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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--South Central Asia Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
August 2007
Report
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Afghanistan

  

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

43

35

24

$361,416

8

6

8

$135,626

FMF

170

146

41

$302,954

15

8

12

$67,260

FMS

0

0

0

$0.00

16

12

14

$46,854

IMET

134

49

89

$1,454,442

91

41

62

$1,239,055

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

3600

3600

1

$8,814,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

66

66

21

$262,823

24

24

7

$16,646

Section 1004

1028

1028

10

$23,114,026

716

716

3

$27,300,000

Section 506

0

0

0

$0.00

30

30

1

$0.00

Service Academies

2

2

2

$118,575

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

5043

4926

185

$34,428,236

900

837

105

$28,805,441

The Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) Coalition destroyed the Al Qaeda infrastructure and Taliban regime in Afghanistan. Terrorism and other threats to stability continue, and an important goal of the continued U.S. military and diplomatic presence in Afghanistan is to set the conditions that will permit the new government in Afghanistan to establish a secure and stable environment that will prevent Afghanistan from again becoming a host for terrorist organizations and operations. Key to this endeavor is establishing and maintaining an Afghan National Army (ANA) that is truly representative of the population; subject to central civilian authority; and supportive of human rights, rule of law and democracy. The ANA must also be capable of protecting the newly elected Government of Afghanistan from internal threats and ensuring regime survivability.

A stable and secure Afghanistan is extremely important for regional security. A strong military to support the national government will prevent dissension, regional rifts and ethnic feuds that have often spilled over Afghanistan’s borders into neighboring countries. A weak security sector could re-ignite domestic support for the Taliban and reinvigorate Al Qaeda sympathies along the Afghan-Pakistan border. This would have a significant impact on the Government of Pakistan’s (GOP) continuing efforts to uproot Al Qaeda along the Afghan border. GOP’s failure in this endeavor could have serious repercussions on the larger stability picture for the region. Likewise, a weak national government in Kabul has emboldened both poppy growers and narcotics smugglers – this is having a negative impact on Afghanistan’s neighbors as well as to Afghanistan’s long-term stability. A long-term and well-rounded program to build and train the ANA is essential to the USG’s objectives in Afghanistan and the region.

The IMET program is an integral part of the long-term ANA training program. We have provided sufficient funds for English language labs, their installation and use. Mobile Training Teams (MTTs) provide training on military equipment. The ANA has also sent officers to the National Defense University’s International Fellow’s program, the Near East South Asia (NESA) Center Regional Seminar and the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.

Although FMF still funds some ANA training needs, the IMET program continues to grow as the capacity of the ANA allows for increased participation in CONUS-based classes and as an integral part of our efforts to introduce the military leadership to the concept of civilian control, a professional military ethos, and recognition of internationally accepted human rights.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) directly supports U.S. strategic objectives by providing the ANA with the military training necessary to maintain the country’s sovereignty in its fight against insurgency and terrorism. The current emphasis on developing in-country English language training capabilities will enable the ANA to spend less on language training in the United States and more on professional military education (PME) courses that will improve ANA’s interoperability with U.S. forces and increase their participation in future CTFP opportunities. CTFP promotes future U.S.-ANA interoperability, which is necessary to prosecuting the War on Terror in the South Asia region.

Bangladesh

  

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

4

2

4

$57,262

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

63

62

13

$193,156

10

9

9

$94,355

IMET

106

92

48

$1,337,726

45

27

42

$478,423

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

31

31

1

$290,398

0

0

7

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

137

137

2

$727,937

0

0

3

$522,000

PME Exchanges

1

1

1

$14,881

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

42

42

25

$224,144

18

18

11

$115,398

Totals:

384

367

94

$2,845,505

73

54

72

$1,210,176

The U.S. priorities in Bangladesh are combating terrorism and maritime security. Primary U.S. interests in Bangladesh are democracy, security and stability, and economic prosperity. Sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction will maximize benefits for U.S. companies and decrease reliance on external assistance. Greater respect for human rights and the rule of law, curbing corruption, and the strengthening of democratic institutions are essential to ensuring political stability and expanding economic growth. Other U.S. interests include environmental concerns, fighting the trafficking of women and children, and combating piracy.

IMET funds facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts through attendance at professional military education (PME) courses in the United States and by participation in U.S. mobile training team (MTT) training in Bangladesh. Developing an apolitical, well-trained, and professional military contributes to political stability, a closer relationship between our two countries, and increased participation in UN peacekeeping operations. Specifically, Bangladesh uses its IMET funding to send students to a variety of mid-level and senior U.S. service schools and war colleges, peacekeeping-type courses, and numerous courses in support of the war against terrorism. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of: a professional and well-trained military, peaceful relations with the United States and other states, increased interoperability, respect for human dignity, and greater familiarity within the Bangladeshi officer corps’ with U.S. values and military practices. Bangladeshi military personnel also take part in courses on senior defense management, engineering, weapons safety, flight safety, and the military role in peacekeeping operations, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants and potential future partners of the United States.

Bangladeshi participation in executive courses at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the Near East South Asia (NESA) Center for Security Studies, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, is an effective means of strengthening defense ties with Bangladesh. The executive courses enhance awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Bangladesh.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provides important training and education to assist Bangladesh in integrating its interagency (military and civil-military) approach to combating terrorism. These funds focus on the counterterrorism and counter-smuggling effort (led by the Bangladesh Coast Guard) in the vast inter-coastal and riverine waterways system. These waterways are the primary means of transporting people, weapons, drugs, and other goods into and out of the country. The CTFP brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the counterterrorism (CT) spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, Bangladesh is building a more comprehensive and cohesive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism; other countries in the region are gaining an understanding of the challenges, successes, and failures of CT efforts in Bangladesh; and the United States is building Bangladesh’s long-term CT capacity.

Bhutan

  

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

3

3

3

$40,202

2

2

2

$25,243

Totals:

3

3

3

$40,202

2

2

2

$25,243

Bhutan is a small country bordered by India and China. Bhutan and the United States do not have formal diplomatic relations, and informal bilateral relations are modest yet cordial. Traditionally an absolute monarchy, Bhutan is undergoing a gradual transition to a constitutional monarchy. The Bhutanese Army has been actively involved in trying to limit the activities of insurgents from northeast India that used Bhutan as a base for operations. In 2001 and 2002, the Bhutanese government asked the rebels to leave and while some camps were disbanded, the Bhutanese government found an increased number of insurgents within its borders during 2003. Working closely with the Indian military, the Bhutanese Army conducted military operations beginning in December 2003 for a five-week period against the insurgents, capturing or killing approximately 450 and driving others across the border towards waiting Indian troops. The Bhutanese Army continues to work closely with the Indian military on border patrol activities because of fear of reprisals, such as the September 2004 bombing in an open air market in Gelephu. With the military operations seen as a success for both the Indians and the Bhutanese, cooperation between the two armies has increased and senior level military officials have met several times since 2004. In addition, there were joint military training exercises in October 2004. India has provided police security escort assistance to travelers en route to Bhutan on the Indian-Bhutan highway running through West Bengal.

There are approximately 8000 members of the Bhutan Army – no navy or air force. While the United States has no IMET program with Bhutan, officials from their Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Royal Bhutan Police participated in executive courses at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS) in FY 2006 and are expected to continue to do so in FY 2007. It is in the U.S. interest to encourage Bhutan’s transition to democracy, to help its military forces attain the ability to control the nation’s borders, and to encourage military professionalism and respect for human rights. Participating in seminars at the APCSS helps promote these goals.

India

  

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

0

0

0

$0.00

3

1

3

$24,877

CTFP

27

26

24

$373,635

14

10

14

$142,852

FMS

39

17

25

$3,728,901

37

24

15

$6,234,901

IMET

93

65

85

$2,099,323

65

46

61

$657,031

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

5

5

2

$7,312

0

0

6

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

0

1

$24,023

0

0

2

$480,000

PME Exchanges

7

7

4

$109,510

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

71

71

25

$298,301

18

18

10

$132,060

Service Academies

0

0

0

$0.00

1

1

1

$0.00

Totals:

242

191

164

$6,641,005

138

100

112

$7,671,721

India is the world’s second most populous nation and the predominant military power in South Asia and the Indian Ocean. The Indian government was among the first in the world to offer support for the War on Terror after the September 11 attacks. Tensions with Pakistan persist, especially since the July 11, 2006 Mumbai train bombings that killed over 180 people. India has accused elements in Pakistan of aiding and abetting the terrorists who perpetrated the Mumbai attacks but have yet to share any evidence with the Pakistanis or with the United States. Nevertheless, India and Pakistan have agreed on a joint anti-terror mechanism to share information and discuss ways to combat terrorism. The first meeting took place in Islamabad on March 6. The two countries have also agreed to proceed with talks through the Composite Dialogue aimed at easing tensions and seeking confidence building measures. The fourth round of the Composite Dialogue was held in New Delhi March 13-14 where both sides discussed the issues Siachen, Sir Creek, and Kashmir. India offered humanitarian assistance to Pakistan during the aftermath of the devastating October 2005 earthquake.

The United States and India continue to work closely together in the fight against terrorism, as evidenced by regular meetings of the Indo-U.S. Joint Working Group on Counterterrorism. The Indo-U.S. bilateral diplomatic and commercial relationship have been growing steadily since President Clinton’s visit in 2000 and throughout the Bush Administration, including Prime Minister Singh’s visit in July 2005 and President Bush’s visit in March 2006.

The United States and India announced the completion of the major tenants of the Next Steps in Strategic Partnership (NSSP) in July 2005. The NSSP laid out an ambitious path of cooperation in four strategic areas: civil nuclear energy, civilian space programs, high-technology commerce, and missile defense. While the United States seeks to cooperate on civil nuclear energy, the United States continues to urge India to adhere to global nonproliferation norms to prevent a South Asian arms race.

IMET funds are used to facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assist in training exercises. India has used IMET funding to send students to the Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine Command and Staff Colleges, the Army and Air War Colleges, and various other officer-training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of stability, democracy, and defense cooperation in areas of mutual interests. They increase the Indian officer corps’ familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Indian military personnel also take part in courses dealing with areas of combat service support, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants.

As a means of strengthening defense ties with India, during the past year the United States has held numerous joint exercises with India, including several in India where U.S. forces participated, and in the United States where Indian forces took part. The United States welcomed continued Indian participation in FY 2006 at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, the Marshall Center, and at the Near East South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses, all of which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from India. The United States proposes India’s continued participation at these executive courses in FY 2007, as well.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provides important training and education to assist India in integrating its interagency approach to combating terrorism. This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the counterterrorism (CT) spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, India is building a more comprehensive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism; other countries in the region are gaining an understanding of the challenges, successes, and failures of CT efforts in India; and the United States is building India’s long-term CT capacity.

Kazakhstan

  

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

4

2

4

$62,964

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

12

6

12

$128,540

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

3

3

3

$9,677

37

16

16

$78,837

IMET

57

36

48

$819,006

93

45

78

$1,218,039

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

0

0

$0.00

0

0

1

$400,000

Regional Centers

32

32

12

$199,152

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

2

2

2

$128,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

110

81

81

$1,347,339

130

61

94

$1,696,876

Kazakhstan is a vast, resource-rich country, bordering both Russia and China that has consistently advanced U.S. national security interests in Central Asia through its support for operations in Iraq and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Kazakhstan renewed the deployment of its ordnance disposal team to Iraq in 2006. Other U.S. interests include further dismantling of Kazakhstan’s inherited weapons of mass destruction infrastructure; a peaceful role for its weapons scientists; the safe and secure storage of nuclear materials and spent fuels, and nonproliferation cooperation; promoting Kazakhstan’s long-term political stability by developing democratic institutions and respect for human rights; and encouraging the development of both the Caspian basin’s hydrocarbon resources and the means for their secure access to international markets. A new objective, in light of the War on Terror (WOT), is enhancing Kazakhstan’s capability to combat terrorist insurgents, eliminate internal terrorist cells, and foster regional cooperation in the area of counterterrorism. In addition, building on a mutually beneficial bilateral military relationship with Kazakhstan, our military-to-military goals include deepening Kazakhstan’s participation in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) and enhancing the capabilities of Kazakhstan’s peacekeeping battalion (KAZBAT), as well as the country’s participation in USCENTCOM regional exercises. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and International Military and Education and Training (IMET) enhance regional cooperation by deepening Kazakhstan’s cooperation in PfP, supporting KAZBAT and USCENTCOM regional exercises, and enhancing Kazakhstan’s military interoperability with NATO forces in the context of PfP exercises. They also facilitate armed forces reform and promote a better understanding of the role of the military in developing democracies and the development of appropriate civil-military relations and human rights practices.

Military training with Kazakhstan focuses in particular on leadership and professional military education (PME) and civil-military relations. Courses related to international staff officer training contribute to PfP goals. Courses for junior infantry, intelligence, and military police officers and leadership training for non-commissioned officers further the U.S. goal of developing interoperable forces capable of coalition undertakings. Aircraft powerplant repair and wheeled vehicle mechanic training contribute directly to Kazakhstan’s ability to meet specified PfP and coalition interoperability goals, as do English language-training courses.

The Defense Institute for Foreign Languages officially opened on September 10, 2005. It intends to train up to 500 military students per year in foreign languages (primarily English, but others as well). Currently, there are about 60 students. The Government of Kazakhstan would like to make it a regional language training center by inviting military students from other Central Asian countries. Spreading English language skills more broadly remains a priority in a region where Russian is the most frequently spoken first or second language. English-language proficiency supports all of our training programs, facilitates interactions with all levels of the Kazakhstani military, and supports interoperability.

The primary focus for the near- and mid-term is the execution of the Five-Year Military Cooperation plan, signed in November 2003 by the Kazakhstani Ministry of Defense and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. This plan ties mission to task in three areas of development: establishing a professional armed force with rapid deployment capability compatible with NATO force standards; establishing a quick-reaction military capability in the Caspian region; and pursuing general systemic reform within the spheres of military education and training, transition to an all-volunteer force, and equipment modernization. Each of these task areas will better develop the U.S.-Kazakhstan-NATO interoperability needed to fight the WOT. In support of the country’s intent to develop counterterrorism/special operations capabilities in the Caspian Sea region, with the end state being a NATO-interoperable, 150-man special operations force/counterterrorism force capable of conducting hostage rescue and terrorist interdiction, the Atyrau construction project was dedicated in July 2004. The project, tailored to the development of a Special Forces Training Center for Counterterrorism, will allow for increased joint exercises and will support the work we have done with KAZBAT. It will also provide the means and a venue for other cooperative exercises between Kazakhstan and its neighbors, something that is also a key objective of U.S. strategy in the region. The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) promotes building close ties with Kazakhstan through PME and counterterrorism focused training initiatives that support the War on Terror.

In FY 2007, the Department will build upon training received in previous years to reflect our current post 9/11 goals. We will emphasize multi-lateral training of special purpose and counterterrorism forces from interested Coalition and NATO countries, seeking to gain greater synergy through greater cooperation in the planning stages. Key areas of emphasis will be the development of a Kazakhstani counterterrorism capability, and cooperation and combined training with similar forces from the other Central Asian States.

Kyrgyzstan

  

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

12

8

10

$75,532

1

1

1

$7,633

IMET

84

42

58

$1,354,820

67

26

33

$936,769

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

0

0

0

$0.00

0

0

1

$4,300,000

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

0

0

$0.00

0

0

2

$800,000

Regional Centers

73

73

11

$194,448

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

3

3

2

$182,575

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

172

126

80

$1,807,375

70

29

38

$6,044,402

U.S. national interests are furthered by the continued development of a stable, prosperous, and independent Kyrgyz Republic, as well as by Kyrgyzstan’s continuing support for Operation Enduring Freedom. Bilateral relations, including those related to military training, are aimed at helping the Kyrgyz Republic contribute to security and regional cooperation in Central Asia, a region that borders on Russia, China, Iran, and Afghanistan. While seeking to enhance Kyrgyzstan’s capabilities to combat terrorist cells and secure its borders, our security cooperation encourages the Kyrgyz Republic to reform its military along democratic lines, including the areas of civil-military relations and defense management. To further these goals, the United States uses assistance for international military education and training. Another key component of U.S. policy is to encourage and facilitate active participation by the Kyrgyz Republic in NATO’s Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities.

The United States has used the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), International Military Education and Training (IMET), and Partnership for Peace (PfP) activities to expose Kyrgyz officers to U.S. and other democratic military processes. Mountain leaders’ courses, Marshall Center seminars and professional military education (PME) targeting junior and mid-grade officers and non-commissioned officers have given Kyrgyz military personnel opportunities to interact with U.S., NATO, and PfP counterparts as well as others from Central Asia. In order to provide training that would allow greater interoperability within PfP, efforts have also included defense and logistics management, strategic intelligence, military peacekeeping operations, explosive ordnance disposal, and training officers as leaders of infantry, airborne, and other related units.

Previously Kyrgyzstan received U.S. assistance to acquire counterterrorism training. The request was prompted by incursions by the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) in 1999 and 2000. Kyrgyzstan also experienced terrorist bombings by alleged members of the IMU in 2002 and 2003, and there was an attack on a southern Kyrgyz border post/customs station in May 2006. The government has expressed concern over the possibility of future border incursions.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) has funded regional seminars and participation in command and general staff colleges and arranged for training on responding to terrorism. Initiatives such as these build on U.S. and Kyrgyzstan bilateral relationships and promote interoperability against global terrorism.

English-language instruction plays a key role in preparing Kyrgyzstan for NATO interoperability and PfP activities. Spreading English language skills more broadly remains a priority in a region where Russian is the most common second language and it facilitates U.S. training. A number of Kyrgyz military officers have received a full year of English language instruction and follow-on military training. Others received specialized training as English language instructors. IMET-funded English language laboratories have been established and books and audio-visual materials are being acquired using IMET funds to supplement the language training programs. In addition, the Defense Language Institute has provided an English language mobile training team to Kyrgyzstan for six months to help further enhance English language instruction.

Maldives

  

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

14

11

14

$164,246

15

10

15

$129,674

Regional Centers

7

7

7

$73,162

3

3

3

$26,038

Service Academies

3

3

2

$192,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

24

21

23

$429,408

18

13

18

$155,712

The Maldives provides important access for U.S. vessels and allows aircraft transit rights in its airspace. This moderate Muslim nation provided airport access during Operation Desert Storm, and offered to do so again during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. It is in the U.S. national security interest to maintain stability in this small island nation by strengthening its democratic institutions. The USG is also working with the Maldivian government to coordinate policies in international organizations, especially on such issues of shared interest as global warming, drug trafficking, nonproliferation, and international crime and terrorism. Because there is no resident Mission in Maldives, the United States will continue to pursue its national interests there through regular diplomatic exchanges managed by the U.S. Embassy in Colombo, through the IMET program, and through Regional Democracy Fund programs.

U.S.-funded training facilitates U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assists in training exercises. Development of an apolitical, professional military contributes to political stability and allows for increased participation in peacekeeping exercises. The Maldives uses its IMET funds to send students to basic officer career courses, maritime training, and various other officers and technical training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of enhancing stability and democracy, and increase the Maldivian officer corps’ familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Maldivian military personnel also take part in courses on maintenance, crisis command and control, and instructor training, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants. The 15th Marine expeditionary unit conducted additional training with the Maldivian military in October 2006. Those exercises focused on non-commissioned officer professional development and marksmanship.

The United States welcomed continued Maldives participation in FY 2006 at both the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the Near East South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from the Maldives.

Nepal

  

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

42

41

10

$229,360

1

1

1

$70,559

FMF

6

6

5

$36,950

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

161

140

50

$803,808

37

22

32

$286,037

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

1

1

1

$9,368

0

0

1

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

205

205

2

$290,000

0

0

1

$1,000

Regional Centers

33

33

17

$232,903

21

21

11

$130,380

Totals:

448

426

84

$1,602,389

59

44

46

$487,976

Nepal is a small, poor country wedged between India and China. Relations between the United States and the Government of Nepal (GON) have been historically friendly. The USG wants to help the GON entrench multi-party democracy and civil liberties, permanently end the Maoist insurgency, implement economic development programs, and improve the Nepal Army’s (NA) human rights record.

The year 2006 saw meaningful progress toward resolution of the Maoist insurgency, with a long cease-fire and political negotiations that culminated in a comprehensive peace agreement in November. However, the Maoists, in contrast to the government, continue to violate their peace process commitments and have never complied with agreements they have signed. Accordingly, doubts persist about true Maoist intentions, especially given their previously stated goal of establishing an autocratic, one-party state through any means necessary, including force. The Nepal Army must maintain readiness in the event that the Maoists abandon the political process and return to open, full-scale violent pursuit of their political aims, especially since efforts to rebuild police capacity are just beginning.

Nepal uses IMET funding to send students to various officer-training courses that provide professional military education (PME) as well as familiarize the Nepali officer corps with U.S. values and military practices. The courses provide the opportunity for military-to-military professional contacts, and facilitate cooperation on training exercises and in peacekeeping operations. The USG has specifically tailored its IMET program to address the most pressing needs of the NA, and to educating NA personnel on the mechanics and importance of civilian control of the military. Nepali military personnel take courses on health care skills as well as civil affairs, infantry, ranger, warrior leader, and psychological operations training, with a special emphasis on establishing and adhering to rules of engagement during military operations that protect human rights. This training significantly enhances the NA’s capabilities as peacekeepers and in pursuing domestic stability.

The NA continues to be a world leader in participation in UN peacekeeping operations (PKO). The Bijendra Peace Operations Training Center established in Panchkal provides excellent pre-deployment training for units participating in upcoming PKOs.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provides important training and education to assist Nepal in integrating its interagency approach to counterterrorism (CT). This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the CT spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, Nepal advances a more comprehensive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism, and other countries in the region gain an understanding of the challenges, successes, and failures of CT efforts in Nepal.

As a means of strengthening defense ties with Nepal, the U.S. welcomed Nepali participation at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the Near East South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Nepal. The United States proposes increased Nepali participation in Asia-Pacific Center executive courses in FY 2007 and beyond, as well as continuing to fund students to attend the Near East South Asia Center and other institutions.

Pakistan

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

3

1

3

$37,237

3

1

3

$29,093

CTFP

68

66

35

$697,941

20

19

14

$264,081

FMF

133

67

51

$92,771

34

14

10

$18,466

FMS

39

9

8

$57,760

63

28

27

$108,285

IMET

154

106

126

$2,768,980

99

67

86

$894,633

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

27

27

2

$34,602

0

0

3

$1,200,000

Non-SA, Combatant Command

437

437

6

$786,281

0

0

12

$4,578,000

Regional Centers

116

116

35

$513,677

48

48

13

$130,032

Service Academies

2

2

1

$109,150

1

1

1

$54,575

Totals:

979

831

267

$5,098,399

268

178

169

$7,277,165

The United States has vital interests in Pakistan, a key partner in the War on Terror. Continued strong support from Pakistan’s military in fighting the War on Terror, promoting stability in nuclear-armed South Asia, and advancing Pakistani political and economic reforms are all priority U.S. foreign policy interests. None can be achieved without the support of the Pakistani military, which has, and will retain, broad political influence in Pakistan, even after the transition to full civilian rule. For democratization and economic growth to take root, the military must become more open to transparency and accountability in budgeting and civilian decision-making.

A supporter of U.S. efforts since the beginning of the War on Terror, Pakistan’s efforts continue to expand. The U.S. military benefits from transit rights over Pakistani territory, the use of certain bases and facilities, and shared information. The majority of high-level terrorists captured in the past three years were caught by Pakistan. Pakistan’s support to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) remains crucial to rooting out terrorists operating in Pakistan’s border areas with Afghanistan. Pakistan also plays a key role in Afghanistan’s reconstruction process.

Due to sanctions in place for a ten-year period, Pakistan’s military was denied training in the United States and exposure to U.S. military doctrine, relationships, and culture. Pakistan’s IMET program was reinstated in October 2001 after Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act section 508 sanctions against Pakistan were waived. IMET funding increases opportunities for military-to-military professional contact, improves interoperability, enhances respect for civilian rule, and improves technical capabilities. IMET courses also focus on professionalism, and expose Pakistani personnel to U.S. ethos, military doctrine, and management. A portion of IMET is also earmarked for E-IMET courses as a means to increase exposure to issues related to human rights and the law of war.

The executive courses of the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, the Marshall Center, and the Near East South Asia Center for Security Studies continue to emphasize the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build relationships with counterparts from Pakistan that will extend to the post-military government era.

The Pakistan Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) supports current efforts in the War on Terror by educating officers directly involved in counterterrorism (CT) efforts, thus allowing the country to develop policy and plans that support coalition efforts. Through CTFP, the Pakistanis will gain the necessary tools and capabilities to improve not only their CT abilities, but also their military capacity as a whole.

Sri Lanka

  

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

74

67

21

$318,536

10

9

9

$110,103

FMF

60

60

2

$65,250

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

47

34

43

$797,338

23

14

21

$262,030

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

4

4

1

$37,471

0

0

5

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

50

50

1

$103,307

0

0

1

$31,000

Regional Centers

125

125

25

$383,857

19

19

11

$127,772

Service Academies

5

5

4

$291,725

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

365

345

96

$1,997,484

52

42

46

$530,905

Sri Lanka has a long tradition of vigorous democracy and was the first country in the region to liberalize its economy. Sri Lanka is a strategically located island in the Indian Ocean. The Sri Lankan government has been engaged in an ethnic conflict with the terrorist designated Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) for over twenty years. Two rounds of ceasefire implementation talks between the government and the Tigers took place in FY 2006 but the conflict continued to escalate throughout the year. The USG’s top priority remains the protection of the lives, rights, and property of American citizens. Other U.S. interests in Sri Lanka are strengthening democratic institutions, increasing respect for human rights, alleviating a conflict-related humanitarian crisis in the east, improving U.S.-Sri Lankan economic ties and cooperation, and enhancing regional stability. The United States and Sri Lanka share a strong interest in the suppression of international terrorism. Sri Lanka has been cooperative in allowing transit through airspace, husbanding of ships and aircraft, and supporting operational missions such as Desert Storm, Desert Shield, and, more recently, Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF).

USG assistance to Sri Lanka includes funds to facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assist in training exercises. Developing an apolitical, professional military contributes to political stability and allows for increased participation in peacekeeping exercises. Specifically, Sri Lanka uses its IMET funding to send students to the Army, Air Force, and Navy Command and Staff Colleges and various other officer training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of enhancing stability and democracy, and increase the Sri Lankan officer corps’ familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Sri Lanka’s interoperability with U.S. forces improves through IMET-funded specialized English language training. During FY 2006, Sri Lankan military personnel took part in basic courses for intelligence and marine officers and career courses for field artillery and infantry, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants and increase professionalism within the force. Further, U.S. co-sponsored training events contributed to the development of the Sri Lankan peacekeeping training center at Kukuleganga and, as a result, the military has increased its capacity and capability to provide troops for UN peace support operations.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provided important training and education to assist Sri Lanka in integrating its interagency approach to counterterrorism (CT). This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the counterterrorism (CT) spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, Sri Lanka is building a more comprehensive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism; other countries in the region are gaining an understanding of the challenges, successes and failures of CT efforts in Sri Lanka; and the United States is building Sri Lanka’s long-term CT capacity.

The United States welcomed continued Sri Lankan participation in FY 2006 at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, the Marshall Center, and the Near East South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses and seminars, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These opportunities increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Sri Lanka.

Tajikistan

  

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

13

10

12

$96,227

4

1

5

$17,239

IMET

12

8

12

$234,876

11

9

12

$298,878

Non-SA, Combatant Command

125

125

2

$156,686

0

0

6

$2,400,000

Regional Centers

27

27

11

$171,592

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

177

170

37

$659,381

15

10

23

$2,716,117

The U.S.-Tajikistan bilateral military relationship continues to develop in a mutually beneficial way, building on our joint efforts in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and the War on Terror. Tajikistan borders Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, China, and Kyrgyzstan. Its porous borders make it highly vulnerable as a transit point for the movement of terrorist insurgents, narcotics, and weapons that can destabilize other parts of the region. U.S. goals in Tajikistan remain the promotion of the development of a strong civil society, a market economy, stable borders, and democratic rule with full respect for human rights.

FY 2006 IMET was used to fund training on subjects including English language and infantry and intelligence professional military education (PME) courses. Spreading English-language skills more broadly remains a priority in a region where Russian is the most common second language, and it facilitates U.S. training. FY 2006 FMF primarily focused on providing communications equipment, training, and support for the enhancement of capabilities for selected units in the Ministry of Defense.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) helps to build strong bilateral ties between the United States and Tajikistan, critical for sustaining our collaborative efforts in the War on Terror (WOT). Tajikistan continues to seek counterterrorism doctrinal and strategic training through programs such as the CTFP in order to develop a strategic plan in combating terrorism.

Tajikistani officials also benefit from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

In light of the withdrawal of Russian Border Forces from the Tajik-Afghan border in September 2005, border security remained a large focus of the Department’s assistance efforts in FY 2006.

Turkmenistan

  

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

3

3

2

$7,276

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

58

46

25

$686,153

12

9

9

$375,634

Regional Centers

10

10

6

$63,975

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

71

59

33

$757,404

12

9

9

$375,634

The United States seeks a stable, independent Turkmenistan that contributes to regional stability and prosperity, and enhances U.S. national security. Turkmenistan, rich in oil and gas reserves, borders Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and the Caspian Sea. A principle U.S. interest is enhancing Turkmenistan’s ability to secure its borders since it is a key potential transit state in Central Asia for the movement of narcotics, weapons, and terrorists. The United States also seeks Turkmenistan’s assistance in the War on Terror, counternarcotics efforts, and preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and associated delivery systems, materials, technologies, and expertise. The United States encourages Turkmenistan’s further participation in Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities as part of our overall goal of introducing Turkmenistan to military cooperation regionally and fostering greater exposure.

Warsaw Initiative Funding for participation in PfP activities furthers on-the-ground-experience, including regional cooperation, interoperability with NATO forces, and reform of Turkmenistan’s military along Western, democratic lines. These activities also increase Turkmenistan’s engagement with Euro-Atlantic security institutions.

In FY 2006, Turkmenistan used International Military Education and Training (IMET) funds to send military personnel to the United States for English language training and for professional military education (PME) courses to include the infantry officer basic course and the Army Command and General Staff College, which support Turkmenistan’s military reform by exposing officers to U.S. democratic standards and values. Spreading English language skills more broadly remains a priority in a region where Russian is the most common second language and it facilitates U.S. training. The IMET program for Turkmenistan is focused on professional officer development for junior and mid-grade officers from all branches of service. The goal of the program is to further Turkmenistan’s military professionalization and to enhance the ability of Turkmenistan’s forces to participate in PfP activities and/or any future coalition contingencies.

Uzbekistan

  

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

2

2

2

$54,867

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$6,057

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

3

3

3

$60,924

0

0

0

$0.00

The U.S.-Uzbekistan military relationship has been stalled since mid-2005, following the May 2005 events in Andijon in which hundreds of people were killed. Since that time, the U.S.-Uzbekistan bilateral relationship has deteriorated across the board as the Government of Uzbekistan has become increasingly hostile to the United States and its presence in Uzbekistan. The Peace Corps has been forced to leave the country, and numerous international organizations and international and domestic nongovernmental organizations – including several implementing U.S. government-funded programs – have been harassed, restricted in their activities, or forced to close. In 2006, the regime has become even more autocratic and anti-U.S. in its rhetoric and actions, and has engaged in a systematic campaign against most elements of civil society and groups perceived to be pro-Western.

Despite ongoing difficulties in the relationship, Uzbekistan remains a strategically important country that is vital to stability in Central Asia. Half of Central Asia’s population lives in Uzbekistan, and ethnic Uzbeks are the largest minority in most of the other Central Asian countries. Uzbekistan has the strongest military in the region. Uzbekistan borders all the other Central Asian countries and Afghanistan. Accordingly, its security policies directly affect its neighbors, especially in the heavily populated Ferghana Valley. A member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), Uzbekistan’s regime has become increasingly pro-Russian and pro-Chinese, conducting joint anti-terrorism exercises with elements of the Russian armed forces.

Uzbekistan has been an important past partner in efforts to combat international terrorism. It allowed U.S. forces access to the Karshi-Khanabad airbase until November 2005, provided blanket overflight rights until January 2006, and continues to permit Germany and other coalition partners’ access to the Termez airport in support of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operations in Afghanistan. The Uzbek government offered continued overflight on a yearly basis for a fee; negotiations on a more limited agreement involving only Department of Defense commercial charter aircraft are ongoing. The government has also facilitated past humanitarian shipments to Afghanistan. Unfortunately, Uzbekistan has unilaterally ended virtually all counterterrorism cooperation with the United States as a result of worsening bilateral relations.

Uzbekistan is ineligible for International Military, Education and Training (IMET) and Foreign Military Financing (FMF) assistance because the Secretary of State has been unable, since FY 2004, to certify Uzbekistan under the U.S.-Uzbekistan Strategic Partnership Agreement, as required by section 568(a) of the Foreign Operations Authorizaion Act. That Agreement calls for substantial and significant progress on issues including respect for human rights; establishing a genuine multi-party system; and ensuring free and fair elections, freedom of expression, and independence of the media. In FY 2006, two officers from Uzbekistan concluded training provided through the Aviation Leadership Program that they began in prior years.



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