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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--Near East Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
August 2007
Report
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Algeria

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

9

7

7

$119,404

9

7

7

$262,872

IMET

85

53

58

$1,350,275

33

20

27

$375,827

Non-SA, Combatant Command

80

80

5

$355,431

0

0

4

$1,007,000

Regional Centers

52

52

18

$238,736

3

3

2

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$54,575

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

227

193

89

$2,118,420

45

30

39

$1,645,699

The United States has a clear interest in increasing regional stability by promoting democracy, economic reform, and security in Algeria. Training in FY 2006 and 2007 follows a measured approach in order to encourage continuing reform within the Algerian military establishment, including gradual moves towards greater pluralism and respect for civilian authority and human rights. After more than a decade of bitter conflict, attacks by armed terrorist insurgents have diminished, allowing the Algerian military to begin to refocus its counterterrorism efforts on programs of collaboration with regional partners. Currently, the Algerian military, in tandem with these regional partners, is working to secure its long and porous borders. In addition, Algeria inaugurated the Algiers-based African Union Center for the Research and Study of Terrorism in October 2004. The Center aims to provide a coordinated regional research and training venue for counterterrorism efforts in all African Union countries. The Government of Algeria continues to seek to expand the scope of its cooperation with the United States in its efforts to combat terrorism and ensure stability in the Mediterranean. Algeria has proven to be an important partner in U.S. efforts to stem the tide of terrorist activity in North Africa and the Mediterranean in recent years and as such has seen substantial increases in the amount of United States counterterrorism cooperation. To further this burgeoning relationship, the single most important area of education for Algerian military personnel is, and will remain, professional military education (PME) of mid-level and senior leaders in order to build a cadre of personnel who can function effectively with the United States and regional counterparts.

Participation in the IMET program helps Algerian military officers build contacts with U.S. counterparts, better understand U.S. policy, become more aware of international norms, and develop greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military. IMET training promotes professionalism and reinforces the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. Those officers who participate in the IMET program will establish essential contacts with U.S. counterparts whose influence can encourage reform within the Algerian military. In FY 2007, IMET funds will be used to send Algerian officers to key PME courses as well as to selected technical training courses. We will continue to focus on IMET-funded English language training in order to expand and improve the Algerian military’s interoperability with U.S. forces, facilitate interaction in potential future contingency operations such as joint counterterrorism and peacekeeping missions, and prepare Algerian military personnel for increased training opportunities.

In addition, Algerian participation in programs in both the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) and the Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA) supports democratic governance in Algeria by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Such participation helps build and maintain long-term interaction amongst participants. It also supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities between these participants on relevant topics in Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and the United States.

Bahrain

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

FMS

31

22

15

$3,018,774

3

2

3

$9,053

IMET

273

89

100

$873,855

24

12

16

$35,298

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

30

30

1

$293,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

30

30

1

$32,000

0

0

4

$1,400,000

Regional Centers

13

13

10

$0.00

1

1

1

$0.00

Totals:

377

184

127

$4,217,629

28

15

24

$1,444,351

The United States has an enduring national security interest in maintaining its access to Bahraini military facilities in order to maintain our influence in the Persian Gulf and to conduct operations in the War on Terror. Bahrain has hosted the U.S. Navy 5th Fleet for more than 50 years. The relatively open access to facilities, land, and airspace needed to support contingency operations, including joint task force, fleet, and Multinational Interception Force (MIF) operations, are critical to maintaining U.S. operations in the region. In addition, Bahrain annually hosts important exercises that involve U.S. forces.

Our security and political relationship with Bahrain continues to be strong. Bahrain and the United States have maintained a Defense Cooperation Agreement (DCA) since 1991. Bahrain has been a steadfast supporter of our foreign policy objectives throughout the Near East region. In 2001, the President designated Bahrain a Major Non-NATO Ally. Bahrain has also been a key supporter of critical U.S. regional security initiatives, including the War on Terror. Bahrain responded positively to all NAVCENT and U.S. military requests for Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, and will remain a critical hub for the U.S. presence in the Gulf and Southwest Asia. Bahrain has been an active participant in the War on Terror and was the only Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) country to provide a ship to the Coalition effort. Bahrain has assumed a leadership role in regional efforts to cut the flow of funding to terrorist groups.

Training activities funded under IMET and the approval of selected commercial and FMS arms sales promote the interoperability of the Bahrain Defense Forces with existing U.S. and GCC forces in the region. Through the IMET program, Bahrain sends officers to U.S. command and staff colleges, and other key professional military education and technical courses. IMET training reinforces democratic principles of civilian control of the military, enhances interoperability with U.S. forces, promotes professionalism, and reinforces among core supporters of the regime the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. In addition, Bahrain has in the past sent students to the U.S. service academies. By improving English language skills and their understanding of the U.S. military, these training programs directly enhance the effectiveness of our bilateral and multilateral joint training programs.

Egypt

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

6

6

5

$21,419

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

1358

551

389

$7,669,899

1048

400

305

$7,440,630

IMET

81

46

61

$1,539,657

71

30

61

$656,026

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

0

1

$400,000

0

0

1

$400,000

Regional Centers

32

32

18

$204,478

7

7

3

$0.00

Service Academies

0

0

0

$0.00

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

1477

635

467

$9,835,453

1128

439

365

$8,496,656

Egypt is a pivotal country in the Arab world and a key U.S. ally in the Middle East. In 1996, the President designated Egypt a Major Non-NATO Ally. The United States seeks to promote regional peace and security by encouraging Egypt’s continued participation and leadership in Middle East peace efforts. Egypt has been at peace with Israel for over two decades, but has potentially hostile rivals in Sudan and Libya. Egypt faces challenges in securing sea lines of communication, protecting territorial and Nile headwaters, and protecting its vast, sparsely populated borders with Sudan and Libya.

Egypt’s strategic location and control of the Suez Canal make it a critical transit point for general commerce and petroleum shipments, as well as for transiting U.S. forces. Egypt’s cooperation in providing access to and security of the Suez Canal is strategically important. Since 9/11, Egypt has granted tens of thousands of clearances for military over flights and clearances for the passage of more than 1,000 U.S. Navy ships. Additionally, Egypt has been extremely cooperative in working with the United States to crack down on those financing the activities of terrorist entities. President Mubarak, the elder statesman of the Arab world, was the first head of an Arab state to make a public statement of support for the strikes in Afghanistan. Egypt has also deployed a field hospital to Bagram, Afghanistan that has been in place for more than three years. This hospital has treated approximately 200,000 Afghan patients and has been especially effective in providing treatment options for local women.

Egypt continues to play a major role in the War on Terror and in fostering regional stability by acting as a reliable coalition partner and through constant engagement in the Middle East Peace Process. Egypt participates in a number of annual joint military exercises, and hosts the biennial Operation Bright Star, the largest joint and combined military training exercise in the world. Bright Star 2005 was a robust exercise that sent an important message to the region about U.S. and coalition regional power projection capabilities. Additionally, funding under the DoD Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provides the Government of Egypt with the ability to sustain its counterterrorism framework in support of the War on Terror.

Egypt’s replacement of outmoded Soviet-era equipment with more capable and sustainable U.S. equipment is well underway. Increasing the amount of U.S.-origin equipment in the Egyptian inventory augments U.S. interoperability with Egypt, enhancing their value as a coalition partner. Egypt’s military modernization is now giving way to transformation, encouraging long-term defense reform for not only organization and equipment, but also in the development of a more professional cadre of military leaders better able to support democratic reform in the country and the democratically elected government.

Egypt’s training, funded under the IMET and FMF programs, enhances counterterrorism training, improves Egypt’s maintenance and supply capabilities, increases English language skills of the Egyptian officer corps, and improves pilot proficiency. The IMET-funded training also reinforces Egyptian military respect for human rights and democratic values, and furthers the principle of civilian control over the military. Attendance at professional military education courses at all levels advances leadership skills and improves understanding between our militaries. All of these programs directly enhance joint training.

The Marshall Center, Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA), and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) support democratic governance in Egypt by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program of instruction in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Participation at the Centers also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants. It also supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities amongst participants on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Iraq

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

13

11

11

$148,219

2

2

2

$83,045

FMS

33

29

14

$275,659

15

15

3

$78,076

IMET

1

1

1

$75,665

62

38

39

$1,106,307

IMET Multi-Year

28

14

24

$447,229

5

3

3

$33,894

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

28316

28285

51

$95,758,575

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

41

41

16

$192,061

4

4

2

$8,673

Service Academies

2

2

2

$118,575

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

28434

28383

118

$97,015,983

88

62

49

$1,309,995

The United States, together with its coalition partners, successfully conducted Operation Iraqi Freedom to remove the Saddam Hussein regime from power. Iraq is now a country in transition, struggling to build a democratic government and simultaneously working towards establishing a new armed force and internal security force. Although the Iraqi economy continues to grow, the United States has a vital role to play in helping Iraq to secure additional assistance and debt relief from the international community that will be critical to rebuilding Iraq. The Multi-National Force-Iraq (MNF-I) continues to train, develop, and contribute to the readiness of Iraqi Security Forces (ISF). Iraq is making progress in building security forces that are capable of independently combating insurgents and fighting terrorists. U.S. stabilization support has thus far focused much of its effort on counterinsurgency/counterterrorism training. Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funding was instrumental in securing U.S-based training for many Iraqi officers, a precedent that we hope to continue. CTFP support will enable Iraq to develop English language training to facilitate further participation of Iraqi forces in future military training programs. CTFP efforts will promote U.S.-Iraqi interoperability and will allow for greater cooperation in the continuing War on Terror.

IMET-funded training will help Iraqi military personnel learn democratic principles of civilian control of the military, as well as how to operate with U.S. forces. This training also promotes professionalism, and reinforces among core supporters of the new government the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States.

Israel

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

4

4

3

$14,534

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

478

437

175

$807,009

176

161

73

$343,454

FMS

79

72

35

$390,202

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

0

0

$0.00

0

0

2

$140,000

Regional Centers

59

59

10

$6,483

8

8

4

$0.00

Totals:

620

572

223

$1,218,228

184

169

79

$483,454

The United States has a vested interest in promoting a stable, democratic, and militarily strong Israel that is at peace with its neighbors. President Bush has reiterated the U.S.’s steadfast commitment to Israel’s security, to the maintenance of Israel’s qualitative military edge and to strengthening Israel’s ability to deter potential aggressors and defend itself. Maintaining Israel’s qualitative military edge in the regional balance of power enhances Israel’s security and helps prevent regional conflict.

The United States has provided Israel with over $100 billion in economic and military assistance since 1949 and Israel continues to receive the largest share of U.S. security assistance worldwide. Foreign military training, both as a portion of U.S.-provided FMF and as DoD-funded non-security assistance, is important to maintain Israel’s qualitative military edge, which, in turn, enhances Israel’s security. Training for Israeli personnel during FY 2006 included Army and Air War Colleges and Army and Naval Command and General Staff College courses, flight simulator and flight safety officer training, and resource management training, among other programs. By providing both technical expertise and exposure to U.S. military culture and personnel, these programs significantly strengthen U.S.-Israel military ties and bolster Israel’s ability to protect itself.

Jordan

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

4

1

4

$47,920

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

24

24

17

$349,324

9

9

7

$202,931

FMF

24

24

12

$1,217,085

34

16

27

$872,554

IMET

346

253

271

$4,154,931

231

184

174

$1,992,704

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

65

65

2

$292,000

0

0

1

$400,000

Non-SA, Combatant Command

183

183

3

$17,062

0

0

10

$3,590,000

Regional Centers

55

55

23

$198,064

4

4

3

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$64,000

3

3

2

$54,575

Totals:

702

606

332

$6,340,386

281

216

223

$7,112,764

Stability and economic prosperity in the Middle East support U.S. national security objectives. Jordan is well-positioned to play a pivotal role as a stabilizing influence in the region because of its moderate, pro-Western stance and its borders with Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Syria, the Palestinian Territories, and Israel. Continuing political stability and economic development, however, are necessary prerequisites for enhancing Jordan’s ability to exert a moderate influence in the region. King Abdullah II has made significant progress increasing Jordan’s governmental accountability and further integrating Jordan into the world economy. Jordan continues to lead the region in its quest for moderation and accountability in religious and lay institutions.

Achieving an Israeli-Palestinian peace accord ranks as one of Jordan’s highest priorities, especially in light of its significant Palestinian population and its peace treaty with Israel. Jordan is also in a unique position to contribute to collective regional security goals. Jordan is playing a key role in support of Iraq stability and reconstruction, including facilitating training for up to 32,000 Iraqi police cadets and providing training for some 2,200 Iraqi military officers at Jordanian military colleges. It has deployed a field hospital to Fallujah, which has treated over 763,268 Iraqi civilians and conducted 1,828 operations as of March 2007. King Abdullah has been a strong supporter of the War on Terror, and Jordan has deployed an airborne company, field hospital, de-mining unit, and a special operations battalion to Afghanistan in support of coalition operations. Jordan receives Coalition Support Funding for its incremental operational costs associated with providing direct support to ongoing operations. Due to its relatively porous borders with Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Iraq, transnational terrorism is a major consideration and threat.

The Jordanian Armed Forces’ (JAF) main mission is to protect against external threats; however, the JAF maintains close ties with Jordan’s Public Security Directorate in regards to transnational threats, and has appropriately increased its focus against internal threats which could jeopardize the security of the Kingdom. The JAF’s efforts to curb transnational terrorism within the region directly support U.S. security interests within the Middle East.

The U.S.-Jordan military-to-military relationship is excellent, and Jordan has been designated a Major Non-NATO ally. FMF helps the Jordanian armed forces address their readiness and sustainment requirements as well as interoperability with U.S. forces, and this program remains the only source of funds for Jordanian military modernization programs as outlined in the JAF’s Five-Year Plan. FMF also supports counterterrorism and border security requirements. Jordan’s successful efforts at border control are critical to prevent illicit trafficking of arms, explosives, drugs, terrorists, and equipment for use in the production of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Improved security for Jordanian borders translates into enhanced domestic stability for Jordan, improved security for Israel, assists U.S. interests in Saudi Arabia, and strengthens coalition forces in Iraq.

Jordan has one of the most robust combined education and training programs in the world. Through its IMET program - the second largest in the world - Jordan regularly sends officers to U.S. senior service schools, command and staff colleges, and other key professional military education (PME), as well as to numerous resource management and technical courses. IMET training reinforces democratic principles of civilian control of the military, enhances interoperability with U.S. forces, promotes professionalism, and reinforces with core supporters of the regime the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. Jordan is also the second largest recipient in the world of Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funding. This program has greatly contributed to the U.S. building long-term relations with members of CJAF who are directly involved in counterterrorism operations. The exercise program is also robust, and Jordan participates in multiple bilateral and multilateral exercises annually, the largest exercise program in the CENTCOM AOR. The exercises have a major impact on U.S.-Jordan interoperability, development of Jordan’s armed forces proficiency in a wide range of skills, and increased capabilities for conducting counter-terrorist/counter-smuggling operations in Jordan. In close association with exercises, component commanders use Traditional Commander’s Activities (TCA) funds to augment the exercise-training opportunities. TCA events allow Jordanian units to participate in their exercises with a higher level of proficiency and achieve a greater level of benefit from them.

Kuwait

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

FMS

765

353

316

$15,465,212

445

222

156

$15,509,262

Regional Centers

2

2

2

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

768

356

319

$15,465,212

445

222

156

$15,509,262

The United States has a demonstrable interest in maintaining access to Kuwait’s facilities, land, and airspace. Kuwait faces the difficult task of securing its Iraqi border and a continuous U.S. presence has been key to Kuwait’s security since the first Gulf War. In January 2004, the President designated Kuwait a Major Non-NATO Ally for its consistent support to our operations in the Gulf and in South Asia, as well as for its international counterterrorism efforts. Kuwait hosts the forward headquarters of CENTCOM’s ground forces and approximately 10,000 U.S. and coalition military personnel operating in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. The open access to facilities, land, and airspace needed to support contingency operations, including joint task force and fleet operations, are critical to the U.S. presence in the region and ongoing military operations there. Kuwait is an important ally in the War on Terror.

The continued participation of Kuwaitis in military-to-military training initiatives and joint military exercises promotes interoperability with U.S. and Gulf Cooperation Council forces, recognizes Kuwait’s invaluable support for U.S. force deployments, and helps Kuwait to assume greater responsibility for its own defense and regional security by encouraging the development of its professional military command.

Military-to-military contacts facilitated by the IMET program are particularly important in the case of Near Eastern countries because they pay high dividends, far into the future, as students ascend the military and political ranks of their respective countries. The difficulties Arabic-speaking students have in leaning English means that Kuwait must invest substantial amounts of money into language training for students to be sent to the United States for technical and professional military schools. Kuwait military has begun to divert more of its officers and enlisted personnel to other nations around the globe for more cost-effective professional and technical training.

Lebanon

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

70

51

37

$568,001

3

3

3

$141,681

FMF

18

11

10

$37,857

58

52

12

$338,021

FMS

0

0

0

$0.00

1

1

2

$49,800

IMET

122

92

87

$890,883

120

81

87

$778,134

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

0

0

3

$123,000

4

4

1

$65,000

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

0

0

$0.00

200

200

8

$3,000,000

Regional Centers

23

23

19

$91,677

8

8

4

$0.00

Totals:

233

177

156

$1,711,418

394

349

114

$4,372,636

The year 2006 brought the question of security assistance to the forefront of policy considerations for Lebanon. Following a devastating war which dislodged the Hizballah militia from the border with Israel, the Lebanese Armed Forces deployed to the border for the first time in more than three decades. A strong United Nations commitment, in the form of a strengthened UNIFIL, provided the necessary impetus for action on the part of the Government of Lebanon. The United States led the efforts to support the Lebanese government and security services, pledging an initial $42.5 M in FY 2006 aid while developing a plan to train the Lebanese Army and Internal Security Force. The mission of the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) has greatly expanded since the departure of Syrian troops in 2005, and new deployments have added new pressures on the security services. The summer war also destroyed much of Lebanon’s infrastructure, decreasing already limited resources to address the new security challenges. Although conscription was being phased out in 2005, the new requirements spurred the government to expand the security sector. New military acquisitions have been virtually non-existent for six years due to debt servicing and constrained military budgets. FMF to Lebanon has increased dramatically over the last year and is being used to purchase weapons, vehicles, some parts, ammunition and individual equipment, among other things. Personnel costs absorb over 90 percent of the military budget leaving little for operations and maintenance.

U.S. interests lie with a free and independent Lebanon at peace with its neighbors, especially Israel. Peace between Israel and Lebanon is a critical component of a comprehensive Middle East peace. We continue to support the development of independent Lebanese institutions, in part to minimize the influence of external forces such as Syria and Iran. Lebanon was already rebuilding after its 16-year civil war, which ended in 1991, prior to the destruction resulting from the summer war. Israeli forces withdrew completely from south Lebanon in May 2000, as recognized by the United Nations Security Council, and have withdrawn again following the latest conflict. Reflecting the influence of Syria and indirectly through Hizballah, Iran, the Government of Lebanon maintains that Israel continues to occupy some Lebanese territory in the area of Sheba’a Farms. This territory continues to be contested between Lebanon and Syria. Armed militias (in particular Syrian and Iranian supported Hizballah, as well as Palestinian groups) remain largely outside the control of the central government. The poor economy remains a serious problem for Lebanon. A secure and independent Lebanon could help weaken forces supporting global terrorism and contribute further to the fight against illegal drugs and counterfeiting.

IMET funding was reinstated for Lebanon in 1993. The LAF has taken full advantage of the opportunity for professional military education (PME) and technical training. The Country Team reports that IMET graduates are employed in positions of command and responsibility and achieve proportionally higher rank and influence than their non-IMET peers. In addition, USG assistance to the LAF counters the prevailing tendency to break down society along strictly sectarian/confessional lines in one of the country’s major functioning institutions. IMET training also provides an important alternative to military training with Syria and other countries. In FY 2006, Lebanon sent 134 students to various PME and technical courses. Lebanon is one of the few countries in the region that places such a high value on IMET that they participate in the program on a cost-sharing basis by funding all per diem costs themselves. Lebanon also continues to benefit from non-security assistance humanitarian mine action de-mining training, which helps finance an on-going program to remove landmines throughout Lebanon (especially in southern Lebanon where we strongly urge increased deployments of the armed forces in order to stabilize the border areas). Foreign Military Financing (FMF) assistance in FY 2007, significantly increased over Lebanon’s traditional allocation, will demonstrate U.S. support for the expanding role of the Lebanese Armed Forces.

Morocco

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

46

46

11

$128,741

1

1

1

$918

IMET

157

111

109

$2,392,150

64

33

56

$591,991

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

2

2

1

$34,602

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

80

80

3

$3,437

0

0

1

$250,000

PME Exchanges

1

1

1

$10,796

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

37

37

21

$169,087

7

7

4

$0.00

Totals:

323

277

146

$2,738,813

72

41

62

$842,909

Strategically located on the south side of the Straits of Gibraltar, Morocco remains a staunch partner in the War on

Terror (WOT). From the start of his reign in 1999, King Mohamed VI has shown himself to be a progressive monarch. He has introduced legislation and practices that advance human rights, as well as economic and political reform. However, he has inherited a kingdom that is poor - a middle-ranked developing country - and a political system whose reform is real, but far from complete. The United States seeks to support democratic and free-market changes and encourage a Morocco that is stable, prosperous, and free. Morocco will be a key bilateral trade partner now that a Free Trade Agreement has been implemented.

Morocco has provided counterterrorist assistance that helped foil an Al Qaeda plot against U.S. shipping interests in the Straits of Gibraltar. Morocco has solicited U.S. assistance to combat terrorist financing, and new anti-money laundering legislation is pending. Morocco’s moderate policies on the Arab-Israeli conflict and direct overtures toward Israel assist regional peace efforts. It is in the U.S. interest to support Moroccan stability and Moroccan foreign policy. As the active dialogue between NATO and Morocco affirms, stability in Morocco and the Maghreb is of vital importance to our Southern European NATO allies.

The IMET program increases awareness of international norms of human rights, fosters greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military, and helps Moroccan military officers understand U.S. foreign policies. Morocco sends students to professional military education (PME) courses including U.S. senior service schools, command and staff colleges, and other key training activities. Moroccan attendance at these PME courses fosters one-to-one relationships that pay invaluable dividends in the form of interoperability, coordination, and mutual understanding. Also, IMET-funded defense management and logistics readiness courses, as well as English language training, enhances Morocco’s value as a partner in multinational training exercises, peacekeeping missions, and potential future coalition contingency actions. Moroccan participation in IMET programs has become even more important in the last year since the King ordered all Moroccan officers to learn to speak English. Morocco has participated in numerous peacekeeping operations and currently has peacekeepers deployed in several countries.

The Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA) in Washington supports democratic governance in Morocco by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. NESA participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in the Middle East.

Oman

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

9

7

8

$52,144

5

3

5

$23,235

FMS

279

155

96

$3,335,330

33

16

22

$171,281

IMET

84

40

76

$1,368,720

78

30

67

$664,451

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

85

85

2

$219,000

0

0

1

$300,000

Non-SA, Combatant Command

85

85

2

$0.00

0

0

6

$2,200,000

Regional Centers

20

20

15

$61,760

18

18

4

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$54,575

1

1

1

$54,575

Totals:

563

393

200

$5,091,529

135

68

106

$3,413,542

Oman remains committed as a valuable ally in the War on Terror (WOT). Oman’s long coastlines and borders offer significant challenges as they remain vulnerable to illegal transit by terrorists, illegal immigrants, smugglers, and individuals involved in the traffic and sale of illegal drugs. Currently the Omani Defense Forces are working hard to stem this flow. However, due to Oman’s geostrategic position and the increasing flow of illegal transit originating from Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, it is imperative that the Omani security forces receive the equipment and training necessary to provide them the capability to combat this particular growing threat. The Government of Oman increasingly uses FMF funding to enhance Omani capabilities that support U.S. regional efforts in the War on Terror, such as bolstering coastal patrol efforts, modernizing Oman’s coastal surveillance system, enhancing the capabilities of the Sultan’s Special Forces, and making Oman’s remote inland borders with Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and the U.A.E. less porous and more observable.

Oman’s bases remain important for current U.S. operations and to support future contingencies in the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Gulf, or in South Asia. A strong military-to-military relationship increases the likelihood that Oman will be prepared to commit resources to support USCENTCOM efforts in contingency operations and the WOT. Omani forces support U.S. and coalition operations in areas ranging from force protection to basing and logistics, and communications. Oman’s ability to monitor and seal its land borders (particularly the border with Yemen) reduces the ability of terrorists to evade government control in the WOT. Oman’s control of its maritime borders mitigates the vulnerability of the Sultanate to instability caused by illegal immigrants from South Asia and Iran, and stems the flow of drugs, weapons, and/or terrorists who use the traditional smuggling routes. Oman’s internal command and control architecture also support the WOT by allowing the Sultanate to coordinate efforts across the breadth of various organizations that monitor and secure its borders.

As a key ally with moderate views, Oman serves as an important voice of moderation in the region, including with Iran. U.S. assistance ensures that Oman has the resources to ensure its legitimate self-defense and security, and continues to remain a strong ally in the War on Terror. The IMET program increases awareness of international norms of human rights, fosters greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military, and helps Omani military officers understand U.S. foreign policies. Oman sends students to professional military education (PME) courses including U.S. senior service schools, command and staff colleges and other key training activities. Omani attendance at these PME courses fosters one-to-one relationships that pay invaluable dividends in the form of interoperability, coordination, and mutual understanding.

Qatar

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

1

1

1

$2,700

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

13

9

13

$490,513

29

18

24

$514,695

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

45

45

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

0

0

$0.00

0

0

2

$800,000

Regional Centers

28

28

13

$0.00

15

15

5

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$54,575

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

88

84

29

$547,788

46

35

32

$1,314,695

Qatar remains a key regional ally. The Amir, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, continues to pursue democratic principles in governance and to strengthen ties with the United States, particularly in the military arena. Qatari support to Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom has been vital to our efforts in the region. The U.S.-Qatar Defense Cooperation Agreement, which was signed in 1992, established the basis for our growing military-to-military relationship. Qatar has hosted CENTCOM’s Command Forward Headquarters since 2002 and is funding the construction of a new Forward Headquarters facility on al Udeid Air Base at a cost of $138 million. In 2002, Qatar concluded an Implementing Agreement with the United States outlining the use of al Udeid Air Base by U.S. forces. This agreement included approximately $200 million in Qatari-funded construction to build operational and logistics facilities to support U.S. basing requirements. Over the last several years, Qatar has hosted a number of Air Expeditionary Forces (AEF) and related deployments. U.S. presence at al Udeid has grown significantly, and the base now hosts the largest Air Expeditionary Wing (AEW) in CENTCOM and is home to CENTCOM’s Combined Air Operations Center (CAOC).

Given Qatar’s strategic location in the Gulf, it is vital that the United States continue to support military-to-military cooperation and training as well as joint training exercises. As a result of strong bilateral engagement and exposure to U.S. military training and education, future leaders of Qatar’s military will be predisposed to implement principles and doctrine that will enhance future coalition understanding, capabilities, and interoperability. Qatar hosted Exercise EAGLE RESOLVE in 2002, 2003, 2005, and 2006 and again in 2007. The exercise is a CJCS-sponsored, USCENTCOM-executed regional exercise for the Arabian Peninsula that is intended to address regional needs for security and consequence management. Qatar has used its regional influence with Bahrain, Kuwait, UAE, and Pakistan to convince these countries to participate in the exercise. The exercise has grown to include twelve observer countries, including Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Afghanistan. In 2005 and 2006 the theme and design of the exercise was crisis management. EAGLE RESOLVE 2007 will return to the traditional concepts of addressing the design of theater missile defense and mutual cooperation among the GCC. The Qataris have invited 29 military chiefs of staff and ministers of defense as well as senior U.S. Defense Department officials to attend the Qatari-led executive seminar.

The Near East/South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA) in Washington supports democratic reform and good governance in Qatar by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. NESA participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in the Middle East.

Saudi Arabia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

FMS

987

431

439

$8,421,207

1036

421

491

$14,088,136

IMET

3

3

3

$20,279

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

30

30

1

$98,368

0

0

5

$1,800,000

Regional Centers

33

33

17

$102,324

3

3

3

$0.00

Section 1004

51

27

41

$271,321

19

11

15

$87,832

Totals:

1104

524

498

$8,913,499

1058

435

514

$15,975,968

Saudi Arabia is an increasingly important ally in the War on Terror and plays a central political role in all security initiatives in the region. Despite post 9/11 strains, military-to-military relations remain positive, based on decades of cooperation and close consultation, as well as years of U.S. support to Saudi Arabia’s military programs including training, joint exercises, FMS, and commercial arms sales. Providing minimal IMET to Saudi Arabia permits them to purchase military training at the significantly reduced FMS incremental rate ensuring a continued high level of Saudi attendance at U.S. military institutions; enhances technical capabilities; exposes all levels of Saudi military personnel and their families to U.S. values, ideas, and policies; and increases awareness of international norms of human rights, the principle of civilian control of the military, and the rule of law. Many of the Saudi students are either senior military leaders or those identified to become senior leaders in the future. Continued military-to-military contacts and joint military exercises will encourage the development of a professional military command and armed forces compatible with and favorably disposed towards its U.S. counterparts. This continued cooperation will allow the Kingdom to assume a greater role in self-defense, assist the United States in achieving its policy goals in the region, and support our efforts to promote security cooperation among the Gulf Cooperation Council members.

Tunisia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

3

2

3

$36,626

2

1

2

$27,923

CTFP

29

29

9

$154,129

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

107

80

83

$2,120,330

84

57

78

$1,226,534

Non-SA, Combatant Command

40

40

1

$353,356

32

32

2

$345,000

PME Exchanges

33

33

3

$65,821

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

22

22

12

$156,738

4

4

4

$0.00

Service Academies

5

5

5

$301,150

3

3

2

$54,575

Totals:

239

211

116

$3,188,149

125

97

88

$1,654,032

Anchoring one end of the Mediterranean’s Sicily chokepoint, Tunisia is an important regional ally that maintains safe and open Lines-of-Communication (LOC) for several hundred ships that transit the area daily. This list includes up to 40 hydrocarbon carriers per day, transiting United States Navy Battle Groups, NATO-sponsored ships conducting Operation Active Endeavor, and the whole range of international commercial ships. They are also playing an increasingly positive role in stemming the rising tide of illegal/clandestine immigration originating from neighboring Libya. Under the Mediterranean Dialogue Initiative, Tunisia continues to enlarge its involvement and training opportunities with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and as a signature country to the Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Terrorism Partnership they have taken an active role in those activities. Finally, they have participated in over twelve United Nation’s-led peacekeeping operations and currently have a significant force deployed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and observers in support of the African Union’s efforts to bring stability in parts of east Africa.

There is a direct relationship between their continued positive involvement in these international military activities and a stabile bilateral military relationship with the United States. In the past, those activities have ranged from force realignments, modernization, joint exercises, humanitarian assistance, and the hugely successful IMET program. In fact, all but one of the five General Officers on active duty today in the Tunisian military have had some form of U.S.-sponsored training and it is estimated that up to 40 percent of their mid- to senior-level officers have been exposed to U.S. standards, values, and democratic principles. A positive indication of this is the Tunisian government’s policy of almost unfettered access to its airspace and airfields by transiting U.S. senior civilian officials, military leaders, and military transport aircraft.

Tunisia also seeks out opportunities to participate in the seminars sponsored by the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS), Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA), the Marshall Center, and other programs aimed at promoting civil-military affairs, national security strategy, and democratic governance. Many of their senior civilian and military leaders are now alumni of these programs and have continued their interaction with counterparts and acquaintances through both formal and informal exchanges.

United Arab Emirates

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

1

1

1

$2,700

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

836

184

138

$15,271,459

119

60

58

$1,806,487

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

200

200

2

$145,000

0

0

2

$700,000

Non-SA, Combatant Command

50

50

3

$0.00

0

0

5

$1,800,000

Regional Centers

12

12

8

$0.00

1

1

1

$0.00

Totals:

1099

447

152

$15,419,159

120

61

66

$4,306,487

The United States continues its strong security relationship with the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The UAE has a capable yet small military which enjoys significant cooperation with the United States and other allies. The UAE is a key regional partner in the Gulf region and supports U.S. policy initiatives in the region. The UAE is a strong supporter of the War on Terror, has cooperated with us in Afghanistan and Iraq, and provides basing and overflight for U. S. reconnaissance and refueling assets. The UAE provides access for U.S. forces and hosts more U.S. naval ship visits (including aircraft carriers) than any other port outside of the United States. The UAE is a major procurer of advanced U.S. military technologies and the Emirati military continues to make strides toward interoperability with U.S. forces. Therefore, military-to-military education opportunities are a top priority for the UAE. At the same time, attendance at training schools by UAE officers supports the Central Command’s objective of forward engagement and interoperability. A highlight of U.S.-UAE military cooperation is the Gulf Air Warfare Center at Al Dhafra Air Base outside Abu Dhabi, which opened in January 2004.

Yemen

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

1

1

1

$27,213

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

5

5

4

$137,301

2

2

2

$125,095

FMF

220

220

10

$648,089

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

0

0

0

$0.00

2

1

2

$11,702

IMET

87

33

47

$979,983

65

28

56

$734,432

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

2

2

1

$250,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

315

315

6

$895,918

0

0

8

$2,800,000

Regional Centers

35

35

15

$193,658

97

97

5

$0.00

Totals:

665

611

84

$3,132,162

166

128

73

$3,671,229

Yemen is a key partner in the War on Terror (WOT), and is fighting a day-to-day campaign against terrorist elements within its own borders. U.S. support for that campaign is essential to help ensure its success. Due to its location adjacent to the Bab al-Mandab, one of the world’s most important shipping routes, as well as its proximity to U.S. allies Saudi Arabia and Oman, Yemen’s security has a direct effect on U.S. interests in the region. Yemen is the second most populous and the poorest nation on the Arabian Peninsula, and is undergoing an incremental process of political and social reform under President Saleh aimed at making it the first fully functioning democracy in the region. It held successful parliamentary elections in April 2003 and multiparty presidential elections in September 2006. Support for Yemen’s democratic and economic reform programs, professional military training, and a humanitarian demining program not only promote our national values in Yemen, but also further our national security interests, particularly with regard to the WOT. Yemen provides a unique location to conduct Horn of Africa operations and maritime interdiction missions in and around the Gulf of Suez, the Red Sea, and Indian Ocean areas (the Red Sea, Bab-al-Mandab Straits, and the Gulf of Aden comprise the second-busiest shipping lane in the world). U.S. policy has supported the Yemeni government’s efforts to eradicate terrorism/support for terrorism in Yemen and to create an environment that deters the return of any terrorist elements, indigenous or transnational.

The Yemeni government responded to the attacks on the USS Cole and the M/V Limburg with greater cooperation in the fields of security and counterterrorism (CT). Our cooperation reaped concrete dividends in 2006 when their Ministry of Interior’s CT unit, which was created with FMF resources, successfully took down an al-Qaida cell in Sanaa that was preparing an attack with more than 800 pounds of ammonium nitrate, and the same unit rescued Italian hostages and captured their kidnappers. The unit also killed two terrorists who were implicated in the Limburg attack as well as in suicide attacks against two oil facilities in September 2006.

Other security assistance programs have been equally successful. FMF assistance since 2002 resulted in the creation of the Yemeni Coast Guard, a force whose growing effectiveness has allowed it to interdict a number of smuggling vessels between Yemen and Somalia. The IMET program assists the military leadership in Yemen to better understand U.S. policies, increases their awareness of international norms for human rights, and fosters a greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military. Sending Yemenis to professional military education in the United States helps establish one-to-one relationships with counterparts that will pay invaluable rewards later in the form of interoperability, coordination, and mutual understanding. Increased IMET-funded English language training will also improve the Yemeni military’s interoperability with U.S. forces and prepare them for increased training opportunities. Thanks to U.S. assistance, Yemen now has one of the world’s most successful humanitarian demining programs.



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