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U.S. Department of State - Great Seal

U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--Western Hemispheric Region


Foreign Military Training: Joint Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
August 2007
Report
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Antigua and Barbuda

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

1

1

1

$3,005

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

18

12

18

$121,596

13

11

12

$112,352

INL

12

12

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$6,400

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

32

26

21

$131,001

13

11

12

$112,352

Antigua and Barbuda is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. The Department has been encouraging the Government of Antigua and Barbuda to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. U.S.-funded training assists in the development of a more professional and efficient security force through such exercises as Tradewinds. Participating in joint exercises and maritime training increases Antigua and Barbuda's ability to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotics operations, search and rescue operations, and other bilateral and multilateral operations. An 82-foot patrol boat, provided by the U.S. government and delivered in 1998, has been used extensively for coastal patrolling and maritime counternarcotics missions. Due to the small size of Antigua and Barbuda's security forces, the limited IMET funding available pays great dividends in training programs.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Antigua and Barbuda at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Antigua and Barbuda.

Argentina

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

50

50

3

$69,410

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

32

17

19

$55,608

4

2

2

$2,230

IMET

340

328

74

$788,478

112

106

52

$394,751

IMET Multi-Year

1

1

1

$140,348

0

0

0

$0.00

PME Exchanges

7

4

7

$11,791

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

46

46

9

$108,400

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

0

0

0

$0.00

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

476

446

113

$1,174,035

118

110

55

$396,981

Argentina is a democratic nation and a close ally in the strategically important Southern Cone region. We have a mature relationship with the Government of Argentina (GOA) and the Argentine military actively participates in international peacekeeping and other multilateral efforts. President Clinton named Argentina a Major Non-NATO Ally in 1998.

To promote interoperability and knowledge of U.S. operations, the Argentine military has participated in a number of joint exercises with U.S. forces in the region, including UNITAS (blue-water and amphibious) naval exercises, the SALITRE air force exercise in Chile, the SOUTHCOM-sponsored PKO-South, Fuerzas Comandos, and PANAMEX (defense of the Panama Canal) exercises. A seven-month operational deployment of a destroyer to the Mediterranean with a U.S. Carrier Battle Group was completed in December 2003. Exercises involving U.S. troops on Argentine soil are on hold pending approval by the Argentine Congress.

While GOA officials have recently been hesitant to encourage military-to-military engagement with the United States, they have shown themselves to be enthusiastic about IMET training. IMET-funded and other courses on human rights, international law, peacekeeping, anti-terrorism, command and general staff college, and a variety of other courses provide officer and non-commissioned officer training that enhance efforts to modernize and professionalize Argentina's armed forces. They also help reinforce the concept of civilian control of the military and familiarize the Argentine military with U.S. military doctrine and practices. Training in helicopter maintenance and courses in logistics management increase Argentina's ability to maintain U.S. equipment in its inventory, thus improving Argentine interoperability with U.S. forces in bilateral and multilateral activities. As South America's third largest contributor of troops to international peacekeeping operations, training in peacekeeping and humanitarian demining further encourages Argentina's participation in these activities. Argentina contributes nearly 565 troops to the UN multilateral peacekeeping force, MINUSTAH, and reports from Haiti have praised the troops' performance, especially in the northern city of Gonaives, which was severely hit by Hurricane Jeanne in September 2004, causing approximately 2,000 deaths.

Argentina started to receive Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funding in FY 2004. The Argentine Police are primarily responsible for an effective counterterrorism program in Argentina. They have a strong special operations group, skilled at real world hostage rescue and good marksmanship skills. CTFP funds will assist this group to train for more effective counterterrorism initiatives, and to strengthen the unit's ability to conduct small-to-medium scale operations. CTFP funds have also been used to train the Gendarmes and the Coast Guard, and to allow Argentina to participate in regional center seminars in the United States.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes Argentine participation at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, as well as increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Argentina.

Bahamas

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

1

1

1

$7,881

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

117

111

46

$425,752

18

13

17

$136,480

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$6,400

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

31

31

7

$40,154

3

2

3

$26,704

Totals:

150

144

54

$480,187

21

15

20

$163,184

The Bahamas is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. IMET courses in basic military officer and non-commissioned officer training and a variety of maritime training courses assist The Bahamas in the development of a more professional and efficient security force.

The Bahamas is instrumental in assisting the United States in combating narcotics trafficking and illegal migration in the region. Training activities include instruction in operational planning and exercises with U.S. forces, such as Tradewinds. Training in ship management and boarding team operations greatly enhances The Bahamas' ability to perform law enforcement and security activities. Training on legal issues involving the military encourages continued Bahamian participation in many bilateral and multilateral activities. One result has been close cooperation with the U.S. government on a combined law enforcement effort, Operation Bahamas, and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT), which is critical for the interdiction of aliens, drugs, and terrorists en route to the United States. In addition, this training has resulted in The Bahamas placing an increased emphasis on preventing money laundering and on asset forfeiture investigations and prosecution. Effective in FY 2006, The Bahamas became a partner in the Enduring Friendship initiative. This initiative is to build maritime security capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President's Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the Command's Theater Security Cooperation Strategy.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from The Bahamas at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from The Bahamas.

Barbados

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

1

1

1

$2,695

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

3

3

2

$12,850

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

4

4

3

$15,545

0

0

0

$0.00

Barbados is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. Training will assist Barbados in the development of a more professional and efficient security force. A Tradewinds exercise in 2006 that included maritime counternarcotics and counterterrorism training, as well as basic search and rescue, greatly enhanced Barbados' ability to assist in counternarcotics efforts. Barbados has continued its leadership role in the Eastern Caribbean by passing domestic legislation that enables it to implement maritime law enforcement agreements. U.S. government training and support has facilitated execution of cooperative bilateral law enforcement efforts in the region.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Barbados at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Barbados.

Belize

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

5

5

3

$7,284

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

43

29

37

$423,903

30

18

28

$273,685

Regional Centers

6

6

2

$19,346

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

0

0

0

$0.00

7

3

7

$34,449

Service Academies

4

4

3

$246,575

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

58

44

45

$697,108

37

21

34

$308,134

Belize is a democratic nation that has a good bilateral relationship with the United States. We have encouraged the military of Belize to participate more actively in counternarcotics and other multilateral efforts. Because of its proximity to the United States, its long coastline dotted with many islands and inlets, and its position linking Central American and Caribbean states, Belize is an ideal transit point for illicit drugs headed for the United States. Easy access to the United States and Mexico makes Belize an attractive staging area for other international crimes as well. It is a market for vehicles stolen in the United States, a potential site for money laundering, and a point of origin for smuggled wildlife and artifacts.

IMET and other programs provide training and equipment to maintain a small but disciplined Belize Defense Force (BDF). BDF troops served with the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) Battalion during peacekeeping operations in Haiti and participated in regional training exercises, such as Tradewinds, with United States, British, and Caribbean forces. IMET training in the areas of mid-level officer training and equipment maintenance, as well as the rule of law and discipline in military operations, greatly improves the professionalism and competence of the BDF. A number of activities were conducted to help make the BDF a more effective partner when operating with U.S. forces in joint exercises and operations, particularly in the counterdrug area. This initiative is to build maritime security capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President's Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the Command's Theater Security Cooperation Strategy.

Bolivia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

2

1

2

$15,235

5

2

5

$54,127

CTFP

5

5

3

$38,486

4

1

4

$18,176

FMF

1

1

1

$141,604

0

0

0

$0.00

PME Exchanges

0

0

0

$0.00

3

3

1

$58,245

Regional Centers

19

19

6

$50,250

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

113

106

36

$1,129,367

111

99

41

$1,061,403

Service Academies

1

1

1

$54,575

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

141

133

48

$1,429,517

123

105

51

$1,191,951

Bolivia is currently in a time of significant transition in its political history. It traditionally enjoyed a strong bilateral relationship with the United States. Bolivia's policy of "coca yes, but cocaine zero" has created challenges for our cooperative counter-drug efforts. In any case, these efforts involve significant support and funding from the United States. U.S. government training and participation in joint exercises had enabled Bolivia to phase out the policy of compensating individuals for drug eradication, substantially reduce the amount of coca under cultivation in the Chapare region, and increase the number of arrests and chemical seizures. This effort is hampered by resistance from those who have profited from the production and trafficking of narcotics, particularly cocaine. Special counternarcotics forces and certain select units of the military are active participants in the drug war. At times, there have been violent confrontations between coca growers and government forces. This violence and its impact on politics was a major factor in the December 2005 presidential elections. While the Morales Administration has complicated USG military-to-military engagement efforts, the Bolivian military continually expresses its desire to maintain close ties with its U.S. counterparts. Bolivia contributes over 200 troops to the MINUSTAH peacekeeping mission in Haiti.

While there is heightened concern about the Morales Administration's policies that allow for increased coca cultivation, Bolivia has been certified as cooperating with U.S. counternarcotics policy, and we have provided professional military education (PME) and non-commissioned officer (NCO) training to continue to enhance the professionalism of Bolivia's armed forces. Military training programs included courses on civil-military relations, civil-military operations, and medical assistance, which helped reinforce principles of democracy and civilian control of the military. Prior-year FMF funds provided rotary-wing aviation training to support counternarcotics operations.

Bolivia received Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds to send students to English language training and to regional center seminars conducted by the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) and to a Counterterrorism Fellows program at the National Defense University in 2006. Bolivia is scheduled to receive CTFP funds to send a student to a U.S. Army Intermediate Level Education course in FY 2007.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes Bolivian participation at CHDS executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Bolivia.

Brazil

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

37

28

29

$311,317

7

5

7

$58,695

DOHS/USCG Activities

0

0

0

$0.00

97

97

1

$0.00

FMS

13

7

12

$1,016,051

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

0

0

0

$0.00

2

2

1

$1,920

IMET Multi-Year

1

1

1

$83,472

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

30

30

8

$79,650

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

35

33

9

$105,209

13

13

9

$35,780

Service Academies

4

4

1

$0.00

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

120

103

60

$1,595,699

121

119

19

$96,395

As a result of its geographic size and economic power, Brazil has substantial influence over the entire South American continent and its military actively participates in international peacekeeping and other multilateral efforts. The United States' security relationship with this regional leader suffered a considerable decline in the late 1970s when Brazil was governed by a military regime that was displeased by U.S. foreign policy. This displeasure resulted in the abrogation of the U.S.-Brazil Military Assistance Accord that had been in effect since WWII. Brazil's transition to civilian government in 1985 paved the way for a closer partnership, and the creation of a civilian-led Ministry of Defense in 1999 greatly facilitated our bilateral defense relationship. Today, that relationship can be characterized as mature and continually improving. Brazil has led the UN-sponsored MINUSTAH Peacekeeping mission in Haiti since its inception in 2003, contributing leadership and over 1200 troops to the effort, and remains the region's second largest contributor of peacekeeping (PKO) troops.

DoD-funded training for non-commissioned officers, mid-level, and senior officers assist Brazil's efforts to modernize and professionalize its armed forces and help strengthen the principle of civilian control of the military. Training in equipment maintenance and logistics also enhances Brazil's ability to maintain its inventory and further encourages Brazil's participation in international PKO and humanitarian operations. Brazil's participation in joint exercises strengthens interoperability with U.S. forces.

Brazil received over $310,000 in Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds in FY 2006. Students from Brazil attended the Naval Post Graduate School's Center for Civil-Military Relations, Civilian-Military Response to Terrorism course. Brazil also participated in a Regional Civil Military Mobile Education Team conducted in Uruguay, and sent students to several senior professional military education courses such as the National Defense University's Counterterrorism Fellows Program, Air War College, and for U.S. Army intermediate level education. Continued engagement with Brazil using the CTFP program will allow for increased security in the region and for the United States.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Brazil at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Brazil.

Chile

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

4

4

2

$49,251

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

304

238

55

$4,828,776

9

3

6

$2,184,374

IMET

143

116

73

$555,498

119

105

60

$346,898

Non-SA, Combatant Command

12

12

1

$303,612

0

0

1

$1,147,000

PME Exchanges

2

1

2

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

52

52

12

$187,842

4

4

4

$34,238

Service Academies

6

6

2

$10,000

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

523

429

147

$5,934,979

134

114

72

$3,712,510

Chile is a key and increasingly strategic military partner of the United States in the Western Hemisphere. U.S. military training activities with Chile help advance U.S. interests in regional stability, interoperability with U.S. forces, and the maintenance and protection of basic democratic values and human rights. As the Chilean armed forces have become more modern and professional, they have expanded their participation in U.S.-advocated activities such as international peacekeeping, exemplified by their participation in both the Multinational Interim Force and subsequent UN Mission (MINUSTAH) in Haiti, the latter routinely seeing Chilean participation of over 500 troops. They were also one of the founding members of the SOUTHCOM-funded PANAMAX exercises in Panama.

The IMET program has been an invaluable tool in the transition away from the Pinochet era. Technical training has supported Chile's efforts to modernize its forces, which, combined with Chile's participation in joint training exercises with American personnel, has enhanced effective interoperability with the United States. The provision of management training for non-commissioned, mid-level and senior officers has helped Chile to further professionalize its armed forces. Overall, contacts between Chilean and U.S. military and civilian personnel through the IMET program have strengthened Chile's democracy and steadily eased the misperceptions that had arisen between our two countries.

Previously received EIPC-funded assistance enhanced Chile's peacekeeping capability and supported U.S. interests by facilitating regional and international cooperation. Increased peacekeeping readiness encourages cooperation among the Chilean services, strengthens and further motivates Chile's rationale for defense modernization, and promotes collaboration and exchanges with the United States and other regional militaries. Due in part to training programs such as these, today's Chilean military is more modern, professional, and willing and able to support the United States better than ever before. Their recent initiative to form a joint PKO battalion with Argentina is another positive step.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes Chilean participation at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Chile.

Colombia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

4

2

4

$59,383

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

100

100

8

$222,659

8

8

8

$294,050

FMF

56

56

10

$343,375

57

57

2

$286,083

FMS

19

19

10

$67,105

33

33

6

$11,187

IMET

499

467

121

$1,824,148

368

346

95

$1,129,659

INL

555

494

105

$2,410,818

231

229

51

$656,811

Non-SA, Combatant Command

190

190

4

$1,609,148

54

54

3

$1,491,160

Regional Centers

40

40

7

$99,138

1

1

1

$8,673

Section 1004

6262

6253

96

$15,734,781

4945

4939

93

$6,422,277

Service Academies

4

4

4

$227,725

1

1

1

$54,575

Totals:

7729

7625

312

$22,598,280

5698

5668

233

$10,354,475

Colombia is Latin America's oldest formal democracy and a major partner of the United States in the fight against international narcotics trafficking and terrorism. As the source of most of the cocaine and much of the heroin consumed in the United States, Colombia is the focus of a significant share of the U.S. government's international counterdrug effort. Prior to the passage of the FY 2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act, the largest part of the training provided to the Colombian military was in direct support of the U.S. counterdrug strategy. Since then, U.S. training has broadened to reflect U.S. support to assist the Colombian military in its unified campaign against narcotics traffickers and designated terrorist groups in support of Plan Colombia. Additional funding will be provided by the USG in the consolidation phase of Plan Colombia.

In FY 2006, section 1004 (National Defense Authorization Act for FY 1991) counterdrug training for Colombia included aviation aircrew and aircraft repair training, riverine mobile training teams, and light infantry training of Colombian police and military. All section 1004 training is provided in support of drug eradication and interdiction efforts. Extensive sustainment training occurred, as did increased support for training of aircraft mechanics, crew, and pilots for the assets provided to the Government of Colombia (GOC) for counternarcotics and counterterrorism programs. Additionally, Colombia received in excess of $308,000 in CTFP funding in FY 2006 for a range of training programs.

The FY 2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act provided DoD with expanded authority to use Colombian assistance funds to support the GOC in its unified campaign against narcotics trafficking and terrorist groups such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the National Liberation Army (ELN), and the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC), and to take actions to protect human health and welfare in emergency circumstances, including undertaking rescue operations. This authority has been renewed. In FY 2005, $99M in FMF funding was used for infrastructure security training assistance and needed equipment. In 2006, FMF funding was used to continue to support Colombia's unified campaign against narcotics trafficking and terrorist organizations, an effort that will continue in FY 2007.

The IMET program adds to these training efforts, and funds a broad range of courses for the Colombian military at all levels that promote mutually beneficial mil-to-mil relations and increased understanding and defense cooperation between the U.S. and Colombia. Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) and IMET-funded courses include a strong emphasis on human rights, including courses on democratic sustainment. IMET also provides technical training for non-commissioned officers and field-grade officers, as well as training in maintenance, logistics, and acquisition and resource management. These courses assist the Colombian military by increasing its abilities to better care for and maintain U.S.-provided equipment, thus increasing Colombia's ability to pursue its counterdrug and counterterrorist efforts, as well as its efforts to reestablish security throughout Colombia.

The Urban Antiterrorism Special Forces Group, a joint unit comprised of personnel and equipment from all of Colombia's military services, formally manages Colombia's counterterrorism program. This unit has real world combat experience and excellent planning skills, and Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funding is geared toward giving them counterterrorism training to supplement this experience. CTFP funds have already allowed Colombians to attend courses designed to assist them to combat terrorism, manage resources, understand better the dynamics of international terrorism, and develop international and U.S. ties through senior leader attendance at U.S. senior military schools. These courses will provide Colombia's elite counterterrorism unit with a greater understanding of the international threat of terrorism and an increased ability to counter it.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes Colombian participation at CHDS executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Colombia.

Costa Rica

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$3,420

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

24

24

1

$26,600

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

7

7

5

$13,707

14

13

12

$69,935

Service Academies

1

1

1

$64,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

34

34

8

$107,727

14

13

12

$69,935

Costa Rica is a democratic nation, a major partner in Central America and was the first Central American nation to sign and ratify a Maritime Counternarcotics Agreement with the United States. Costa Rica actively participates in efforts to reduce illegal migration, drug trafficking, and poaching of marine fisheries in the region, and has become a staunch U.S. partner in the fight against international crime, greatly expanding and complementing our law enforcement efforts in the region.

Costa Rica does not have a military, relying on its Public Security Forces for defense. IMET training would serve to professionalize the Coast Guard and law enforcement services through courses such as counterdrug operations, rule of law and discipline in military operations, and technical training. Likewise, as the Government of Costa Rica assumes an increasingly sophisticated counternarcotics role, other training provides access to modern, state-of-the-art law enforcement methods, as well as assistance in equipment maintenance, logistics, and resource management. Counternarcotics training focuses on operational skills, as well as on joint exercises to improve interoperability with U.S. forces.

As a means of strengthening security ties, the United States welcomes participation by Costa Rica at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Costa Rica.

Dominica

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

36

33

13

$147,298

8

7

8

$57,791

INL

4

4

1

$2,610

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$6,400

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

41

38

15

$156,308

8

7

8

$57,791

Dominica is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. The Department of State has encouraged the Government of Dominica to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. IMET training in FY 2006 and that planned for FY 2007 will assist Dominica in the development of a more professional and efficient security force and will enable Dominica to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotics activities, search and rescue operations, and other bilateral and multilateral operations. Dominica's participation in the Tradewinds exercise was key to improving their security posture in advance of the World Cup of Cricket.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Dominica at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Dominica.

Dominican Republic

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

35

35

5

$80,062

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

39

32

25

$353,652

7

7

5

$71,534

FMS

0

0

0

$0.00

4

3

4

$28,063

IMET

195

160

106

$1,817,158

70

61

48

$619,728

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

0

0

$0.00

0

0

1

$420,000

Regional Centers

15

15

7

$27,050

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

9

9

5

$17,534

11

11

4

$30,039

Totals:

293

251

139

$2,295,456

92

82

58

$1,169,364

The Dominican Republic is a democratic nation and a close ally of the United States. The Department has encouraged the Dominican Republic military to participate more actively in counternarcotics operations and other multilateral efforts. The Dominican Republic is a member of the Coalition of the Willing. In 2002, the Dominican Republic was the first country in the Western Hemisphere to sign an Article 98 agreement with the United States, and also participated in coalition operations in Iraq, one of only four nations from the region to do so.

IMET-funded and other training in areas such as civil-military operations and democratic sustainment will contribute to the Dominican Republic's support for the principles of human rights, democracy, and civilian control of the military. Professional training and education at all levels (including non-commissioned office training and command and staff colleges) improves the professionalism of the Dominican Republic's armed forces. Other training included technical and counternarcotics training to increase the Dominican Republic's ability to operate with U.S. forces, and joint exercises that promoted team building and provided baseline knowledge of U.S. operations. Effective in FY 2006, the Dominican Republic became a partner in the Enduring Friendship initiative. This initiative is to build maritime security capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President's Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the Command's Theater Security Cooperation Strategy.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from the Dominican Republic at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from the Dominican Republic.

Ecuador

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

1

1

1

$19,163

1

1

1

$1,470

CTFP

14

13

9

$95,742

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

15

15

5

$189,566

0

0

0

$0.00

INL

98

98

5

$98,085

0

0

0

$0.00

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

12

12

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

27

27

6

$55,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

258

208

70

$2,166,859

1610

1599

48

$992,949

Service Academies

3

3

2

$173,150

1

1

1

$54,575

Totals:

428

377

96

$2,797,565

1612

1601

50

$1,048,994

The United States has mature and friendly bilateral relations with Ecuador. Ecuador's democracy has been struggling in recent years under various pressures, including a severe financial crisis, rivalries between domestic regions, high-profile corruption, and lack of support for the president. Ecuador's military has a great deal of independence and political influence, and they have some funding sources of their own which reduce their dependence on the budget process. The Ecuadorian military played a controversial role in the January 2000 political crisis, but has since reaffirmed its commitment to civilian control.

Training in civil-military relations, the rule of law and discipline in military operations, and as human rights instructors, as well as participation at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS), help reinforce the principles of civilian control of the military and strengthen the principles of human rights. Ecuador is designated as a major drug-transiting country and many of the activities, such as counternarcotics operations, officer training, resource management, logistics, and equipment maintenance provide training needed to professionalize and modernize Ecuador's military. Significant training efforts in counterdrug operations have also been conducted. Joint exercises with U.S. forces contributed to continued cooperation with U.S. counternarcotics efforts. In November 1999, Ecuador and the United States concluded a ten-year agreement for access to, and use of, the Manta Cooperative Security Location, Ecuador, as a support base for U.S. aircraft monitoring drug trafficking flights through the region.

Ecuador began its association with the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) in FY 2005, receiving $6,500 in CTFP invitational courses. It received approximately $163,000 in discretionary funding in FY 2006, as well as other CTFP-funded invitational courses. Ecuador sent two students to the regional civil-military training Mobile Education Team in Uruguay, a student to the Naval Command and General Staff College and the Air War College, and the National Defense University's Counterterrorism Fellows Program. The NDU program offers selected foreign officials graduate accredited courses from NDU's School for Senior National Security Executive Education (SNSEE). CT Fellows participate in these seminars and also attend elective courses alongside American counterparts from the military services, DoD, other Executive Branch agencies, and relevant congressional staffs. SNSEE brings a broad strategic perspective to these interservice, interagency, and international deliberations. Attendance at these and similar courses will allow Ecuadorians to analyze global threats and their various manifestations; recognize global terrorism mechanisms, including the modes, means, roots, and psychology of transnational terrorism; and evaluate the means to counter this threat within and outside Ecuador.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Ecuador at CHDS executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Ecuador.

El Salvador

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

3

1

3

$36,415

4

1

4

$39,739

CTFP

68

65

13

$168,657

2

2

2

$71,460

FMF

0

0

0

$0.00

20

20

1

$274,772

FMS

20

20

1

$15,829

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

345

324

80

$2,209,185

137

118

62

$1,124,189

Non-SA, Combatant Command

40

40

1

$131,661

0

0

0

$0.00

PME Exchanges

1

1

1

$6,638

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

19

19

7

$51,162

1

1

1

$8,673

Section 1004

5

5

3

$14,913

3

3

3

$8,233

Service Academies

1

1

1

$64,000

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

502

476

109

$2,698,460

169

147

74

$1,527,066

El Salvador is a democratic country with a historically close relationship and strong mil-mil ties with the United States. Though bilateral military assistance was dramatically reduced since the end of the civil war in 1992, overall relations have flourished with the civilian government and military cooperation remaining strong. The principal U.S. interests in El Salvador are supporting democracy, fighting international crime and illegal drugs, encouraging economic development, deterring illegal immigration to the United States and promoting U.S. exports. Our bilateral relationship is further influenced by the fact that one in six Salvadorans lives in the United States.

Security cooperation is geared towards professional training programs that will sustain the dramatic improvement in civil-military relations and consequent improvement in the democratic climate and regional stability seen in recent years. Officer training at all levels, including command and staff colleges and courses in civil-military relations and democratic sustainment, help reinforce the notion of civilian control of the military and reinforce the principles of human rights. El Salvador has strongly supported the War on Terror and repeatedly sent Special Forces troops to Iraq. It is the only country in the SOUTHCOM AOR with soldiers presently deployed to Iraq. Training in international peacekeeping will allow the Salvadoran armed forces to develop expertise and participate in future peace support operations. El Salvador is one of the four members of the Conference of Central American Armed Forces (CFAC) combined PKO battalion and receives Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) funds to support these efforts. This initiative is providing new peacekeepers and peacekeeping units to deploy in support of global peacekeeping missions.

In March 2000, the USG opened one of three Cooperative Security Locations (CSL) that support counterdrug operations in the Pacific corridor. The Government of El Salvador (GOES) granted the concession to base our operations in their country at great political expense, and our continued close relations with their military through IMET is vital to the longevity of this operation. Training, through the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), IMET, FMS, and Section 1004 funds in counternarcotics operations, resource management, logistics and equipment maintenance provides assistance needed to professionalize and modernize the Salvadoran military and encourage its continued cooperation with U.S. counternarcotics efforts. Joint training exercises with U.S. forces contribute to team building and give the armed forces exposure to U.S. counterdrug operations. El Salvador is also a transit point for illegal immigration and drugs to the United States, and IMET assists the GOES to better patrol its borders. Since the earthquakes of January and February 2001, emphasis has been given to helping the Salvadoran military carry out its disaster relief and reconstruction mission, as well as to building its disaster preparedness capabilities. The new roles of patrolling borders and disaster relief have created a needed and positive role for the military, helping to erase years of distrust of the armed forces by the population.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from El Salvador at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from El Salvador.

Grenada

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

19

17

15

$141,793

10

7

10

$84,721

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$6,400

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

20

18

16

$148,193

10

7

10

$84,721

Grenada is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. The Department has been encouraging the Government of Grenada to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. FY 2006 and projected FY 2007 training focused on specialized skills training to assist in the development of a more professional and efficient security force that will be able to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotics operations, search and rescue operations, and other bilateral and multilateral exercises (such as Tradewinds) and operations. Joint training and exercises with U.S. forces will contribute to greater interoperability and baseline understanding of U.S. counterdrug operations. IMET funding, though limited, pays big dividends given the small size of the Grenadian security force.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Grenada at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Grenada.

Guatemala

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

4

1

4

$37,327

4

1

4

$40,711

CTFP

9

9

5

$47,491

1

1

1

$70,559

IMET

76

70

14

$513,744

31

25

23

$242,133

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

0

0

$0.00

0

0

2

$1,145,000

Regional Centers

13

13

5

$46,100

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

21

21

3

$12,489

4

4

4

$23,940

Service Academies

1

1

1

$54,575

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

124

115

32

$711,726

42

33

35

$1,522,343

Guatemala is an evolving democracy with a traditionally cooperative relationship with the United States. The principal U.S. interests in Guatemala include strengthening Guatemala's democracy and rule of law, fighting transnational crime and drug trafficking, and encouraging the growth of a stable market economy. In July 2004, the Guatemalan military was reduced to 15,500 personnel, the latest in a series of reductions that has cut the size of the Guatemalan Armed Forces by 66 percent between 1997 and 2004. The Guatemalan military has also carried out an extensive revision of its doctrine, training, and education and eliminated internal security as a military role. The revision also includes a strong emphasis on human rights training. Efforts to modernize the military to reflect its new role in a democratic society have been stymied by budget constraints and the Government of Guatemala is seeking foreign assistance to help fund military modernization. Because of continuing concerns regarding past human rights cases, as well as issues regarding implementation of various aspects of the Peace Accords, Guatemala is Congressionally restricted to receiving only Expanded IMET (E-IMET), and not full IMET or FMF.

Participation in Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) activities, and training in civil-military relations, rule of law and discipline in military operations, and democratic sustainment help reinforce the goal of civilian control of the military and human rights principles. Other training activities help Guatemalan forces strengthen their drug enforcement capabilities, conduct drug interdiction and eradication activities, and improve their ability to integrate their planning and execution with U.S. entities in regional counternarcotics, disaster relief, peacekeeping, and humanitarian operations. In PKO, Guatemala is one of the countries selected to receive FY 2006 Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) funds. This initiative is providing new peacekeepers and helping peacekeeping units to deploy in support of global peacekeeping missions. Guatemala has been the driving force and cornerstone in the formation of the CFAC multinational peacekeeping battalion, an initiative strongly supported by GPOI funding. Currently Guatemala is the only Central American country with troops deployed to UN Peacekeeping missions (Haiti and Congo). Effective in FY 2007 Guatemala will be a partner in the Enduring Friendship initiative. This initiative is to build maritime security capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President's Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the Command's Theater Security Cooperation Strategy.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Guatemala at CHDS executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Guatemala. Guatemala is leading the region in the development of a Regional Security Strategy to counter emerging regional threats.

Guyana

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

32

20

31

$423,024

38

24

38

$350,718

Regional Centers

4

4

1

$25,600

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$64,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

37

25

33

$512,624

38

24

38

$350,718

The United States has friendly relations with Guyana, a small, poor and heavily indebted country with a wealth of natural resources. Guyana is making a slow transition to a free-market system and has held several free and fair elections over the past twelve years. Guyana has an unresolved border dispute with neighboring Suriname. Venezuela also has an outstanding claim to approximately two thirds of Guyana's territory. However, neither border controversy is likely to lead to armed conflict in the short-to-medium term.

Although Guyana has not been identified as a major drug-transit or producing country, narcotics trafficking is increasingly a concern. The U.S. government has been encouraging the Government of Guyana (GOG) to participate more actively in counternarcotics and other multilateral security activities. IMET-funded and other training in professional military education (PME), a variety of maritime-related courses and those which support counternarcotics efforts, as well as participation in the CHDS, assist in the development of a more professional and efficient security force. Participating in joint exercises and training in maritime search and rescue increases Guyana's ability to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotics and other bilateral and multilateral operations. A Maritime Law Enforcement Agreement giving shipriders law enforcement authority was enacted in 2003.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Guyana at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Guyana.

Haiti

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

FMF

77

77

3

$88,370

2

2

3

$0.00

IMET

30

16

23

$251,830

17

13

13

$134,735

Regional Centers

4

4

3

$14,950

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

111

97

29

$355,150

19

15

16

$134,735

The Haitian Coast Guard performed admirably during the period of instability leading up to former President Aristide's departure in March 2004. It has been, in fact, the most stable and cooperative element of the Haitian government in recent years. Continued targeted support to the Haitian Coast Guard in FY 2007, as was the case in FY 2006, provides an opportunity to build on former achievements. Continued engagement with the Haitian Coast Guard has increased its professionalism and interdiction capacity and helped to reinforce the rule of law in Haiti's ports and territorial waters. U.S. government training and support will enable Haiti to cooperate more fully with the U.S. Coast Guard and other U.S. law enforcement agencies working to control narcotics trafficking, illegal migration, and alien smuggling. Additional grant transfers and resources will allow the Haitian Coast Guard to expand its presence on the north and south coasts of the country and to conduct self-sustained operations in areas of concern.

Honduras

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

3

1

3

$29,476

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

21

14

15

$157,336

4

3

4

$90,394

IMET

219

199

83

$1,381,202

151

120

73

$1,182,794

Non-SA, Combatant Command

0

0

0

$0.00

0

0

1

$800,000

Regional Centers

46

46

7

$88,900

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

4

4

2

$15,342

11

11

4

$38,133

Service Academies

1

1

1

$54,575

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

294

265

110

$1,726,831

166

134

79

$2,111,321

Honduras is a democratic country and a close partner in the Central American region, with traditionally strong mil-mil ties with the United States. Although Honduras is not designated as a major drug-transiting country, narcotics trafficking is a growing concern. Because of its geographic location, Honduras has become a transshipment point for narcotics entering the United States. IMET-funded training is geared towards professional military education (PME) courses that encourage the continued dramatic improvement in civil-military relations, as well as improvement in the democratic climate and regional integration/stability. Training at all levels, from non-commissioned officer professional development up to command and staff and war colleges, and courses in civil-military relations and participation in the Counterterrorism Fellows program, helps reinforce the notion of civilian control of the military and promote the principles of human rights.

Honduras, which deployed a task force to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, remains a strong supporter of the War on Terror. Training in international peacekeeping will allow the Honduran armed forces to more fully develop expertise in this area and to participate in future PKO. Honduras is also one of the four members of the four-nation CFAC PKO battalion, primarily funded through Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI). This initiative will provide new peacekeepers and peacekeeping units to deploy in support of global peacekeeping missions. Training in counternarcotics operations, resource management, logistics and equipment maintenance, and participation in exercises with U.S. forces provide opportunities needed to professionalize and modernize the Honduran military and encourage its continued cooperation with U.S. counternarcotics efforts. Effective in FY 2007, Honduras will be a partner in the Enduring Friendship initiative. This initiative is to build maritime security capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President's Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the Command's Theater Security Cooperation Strategy.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Honduras at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Honduras.

Jamaica

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

1

1

1

$8,523

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

127

103

93

$993,669

97

71

77

$692,553

Regional Centers

15

15

2

$4,200

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

6

6

3

$48,126

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$64,000

1

1

1

$54,575

Totals:

150

126

98

$1,118,518

98

72

78

$747,128

Jamaica is a stable democracy, and the Government of Jamaica (GOJ) cooperates with the United States on a variety of international and regional issues. Although Jamaica is a major transit country for cocaine and the largest Caribbean producer and exporter of marijuana, the GOJ has fully cooperated with U.S. counternarcotics goals. Jamaica has no serious external threats to its security and maintains a very small military.

Training in the rule of law and discipline in military operations and junior- to mid-level officer professional development help maintain a professional military force subject to civilian control. Additionally, training in flight safety, information systems, logistics, maritime operations, and maintenance and repair of maritime equipment assists in maintaining the technical proficiencies of the Jamaican military. Continued U.S. counternarcotics training enhances Jamaica's ability to combat narcotics traffickers. U.S. government training and exercises have enabled Jamaica to improve its participation in bilateral counterdrug initiatives, strengthen its drug enforcement, money laundering and anti-corruption laws, and improve its counternarcotics enforcement capabilities. Effective in FY 2006, Jamaica became a partner in the Enduring Friendship initiative. This initiative is to build maritime security capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President's Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the Command's Theater Security Cooperation Strategy. Jamaica's participation in the Tradewinds exercise improved its security posture in advance of the World Cup of Cricket games scheduled for 2007.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Jamaica at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Jamaica.

Mexico

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

157

157

16

$409,645

1

1

1

$14,367

FMS

3

3

2

$5,010

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET

2

1

2

$6,240

0

0

0

$0.00

INL

132

132

9

$44,064

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

52

52

2

$148,480

0

0

2

$2,300,000

Regional Centers

200

200

9

$149,790

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

87

87

10

$528,553

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

0

0

0

$0.00

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

633

632

50

$1,291,778

3

3

4

$2,314,367

Mexico, our second largest trading partner, shares a border with the United States of more than 2,000 miles. The U.S. and Mexican governments have significantly improved cooperation across a range of common interests and concerns, including counterterrorism, counternarcotics, and the fight against corruption. The Mexican military focuses primarily on internal security, but also plays a significant role in infrastructure protection, border and airport security, disaster relief, and counternarcotics activities. Given our extensive border and close cultural and commercial ties, both governments recognize the fundamental importance of effective coordination of counterterrorism efforts. The Mexican military also plays a central role in the government's counternarcotics efforts, including interdiction and the deployment of some 20,000 troops at any one time to manually eradicate marijuana and opium poppy fields. Mexico nonetheless remains an important source of marijuana and opium poppy. Additionally, as much as 70 percent of the cocaine entering the United States from South America passes through Mexico or its surrounding waters off both coasts. The U.S. and Mexican governments coordinate counternarcotics cooperation through various mechanisms, including the Binational Commission (BNC), the Senior Law Enforcement Plenary (SLEP), and the Bilateral Interdiction Working Group (BIWG).

The administration of President Vicente Fox took a courageous stand against transnational crime and corruption, viewing both as fundamental threats to Mexican national security. As a result, levels of coordination and bilateral counternarcotics cooperation have reached unprecedented levels; indications are promising as the new Calderon Administration develops its plans in this arena. Mexican efforts to attack internal corruption have also been dramatic and include the disbanding of an entire battalion in Sinaloa and the arrest of several senior officers for suspected ties to narcotraffickers. An indicator of the progress in our defense relationship during the Fox Administration is the recent deployment of Mexican military to the United States in support of Hurricane Katrina relief efforts. This was the first time Mexican troops entered U.S. territory since the Mexican War of 1846-1848. Mil-mil relationships have steadily improved over the last several years, an area that traditionally saw little contact or cooperation.

The USG will resume IMET-funded training during the Calderon Administration to strengthen the rule of law and respect for human rights in Mexico's law enforcement agencies and in its armed forces. Mid-to-senior level officer training helps maintain the professionalism of the Mexican military. The United States conducts extensive counterterrorism and counternarcotics training, focusing its efforts on helping Mexico improve its air and sea reconnaissance capabilities to enhance their ability to detect and thwart illicit activity. Technical assistance covering a broad range of counterterrorism and counternarcotics capabilities and assets also enhances Mexico's ability to cooperate more effectively with U.S. counterterrorism and counternarcotics efforts.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Mexico at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their Mexican counterparts.

Netherlands Antilles

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

8

8

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

40

40

1

$344,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

48

48

2

$344,000

0

0

0

$0.00

The Netherlands Antilles maintains active, bilateral relations with the United States. With the close cooperation of the Netherlands Antilles government, an active Cooperative Security Location is located in Curacao taking advantage of its strategic position in counternarcotics efforts. The Netherlands Antilles and the Dutch military collaborate closely with the U.S. Joint Inter-Agency Task Force (JIATF) South in Key West, as well as in a full range of law enforcement counternarcotics efforts. There is ample evidence to confirm the strong support of the Netherlands Antilles in working closely with the United States in counternarcotics and other multilateral security activities. Training in FY 2006 and planned for FY 2007 will assist in developing a more professional and efficient security force that will be able to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotics operations, search and rescue operations, and other bilateral and multilateral operations. Joint training and exercises with U.S. forces, primarily the U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Navy, will contribute to greater interoperability and baseline understanding of U.S. counterdrug operations.

Nicaragua

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

55

55

7

$100,440

6

6

4

$81,205

IMET

55

50

24

$576,733

52

44

32

$613,256

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

20

20

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

8

8

4

$30,050

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

10

8

5

$36,714

6

6

5

$28,569

Service Academies

2

2

1

$128,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

150

143

42

$871,937

64

56

39

$723,030

The primary national interests of the United States in Nicaragua are to support and strengthen democratic institutions, foster regional security, interdict international crime, and promote broad-based economic growth. Since the return of a democratically elected government in 1990, Nicaragua has made great strides in opening its economy and in establishing legitimate, responsive democratic institutions. In particular, the Nicaraguan National Army (EN), once the political tool of the Sandinistas (FSLN), has undergone a dramatic transformation and has become a respected democratic institution. Continued engagement will further contribute to this process. Training activities promote regional security and strengthen democratic institutions. Nicaragua has strongly supported the War on Terror and is one of four regional countries to contribute troops to stabilization efforts in Iraq. Training in international peacekeeping will allow the Nicaraguan armed forces to develop expertise and participate in future peacekeeping operations (PKO). Nicaragua is also one of the members of the four-nation Conferencia de Fuerzas Centroamericanas (CFAC) PKO battalion, a Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI)-funded initiative. This initiative is providing new peacekeepers and peacekeeping units to deploy in support of global peacekeeping missions. Effective in FY 2007, Nicaragua will be a partner in the Enduring Friendship initiative. This initiative is to build maritime security capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President's Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the Command's Theater Security Cooperation Strategy. Nicaragua signed an Article 98 agreement in 2004 and approved CAFTA in 2005. The Nicaraguan Army needs assistance in resourcing transformation to help it build capabilities to respond to emerging regional threats.

Indicative of the EN's evolution from merely an armed instrument of the FSLN Party to a professional, apolitical institution was the complete support offered by the Commander of the Nicaraguan Army for passage of the Nicaraguan Counterdrug Maritime Agreement, enacted in November 2001. The Counterdrug Maritime Agreement allows Coast Guard/law enforcement elements to conduct joint interdiction operations against narcotraffickers in Nicaraguan waters. Embassy Managua has made a concerted effort to cross-train elements of the Nicaraguan Military and Nicaraguan National Police in ship boarding, interdiction techniques, and drug enforcement operations.

The Government of Nicaragua presented its first ever white paper to President Bolanos September 2, 2004. This paper is an important step in defining the role of the military under a civilian Minister of Defense. The white paper examines once taboo topics such as civilian formulation of the military budget, structure and size of the armed forces, national and regional emerging threats, force modernization requirements, and senior officer promotions. The white paper was signed and implemented in June 2005.

Section 1004 and IMET-funded training, such as civil-military relations and rule of law and discipline in military operations, have helped the EN make great progress in professionalizing its officer corps and supporting the leadership of a civilian president and a civilian Minister of Defense.

The IMET program contains an English language component, as well as joint, peace, and maritime operations, and professional military education (PME) courses such as captain's career course, squadron officers' course, and Air Command and General Staff College.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Nicaragua at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Nicaragua.

Panama

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

13

9

6

$24,106

6

6

2

$25,503

FMF

8

8

4

$168,166

9

9

4

$83,144

IMET

112

97

47

$1,140,773

118

95

56

$901,497

INL

92

92

11

$335,335

13

11

7

$393,703

Non-SA, Combatant Command

110

110

3

$1,091,166

0

0

1

$956,000

Regional Centers

8

8

4

$28,200

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

6

4

3

$26,644

242

242

5

$1,409,482

Totals:

349

328

73

$2,814,390

388

363

71

$3,769,329

Panama remains important to U.S. national interests following the transfer of the Panama Canal. Approximately two-thirds of Canal traffic originates in, or is destined for, the United States. Panama's strategic location between South and North America makes it a crossroads for international commerce, and also a center for illegal activity such as drug trafficking, money laundering, arms smuggling, and illegal immigration. U.S. security engagement with Panama will become more crucial as Panama deals with any spillover from the Colombian conflict along its porous border. Cooperation with the Torrijos Administration has been excellent, with a range of new initiatives taking shape. Effective in FY 2006, Panama became a partner in the Enduring Friendship initiative. This initiative is to build maritime security capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President's Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the Command's Theater Security Cooperation Strategy, and the U.S./Panama Secure Trade and Transportation Initiative. Panama also hosts the annual PANAMAX defense of the Panama Canal exercise.

As Panama has no standing military, the United States needs to continue cooperative efforts with Panamanian security elements of the Public Force (law enforcement authorities) to counter transnational crime, increase border security, and address other threats. U.S. assistance supports all four services of Panama's Public Force (PPF): National Police, National Air Service, National Maritime Service and Institutional Protection Service. IMET-funded and other training programs provided to the PPF are used for technical and operational courses focused on security, counternarcotics, and counterterrorism.

As a means of strengthening security ties, the United States welcomes participation from Panama at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Panama.

Paraguay

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

ALP

1

1

1

$26,826

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

37

25

12

$222,632

2

2

2

$5,679

Non-SA, Combatant Command

205

205

4

$771,834

0

0

1

$1,378,000

Regional Centers

30

30

7

$91,500

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

80

80

2

$575,000

200

200

4

$1,600,000

Totals:

353

341

26

$1,687,792

202

202

7

$2,983,679

Seventeen years after the overthrow of the Alfredo Stroessner dictatorship, the consolidation of a democratic society and state continues. Bilateral relations between the United States and Paraguay are strong, with Paraguay providing excellent cooperation in the fight against terrorism, especially in the Tri-Border area of Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil. As there are no serious external threats to Paraguay's sovereignty, the Paraguayan government and military are starting to define the military's roles and missions in the 21st century.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) strengthens counterterrorism and peacekeeping capabilities within the Paraguayan military. Courses at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) and participation in Unified Command seminars and military exercises advance the concept of civilian control of the military, support human rights principles, and maintain the rule of law and discipline in military operations. They also contribute to Paraguay's making proportionally significant contributions to international peace and regional security. Peacekeeping observers have served in Africa under United Nations deployment since 2001. The United States conducted numerous military exercises and offered seminars on counterterrorism, peacekeeping, and senior leadership in 2006 and plans more joint activities to continue advancing these objectives. Paraguay also participated in a regional civil-military Mobile Education Team conducted in Uruguay in 2006. Paraguay received FY 2006 Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) funds. This initiative is providing new peacekeepers and helping peacekeeping units to deploy in support of global peacekeeping missions.

Paraguay's counterterrorism program is formally managed by their Police Special Operations Force, a branch of the Paraguayan National Police, a highly motivated unit that is able to tap into other police units for support. CTFP funds have allowed this unit to train more effectively and improve their operational skills. FY 2006 CTFP funds allowed Paraguayans to attend courses on the dynamics of international terrorism and on the importance and application of intelligence in counterdrug operations. These courses will move Paraguay's elite counterterrorism unit toward a greater ability to counter the international threat of terrorism. In FY 2006 Paraguay focused on taking better advantage of CTFP funding, increasing the number of its students to 37. Some of the courses completed in 2006 included civil-military response to terrorism, regional civil-military operations, the Counterterrorism Fellows Program, and special reaction team training.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Paraguay at CHDS executive courses. CDHS courses are designed to focus on the non-combat aspects of security and international relations, and increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Paraguay. Paraguay remained an active participant in CHDS programs during FY 2006 and will continue to do so in FY 2007.

Peru

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

95

94

16

$314,352

7

7

4

$13,781

FMS

5

5

3

$42,821

0

0

0

$0.00

INL

43

43

11

$142,236

32

32

12

$73,540

Non-SA, Combatant Command

70

70

2

$652,146

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

35

35

7

$92,900

4

4

4

$30,172

Section 1004

85

78

19

$1,345,851

57

49

20

$1,246,289

Service Academies

3

3

2

$173,150

3

3

2

$54,575

Totals:

336

328

56

$2,763,457

103

95

37

$1,418,357

Peru is one of the largest countries in South America and has a strong bilateral relationship with the United States. The United States seeks to strengthen Peru's democratic institutions and its ability to interdict and disrupt narcotics production and distribution. The United States has enjoyed excellent cooperation from the Government of Peru on counternarcotics activities.

Training in human rights, the rule of law and discipline in military operations helps reinforce the notion of civilian control of the military and reinforces support for the principles of human rights. Training in counternarcotics operations, joint operations, logistics and supply management, and aircraft power train repair provide the tools needed to professionalize and modernize Peru's military and enhance its capabilities in air operations, search and rescue, and demining operations. This training is particularly important to the demining efforts along Peru's border with Ecuador in support of the 1998 peace settlement. Finally, significant training efforts in the area of counterdrug operations are underway. These activities include training to improve helicopter and other aircraft capabilities, as well as participation in training exercises with U.S. forces to improve interoperability. The Peruvian military continues to conduct operations against insurgents and narcoterrorists. Professionalization of the Peruvian military will help make these operations more efficient while training the military to avoid the excesses of counterinsurgency efforts of past decades as recently reported by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Acting on the Commission's recommendations, which include reforming the military as an institution, will be important for Peruvian society to continue developing ongoing counternarcotics and counterterrorist operations while respecting the rule of law and human rights. The Peruvian military's increased participation in peacekeeping operations (PKO) training and exercises, as well as their ongoing contributions to MINUSTAH in Haiti, with hopes of gaining additional PKO capability, has also been a source of pride and has helped to improve their image.

The Emergency Tactical Actions Group, a branch of the Peruvian National Police, formally manages Peru's counterterrorism program. FY 2006 Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds will allow this unit to train more effectively and improve its skills in planning initiatives against complex targets and local threats imposed by terrorist organizations in Peru. CTFP funds have already allowed Peruvians to attend courses designed to help them better understand international counterterrorism defense and the dynamics of international terrorism. These funds have also allowed for participation in counterterrorism military education team training, as well as courses in intelligence in combating terrorism - all geared to improving Peru's ability to counter the international threat of terrorism.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Peru at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Peru.

St. Kitts And Nevis

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

22

17

20

$158,180

10

9

10

$96,371

INL

3

3

1

$2,280

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$6,400

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

26

21

22

$166,860

10

9

10

$96,371

St. Kitts and Nevis is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. The Department of State has encouraged the Government of St. Kitts and Nevis to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. IMET-funded and other training assists St. Kitts and Nevis in the development of a more professional and efficient security force, which will be able to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotics operations, search and rescue operations, and other bilateral and multilateral operations. Participation in training exercises with U.S. forces augments counterdrug capabilities and enhances interoperability, while participation in the Tradewinds exercise improves its security posture for the World Cup of Cricket. IMET funding, though limited, gives the best return on the investment for this nation's small security force.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomed St Kitts and Nevis' participation in a Caribbean Defense and Security Course at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS). This course was designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and it increases awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The course also allows U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from St. Kitts and Nevis.

St. Lucia

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

18

14

15

$130,288

22

17

17

$146,469

INL

4

4

1

$3,090

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

22

18

16

$133,378

22

17

17

$146,469

St. Lucia is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. The Department of State has encouraged the Government of St. Lucia to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. IMET-funded and other training assists in the development of a more professional and efficient security force that will be able to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotics operations, search and rescue operations and other bilateral and multilateral operations. Joint training exercises with U.S. forces improves counterdrug capabilities and enhances interoperability, while participation in the Tradewinds exercise improves its security posture for the World Cup of Cricket. IMET funding, though limited, gives the best return on the investment for this nation's small security force.

St. Vincent and Grenadines

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

INL

4

4

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$6,400

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

5

5

2

$6,400

0

0

0

$0.00

St. Vincent and the Grenadines is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. The USG has been encouraging the Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. Participation in the Tradewinds exercise enhances its security posture for the World Cup of Cricket.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomed St Vincent and Grenadines' participation in a Caribbean Defense and Security Course at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS). This course was designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and it increased awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The course also allowed U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from St. Vincent and Grenadines.

Suriname

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

IMET

21

17

18

$199,073

14

9

14

$137,302

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$6,400

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

2

2

1

$109,150

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

24

20

20

$314,623

14

9

14

$137,302

United States military security assistance objectives in Suriname are achieved through IMET, the Humanitarian Assistance Program and SOUTHCOM's Traditional Activities Program, which assists the Surinamese Armed Forces (Nationale Leger) in becoming a more professional, apolitical service, providing external and internal security for the country, under democratic civilian control. The U.S. military will continue to assist the Surinamese Armed Forces with the development of counterdrug and counterterrorism capabilities, with added emphasis on better systems and procedures for effective rapid response in land- and sea-based tracking and interdiction operations. Particular emphasis has been devoted to encouraging the armed forces to better utilize their IMET budget, to commit national funds to future FMS purchases and to setting up an effective Excess Defense Articles (EDA) program.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomed Suriname's participation in a Caribbean Defense and Security Course at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS). This course was designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and it increased awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The course also allowed U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Suriname.

Trinidad and Tobago

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

10

9

9

$111,982

6

4

5

$39,360

FMS

2

2

2

$65,361

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, Combatant Command

40

40

1

$300,000

0

0

1

$444,000

Regional Centers

4

4

3

$12,900

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$54,575

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

57

56

16

$544,818

6

4

6

$483,360

Trinidad and Tobago is a democratic nation that enjoys strong bilateral relations with the United States. The Department of State has encouraged the Government of Trinidad and Tobago (GOTT) to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. Officer and senior non-commissioned officer training assists in professionalizing the military, while training in intelligence, crisis command and control, and defense transformation help maintain the technical proficiencies of the armed forces of Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago continues to support its interagency coordination center that gathers narcotics-related information from multiple sources and disseminates it to military and enforcement agencies involved in drug interdiction operations. U.S. government counterdrug-funded training and support have enabled Trinidad and Tobago to improve its ability to interdict illegal drug shipments, strengthen anti-drug trafficking laws, and participate in bilateral maritime exercises. Participation in the Tradewinds exercise enhances its security posture for the World Cup of Cricket.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Trinidad and Tobago at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Trinidad and Tobago.

Uruguay

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

CTFP

46

36

13

$228,483

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

25

1

1

$3,559

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

33

33

9

$58,159

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

37

32

12

$100,063

12

8

4

$70,000

Totals:

141

102

35

$390,264

12

8

4

$70,000

The U.S. has maintained strong bilateral relations with the Government of Uruguay, especially under former President Batlle who publicly pushed for closer economic and political cooperation. Indications are positive in the relationship with the Tabare Vasquez Administration, which recently inaugurated a SOUTHCOM humanitarian assistance program emergency operations center in Montevideo and five other departments in the interior of the country, and continues to support military-military training and exchange programs. The military is subordinate to the control of the civilian political leadership. Uruguay's relations with neighbors Brazil and Argentina are excellent. The armed forces conduct a robust program of confidence- and security-building exercises and professional exchanges with the Brazilian and Argentine militaries make the Southern Cone one of the least conflictive regions of the world. Among Latin American nations, the Uruguayan armed forces have been number one in overall numbers and the largest per capita contributor of personnel for international peacekeeping missions, having deployed over 12,000 troops over the past decade. As of October 2006, Uruguay had 2,583 soldiers deployed on 10 peacekeeping missions. The Uruguayan government also has been a consistent contributor of humanitarian assistance to other Latin American countries during natural disasters. The Uruguayan Air Force has flown water purification equipment, medicine, and other emergency supplies to Colombia, Venezuela, and Central America over the past seven years. The armed forces also provide all logistical and operational support for the Uruguayan scientific research base in Antarctica that is performing valuable research on environmental issues.

Prior to the prohibitions of the American Servicemembers Protection Act taking effect, civilians and military officers attending the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) and participating in IMET-funded training had helped improve civil-military relations, rationalize the defense policy planning process thus making the process increasingly transparent, build civilian expertise in defense matters, and inculcate the principals of human rights in future leaders. Mid- to senior-grade officers attending professional development courses had facilitated the modernization and professionalization of the armed forces. Technical, resource management, and logistics training would help Uruguay maintain and manage its defense resources, improving the Uruguayans' ability to operate with U.S. and international forces in peacekeeping operations, disaster relief missions and other joint operations.

Venezuela

 

FY 2006

FY 2007

Program

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Training
Sessions

Individual
Students

Course
Count

Dollar
Value

Regional Centers

15

15

6

$26,550

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

15

15

6

$26,550

0

0

0

$0.00

President Hugo Chavez's Administration, in which many military officers occupy ministerial and other senior positions, has increasingly politicized the Venezuelan Armed Forces. Meanwhile, U.S.-Venezuelan military relations have suffered, culminating in the expulsion of the U.S. military liaison group from Venezuelan military headquarters in May 2004 and all Personnel Exchange Program officers in 2005. The military liaison group has relocated to the Embassy compound and retains limited contact with the Venezuelan Armed Forces. Since President Chavez personally disapproved two counterdrug training support missions for military personnel in October 2003, their armed forces have received no U.S. training.

Any U.S. military training accepted by the Venezuelan government, especially in the areas of civil-military affairs and human rights, would help reinforce the military's responsibility to maintain democratic and constitutional order. Many Venezuelan NCOs and officers have previously benefited from U.S. training.

The only U.S. military training received by Venezuela in FY 2006 was the participation by 15 individuals in six separate seminars or conferences conducted by the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS). Their courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence.



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