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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--Europe Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
August 2007
Report
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Albania

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

111

111

8

$233,217

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

54

30

7

$169,442

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

158

133

61

$1,266,150

55

31

39

$568,561

Non-SA, Combatant Command

171

171

2

$179,836

0

0

1

$50,000

Regional Centers

28

28

11

$144,053

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$64,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

523

474

89

$2,056,698

55

31

40

$618,561

Albania is a cooperative security partner of the United States and NATO in Southeastern Europe, as well as a reliable ally in the War on Terror (WOT). Its security relationship with the United States and Allied forces has continued to grow, as evidenced by combat troop deployments to Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan, and the European Force in Bosnia-Herzegovina (EUFOR). The Government of Albania has also recently announced that it will contribute to the UN peacekeeping mission in Lebanon and wishes to expand its military efforts in Afghanistan. The GOA has also assisted in the WOT by resettling eight individuals who had been detained by the U.S. Department of Defense at Guantanamo Bay and determined to be no longer enemy combatants, an important humanitarian gesture. A primary U.S. goal in Albania is to use the currently positive atmosphere to help create long-term stability in Albania and the region.

U.S. military training efforts in Albania are a crucial means to this end. In particular, training through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program, Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), and English language programs all advance U.S. goals of assisting Albanian defense restructuring efforts and fostering an Albanian ability to patrol its land and sea borders. Albania has a cadet attending the United States Military Academy as part of the Class of 2008. More fundamentally, U.S. training in Albania is helping to bring the country more firmly into the Euro-Atlantic community and increases Albania’s ability to participate in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) exercises and activities. Given Albania’s strong desire for Alliance membership, U.S. military training is critical in augmenting Albanian Armed Forces’ interoperability with NATO forces. Training under the IMET program helps in staffing key Albanian units to be used for future tactical deployments, with IMET graduates at the platoon, company, and battalion levels, as well as in key officer and non-commissioned officer (NCO) positions.

In FY 2006, IMET funded training for 70 students in the United States, and also included mobile training teams to provide cost-effective training in-country. Courses included basic English language instruction, lieutenant and captain basic and career courses in the infantry, military police, ordnance, transportation, and quartermaster, as well as defense acquisition management, logistics, NCO development, and other specialties. Albanian officers also receive advanced training at the Army and Air Command and Staff Colleges and the Army War College.

Albanian military officers trained under the CTFP will be instrumental in building the institutions Albania will need to be an effective partner in the WOT. This effort will continue as long as CTFP funding is provided for this purpose.

Albanian soldiers and civilian defense officials also have received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

Armenia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$5,400

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

64

33

61

$960,765

61

30

56

$795,276

Regional Centers

24

24

8

$155,564

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

90

59

70

$1,121,729

61

30

56

$795,276

The United States hopes to promote peace, stability, democracy, and economic prosperity in the Caucasus, and a stable, prosperous, and independent Armenia is critical to advancing U.S. national interests and promoting regional goals. U.S. objectives are served by assisting Armenia in the reform of its military technology and armed forces, and by providing Armenia an alternative to military cooperation with Russia. We seek increased engagement with Armenia’s defense establishment in ways that advance our objectives and at the same time do not disturb the military balance with Azerbaijan. The U.S. focus on the Armenian 12th Peacekeeping Battalion will support this approach, as U.S. assistance is provided to develop NATO interoperability and enhanced capability. The end goal is a unit that will work directly with NATO, coalition, and U.S. forces, but which is geared towards international peacekeeping operations in support of the war on terror.

The waiver of section 907 of the Freedom Support Act in 2002 permitted the expansion of this kind of cooperation. Section 907 previously prohibited most USG assistance to the Government of Azerbaijan and, as part of a policy of evenhandedness, the Administration extended this prohibition to security assistance to Armenia. Congress provided the President the authority to issue a renewable one-year waiver of the section 907 restrictions on assistance to Azerbaijan (most recently exercised in March 2007), which the Administration has also used to permit fuller cooperation between the United States and Armenia. Since 2002, authorized exceptions to section 907 restrictions have enabled numerous key Armenian officials from various services to attend conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center instructs representatives from throughout the former Soviet Union and Central Europe in the undertakings necessary for defense reform in states undergoing democratic transition. Forty-six students received some form of instruction funded through either the International Military Education and Training program or the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) during FY 2006, and it is projected that another 30 may receive such training in FY 2007. The Department believes the first step to military reform and expanded cooperation is exposure to U.S. professional military education (PME). Our policy will hold, however, that no assistance be provided which disturbs regional stability or the military balance between Armenia and Azerbaijan.

The United States hopes to expand further its contacts and cooperation with Armenia, in line with U.S. and Armenian national security objectives. As one facet of our strategic objectives, we continue to urge Armenia to continue to expand its cooperation in NATO’s Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and the Partnership for Peace (PfP). Armenia ratified a PfP Status of Forces Agreement in April 2004 and agreed to an Individual Partnership Action Plan (IPAP) with NATO in December 2005.

Austria

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

1

1

1

$2,119

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

15

11

14

$114,132

11

7

9

$112,565

PME Exchanges

1

1

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

17

13

16

$116,251

11

7

9

$112,565

Several European non-NATO members, including Austria, are committed to a broad approach to security that recognizes the importance of political, economic, social, and environmental factors, in addition to the indispensable defense dimension. Our collective aim should be to build a European security architecture in which the security and stability of the Euro-Atlantic area are complementary and mutually reinforcing. Exposure to U.S. military education, also for non-NATO countries, is vital to counteract tendencies in Europe that seek to decouple U.S. and European Union security strategies.

Public Law 104-164 prohibits the United States from providing Foreign Military Financing (FMF) or International Military Education and Training (IMET) to high-income countries, including Austria. Therefore, Austria procures training for its Ministry of Defense officials on a cash basis, through Foreign Military Sales. This consists primarily of U.S. professional military education (PME) and technical training for company and field-grade officers.

The United States supports Austria, a friendly nation that generally assists U.S. security efforts in Europe, in all types of training, both professional and specialty skill training, and seeks to develop educational opportunities to broaden and deepen our mutually beneficial relationship. Much of the technical training provided is in direct support of U.S. equipment sales to Austria.

Professional military education adds an important political dimension to our military-to-military contacts and improves Austrian understanding of the social and economic factors that affect our relationship. In addition, professional military education promotes understanding of U.S. strategy, doctrine, and tactics in the deployment of allied resources across the entire spectrum of international conflict.

Azerbaijan

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

3

2

3

$42,368

2

1

2

$22,420

CTFP

48

41

17

$176,611

6

3

6

$62,179

FMF

60

2

2

$243,982

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

62

36

62

$1,123,419

50

24

48

$599,669

Non-SA, Combatant Command

15

15

5

$100,000

0

0

1

$100,000

Regional Centers

34

34

9

$210,763

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

2

2

1

$36,140

4

2

2

$29,628

Totals:

224

132

99

$1,933,283

62

30

59

$813,896

Azerbaijan is a key partner of the United States in the War on Terror (WOT). Its cooperative efforts include making force contributions to Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan (ISAF), and Kosovo Force (KFOR), as well as granting blanket over-flight rights for U.S. aircraft en route from Central Europe to the Middle East. Our long-term security cooperation objectives are aimed at enhancing this mutually beneficial partnership by increasing Azerbaijan’s ability to operate with coalition forces, secure its own borders and energy resources, interdict the flow of transnational threats across the Caspian Sea to the West, and promote institutional reform and democratization. To this end, the United States plans to use International Military Education and Training (IMET) to continue the education of junior military officers and border security forces in U.S./NATO tactics and procedures to ensure greater interoperability in the field.

Azerbaijan’s participation in IMET also exposes it to Western values and culture. The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) program is also aimed at this objective, and additionally serves as a means for educating young policy-makers on the benefits of Western-style institutional reforms. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) has been used to enhance the capabilities of Azerbaijan’s peacekeepers to serve in coalition operations, and the Department intends to use it in the future to enhance the capabilities of the Azerbaijani Navy and Air Force. All of these initiatives are part of a broader U.S. effort to promote regional stability, democracy, and institutional reform within Azerbaijan.

Prior to 9/11, section 907 of the Freedom Support Act prohibited most USG assistance to the Government of Azerbaijan. After 9/11, Congress granted the President the authority to waive section 907 on an annual basis. The President exercised this authority for the first time in 2002 and has continued to do so, most recently in March 2007.

In FY 2006, three Azerbaijani officials participated in Marshall Center conferences and courses. A larger number are likely to participate in conference or seminars of some form at the Marshall Center during FY 2007.

U.S. military relations in Azerbaijan are in the development stage, but Azerbaijan has demonstrated a strong level of support for U.S. WOT efforts, to include vital exchanges of information on international terrorism. CTFP has proven a vital tool for increasing positive results from this extensive cooperation, and it continues to help Azerbaijan build the institutional tools necessary to withstand threats posed by international terrorist organizations working in Central Asia and the Caspian Region, as well as the destabilizing influences from neighboring Iran. Azerbaijan has sent its officials to numerous courses, to include English language training, logistics, engineer, and intelligence courses and hosting an in-country Mobile Education Training team on Response to Terrorism. In the coming years, the Office of Defense Cooperation at Baku hopes to increase the number of Azerbaijani counterterrorism planners and mid-level policy makers that attend CTFP training in order to make local institutions stronger, and continue robust bilateral cooperation with the United States.

Belarus

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

3

3

3

$10,714

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

3

3

3

$10,714

0

0

0

$0.00

The United States has an interest in seeing Belarus evolve into a state characterized by democratic rule and respect for human rights. As part of the U.S. Selective Engagement Policy, adopted after the illegal electoral referendum in Belarus in 1996, the United States has strictly focused its aid to Belarus on democratization and civil society development as well as humanitarian and health assistance.

However, military officers and officials from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are being nominated and sent to attend Marshall Center courses. This is being done in order to expose potential future leadership of the respective ministries to democratic ideals and educate them on the proper interaction of the various power structures in a democracy. The Department of State also sends representatives from civil society and the democratic opposition to ensure the entire spectrum of political society is represented, trained, and offered the opportunity to exchange ideas and points of view.

Bosnia & Herzegovina

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

24

24

3

$168,341

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

89

89

3

$709,628

27

27

1

$110,676

IMET

114

92

50

$1,057,798

37

18

30

$452,846

Regional Centers

46

46

11

$155,310

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

273

251

67

$2,091,077

64

45

31

$563,522

On October 5, 2005, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) enacted a comprehensive defense reform legislative package that abolished the entity armies and Ministries of Defense (MODs) and created a unified, multi-ethnic, NATO-compatible, professional military under a single command and control structure. The legislation was drafted by the High Representative’s Defense Reform Commission, which issued a report advocating far-reaching defense reforms that would enable BiH to become a credible candidate for full NATO membership. With passage of the defense reform law, USG military assistance is now being provided in direct support of implementation of its reforms, to include establishment and training of the MOD, Joint Staff, Operational Command, and other state-level assets, and integration of entity defense institutions and assets into the state structure. Additional assistance is being directed to assist BiH in deploying state-level units, including an explosive ordnance disposal team serving in Iraq in support of the Multinational Force.

Training Bosnian forces through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program emphasizes the professional development of junior and mid-level officers (army advanced courses and command and general staff colleges), and non-commissioned officers (Army Sergeants Major Academy). Training is also provided for mid- to upper-level officials in the defense sector. Training activities support the development of the new state Ministry of Defense and Joint Staff, and other state-level defense structures in furtherance of efforts to meet NATO’s requirements for Partnership for Peace (PfP) membership. IMET funds will be made available to train properly vetted members of the Bosnian Serb Army (VRS) to support their active participation in the newly created state-level defense institutions in a manner consistent with U.S. policy and legal requirements.

One of the key objectives of U.S. assistance is to help BiH develop the capability to work with other European and NATO nations in maintaining regional stability and participating in peacekeeping operations. Knowledge of English is fundamental to this effort and the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) has provided the funding needed to obtain the equipment to support this effort. This will help to create a cadre of senior and mid-level officials capable of working with the United States in the War on Terror. The U.S. country team is coordinating the efforts of all agencies in support of counterterrorism (CT) training. BiH received an allocation of almost $170,000 in CTFP funding in 2006, which they used to send students for training in the United States and at the Marshall Center in Germany, and for an in-country Response to Terrorism Mobile Education Team. IMET-funded training in FY 2006 focused on English language training, officer and non-commissioned officer professional military education (PME), and specialized skills training. IMET training projected for FY 2007 will continue in the same vein. The goal is to educate the leadership of BiH CT organizations at the highest level possible. Terrorism is a growing concern in BiH, and responsible organizations have to learn how to identify terrorists and their networks. In addition, they also need to understand the legalities of CT and how to eliminate terrorist activity in BiH effectively.

We anticipate a number of new Foreign Military Financing (FMF)-funded cases for contractor-provided mentoring, advice, and assistance to the new Ministry of Defense, Joint Staff, and Operational Command in the areas of: organization and manning; development of NATO-compatible training, doctrine, and procedures; and longer-term work plans. All share the objective of preparing Bosnia for PfP membership and further integration in advance of eventual candidacy for NATO membership.

BiH civilian defense officials have received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

Croatia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

8

8

7

$87,262

5

3

5

$28,383

FMS

8

8

2

$32,758

18

18

6

$54,218

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

0

0

0

$0.00

4

2

2

$10,886

Regional Centers

49

49

12

$147,608

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

65

65

21

$267,628

27

23

13

$93,487

Helping Croatia integrate into Euro-Atlantic institutions is vital to ensuring the long-term stability of Croatia and the entire region. Our military training efforts are a valuable tool in pursuing these objectives. Croatia has made increasing use of its membership in NATO’s Partnership for Peace (PfP) program since joining in 2000. Croatia entered NATO’s Membership Action Plan (MAP) in May 2002, formalizing its NATO candidacy. In May 2003, Croatia signed the Adriatic Charter with Albania and Macedonia, pledging to work together towards the goal of NATO membership. In August 2005, the Adriatic Charter countries sent a joint medical team to International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. Prime Minister Ivo Sanader continues to indicate that NATO membership is a high priority for his government.

Previous International Military Education and Training (IMET) programs have supported Croatia’s NATO ambitions and fostered appreciation among Croatian military officials for the proper role of the armed forces in a democracy. IMET-trained officers helped initiate implementation of basic defense reforms, including enhanced civilian control of the military. In FY 2003, the IMET program focused on the professionalization and democratization of the Croatian armed forces. In FY 2004, 2005, and 2006, IMET funds were allocated but reprogrammed because Croatia was prohibited by § 2007 of the American Servicemembers’ Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7426) from receiving military assistance. Since ASPA was amended to remove the prohibition on IMET, Croatia will be eligible to receive IMET beginning in FY 2007.

Croatia is committed to implementing the military reforms needed for NATO membership. IMET would help broaden and deepen current attitudinal changes in the Croatian military and help build a cadre of officers and non-commissioned officers throughout the command structure ready to implement restructuring toward the goal of a national armed forces integrated into NATO’s collective security and expeditionary missions. For FY 2007, IMET programs would focus on the objectives described above. Efforts would strive towards enhancing the professionalization of the armed forces through IMET programs, as well as assist the Ministry of Defense in meeting its NATO MAP goals. This effort would include addressing specific MAP goals, such as deployable niche capabilities and personnel resource management. Foreign Military Sales (FMS) and Direct Military Sales (DCS) would enhance NATO-compatible communications (through the continued purchase of tactical radios), interoperability, and expanding support for English language training.

Croatian soldiers and civilian defense officials also have received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

Finland

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

FMS

22

20

11

$73,444

4

4

2

$33,675

Totals:

22

20

11

$73,444

4

4

2

$33,675

Although not a NATO member, Finland is an active participant in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and a solid partner with the United States in many areas of national security concern. It is actively engaged in the Balkans, where Finland distinguished itself as the first non-NATO nation to lead a multi-national NATO brigade in Kosovo, and will contribute more than 200 troops to the EU operation in Bosnia.

Finland is supporting International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operations in Afghanistan with about 100 troops and NATO’s Kosovo Force (KFOR) with about 400 troops. Finland actively assists the three Baltic countries’ efforts to achieve military interoperability with the West, although Finland has significantly cut back on this support since the Baltics entered NATO in April 2004. Geographically, Finland shares a border with Russia, giving it strategic importance beyond its size.

With respect to the European Security Defense Identity (ESDI), Finland supports a strong EU crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged and which does not duplicate NATO structures. It is a great proponent of interoperability. In defense trade matters, Finland supports the trans-Atlantic link, although it also supports the European Defense Agency, and has a stated policy to buy defense products from Finnish industry first, Europe second, and the rest of the world third.

Most U.S. assistance is designed to promote interoperability, an essential element to increasingly close cooperation on defense matters, not only with Finland, but also worldwide. Finland annually sends 20 to 40 military students to the United States for various training opportunities. Although this is a relatively small program, U.S. training is Finland’s largest source of foreign training. The Finnish military spends its training money carefully, and sends only handpicked candidates to the United States. They are expected to return to Finland and pass their knowledge on in a “train the trainer” capacity. U.S. training significantly helps Finland’s NATO interoperability.

Finland spent $3 billion to buy a fleet of 63 U.S. F-18 Hornet fighters to provide air defense for the country, taking delivery of the last one in 2001. The Finns are now investing hundreds of millions more in Foreign Military Sales purchases to further upgrade the capabilities of those fighters.

Georgia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

14

9

13

$103,715

6

4

6

$66,786

FMF

544

539

18

$1,029,700

271

265

12

$438,806

FMS

1384

1384

2

$212,988

1384

1384

2

$362,768

IMET

118

59

100

$1,581,216

74

40

56

$833,078

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

75

61

29

$280,402

18

4

14

$66,690

Non-SA, Combatant Command

160

160

3

$674,344

0

0

1

$150,000

Regional Centers

127

127

15

$284,298

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

2422

2339

179

$4,166,663

1753

1697

90

$1,918,128

Georgia occupies a strategic position in the South Caucasus astride the Trans-Caspian energy corridor and bordering Chechnya. It is in the U.S. national security interest to support Georgia’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as its continued democratic, free-market, and military reforms. U.S. support for a stable, independent Georgia will reduce the chances of the spread of military conflict, international crime, and weapons of mass destruction in a region that lies at the crossroads of Russia, Turkey, and Iran. It is critical that Georgia control its own territory and prevent its use as a safe haven to terrorists. It is at the forefront of U.S. policy to enhance Georgia’s capability to combat terrorism, secure its energy resources, prevent transit of illicit materials across borders, and protect its sovereignty. This cannot happen without U.S. military training efforts and broad military reforms.

Military cooperation between the United States and Georgia is coordinated using the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), Foreign Military Financing (FMF), International Military Education and Training (IMET) funds, and other U.S. assistance programs. Assistance is focused on capacity building and enhancing Georgia’s interoperability with NATO. An additional focus of assistance was the border control and law enforcement components of the terrorist threat.

The 1st Brigade (formerly the 11th Brigade) of the Georgian Armed Forces is the parent unit to three of the four battalions trained by the United States under the Georgia Train and Equip Program (GTEP). In June 2006, the 2nd Brigade completed the Sustainment and Stability Operations Program (SSOP), and is also trained to GTEP standards. The 3rd Brigade began its training in the summer of 2006 under the SSOP II program and will complete training in June 2007. All infantry battalions in the 1st and 2nd Brigades have completed at least one rotation in Iraq. All 3rd Brigade infantry battalions will have rotated to Iraq by May 2007.

As opposed to the GTEP program, SSOP and SSOP II included significant training for combat support and combat service support units, which will allow the trained brigades to sustain themselves, have a higher degree of NATO-interoperability, and operate at the brigade level. As a result, Georgia has the capability, with U.S. assistance, to deploy a brigade-minus to Iraq, and has offered to do so beginning in July 2007. Once deployed, the Georgian total troop commitment in Iraq will increase from 849 to 2,000, the largest per capita contribution in the coalition, and additional troop rotations are scheduled to continue at least through the end of FY 2008.

Georgia has also offered to deploy three or more special forces teams to Afghanistan in support of U.S. efforts to train the Afghan National Army (ANA). U.S. training and equipping efforts for Georgian Special Forces, planned to begin in June 2007, will facilitate the interoperability and capabilities of these deploying units.

The majority of Georgia’s security assistance received under the FMF program has been used to develop light infantry brigades supporting peacekeeping and stability operation missions, such as the 1st and 2nd Brigades, which have deployed to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. FMF has also been used to sustain aviation-related training, which has been used to support border patrols in the region and the GTEP. Training purchased by Georgia for pilots and aviation maintenance technicians help Georgia operate and maintain the UH-1H helicopters the U.S. government delivered in October 2001. FMF-funded training has also improved Georgia’s ability to control its border and provide for its self-defense. Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) contributions help ensure the Georgian Military is a professional, effective, organization capable of assisting the United States in War on Terror (WOT) efforts.

Ireland

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

FMS

8

8

6

$44,723

3

1

3

$24,242

PME Exchanges

0

0

0

$0.00

3

1

3

$0.00

Regional Centers

2

2

2

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

10

10

8

$44,723

6

2

6

$24,242

Since 1958, Ireland has consistently provided military personnel for UN peacekeeping and humanitarian operations supported by the United States. Ireland currently has roughly 800 soldiers deployed in various peacekeeping and observer missions. In 2006, Irish troops served in operations in Afghanistan (ISAF), Lebanon (UNIFIL), Bosnia (SFOR), Kosovo (KFOR), Liberia (UNMIL), and Cyprus (UNFICYP), where they work with U.S. and NATO troops. Additionally, Ireland deployed a number of personnel to the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), the UN Headquarters, the Department of Peace Keeping Operations (DPKO), the UN Observer mission in Western Sahara (MINURSO), the UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), the UN Observer Mission in the Congo (MONUC), the UN Observer Mission in the Ivory Coast (ONUCI), the OSCE, the European Community Monitor Mission (EUMM), the EU Military Staff, and the European Union Observers (EUMO) with African Union Peacekeepers in the Darfur area of Sudan. Ireland is a member of NATO’s Partnership for Peace (PfP) Program and, as a member of the European Union, participates in the European Security and Defense Policy. The training provided to Ireland is intended to strengthen the capabilities of the Irish Defense Forces in carrying out these duties and responsibilities.

Kosovo

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

5

5

2

$12,676

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

79

79

8

$115,314

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

84

84

10

$127,990

0

0

0

$0.00

Kosovo is not yet an independent country; however, under UN Special Envoy Martti Ahtisaari’s proposed settlement for the resolution of Kosovo’s status, Kosovo should become independent subject to a period of international supervision. As part of the continuing international role in Kosovo, an international military presence (NATO) will continue to help provide a safe and secure environment while also overseeing and training a small, lightly armed Kosovo security force

In FY 2006, Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds were used to send five members of the Kosovo Police Services to a seminar hosted by the Marshall Center. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

Macedonia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

4

4

2

$9,638

1

1

1

$9,450

IMET

86

68

44

$912,127

36

18

34

$371,367

Regional Centers

77

77

10

$68,508

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

167

149

56

$990,273

37

19

35

$380,817

The August 2001 Ohrid Framework Agreement (FWA), which ended the 2001 ethnic Albanian insurgency in Macedonia, laid the groundwork for Macedonia’s peace and stability in the context of improved civil rights for minority groups. Among other provisions, the FWA called for strengthening Macedonia’s democratic institutions, including the armed forces and police, by making them more ethnically inclusive. With international assistance, Macedonia’s political leaders completed the legislative requirements of the FWA and continue to take important steps toward its practical implementation. NATO’s Task Force Fox departed Macedonia in April 2003 and was replaced by the EU’s Operation Concordia, which helped government authorities monitor the former conflict area. Improvements in the security situation allowed the Concordia mission to terminate in December 2003, thus ending international military deployments in Macedonia.

Macedonia’s relations with its neighbors are friendly and constructive. One of the highest foreign policy priorities of the Macedonian government is accession to NATO. As a member of NATO’s Membership Action Plan and Partnership for Peace, Macedonia is working to improve its military capabilities and interoperability with NATO. Under the 2003 Adriatic Charter, Macedonia is working with its partners, Albania and Croatia, to deepen regional cooperation and contribute jointly to international military missions, including to NATO operations in Afghanistan. Macedonian public and governmental support for NATO and Macedonian NATO membership remains very strong, with 89-90 percent of the population favoring membership in NATO. A series of multiethnic government coalitions consistently have pursued Euro-Atlantic integration, advancing reforms on the path to eventual EU and NATO membership. Macedonia has been a strong ally in the War on Terror (WOT), increasing contributions to multinational coalition operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Under the Adriatic Charter, Macedonia, Albania, and Croatia deployed a combined medical team to Kabul in support of the International Stabilization and Assistance force (ISAF) in Afghanistan in August 2005. Additionally, Macedonia is contributing troops and helicopter support to the EU peacekeeping operation in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

The United States is committed to helping Macedonia progress toward full Euro-Atlantic integration. USG military training, funded through International Military Education and Training (IMET), is essential to building support for and implementing necessary reforms. Training in areas such as professional military education (PME) for infantry, ordnance, and signals officers, defense management, information systems, and English language is consistent with the U.S. and NATO goals of improving Macedonian interoperability with NATO forces and enhancing Macedonia’s capacity to deploy units in support of international peacekeeping operations. Continued United States government educational programs will further increase support for broad military reforms within the officer corps.

FMF funding in FY 2007 will be directed toward reform assistance, communications equipment, English language training, and resources necessary to support the forces Macedonia has deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and with the International Stabilization Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. Scheduled FY 2007 IMET continues a training focus on PME for both commissioned and non-commissioned officers. Highlights of projected FY 2007 training include courses in airborne, ranger, airfield operations, signal, and strategic intelligence. IMET training is improving Macedonia’s potential for NATO interoperability and Partnership for Peace (PfP) participation. Reflecting the high regard Macedonia’s civilian and military leadership accord the IMET program, an increasing number of Macedonia’s IMET graduates are assuming positions of prominence within the military, such as defense attachés, brigade and garrison commanders, and general staff officers.

The Marshall Center in Germany continues to provide U.S.-funded training to civilian and uniformed Macedonian Defense and national security affairs officials. Through seminars and conferences, the Marshall Center instructs Central and Eastern European students in civil-military relations, ethnic conflict prevention, anticorruption measures, and defense economics.

Finally, as a NATO aspirant and PfP participant, Macedonia’s Ministry of Defense continues to use NATO’s Kosovo presence to familiarize military officers with NATO procedures. Macedonia currently has approximately ten officers integrated into the NATO HQ-Skopje staff as part of a “host-nation support cell” established to support movement control and logistics coordination.

Malta

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

3

3

2

$16,076

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

3

3

2

$11,455

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

6

6

4

$27,531

0

0

0

$0.00

Malta is strategically located in the Central Mediterranean. It is a key forward boundary that bridges Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. One-third of all international maritime traffic passes through Maltese ports or waters. Malta has two large ports, including a regionally important container port (Freeport) and a major ship repair facility used regularly by the U.S. Navy. The threat of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and dual-use material transshipment through the Maltese Freeport is potentially serious. In 2004, the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL) established Freeport as its Mediterranean hub. Also, Malta is close to other states of interest (specifically Libya and Algeria).

Malta is an active partner with the United States in combating terrorism and WMD proliferation. Malta also serves to promote regional security and stability by cooperating closely on a wide range of security-related activities with the United States.

In July 2003, the provision of International Military Education and Training (IMET) and Foreign Military Financing (FMF) funds were prohibited since Malta had not entered into an Article 98 agreement with the United States. At that time, Malta was a candidate for membership in the European Union (and became an EU member in May 2004) and felt pressured not to sign such an agreement as it might endanger its candidacy. The suspension and withdrawal of virtually all U.S. military assistance has seriously hindered Malta’s ability to continue development and standardization of its armed forces. Since a Presidential determination was made in 2006 to waive APSA restrictions on IMET, Malta will be eligible to receive IMET beginning in FY 2007.

Funding through the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) has been essential in sustaining accomplishments achieved through the IMET and FMF programs in Malta, particularly in the development of effective Maritime Law Enforcement operations capabilities oriented toward detection and interdiction of WMD and dual-use materials transiting Maltese ports and waters. Malta acknowledges its armed forces’ limitations in the area of counterterrorism and has actively sought U.S. assistance in resolving recognized shortcomings. The current Maltese focus for counterterrorism efforts is on increasing response capability to terrorist activity. This includes developing the capability to identify, manage, and respond to terrorist threats and logistics activities.

Moldova

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

34

33

5

$90,018

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

97

54

90

$1,403,150

72

53

38

$596,077

PME Exchanges

0

0

0

$0.00

1

1

1

$9,632

Regional Centers

80

80

10

$108,729

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

211

167

105

$1,601,897

73

54

39

$605,709

Moldova has developed a cooperative security relationship with the United States, both bilaterally in such areas as nonproliferation and multilaterally through such avenues as NATO’s Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). Moldova’s military is active in Partnership for Peace (PfP) activities, despite being short on resources as the country’s economy continues to struggle. Finally, the Moldovan government has made efforts to peacefully settle its dispute with the Transnistrian separatists in eastern Moldova.

The fundamental U.S. goals in Moldova are regional stability, economic prosperity, and the promotion of democracy. U.S.-funded military training comprises an important part of the strategy employed to meet these goals. In particular, U.S. military training funded through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program, military-to-military programs, the State Partnership Program (SPP) with North Carolina, and U.S.-Moldovan bilateral exercises help Moldovan soldiers acquire the skills necessary to operate alongside NATO forces, participate more actively in PfP activities, and support peacekeeping operations, as demonstrated by continued deployments of Moldovan deminer troops to Iraq.

Numerous Moldovan officers receive training under the IMET program, with training concentrated in developing the operational skills of officers in a wide range of specializations. Moldovan signal, medical, engineer, and finance officers, as well as field artillery, judge advocate, and infantry lieutenants and captains have been trained under the IMET program. More senior officers have attended the Army and Air Force Command and General Staff Colleges and one officer has attended the Army War College. Moldovan IMET attendees also have taken more universally applicable classes in such areas as English language and language instruction, civil-military relations, and information systems management. IMET funds were also used to upgrade the five English language laboratories that are operated by the Ministry of Defense. EIPC funds were used to help Moldova establish a Peacekeeping Training Center at the Ministry of Defense Headquarters in November 2006. In addition to IMET funds, the Moldovan military also uses Foreign Military Financing (FMF) funds to obtain more NATO-compatible equipment, such as radios.

In 2004, Moldova participated in a USEUCOM-sponsored National Defense Assessment, during which the Moldovan National Army granted unprecedented openness and transparency to U.S. military experts. Based on the Assessment, the Moldovans moved along fairly smoothly in defense reform in 2005 and 2006 with the assistance of the Center for Civil-Military Relations out of Monterey, California. Since the fall of 2006, however, very little has been done. U.S. defense reform initiatives are on hold because of a delay in governmental approval of the Terms of Reference for restructuring the Ministry of Defense and more importantly, the National Security Concept. When the documents are approved, defense reform initiatives should begin again. All future defense reform will be tied into chapter two of Moldova’s Individual Partnership Action Plan (IPAP) with NATO, which they signed in 2006.

Moldovan officials also benefited from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe. To date, over 132 Moldovans have completed Marshall Center programs.

Russia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$5,400

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

29

20

10

$281,403

24

20

11

$290,573

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

0

1

$0.00

0

0

1

$80,000

Regional Centers

113

113

16

$251,148

44

44

5

$32,582

Totals:

144

135

28

$537,951

68

64

17

$403,155

The United States and Russia cooperate on the prevention of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and counterterrorism. The United States encourages Russia’s development as a democratic society which respects the rule of law and human rights. However, the year has seen increasing intolerance of ethnic minorities, further centralization of power in the executive branch, continued political pressure on the judiciary, corruption and selectivity in the enforcement of the law, continuing media restrictions and self-censorship, and harassment of some non-governmental organizations. Still a nuclear power, Russia plays a significant role in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, as well as in the UN Security Council and other international organizations. Russia also participates in the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI).

The NATO-Russia Council (NRC) was established at the Rome Summit in May 2002. The NRC places emphasis on individual NATO Allies and Russia working as equal members on selected, mutually-agreed initiatives. The work of the NRC is centered on specific, practical projects designed to enhance interoperability of NATO and Russian forces. Programs include civil emergency planning exercises and joint search and rescue exercises. The NATO-Russia Council’s military-to-military interoperability program promotes the ability of NATO and Russian forces to work side-by-side in the field to face the 21st century threats of terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

Warsaw Initiative Funding for Partnership for Peace (PfP) exercises provides opportunities for Russian officers to interact with U.S. and NATO counterparts. Russian officers can develop greater understanding of NATO doctrine and concepts of coalition contingency operations and the role of the military in a democracy. These programs seek to increase cooperation between NATO and Russia and to reduce Russian fears that NATO threatens Russian security. Russia has contributed to Operation Active Endeavor in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

Funding for the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program for Russia has traditionally been between $700,000 and $800,000. The IMET program for Russia is increasingly focused on developing interoperability and has been restructured to further Russian participation in shorter, more tactical training. In FY 2006, Russians attended courses that support interoperability, like Airborne, Pathfinder, and the Warrior Leader Course for non-commissioned officers. Russian interest in traditional IMET training, such as professional military education and War Colleges, is virtually non-existent. Russian participation in IMET in 2005 and early 2006 was at an all-time high, hovering around 85 percent of invitations accepted. However, as the political situation deteriorated, so did Russia’s interest in IMET-funded training, resulting in Russia not expending almost $300,000 of its initial FY 2006 IMET allocation. Currently, participation is around 50-60 percent, much of it centering on cooperative issues, such as the fight against HIV/AIDS in the military. Russians have shown only limited interest in either the George C. Marshall Center in Germany or the Asia-Pacific Center in Hawaii. Both regional centers focus on training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and in civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel. Although qualified Russian candidates for the regional centers are limited, two officials from the Russian Federation Ministry of Foreign Affairs did attend a Marshall Center seminar in 2006.

Serbia and Montenegro

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

6

6

3

$13,633

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

0

0

0

$0.00

3

3

1

$40,785

Regional Centers

215

215

17

$141,506

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

221

221

20

$155,139

3

3

1

$40,785

Montenegro gained independence in 2006. Because information required for this report data predates independence, the

FY 2006 data collected on Serbia and Montenegro is combined in this report.

Sustainable defense reform within a Serbia on the path to Euro-Atlantic integration is key to ensuring long-term stability in the Balkans. Following the democratic transition in Belgrade, our policy for both Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro has been to encourage development of a professional military that is cooperative and compatible with Western standards, respects human rights, and whose actions do not pose a threat to peace and stability in the Balkans.

Since achieving its independence in June of 2006, Montenegro has made Euro-Atlantic integration, including membership in NATO and the EU, its number one foreign policy priority. Radically transforming the Montenegrin military is a key aspect of Montenegro’s plans to build partnerships with the United States and NATO.

The fundamental U.S. goals in Montenegro are regional stability, economic prosperity, and the promotion of rule of law. U.S.-funded military training comprises an important part of the strategy employed to meet these goals. In particular, U.S. military training funded through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program will help Montenegran soldiers acquire the skills necessary to operate alongside NATO forces, participate more actively in PfP activities, and support peacekeeping operations, as demonstrated by recent deployments of troops to Iraq.

Sweden

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

FMS

68

59

35

$429,583

15

11

11

$893,100

Regional Centers

4

4

3

$3,714

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

72

63

38

$433,297

15

11

11

$893,100

Although Sweden is not a member of NATO, it is an active participant in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and a solid partner with the United States in many areas of national security concern. For example, Sweden is an energetic player in the Balkans, was one of the first with troops on the ground in Kosovo, and provided support to the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan. Sweden is a staunch supporter of NATO’s Open Door and assisted the three Baltic countries with military interoperability issues. Sweden also donated equipment to outfit troops in the Baltics. Sweden has expressed interest in engaging in joint military exercises with Russia, which is an effort the United States government supports.

With respect to the European Security Defense Identity (ESDI), Sweden supports a strong European Union crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged and which does not duplicate NATO structures. The Swedish government has committed to lead an EU battle group (providing 1100 of the 1500 soldiers) that would be available in 2008. In FY 2006, Sweden paid for a number of U.S. professional military education (PME) opportunities at numerous Army branch courses for captains and at the Air Command and General Staff College. Sweden also remains a great proponent of interoperability and defense cooperation. It is important to continue prompting close cooperation on security issues between Sweden and the United States.

Sweden has benefited from seminars at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

Switzerland

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

FMS

77

60

41

$793,129

6

5

5

$36,708

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

78

61

42

$793,129

6

5

5

$36,708

The United States and Switzerland work closely to advance human rights, democracy, nonproliferation, and other issues of global concern. A traditionally neutral democratic nation, Switzerland has focused on its ability to participate in democracy-building and peacekeeping exercises since joining NATO’s Partnership for Peace (PfP) in 1996. Its PfP goals focus largely on enhancing interoperability of forces and capabilities that may be declared available for PfP activities, but within self-imposed limits on participation related to the Swiss concept of neutrality. Switzerland deploys 207 soldiers and 2 helicopters with KFOR, about 20 soldiers and 2 helicopters with EUFOR, and 2 to 4 officers with the International Stabilization Force in Afghanistan. It contributed approximately $250,000 to a NATO/EAPC fund for Iraq in 2005. The Swiss PfP program for 2006 is expected to remain at 2004 and 2005 levels, with approximately 33 partnership goals and between 500 and 700 participants. These figures include activities of Switzerland’s three centers: the Geneva Center for Humanitarian Demining, the Geneva Center for Security Policy, and the Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.

Ukraine

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

33

32

5

$93,366

2

2

2

$80,427

FMS

35

34

19

$455,390

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

162

99

113

$2,490,611

77

38

70

$898,536

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

2

2

1

$34,602

0

0

0

$0.00

PME Exchanges

62

62

3

$81,724

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

54

54

10

$351,666

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$54,575

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

349

284

152

$3,561,934

79

40

72

$978,963

Ukraine is an important partner for the United States in the former Soviet space, and an important contributor to the War on Terror. Although President Yushchenko pulled Ukrainian troops out of Iraq in December 2005, in fulfillment of a campaign pledge, the Government of Ukraine continues to contribute up to fifty troops to Iraq at any given time and has provided needed materials to the Iraqi army. Ukraine has deployed troops in support of U.S. and UN operations in Kosovo (KFOR), Sierra Leone, Lebanon, and in other UN observer groups. Ukraine has made a national contribution of airlift for NATO’s support operations in Darfur, Sudan, and has provided airlift for troops and supplies from European partners participating in ISAF in Afghanistan. The United States is working with Ukraine to bolster the capabilities of the State Border Guard Service to block efforts by terrorists and others to secure components, materials, and expertise related to weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs.

Ukraine and NATO have strengthened their relationship through the continued development of the NATO-Ukraine Commission established in 1997 on the basis of the NATO-Ukraine Charter, and through an intensified dialogue on Ukraine’s membership aspirations that began in April 2005. Ukraine’s Euro-Atlantic orientation and close partnership with NATO have been key elements of a strengthened Western orientation in Ukrainian foreign policy under President Yushchenko. Although Prime Minister Yanukovych has slowed Ukraine’s quest for a Membership Action Plan, he and President Yushchenko maintain that Ukraine’s strategic direction toward Euro-Atlantic integration has not changed. There were numerous bilateral and multilateral military activities between NATO member countries and Ukraine in 2006, and the Ukrainian parliament (Rada) approved a NATO-Ukraine agreement for the use of Ukrainian strategic airlift in support of NATO operations in August 2006, helping address a critical alliance shortfall. Ukraine has worked hard to reform its military to bring it into line with NATO requirements, instituting effective civilian control of the military, developing a professional Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO) Corps, slashing Ministry of Defense personnel (including troops) from 350,000 to 220,000, aiming to modernize equipment to NATO standards to improve interoperability, and developing a joint rapid reaction force to enhance the ability to participate in peacekeeping and peace-enforcing operations.

The United States continues to work for the development of an independent, democratic Ukraine with a market-oriented economy. The November-December 2004 Orange Revolution served as a benchmark for democratic progress in the post-Soviet era, and the March 2006 parliamentary election met international democratic standards and was one of the most free and fair ever held in the former Soviet Union, outside of the Baltic states. The election was followed by months of political wrangling; a Cabinet was formed by a coalition of parties led by Viktor Yanukovych, whose party won the plurality of seats in the Rada, with the agreement of the President. Ukrainian politics continue to be unsettled as competing players seek to interpret and apply new constitutional arrangements that give more power to the Rada and the Cabinet, at the expense of the Presidency.

We seek to reinforce the democratic gains made during the Orange Revolution and realized in the March 2006 elections, including such fundamental rights as freedom of expression and freedom of association. Along these lines, U.S. goals for engaging Ukraine’s military include strengthening civilian control, fostering the reforms necessary for increasing integration of Ukraine into the security institutions of the larger Euro-Atlantic community, and enhancing the capability and interoperability of Ukrainian forces for coalition operations. U.S.-funded military training efforts are a crucial part of this effort.

Training received through International Military Education and Training (IMET), Foreign Military Financing (FMF), and other U.S. military assistance programs contributes to U.S. goals by augmenting Ukraine’s ability to participate alongside NATO forces in crisis response operations, in Partnership for Peace (PfP) exercises, and other activities. English language for key leaders and units has been a focus, as has Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure (VBSS) training for the Navy to facilitate their participation in OPERATION ACTIVE ENDEAVOR. Ukraine makes extensive use of the IMET program to improve Ukrainian military readiness in a broad range of functional areas. Areas of concentration include military legal training, military aspects of countering terrorism, officer professional military education (logistics, signal, intelligence operations, engineer, and military police), classes in civil-military relations and defense resource management, military engineering, and air traffic control operations. In addition, senior Ukrainian officers have been trained at command and general staff colleges, as well as the National Defense University and Naval Postgraduate School. Equipment purchased with FMF has aided Ukraine’s participation in KFOR, which has led to critical, practical training through real-world peacekeeping experience for Ukrainian troops. A particular priority is communications equipment for Ukrainian units, further enhancing their interoperability when deployed with NATO forces.



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