training, accounting, financial, and personnel officer training. U.S. training has also concentrated on developing operational interoperability and officer leadership in specific disciplines. These courses have included tactics, airborne, aviation and aircraft maintenance, engineering, field artillery courses, medical courses, intelligence, ranger, munitions, and Marine Corps courses.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provides important training and education to assist Thailand in integrating its approach to combating terrorism. This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the counterterrorism (CT) spectrum. CTFP resources are used to engage the Royal Thai Government at the highest levels (such as the Director of the National Security Council) as well as at the decision-maker and action officer level. Efforts are focused on niches perceived to be weak points, including interagency cooperation, information sharing, and institutional knowledge bases in specific areas related to countering terrorism. Every effort is made to ensure that CTFP resources are not duplicative with other USG programs and resources, and instead are synergistic, focusing on areas not otherwise addressed. As a result, CT cooperation with Thailand is consistently rated by USG officials as excellent and, with continued CTFP assistance, the RTG capacity to support greater cooperation with more skilled personnel with increased interagency coordination can be improved even more.

Thai officers have traditionally attended U.S. service academies. Although funding for new enrollment has been suspended since the coup on September 19, service academy attendance has traditionally provided an invaluable means to foster long-standing ties with the Thai military and to provide in-depth exposure to the U.S. system of civil-military relations, military law, and related issues. The Thai military has expressed interest in participating in the OSD-sponsored Defense Resource Management Study (DRMS). This program's intent is to work with the host-nation military to design a multi-year resource management model tailored to the specific requirements and unique aspects of that country. OSD is considering this request.

The United States welcomes the continued participation by Thailand in the Asia-Pacific Center for Strategic Studies' (APCSS) senior executive, junior executive, and comprehensive security responses to terrorism (CSRT) courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Thailand as well as bridge differences among civil and military leaders from participating countries.

Tonga

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

14

8

14

$126,355

6

5

6

$64,204

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

49

49

1

$459,016

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

5

5

5

$44,781

3

3

3

$29,674

Service Academies

1

1

1

$64,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

69

63

21

$694,152

9

8

9

$93,878

The Kingdom of Tonga, a highly traditional society where the King and nobles dominate political life, interacts with the United States mainly in such Pacific organizations as the Pacific Community, the Forum Fisheries Agency, and the South Pacific Regional Environment Program. U.S. interests in Tonga include encouraging democratic institutions and assisting in environmental protection efforts. IMET is an important vehicle for pursuing U.S. interests.

Tonga joined other regional nations (New Zealand, Australia, Vanuatu, and Fiji) in 1999 in providing unarmed peace monitors once a truce was achieved in Papua New Guinea's Bougainville. Tonga sent troops to Solomon Islands as part of the Regional Assistance Mission. In June 2004, they sent a unit of 45 troops to Iraq for peacekeeping duties. IMET provides professional military education (PME) and training to Tonga's Defense Force with emphasis on respect for human rights, civilian control over the military, and military justice. Courses on officer and NCO development, command and general staff officer training, and defense management contribute to this goal. IMET also helps to support Tonga's ability to contribute to regional peacekeeping endeavors and contributes to Tonga's development of an effective maritime law and surveillance capability through training in peacekeeping operations and international maritime search operations. FY 2006 IMET continued to focus on PME training for its defense forces.

The United States welcomes the continued participation of Tonga in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with officials from Tonga.

Vanuatu

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

22

21

5

$58,297

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

22

21

5

$58,297

0

0

0

$0.00

U.S. national interests in Vanuatu center on strengthening the nation's democratic institutions. Other interests include building Vanuatu's capacity to secure its maritime borders and encouraging programs that protect the island's environment and fragile natural resources.

The small Vanuatu Mobile Force (VMF) must patrol a vast area of ocean. U.S. Coast Guard training supplements Australian and New Zealand programs and upgrades VMF capabilities. Continued IMET funding for maritime officer training also helps improve force discipline and enhance its effectiveness in regional peacekeeping and disaster relief efforts.

Vietnam

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

31

2

2

$19,643

1

1

1

$17,530

IMET Multi-Year

1

1

1

$12,314

1

1

1

$17,340

Regional Centers

13

13

8

$115,710

7

7

7

$59,679

Totals:

45

16

10

$147,667

9

9

8

$94,549

U.S. national security will be served by a stable, fully integrated Vietnam with increasing economic prosperity and trade relations with the United States. The United States seeks to enhance Vietnam's ability to be a constructive regional player by encouraging Hanoi's active participation in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the ASEAN Regional Forum, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) group, and in other strategic dialogues and cooperation. Vietnam chaired APEC in 2006. The United States can also improve trust through incremental expansion of military-to-military contacts, exchanges of senior military officials, and additional U.S. Navy ship visits (Vietnam has hosted four U.S. Navy ship visits since 2004). The Vietnamese military has been increasingly interested in attending conferences and confidence building meetings hosted by the Commander, Pacific Command.

The United States and Vietnam signed a bilateral Letter of Agreement on Counternarcotics Cooperation on December 11, 2003. The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) has identified Vietnamese counternarcotic requirements that could be addressed by USCG training courses. In June 2005, the United States and Vietnam concluded a section 505 agreement on end-use assurances under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, which permitted IMET funds for Vietnam to be spent for the first time. IMET support will focus on military medical training and English language instruction. The U.S. provided $50,000 in IMET funding in FY 2005 and $49,000 in FY 2006. In June 2005, Prime Minister Phan Van Khai and Defense Secretary Rumsfeld agreed to explore broader military-military cooperation; Defense Secretary Rumsfeld, in his June 2006 trip to Vietnam, reaffirmed the U.S. commitment to exploring broader military-military cooperation.

The Asia-Pacific Center will continue to invite representatives from Vietnam to reinforce our defense cooperation and foster links with other regional partners and neighbors. The executive courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations and increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Vietnam.



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