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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

2008 Foreign Military Training: III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--Africa Region


Report
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
January 31, 2008

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Angola

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

IMET-1

28

13

22

$453,743

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

9

9

4

$98,382

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

37

22

26

$552,125

0

0

0

$0.00

Angola has one of Africa’s largest, most experienced and well-equipped militaries. This force can play a constructive role in ensuring a safe, peaceful, and democratic Angola, and potentially contribute to international peacekeeping operations. Since the end of the 27-year civil war in 2002, the Government of Angola (GRA) remains largely focused on rebuilding the country’s devastated infrastructure and economy. The GRA has made some progress on economic reform and has demonstrated interest in regional stability. The country is preparing for parliamentary elections, which should take place in 2008. Rich in natural resources, Angola is the second largest oil producer in sub-Saharan Africa (1.8 million barrels per day), and the world’s fourth-largest producer of rough diamonds. Significant and growing U.S. investment in Angola, particularly in the oil sector, highlights the importance of economic security.

U.S. defense cooperation with Angola promotes an apolitical, professional defense force respectful of human rights. Since the end of the Angolan civil war, the IMET program has been fairly successful. Unfortunately, in FY 2007 Angola only filled one out of sixteen professional military education slots offered. USDAO is working with the Angolan military to reinvigorate Angolan IMET participation. The FY 2007 IMET operating budget for Angola was $289,000, and the program focused on English language training and mid-level management courses. The United States is encouraging Angolan participation in the Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program, but has received only lukewarm interest so far from Angolan officials.

Benin

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

3

3

1

$7,518

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

356

356

3

$1,113,223

0

0

1

$0.00

IMET-1

6

4

6

$132,025

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

5

5

5

$135,064

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

66

66

8

$189,231

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

436

434

23

$1,577,061

0

0

1

$0.00

Benin continues to be a model of democracy and stability in the region. Free and fair presidential elections in 1991 led to a peaceful transition of government to civilian authorities. The country since that time has been characterized by a lively and crowded political landscape. The Beninois military has returned to a subordinate role in society, fully respecting civilian control and the apolitical nature of the armed forces. During the 2006 Presidential elections, the Chief of Defense Staff and other key officers toured the country’s military installations to reiterate to the armed forces that they should not be involved in politics and that the role of the military was only to help ensure secure conditions for the conduct of the elections. At present, Benin faces no external threat to its stability and the armed forces play an increasing role in regional peacekeeping activities.

The Beninois were enthusiastic participants in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) training, and military leaders continue to benefit from training opportunities presented under programs such as the Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program. Benin’s armed forces (BAF) have played a significant role in regional peacekeeping activities and programs like ACOTA will help them enlarge that role. We continue to encourage the Beninois to be engaged in the region, both on a political and military/peacekeeping level. They have been responsive, most recently deploying troops with the United Nations Operation in Cote d’Ivoire (ONUCI) and the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC), as well as observers to multilateral missions in Haiti and Sudan. Beninois troops have earned solid praise for their performance on these deployments, including the decision to name a Beninois general as ONUCI commander in the fall of 2006. Beninois commanders have attributed the BAF’s peacekeeping success directly to the ACRI and ACOTA training provided. Deployments continued in 2007, and Benin has indicated its readiness to conduct further deployments, if assistance with material and logistical requirements can be provided. We continue to seek to strengthen the capabilities of the BAF to provide international peacekeeping and humanitarian relief.

In July 2005, Benin signed an Article 98 agreement with the United States, which entered into force in August of 2005. IMET programs, which have played a key role in securing the Beninois military’s professionalism and apolitical role, were therefore able to restart in the fall of 2005 and continue to date. The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) also supports democratic governance in Benin by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States. Benin has been an active participant in ACSS programs, including as host of an 11-nation Ministerial Conference on Maritime Security and Safety in the Gulf of Guinea during November 2006.

We continue to explore other avenues for increasing security assistance cooperation with Benin on areas of common interest, such as peacekeeping and good governance, but also, for example, on promoting maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea, or in support of humanitarian demining training via the joint French-Beninois Demining School for Africa based in Ouidah, Benin. Programs such as IMET, ACOTA, and those sponsored by ACSS and the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies will aid in increasing the BAF’s readiness for and participation in international peacekeeping, as well as in buttressing democratic government and good governance. Support via the Foreign Military Financing and Excess Defense Articles programs would also bolster the BAF’s capacity to serve in these roles.

Botswana

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

1

1

1

$23,848

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

6

5

6

$56,009

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

24

19

17

$302,910

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

63

42

56

$979,972

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

105

105

7

$119,937

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

199

172

85

$1,482,676

0

0

0

$0.00

Botswana has one of the longest-running democracies and most fiscally prudent economic regimes on the African continent. Our efforts focus on supporting Botswana’s stable democracy, expanding U.S. business opportunities, advocating Botswana’s leadership in the region, and helping Botswana confront its HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the world’s worst.

Botswana has one of the region’s most professional and responsible military establishments and offers a model for civilian-military relations for the rest of Africa. The International Military Education and Training (IMET) program in Botswana provides for well-received regional military exchanges that have fostered a spirit of regional cooperation. In FY 2007 Botswana received $668, 000 in IMET funding. Through our IMET and other security assistance programs, including the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) and Foreign Military Financing (FMF) or Foreign Military Sales (FMS) training cases, we seek to expand our connections with Botswana’s military leaders and support their interest in contributing to efforts to strengthen both regional civil-military ties and regional military-military relations. The Botswana Defense Force (BDF) uses IMET as the primary vehicle to obtain intermediate and senior professional military education (PME) for their officer corps. In FY 2007, Botswana received five intermediate and one senior PME seats.

FY 2007 saw the continuation of a program to enhance the professionalism and capabilities of BDF non-commissioned officer (NCO) Corps with NCO-specific training. We plan to expand the NCO training program to fifty percent of the IMET budget over the next two years. These courses not only support individual professional development, but also prepare the BDF to better execute peacekeeping operations (PKO) and humanitarian support operations while complementing other previous and existing programs, such as the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program. Training included components on HIV/AIDS and civil-military relations. Eleven of fourteen currently serving General Officers in the BDF are IMET graduates, including the Commander of the Botswana Defense Force, who is a graduate of the Air Command and Staff College. The BDF has leveraged its CTFP funding to foster the development of an internal counterterrorism capacity with an emphasis on building the intelligence capabilities of the BDF, and in FY 2008 we plan to continue our efforts in assisting Botswana to further enhance its national capabilities.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Botswana by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Burkina Faso

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

5

5

2

$17,393

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

983

983

6

$1,659,909

0

0

2

$0.00

IMET-1

7

6

5

$123,562

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

201

201

7

$142,890

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

1196

1195

20

$1,943,754

0

0

2

$0.00

Military engagement with Burkina Faso continued to expand in FY 2007, after many years during which it was limited to participation in an occasional Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) event and infrequent contacts in the context of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) oriented regional training or development programs. The increased engagement follows Burkina Faso’s efforts during the past several years to play a more productive regional role and to improve relations with the United States. The Government of Burkina Faso (GOBF) has also demonstrated a willingness to cooperate on important USG policy priorities such as the war on terrorism, and support of the peace process in Cote d’Ivoire.

FY 2007 IMET funding in the amount of $164,000 was used to fund individual training of two Infantry Basic Officer Leader courses, as well as one artillery, one signal, one engineer, and one English Language instructor. Two of these officers also received English language instruction in the United States through IMET funding. English language training will be critical to increasing the interoperability of the Burkina military with Anglophone members of ECOWAS, as well as with the United States.

Burkina Faso sent participants to various ACSS events in FY 2007. Military and civilians alike covet spots for these events and participation is a mark of distinction. ACSS provides an exceptional forum for engaging senior-level military and civilian officials in African countries. The Africa Center program promotes democratic governance in the defense and security sectors and fosters critical partnerships with African nations. The Burkinabe graduates of previous ACSS seminars have formed a local community chapter, which held an ACSS-funded local seminar on the importance of democracy and good governance. ACSS held a regional seminar on small arms and light weapons (SA/LW) in Ouagadougou in December 2006. In FY 2007, Burkina Faso’s community chapter continued to be very active and hosted a Community event on the topics of, “Relations between the Military and the Media” and, “The Military and Democratic Control of Security in Africa.” They also sent three participants to the ACSS Community Leadership course in Washington, DC in September 2007. Next year, the community chapter will send several participants to the ACSS Next Generation Course that will take place in Washington in January 2008.

In FY 2007, Burkina’s military participated in six defense-funded conferences, including: the Arlie House AFRICOM conference, the Global Air Chiefs Conference, Flintlock Exercises, the SOCEUR Symposium, and the Defense Acquisition Management Seminar.

In July 2006, the GOBF and the United States signed an agreement for Burkina Faso’s participation in the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance program (ACOTA.) A Strategic Training Conference was held in Ouagadougou in October 2006, producing a Training Action Plan which provides direction for follow-on ACOTA training and equipping activities with the GOBF. This year Burkina Faso’s military has completed the training of one battalion of peacekeepers and will complete the training of a second battalion in October 2007. Burkina Faso’s ECOWAS Standby Force Headquarters staff participated in the ACOTA-ECOWAS Multinational Command Post Exercise at Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Center in December, 2006. In September 2007, the GOBF announced to United Nations representatives that they were willing to participate in peacekeeping operations with the UN as early as December 2007.

Burundi

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$9,758

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

1773

1773

2

$1,447,087

0

0

3

$0.00

IMET-1

7

6

6

$154,191

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

69

69

4

$53,454

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

1851

1850

13

$1,664,490

0

0

3

$0.00

Burundi’s three-year transitional government came to a successful conclusion with the election and inauguration of President Pierre Nkurunziza on August 26, 2005. The restoration of democratic government resulted in the lifting of sanctions under section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, thus making Burundi eligible for IMET and other forms of military assistance. In September 2006, Burundi signed a cease-fire agreement with the lone remaining rebel group, the PALIPEHUTU-FNL, which had kept itself outside the peace accords and, consequently, the new government. However, full implementation of the ceasefire has not yet taken place. Burundi’s government is currently working with some FNL factions to disarm, demobilize and reintegrate former combatants into society and the government. The main body of the FNL, however, continues to resist demobilization. Although the overall security situation in Burundi has improved in the past year, Burundi still faces significant challenges, which, if unresolved, could undermine its stability and potentially lead to a return to violence.

With the lifting of section 508 sanctions we have seen a significant expansion in military-to-military engagement with Burundi. In FY 2007, U.S. funding has provided an English lab and financed training for English instructors to help the Burundian Defense Forces obtain the necessary proficiency to attend military training programs in the United States. Other funding has provided HIV-AIDS awareness and prevention programs.

The State Department’s ACOTA program has been critical in helping to develop a professional cadre of military officers and enlisted personnel. ACOTA and other U.S. funds have also been used to provide equipment, pre-deployment and other training for a Burundian contingent consisting of two battalions preparing to serve as peacekeepers with the AU-led AMISOM mission in Somalia. Burundi has also expressed interest in providing troops for a potential UN peacekeeping mission in Darfur.

Burundi’s involvement with the AU also deepened as the mandate for UN Operations in Burundi (ONUB) expired on December 31, 2006. Its remaining military forces (a South African infantry battalion) were re-hatted to fall under African Union sponsorship. Several ONUB staff agencies were reconfigured in place to form the nucleus of the Integrated Bureau of the UN in Burundi (BINUB) which is working with the Burundians to facilitate FNL reintegration and on other security sector initiatives. Military integration to date has been largely successful and an example to Burundian society of ways to overcome ethnic issues. Burundian willingness to play a regional role in AU operations in Burundi and in Somalia offers us an opportunity to collaborate with European partners to help the military transform and ultimately deploy in support of other international peace operations. Further, Burundi is an active participant in the Tripartite-Plus process, a U.S.-facilitated forum for Rwandan, Congolese (Kinshasa), Ugandan and Burundian personnel to discuss ways to resolve conflicts in eastern Congo and the Great Lakes region. Burundi is also a member of the Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC), and has pledged to support the AU’s Standby Brigade; however, to participate effectively, Burundi requires further training in staff operations. This provides us with an opportunity to focus IMET funding for Burundi on encouraging sub-regional organizations.

As Burundi emerges from years of conflict, continued U.S. support for the military and security services will be critical to long-term stability. Burundi is working to right-size the military and police force, and is providing both with the training and equipment necessary to defeat the few remaining rebel forces and confront rising crime and banditry. IMET and other military-related funding can be used to good effect to continue to help professionalize the Burundian National Defense Force, building capacity in an institution that is suffering from over a dozen years of neglect caused by the civil war and the recent integration of a largely untrained rebel force. Such funding would also support programs that will provide the Burundians with the capacity to increase control of the waters along Lake Tanganyika, and enforce maritime law and conduct security operations there.

Further, IMET and other funding programs would help absorb former combatants, including providing vocational skills training and integration of former rebel soldiers into the police and military. Continued support for English language training would increase opportunities for Burundians to participate in senior training in the United States. Additional training could promote respect for human rights, improved civil-military relations and the importance of civilian control of the military. IMET-sponsored civil-military relations training could educate the defense forces on the proper role of the military in a democratic society and help avoid a repetition of Burundi’s coup-ridden history.

Cameroon

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

3

1

3

$31,589

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

19

19

3

$80,443

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

85

85

9

$439,523

0

0

5

$0.00

IMET-1

19

11

15

$298,487

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

12

12

6

$144,075

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

0

0

0

$0.00

30

30

3

$57,000

Service Academies

4

4

4

$281,013

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

142

132

40

$1,275,130

30

30

8

$57,000

U.S. goals in Cameroon support the successful transformation of Cameroonian society into a democratic, pluralistic community, with a market-based economy integrated into the world economy. Cameroon’s political stability and relative economic development make it a leading sub-regional power. Construction of the Chad-Cameroon pipeline further integrates Cameroon into the regional petroleum economy, while its geographic location and national security interests make it a potentially key partner in Gulf of Guinea maritime security programs.

Cameroon’s military could play an important role in supporting regional peacekeeping initiatives and promoting peaceful resolution of border disputes with neighboring countries. This is especially true now that the Bakassi dispute with Nigeria has been resolved. Cameroon has expressed its willingness and intent to play a more active role in regional peacekeeping operations and has said it could contribute up to a battalion, though at present it would only be able to supply police in these numbers. Moreover, it is crucial to have military participation and cooperation as Cameroon undertakes additional political and economic reforms.

Military training provided to Cameroon is designed to promote professional military capacity, especially regarding the ability to increase regional stability. Training priorities include leadership, maritime security, military police, and peacekeeping. became an ACOTA partner in 2007, and will also benefit from significantly increased U.S. engagement in the Gulf of Guinea. Cameroon values IMET courses and continues to fill every available course. Cameroon has a cadet at the U.S. Air Force Academy in FY 2007 and continues to seek additional training opportunities. Other IMET programs in FY 2007 sponsored reform within the Cameroonian Armed Forces through professional training for junior- to mid-level military officers. Senior level course are highly sought after by the Cameroonian senior leadership; Cameroon had one student at the Air Command and Staff College in FY 2007

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Cameroon by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States. Cameroon participated in an ACSS maritime security conference in November 2006, and again in 2007. Also in November 2006, Cameroon hosted RECAMP V, a comprehensive staff training exercise for CEEAC forces that focused on peacekeeping and regional security. The two week exercise involved multinational and joint staffs from division to brigade to battalion level, and included all 11 CEEAC countries and some 13 Western nations. Cameroon continues to express its willingness to contribute to Peacekeeping operations, though it also expresses a need for military equipment upgrades, including vehicles.

Cape Verde, Republic Of

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$3,972

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

15

6

15

$187,904

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

4

4

4

$49,632

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

21

12

20

$241,508

0

0

0

$0.00

Since gaining independence in 1975, Cape Verde has maintained domestic peace, as well as continual peaceful relations with its neighbors. Its military has consistently played a constructive role in civil society. The country’s physical isolation, poverty, and limited number of educational institutions make it heavily reliant on training from other countries to develop appropriate technical proficiencies. Their military is seeking to transform itself from a heavy Soviet-model land force, to one that focuses on maritime security and crisis reaction. This force will better be able to counter the transnational threats facing Cape Verde: drug smuggling, counterterrorism, maritime disaster, and the illicit movement of persons.

With the IMET program we are seeking to support the military’s constructive role in Cape Verde society by providing English language training and professional development to the military’s officer corps and military police.

In FY 2007, Cape Veredean two students attended a Mobile Education Team (MET) held by the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies in Senegal, sponsored by the CTFP program.

Central African Republic

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

IMET-1

4

3

4

$78,602

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$20,677

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

5

4

5

$99,279

0

0

0

$0.00

On March 15, 2003, former military Chief of Staff General Francis Bozize seized power in a military coup from democratically elected President Ange-Felix Patasse. Bozize issued a decree suspending the constitution and other government institutions.

The United States supported the election process in 1992-1993 and supports a financial proposal to the upcoming National Dialogue to bring peace and stability to a country still divided by civil war and spillover from Darfur. The CAR National Dialogue aims to bring all parties in the current conflict-including the CAR government, the political opposition, and the rebels. President Bozize and his government have created preparatory committees for the Dialogue tentatively scheduled for next year to including all parties.

Section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act prohibits most direct assistance to the government of any country when the duly elected head of government is deposed by decree or military coup. In accordance with that provision, the U.S. government ended all military and other assistance covered by section 508 to the Central African Republic (CAR) in 2003; however, section 508 aid restrictions were lifted in September 2005 following the successful 2005 presidential election.

The lifting of aid restrictions allowed IMET funding and especially English-language training programs to be reinstated. In FY 2007, a total of $118,000 of IMET was allocated to CAR for English Language, HIV/AIDS, and basic military professionalization training, as well as a MET on civil-military relations.

Chad

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

5

3

5

$62,867

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

9

9

6

$51,696

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

15

12

10

$246,331

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

1416

1416

4

$886,199

120

120

1

$340,000

Regional Centers

7

7

4

$95,762

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$71,033

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

1453

1448

30

$1,413,888

120

120

1

$340,000

Chad occupies a strategic position west of Sudan and south of Libya, sharing additional borders with the Central African Republic, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger. In the course of the last ten years, all but one of Chad’s neighbors have suffered a coup d’état or been named state supporters of terrorism. A well-disciplined, effective military under civilian control will reinforce Chad’s role as a point of relative stability in a troubled region. U.S. assistance strengthens leadership and respect for rule of law within the military, which over time will contribute to the development of a military that supports civilian control and direction of the armed forces and whose members are cognizant of their duty with respect to human rights. Such a force would have a strong influence throughout the region, and would be able to contribute constructively to regional conflict resolution and counterterrorism initiatives.

The Government of Chad (GOC) has a stake in excluding potential terrorist elements from Chadian territory, particularly in as much as unsecured borders may harbor groups hostile to the current government. In March 2004, the Chadian military engaged members of the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC), an Algerian terrorist cell, in a firefight in northern Chad. During this skirmish more than forty GSPC and five Chadians were killed. Several of the GSPC, including their leader Al-Para, escaped and were captured by a Chadian rebel group in the Tibesti region of Chad. The GOC was instrumental in facilitating the eventual turnover of this terrorist leader to the Algerian government. The GOC has also been supportive in sharing anti-terrorism information with its partners in the War on Terror, and raising awareness of regional threats.

Chad, a committed member of the Pan-Sahel Initiative (PSI), and now the Trans-Sahara Counter-Terrorism Partnership (TSCTP), has participated in several peacekeeping operations in the region and possesses the most operational airlift capability of the Sahelian countries. Since 2005, U.S. Special Forces provided training for select members of the Chadian Army in order to develop an anti-terrorism unit known today as the PSI Regiment, comprised of two PSI battalions totaling 450 soldiers. The U.S. Special Forces Joint Planning Advisory Teams (JPAT) conduct continual training with the PSI Regiment. The training focuses on small unit tactics, first aid, command and control, and cross border coordination. The end state goal of TSCTP is to enable the Government of Chad to detect and defeat existing terrorist and extremist groups as part of the War on Terror. In 2007, two senior government officials participated in the Senior Leadership Seminar (SLS) in Addis. In addition, three officers attended a Regional Defense Institute for International Legal Studies Mobile Education Team in Senegal.

Additional Foreign Military Financing (FMF) will be necessary to adequately support mounting USG efforts to engage with the Chadian military during the coming year. The process of restructuring the Chadian Armed Forces is ongoing. In April 2005, the Chadian military conducted an internal review and made a series of recommendations including downsizing, demobilization of soldiers, and improving professionalism. These recommendations have yet to be implemented. U.S. training supports our objectives of strengthening the rule of law and respect for human rights within the security forces. A well-trained and professional military is crucial to Chad’s democratic development and stability. Chad’s oil production is attracting attention from foreign businesses; improved security and rule of law will promote domestic and foreign investment in Chad.

Comoros

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$9,758

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

3

3

3

$34,072

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

6

6

4

$100,075

7

7

7

$73,619

Totals:

11

11

8

$143,905

7

7

7

$73,619

A small island nation in the Indian Ocean, the Union of Comoros has a history of political instability and military intervention in politics. This background has given particular importance to U.S. efforts to promote democracy and stability in Comoros and to strengthen the professionalism of the Comorian Defense Force, including respect for civilian control. A modest IMET program for Comoros is an important element in U.S. policy toward, and bilateral relations with, the Comorian government, particularly since the United States has no resident diplomatic presence in the Comoros. Comoros is a Muslim country with historic trade ties to the Middle East that condemned the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. In addition to strengthening democracy, enhancing Comoros’ counterterrorism capabilities is a USG priority.

In April 1999, Comoros experienced a military coup that overthrew the civilian government elected in March 1996. Assistance to Comoros was suspended consistent with section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financial and Related Programs Appropriations Act until December 2003, following the previous year’s flawed but fair presidential election. In 2006, Ahmed Abdallah Sambi, a Sunni Muslim cleric, was elected President in what is regarded as Comoros’ first free and fair democratic elections and peaceful transfer of power.

The IMET program received an allocation of $63,000 in FY 2007. Goals of the training program included inculcating the proper role of the military in a democracy in order to reduce the likelihood of inappropriate military involvement in politics. The program also sought to strengthen military and civil capabilities in the areas of counterterrorism, drug/weapon trafficking and illegal immigration, and improve the English language capabilities of the military to promote greater interaction with the United States and other militaries in the region. Comorian soldiers continued to train at the English lab opened in 2004 and participate in military exercises organized by the Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA).

The FY 2007 IMET program promoted improved English language and language instructor training. Comoros also sent two officers to executive training at DOD’s Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Comoros by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continued interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States. Funded by the CTFP, another two Comorians participated in an ACSS seminar during FY 2007.

Cote d'Ivoire

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Regional Centers

10

10

5

$153,249

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

10

10

5

$153,249

0

0

0

$0.00

Until late 1999, Cote d’Ivoire had experienced a level of political stability and economic growth that made it a model for its neighbors. With the third largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa, it was the economic engine for the sub-region. The Ivorian Armed Forces had begun to participate in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI), and Cote d’Ivoire had established an important regional center for peacekeeping training. But the country’s era of tranquility ended with a military coup in December 1999 that ousted the elected government of President Henri Konan Bedie.

Since then, Cote d’Ivoire has been in a state of political upheaval. Ten months after the coup, scores of people died in violence associated with the deeply flawed elections that brought current President Laurent Gbagbo to power. On September 19, 2002, an armed rebellion erupted, splitting the country in two. Although rebels and the government eventually signed a cease-fire and formed a government of national reconciliation, the country remains divided. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and France sent peacekeeping troops to help stabilize the situation and implement a peace agreement concluded in January 2003. In 2004, the ECOWAS forces became the core of the United Nations Operation in Cote d’Ivoire (ONUCI), a UN Peacekeeping Mission. In June of 2005, the United Nations increased the size of the peacekeeping force and adjusted the ONUCI mandate to assist with upcoming elections. In 2006, the United Nations authorized an increase in the force strength by 1500 troops.

Bilateral assistance to Cote d’Ivoire was suspended consistent with section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, which restricts direct assistance to the government of any country whose duly elected head of government is deposed by decree or military coup until such time as the President determines and certifies to Congress that a democratically elected government has taken office. A Presidential election was originally scheduled to take place in October 2005. However, because of the continuing crisis and a failure to undertake election preparations, the UN Security Council approved a postponement of the election until October 2006 and, then again, until October 2007.

The Ouagadougou Political Accord (OPA), facilitated by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Chairman and Burkina Faso President Blaise Compaore, was signed on March 4, 2007 by President Gbagbo and Forces Nouvelles (FN) leader Guillaume Soro. The accord is described as the result of a direct negotiation between the government and the FN. The OPA provides for resumption of public identification hearings (audiences foraines), establishment of new identity papers, carrying out of disarmament, creation of an integrated operational structure for the armed forces, and the holding of elections. As provided for by the OPA, the “zone of confidence” between the FN-controlled north and south has been eliminated. Implementation of the agreement has been slow.

Cote d’Ivoire did not receive IMET funding in FY 2007. If eligible and not otherwise restricted, Cote d’Ivoire’s participation during FY 2008 in Africa Center for Strategic Studies programs and potential E-IMET training stressing good governance, civilian rule, the rule of law, and democracy will be considered as those seminars are scheduled, taking into consideration if and how the rebellion is resolved. These types of programs support democratic governance throughout the region by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Participation in these types of events also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Language training continues in-country on a much reduced and limited basis at both the National Gendarme School and at the Armed Forces Headquarters. However, given the lack of potential for IMET-funded schooling, English language training has been reduced to a part-time endeavor by those students willing to undertake instruction during non-duty hours and on a voluntary basis. All costs associated with this training are borne by the Ivorian government. Equipment and books are obsolete and once IMET is recommenced, will need to be replaced. Because of the war, the language lab in Bouake is no longer operational.

Democratic Republic of Congo

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

IMET-1

65

59

13

$171,201

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

5

5

3

$83,513

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

70

64

16

$254,714

0

0

0

$0.00

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) successfully conducted national elections in 2006. Joseph Kabila was inaugurated president in December 2006 and Antoine Gizenga installed as prime minister in February 2007. Elections have played a key role in the difficult transition from post-conflict status to a democratic republic based on an elected parliament and head of state. The Gizenga government faces significant challenges. Reform of the security forces, which continue to be responsible for most human rights abuses, is perhaps the most pressing. The existing integration program and continued training is clearly insufficient.

Despite two surveys (one conducted by South Africa, the other currently underway by the Congolese military under EU auspices) and a Belgian study, the exact size of the DRC military is unknown. Some experts believe that the number of soldiers is around 150,000, of whom only about one third have gone through "brassage," or the integration program. The vast majority of the Congolese military are army personnel, with a small air force and navy. The Congolese Armed Forces (FARDC) currently has 15 Integrated Brigades and another in training, each with approximately 3,000 soldiers. In its Security Sector Reform (SSR) process, the GDRC is also trying, with international assistance, to re-define appropriate missions its size, function, and organization. Additional concerns include inadequate salaries, poor living conditions, and lack of training. While the main mission of the restructured Congolese Armed Forces will be to defend the country’s borders, it is largely incapable doing so, and will remain in that situation for the foreseeable future. Other security forces suffer from a similar lack of capacity. Poor maritime, airport and border security, corruption, and weak to non-existent infrastructure and laws make the DRC a potential haven for transnational terrorists, smugglers, and traffickers of all sorts.

Democratic institution-building, security sector reform, human rights and protection of American citizens are the most significant U.S. interests in the DRC, followed by humanitarian assistance, economic development, and global issues including promoting health and the environment. Sustaining a peaceful democracy contributes to U.S. humanitarian interests and regional security by creating and supporting institutional mechanisms for peaceful resolution of disputes and by providing a fertile environment for a growing economy. Using limited FMF and IMET funds, Post continues to utilize the military English language lab in Kinshasa and provides English language instructor and laboratory technician training. The DRC held a successful IMET funded MET from the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies in September 2007.

The DRC continues to be eligible to receive Excess Defense Articles (EDA) on a grant basis under section 516 of the Foreign Assistance Act. The USG looks at ways, given availability of materials, to use the EDA program to support Congolese military equipment and restructuring needs.

The priority for our military assistance programs will continue to be to support the modernization and professionalization of the FARDC, leaning heavily toward creation of a moderate-sized force capable of securing its own borders, respecting the civilian population and carrying out and supporting regional and international peace keeping operations. With same PKO funds the Department plans to implement a new program against military impunity support FARDC’s military law and justice capabilities by building on previous Defense Department work in this area. Related objectives include putting an end to widespread FARDC human rights abuses, and increasing interoperability with regional and international forces -- mainly through development of a robust English language-training program. Program objectives also seek to contribute to the development of a professional officer and noncommissioned officer corps; the FARDC officer corps is currently estimated to account for at least 28 per cent of all soldiers.

The DRC in FY 2007 continued participation in United States government-funded programs such as the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminars. ACSS supports democratic governance in the DRC by offering senior government civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Djibouti

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

5

5

3

$21,632

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

14

9

14

$330,869

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

22

22

5

$76,360

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

41

36

22

$428,861

0

0

0

$0.00

Djibouti, a country strategically located at the entrance to the Red Sea, is the gateway to Ethiopia. It joins the northwest corner of Somalia, faces Yemen across the Gulf of Aden, and is home to the only U.S. military base in Africa, the multi-national Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA). It also hosts France’s largest military base overseas. Djibouti has played a strategic role in the War on Terror (WOT) and currently has forces from eight countries (Germany, United Kingdom, France, Romania, Kenya, Pakistan, South Korea, and the United States) participating in the coalition effort to fight terrorism and promote democratic stability. As the main seaport for Ethiopia, it is vital to that staunch ally in the war on terrorism. Annually, emergency food aid from the United States passes through the Port of Djibouti to Ethiopia, and Djibouti replaced Dubai as the pre-positioning center for all food aid in the region.

Djibouti is also an important refueling point for U.S. military aircraft and is a training area for U.S. military personnel, ships, and aircraft. The new Doraleh Port facility, where the U.S. Navy has leased several storage tanks at the new Doraleh Port Facility, supports the refueling of U.S. naval vessels. The French military hospital here is a key trauma care center in the area and helped stabilize victims after the terrorist attack on the USS Cole in October 2000.

Efforts to improve maritime and land border security are crucial to Djibouti’s long-term stability. FMF funds enhance its maritime capability by improving port facilities at Obock, by providing boats and training, and by improving Djibouti’s capacity to monitor marine traffic.

IMET training is a core program for Djibouti and has been one of the most successful programs in the region. Graduates now hold key policy and operational positions within the Djiboutian military, including chief of staff and major command positions. Djiboutian mid- and senior-grade officers have attended Command and General Staff and War College courses, including one student at the Naval Staff College in FY 2007.

Access to this highly supportive African Union and Arab League nation, one that provides a critical base of support for the U.S. military, merits our serious commitment to the continuation and expansion of the IMET program. IMET helps U.S. strategic interests by expanding relations and our influence in a frontline state in the WOT. The Djiboutians benefit from the training in meeting their core objectives of creating a professional and well-trained force with shared commitments to democratic values and security objectives.

Djibouti is in a very strategic position adjacent to the Bab el Mandeb strait between the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, and it provides the United States access, basing, and over-flight rights. Djibouti works closely with CJTF-HOA to counter terror and promote security. In FY 2007, the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) fosters bilateral relations with Djiboutian Armed Forces and is an integral part of U.S. Central Command’s Theater Security Cooperation Strategy. The CTFP helps to promote access, while serving overall U.S. strategic interests associated with this important littoral nation.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) has become an important complement to IMET in exposing senior Djiboutian leaders to core U.S. values, including civil-military relations and national security and defense concerns. This program enhances interaction between our countries, and expansion of this program will promote closer bilateral cooperation and trust.

Equatorial Guinea

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

1

1

1

$5,366

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

7

7

5

$84,302

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

8

8

6

$89,668

0

0

0

$0.00

To date, virtually all forms of military assistance to Equatorial Guinea (EG) remain suspended. In the past two years, some genuine progress has been made in the EG government’s historically poor human rights record, governance problems, and democratic reforms. However, the country’s leadership and political power have continued to remain in the hands of a small group headed by President Teodoro Obiang. The legitimacy of this group is often questioned, as it has held power without meaningful opposition since a successful coup in 1979 to overthrow a brutal and oppressive dictator. Consequently, no military-to-military engagements with EG have taken place, except for occasional participation at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) and at Gulf of Guinea conferences.

Since November 2006, a permanent U.S. Ambassador has been in place at the Embassy in Malabo. The Ambassador intends to build on the results of a recent visit by a USEUCOM general officer to the EG military leadership, which clearly conveyed the steps they need to take in order to qualify for bilateral military programs. Equatorial Guinea has taken some steps already, and appears amenable to continue on this path, especially with strong and consistent U.S. encouragement and pressure.

As Equatorial Guinea’s oil production continues to surge, to the point of it being the third largest source of oil in Sub-Saharan Africa and of increasing importance to the U.S. energy supply, both the military and the civilian leadership are more acutely aware of the need for greater security in the Gulf of Guinea. As all of the production rigs are offshore and vulnerable, post believes it can leverage the security concerns to push the country into more meaningful reform, beginning in the first quarter of 2008. If IMET funding is resumed, the program could start with occasional ship riders and basic IMET programs, and progress from there as warranted by results. Continued and increased participation in ACSS programs would also become more important, as they contribute to long-term improvements in defining the military’s role in developing democratic governance. Further, the country has a strong and functioning coast guard and several modern fighter jets (currently operated with foreign pilots) as well as the financial resources to contribute strongly to maritime security in the region. EG and Nigeria, both of whom were unwilling to wait indefinitely for serious multilateral talks to get started, have recently begun bilateral discussions to explore how best they can cooperate in quickly implementing Gulf maritime security strategy.

Ethiopia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

5

4

4

$66,413

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

43

43

1

$185,098

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

0

0

0

$0.00

0

0

3

$0.00

IMET-1

41

35

12

$513,122

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

33

33

5

$92,648

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

122

115

22

$857,281

0

0

3

$0.00

Ethiopia is arguably the key to U.S. security interests in the Horn of Africa, a turbulent region threatened by Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism. Ethiopia remains a staunch ally in the war on terrorism and the Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) has been our most effective partner in the counter-terrorist fight within the region. Ethiopia’s internal stability and its role as a regional and international leader remain critical for the stability of the Horn as a whole. The long-term goal of transforming the Ethiopian military into a professional, apolitical modern force remains important.

The ENDF is one of, if not the most capable military forces in sub-Saharan Africa and has clearly established itself as the dominant military power within the Horn of Africa. In FY 2007, Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) continued to use Foreign Military Financing (FMF) to train ENDF company-size units in counterterrorism skills and large groups of individual soldiers in border logistics skills. This effort will pay dividends in controlling the region’s volatile and porous borders and enabling the host nation to strike trans-national terrorist networks when and where they are found.

Further, the Ethiopians have a long history of successful participation in United Nations military efforts, spanning the spectrum from the Korean War to combating genocide in Rwanda. Ethiopia currently has a reinforced battalion (900 soldiers) deployed to Burundi as peacekeepers in the UN Mission in Burundi (formerly the African Union’s African Mission in Burundi (AMIB)). This battalion was the first Ethiopian battalion trained under the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program. Affirming their commitment to international peacekeeping, Ethiopia has also deployed over 2,000 peacekeepers to Liberia for the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL).

As principally a former-guerrilla army, the ENDF lacks strong organic training institutions – a deficiency of which the Ethiopian senior leadership is painfully aware and is working hard to correct. The focus of the IMET program in Ethiopia is on building host-nation training institutions and professional development. Increasing the English-speaking capability of the military is achieving this by training instructors at U.S. military training institutions and by bringing U.S. military trainers to Ethiopia. In FY 2007, IMET funding sent Ethiopian students to the Army’s Command and General Staff College, the Naval Postgraduate School, and Army Logistics Management College. The Counter-Terrorism Fellowship program sponsored one student at the National Defense University in FY 2007.

The ACOTA training management workshop and drafting of the ENDF training doctrine have also assisted greatly in specifically addressing the ENDF’s training shortcomings. The ENDF requested U.S. assistance using FMF to help establish their own Command and General Staff College and National War College for professional military education of mid-rank and senior officers. During FY 2006 a MTT augmented ENDF instructors completing the first ever Command and Staff College course, and in the fall of 2007 another MTT is scheduled to provide train-the-trainer and full-time instruction to the Command and Staff College. FMF provided the funds for this significant project that will pay great dividends in the future for the U.S. military’s interoperability with the Ethiopians and the long-term professionalization of the ENDF. Enhancing ENDF professionalism will better position them for the future in the war on terrorism.

Ethiopia has taken an aggressive stance against terrorism in Somalia and has supported the United States with operational access and invaluable information sharing. Ethiopia’s participation in the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) strengthens U.S. and Ethiopian bilateral relations, especially in areas of counterterrorism training and education. The ENDF continues to work closely with, and enjoys ever-increasing interoperability with, CJTF-HOA in the prosecution of the War on Terror.

The Marshall Center, National Defense University, and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Ethiopia by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Senior Ethiopian civilian and military leaders continue to benefit from participation in these events and conferences. Participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Gabon

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

1

1

1

$2,600

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

516

516

3

$730,011

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

15

8

14

$236,440

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

11

11

6

$130,730

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

543

536

24

$1,099,781

0

0

0

$0.00

The Gabonese Republic is a politically stable and influential regional leader. President Bongo has led mediation efforts in several neighboring conflicts, including the conflict in the Central African Republic where Gabon has led the peacekeeping mission of the Economic and Monetary Community of Central African States (CEMAC) and where Gabonese troops have comprised the majority of CEMAC’s deployed forces. On several occasions Gabon has served as a safe haven in times of conflict in the region, and the government has authorized the United States to use its facilities as a staging area for evacuations of Americans and other Westerners in case of need. Gabon has hosted a standby component of the European Force to provide security for DRC elections, and hosts the headquarters of the Central African component of the African Union standby force under the auspices of the Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC). Overall responsibility for the peacekeeping forces in the Central African Republic is now shifting from CEMAC to CEEAC. Oil production, the basis of the national economy, is declining, although these changes have not had the anticipated impact because of the rise in oil prices. If social indicators remain skewed, and the economy does not become more diversified, stability and democratic progress could be undermined.

IMET in FY 2007 focused on improving the English language capability of Gabonese military personnel and increasing professionalism, as well as enhancing peacekeeping capability and increasing maritime security. By fostering effective relations between the Gabonese and the U.S. military, and by exposing the Gabonese participants to U.S. professional military organizations and procedures, and such as civilian control of the military, Gabon’s military efficiency and effectiveness should be enhanced. This in turn will support the goal of regional stability, particularly through peacekeeping operations in which the Gabonese participate. Training programs in the United States in FY 2007 also included NCO training and one slot at the Naval Command College. Gabon continued its participation in the African Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program in 2007 with training for 516 individuals.

Participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) also supports democratic aims in Gabon by reinforcing the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders. Three members of the Gabonese military participated in 2007; further invitations are expected in 2008. In addition, creating military-to-military contacts will increase the likelihood that Gabon will remain willing to serve as a staging area for evacuation operations in the region. Following successful ship visits in FY 2006 and 2007, four ship visits are tentatively planned for spring 2008. EUCOM sponsored the visit of the Gabonese Minister of Defense to Washington D.C. and Fort Irwin, California. Gabon hosted a MEDFLAG exercise during FY 2007.

Gambia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

3

3

1

$4,860

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

67

64

8

$144,649

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

4

1

4

$14,027

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

7

7

4

$98,241

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

81

75

17

$261,777

0

0

0

$0.00

Since gaining independence in 1965, The Gambia has maintained peaceful relations with its neighbors. Until a military coup in 1994, The Gambia was one of the oldest existing multi-party democracies in Africa. The current military contingent is approximately 1,000 men strong. The country has committed troops to several peacekeeping missions inter alia, Bosnia, Kosovo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DROC), Sierra Leone, Eritrea, East Timor, Liberia, and most recently they contributed a 196-man contingent to the United Nation’s Peacekeeping Mission in Darfur, Sudan. The country is keen for western military, especially U.S. military, cooperation to assist with training soldiers and updating broken or outdated equipment.

During FY 2003, following the lifting of section 508 sanctions that resulted from the 1994 coup, the United States resumed a modest IMET program to expose the next generation of Gambian military officers to U.S. military organizations and procedures, civil-military relations, and the role of the military in a democracy. Until the lifting of those sanctions, the only military-to-military cooperation between the United States and The Gambia was through the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) programs. ACSS continues to support democratic governance in The Gambia by offering senior Gambian military and civilian leaders practical programs in civil-military relations, national security strategy, defense economics and related topics.

In FY 2007, The Gambia received $103,000 in IMET funding. This allowed two officers to attend the Marine Corps Officer Basic Course and another two the Marine Corps Combat Engineer Officer course. The Gambia also participated in Mobile Education Training (MET) provided by the Defense International Institute of Legal Studies held in Senegal and another in-country MET on Civil-Military relations. These courses are an effort to train a new generation of leaders, who will respect human rights and the role of a military in a democratic society. In FY 2007, The Gambia also used IMET funding for courses on defense logistics management.

Ghana

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

7

7

3

$146,017

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

5

3

5

$83,610

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

1

1

1

$16,568

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

1219

1219

5

$4,611,879

0

0

10

$0.00

IMET-1

53

29

52

$839,563

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

15

15

7

$157,513

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

6

6

2

$87,218

100

100

7

$274,873

Totals:

1306

1279

75

$5,942,368

100

100

17

$274,873

The Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) is one of the more reliable and professional militaries in Africa. It has a long and commendable record in peacekeeping operations, participating in operations around the globe. The GAF currently deploys battalions in Lebanon, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, and the Ivory Coast, and has had United Nations (UN) military observers in the UN peacekeeping missions in the Western Sahara, East Timor, Angola, Tajikistan, Kuwait, the Balkans, and Ethiopia/Eritrea. Because of its history of political stability and its use of English as an official language, the Republic of Ghana provides an ideal platform for staging humanitarian operations and regional peacekeeping training activities.

U.S. military assistance programs in Ghana seek to strengthen democracy through enhanced military professionalism by reinforcing proper civil-military relationships, increasing and improving the GAF’s ability to project and support peacekeeping operations, and increasing and improving the GOG’s ability to support the War on Terror (WOT) by increasing interoperability with U.S. forces.

Military cooperation under the IMET program, the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), the African Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program, and the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) program all reinforce the GAF’s ability to play a constructive role in the development of Ghana as a democratic society and to contribute to peacekeeping efforts in the region and beyond. The GAF was one of the prime organizers behind the West African response to the recent Liberian crisis and the Economic Community of African States (ECOWAS)-sponsored deployment in Cote d’Ivoire, and has played an integral part in African Union (AU) initiatives to develop an African Stand-by Force.

Ghana’s IMET-funded training in FY 2007 ranged from professional military education (PMEs) to air traffic control and medical specialties. Training provided by funding under the IMET program enables Ghana to build a network of graduates from U.S. education and training programs. These graduates can pass on their knowledge and expertise and assist Ghana in building the institutions needed to play a constructive role in regional leadership. These courses also help strengthen the GAF’s apolitical role in a democratic society.

Ghana’s armed forces were the first to be trained under the ACOTA program, and ACOTA-trained GAF trainers have trained all deploying GAF peacekeeping units since April 2003. The GAF continues to be supported by ACOTA training and equipment, which helps ensure there are up-to-date training modules, and continuity of its trainer force. Based on a feasibility study conducted in 2005, the ACOTA team provided funding for the construction of a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) site at the GAF training center, which was completed in 2006. In FY 2007, ACOTA trained approximately 1219 members of the Ghanian armed forces.

Peacekeeping training capability development programs, such as ACOTA and GPOI increase the GOG’s ability to more effectively cooperate with ECOWAS and other partners in regional security, peacekeeping, and humanitarian operations.

The GAF was allocated $500,000 in Foreign Military Financing (FMF) in FY 2007. The Embassy’s Office of Defense Cooperation worked with the GAF to help them decide how to best use unobligated funds from FY 2004 and 2005 totaling approximately $1.7 million, and has recommended that the GAF establish a prioritized list of possible uses. The ODC will soon complete delivery of over $400,000 worth of individual clothing and equipment to the GAF in support of peacekeeping operations.

Guinea

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

IMET-1

106

95

24

$466,815

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

5

5

3

$73,702

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

111

100

27

$540,517

0

0

0

$0.00

U.S. diplomatic efforts in Guinea are primarily directed towards democracy, good governance, and economic development, as well as reinforcing Guinea’s ability to play a more effective role in regional conflict-resolution and peacekeeping efforts. Because the armed forces play a critical role in Guinean society, assisting the Government of Guinea to continue to reform its military institutions by engaging in closer military-to-military cooperation and by increasing appropriate military assistance serves U.S. interests.

A moderate and tolerant Muslim country, Guinea is pro-U.S. and supported the United States on UNSCR 1441 and on the passage of numerous anti-terrorism resolutions. The USG witnessed the indirect benefit of U.S. military engagement when Guinea agreed to participate in the West Africa Training Cruise (WATC), a multi-lateral Navy and Marine Corps military exercise, conducted within Guinean territory between the United States, Guinea, Italy, and Spain in October 2005. This was the first time that the Guinean government had allowed a foreign military to participate in an exercise within its national borders. In March 2006, Guinea hosted the first annual U.S.-Guinea bilateral consultations, designed to deepen our diplomatic, strategic, and commercial relationships.

Guinea has a long history of assisting other African countries, but its contributions and effectiveness in peace operations are limited by its army’s organic capabilities. To the extent that the USG can help Guinea develop its armed forces, we will witness improved participation in African multilateral contingency operations. Guinea has participated in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and UN peace operations in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Burundi, Haiti, and Rwanda. Through combined training and exercises, West African countries may be able to avoid conflict in the future, and failing that, will be better able to conduct multilateral peace/humanitarian operations. In this context, Guinea should also be considered for invitation into the Africa Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) and the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) programs.

English is the operational language for international peace/humanitarian operations and the Guinean Armed Forces are finally seeing the value of having English-speaking personnel. To assist in this endeavor, the Defense Attaché Office (DAO) has committed to improving the military’s two existing language laboratories with an infusion of updated training materials and English language instructor training, as well as building a third language lab outside of Conakry.

Collectively, in-country training has included components on human rights, the rule of law, law of land warfare, civil-military relations, and the role of a military in a democratic society. The USG has also successfully used E-IMET to fund seminars in Guinea in which these topics were reinforced. The most recent such event was a civil-military relations seminar held in Conakry in September 2007. The seminars have bolstered confidence and mutual respect between the Guinean military establishment and civilian leaders. They serve as a catalyst for a joint civil-military follow-up committee that continues to engage in open dialogue and sponsor events including “open-door” visits for civilians to military bases. For many of Guinea’s political, labor, and community leaders these seminars provide their first opportunities to access these locations.

Guinea’s E-IMET budget for FY2007 was $332,000. For FY 2008, it is estimated to be $334,000.

With the assistance of the Defense Attaché Office and other donors, Guinea continues its HIV/AIDS Education and Awareness Program. This program is funded by the Department of Defense and managed by the DAO’s implementing partner, Population Services International. During its first two and one-half years of existence, this program has resulted in the creation of the Guinean Armed Forces’ first HIV/AIDS policy. It has also produced peer educators throughout the country, promoted condom usage and distribution, and inaugurated the military’s first voluntary counseling and testing facility. The program remains a great success.

Guinea continues to be a strong supporter of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). Guinea continues to participate in ACSS events and looks forward to participating in FY 2008. ACSS supports democratic governance in Guinea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Guinea-Bissau

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

IMET-1

37

35

4

$85,696

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

5

5

3

$70,785

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

42

40

7

$156,481

0

0

0

$0.00

Following eleven months of internal conflict in 1998-99, Guinea-Bissau elected a new government in 2000 that ruled until the September 14, 2003, military intervention. A democratically elected legislature took office in Guinea-Bissau on May 12, 2004. In August 2004, the United States lifted sanctions against Guinea-Bissau under section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act (FOAA). A new president was elected the following year in 2005.

Guinea-Bissau now faces four major challenges: 1) down-sizing and reforming the military, and bringing it under civilian authority, 2) promoting economic development, 3) strengthening democratic institutions, and 4) stemming the flow of drug trafficking within its borders. Considering these priorities, any U.S. military cooperation with Guinea-Bissau should focus on human rights and the role of a military in a democratic society. After the resumption of IMET in 2005, Guinea-Bissau participated in a Defense International Institute of Legal Studies (DILLS) seminar in January 2006 and September 2007, as well as English language training during FY 2007.

Additional challenges in Guinea-Bissau include an extremely poor public health system, making it difficult to prevent and combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and other tropical diseases. HIV/AIDS control and other health programs conducted with USG assistance would contribute to regional stability as well as basic humanitarian needs. USG assistance to Humanitarian Demining efforts in Guinea-Bissau has resulted in the removal of nearly all mines from the city of Bissau. The remaining landmines and unexploded ordnance are in two-dozen well-known locations spread throughout the country. There are also an undetermined number of mines scattered along the border with Senegal resulting from the long-standing conflict in Senegal’s Casamance region, which occasionally involves people and locations in northern Guinea-Bissau.

Assistance provided under the Humanitarian Assistance (HA), Excess Property (EP), and HA/other activities programs for schools, health centers, and bridges have been very well received by Bissau-Guinean authorities and local populations. Continued HA activities in Guinea-Bissau would further enhance U.S. relations with the country and contribute to long-term political and economic development goals.

Kenya

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

51

40

29

$599,981

0

0

0

$0.00

DOHS/USCG

29

29

5

$115,975

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

141

141

9

$888,269

0

0

1

$0.00

IMET-1

4

2

4

$44,860

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

11

6

11

$467,530

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

240

240

2

$905,694

260

260

2

$1,570,000

Regional Centers

13

13

8

$134,398

2

2

2

$16,313

Service Academies

3

3

2

$206,861

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

492

474

70

$3,363,568

262

262

5

$1,586,313

Kenya is the linchpin of East African stability and security, and has been a solid partner in the War on Terror (WOT). Kenya has the significant challenge of securing its porous borders with Sudan and Somalia, as well as improving its maritime security. The purpose of military training for Kenya is to improve the professionalism of the Kenyan military and its capabilities in supporting the WOT and Peacekeeping Operations (PKO). Kenya is a major contributor to PKO, with troops participating in all current UN PKOs in Africa. A key aspect of U.S. engagement with Kenya is maintaining access to Kenya’s sea and air facilities for contingencies and training exercises. Access to the Horn of Africa region and the Indian Ocean remains important for current operations, as well as for enhancing USG capabilities to respond to future humanitarian and other emergencies in the region.

Training engagement for Kenya has included the DoD Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) activities, U.S. Central Command exercises, and the Africa Contingency and Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program. In FY 2007, IMET training program helped promote excellent military-to-military relationships through resident courses and mobile training teams in Kenya. Senior and intermediate-level professional military education (PME) courses and technical courses were balanced with mobile courses in country to provide a diverse training program for Kenya’s Armed Forces. Most of the top Kenyan military leaders have attended U.S. resident PME in the past and PME will continue to be a key ingredient for a balanced approach to professional development.

Kenya’s porous borders are exposed to external threats such as terrorists and insurgents. Even though Kenya’s small armed force of 30,000 personnel is focused on external threats, they are transitioning to more multifaceted missions against terrorism following the bombing of the American Embassy in Nairobi in August 1998, the bombing at a tourist hotel in Mombasa, and the attempt to shoot down an Israeli civilian aircraft. In FY 2007, the CTFP was instrumental in training key Kenyan Department of Defense (KDOD) leaders at the National Defense University’s Counterterrorism Fellows course and the Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR) course on combating terrorism. These alumni are now responsible for helping to fight terrorism and in coordinating KDOD/U.S. operations within the Horn of Africa region. Kenya has also received CT training through Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) activities. The CTFP also trained key, promising mid-level officers in such areas as advanced infantry, armor, and military police functions and port security. Under the CTFP, Kenya benefited from a variety Coast Guard training including a course for 25 students on Port and Harbor Security Management. In FY 2008, the United States will continue to help improve Kenya’s capabilities in disaster preparedness and response.

Kenyan military and civilian leaders participated in ACSS events focused on defense management and small arms proliferation. \ In FY 2007, Kenya sent 28 students to High Level courses and 69 to Middle Management courses at the Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units (CoESPU) in Vincenza, Italy.

In FY 2007, ACOTA focused on training of personnel and providing equipment for a Battle Simulation Center at the Kenya Peace Support Training Center near Nairobi. The training emphasized “train-the-trainer” skills for junior commanders and staff officers in peacekeeping operations. ACOTA training for Kenya is shifting to direct training of units preparing for deployments to mandated PKOs. In FY 2008, ACOTA will provide refresher training for Kenyan peace support operations trainers as well as training and equipment for two Kenyan battalions preparing for deployment to UNMIS.

Lesotho

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

IMET-X

1

1

1

$7,084

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

72

72

16

$196,773

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

73

73

17

$203,857

0

0

0

$0.00

Prior to the turn of the century, Lesotho’s army had been a highly politicized force, vulnerable to influence by political parties. Military involvement in political destabilization and coups d’état had been a problem since independence in 1966. The political/security crisis of 1998, for example, included an army mutiny and junior officer complicity in an unconstitutional attempt to overthrow the elected government. The crisis demonstrated that, at that time, a significant segment of the Lesotho Defense Forces (LDF) neither understood nor accepted the subordinate role of the military in a civilian-led democracy.

Since the political upheaval and violence of 1998, the military has avoided involvement in political issues. Lesotho’s current government has undertaken a comprehensive program to reform and professionalize the LDF and other security services. The United States has an interest in supporting this program because it advances our foreign policy goals of promoting democracy and human rights as well as humanitarian response skills.

In FY 2007, Lesotho participated in Marshall Center programs, including a Leadership Seminar on peacekeeping and stability operations. Participation in these programs supports democratic governance in Lesotho by offering senior officials practical instruction in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics.

Liberia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

FMS

14

14

1

$105,600

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

11

10

6

$131,049

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

3

3

2

$59,159

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

28

27

9

$295,808

0

0

0

$0.00

After 14 years of civil war and two years of an interim government, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf was declared the winner of multiparty presidential elections on November 23, 2005 and took office on January 16, 2006. Her election marked a significant milestone in the country’s transition to democracy. With over 15,000 United Nations peacekeeping and police forces on the ground in Liberia, an effort to restore Liberia’s capacity to provide for its own security is essential. The United States has taken the lead in Security Sector Reform (SSR) for Liberia. We are providing the appropriate equipment, support, and training for a new 2,000 strong Liberian military along with the establishment of a trained Ministry of National Defense staff. The new Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) will be a fiscally sustainable, professional, civilian-led national military force to supplement border control and to interdict arms traffickers and regional paramilitaries.

A weak Liberia could fuel regional instability in West Africa. We need to reduce the potential for terrorists to threaten Liberia’s fragile peace or to take advantage of Liberia as a haven for money laundering, arms smuggling, and other activities supporting terrorism. Liberia has a newly trained, but insufficiently equipped and poorly managed police force; in addition, the military has been demobilized, and the new government has almost no current capacity to control its borders or to enforce customs and other laws. With $5 million in FY07 supplemental PKO funds, we are coordinating with the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) on a program to train and equip an Emergency Response Unit within the Liberian National Police. This unit will respond to emergencies and high-risk situations that demand a unit with enhanced competencies.

Liberia’s military is beginning from scratch. Over 9,000 war recruits have been demobilized, former AFL members have received severance pay, and those eligible are awaiting pensions. A recruiting and vetting process has ensured that the AFL receives the best candidates available, and as of October 2007, 604 recruits have completed initial entry training and infantry advanced individual training. Approximately 230 have undergone or are currently undergoing leadership training in the basic NCO course. International Military Education and Training (IMET) funding will be critical to allow for the continuation of training beyond the basic recruit level. Four Liberian students attended basic officer courses in FY 2007 and two students took a Navy Sergeants course. Foreign Military Financing will be used to build on the IMET program by funding MTTs and long-term (3-5 yr) mentorship for the fledgling military, and to help create a maritime security force. Primarily non-lethal FMF and EDA would be necessary to help equip these forces.

Participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) programs and E-IMET training provide a low-cost investment to build professionalism within Liberia’s military under civilian, democratic leadership. FY 2008 funding would enable AFL members to participate in ACSS conferences, which would support democratic governance in Liberia by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, respect for human rights, and defense economics, as well as engagement and interaction with USG and fellow African civilian and military officials.

Madagascar

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

4

4

3

$13,638

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

31

30

9

$151,630

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

11

11

7

$153,394

7

7

7

$73,619

Service Academies

2

2

2

$67,914

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

48

47

21

$386,576

7

7

7

$73,619

After the failure of its socialist experiment (1975-1991), Madagascar has continued its transition to democracy and economic liberalization, showing much greater openness towards the United States and the West. Throughout the political turmoil of the early and mid-90’s the military remained disciplined, apolitical and respectful of civilian authority despite calls for it to intervene. The resolve of their apolitical posture was again tested in early 2002 during the political standoff over disputed presidential election results. The dispute was resolved democratically and peacefully, without causing significant damage to civil-military relations. Following an unsuccessful coup attempt in November 2006 led by a former Malagasy general, Madagascar held presidential elections in early December 2006.

The world’s fourth-largest island, but one of the poorest countries on earth, Madagascar lacks the capability to protect its 5,000 kilometer maritime border against smuggling and other threats. This inability deprives the government of significant tax revenues, contributes to the endangerment of many rare species found nowhere else, and creates an unintended permissive environment for transnational terrorists.

The Malagasy are traditionally inward looking, but have sought to play a more active role in regional and international affairs. In 1999, Madagascar hosted an African Union (AU) conference that sought to promote reconciliation in the Comoros, and the government has expressed willingness to participate in peacekeeping operations under UN or AU auspices. IMET-funded training for Madagascar has enabled Malagasy officers to attend training that offers basic military skills for junior officers and mid-level officer staff operations, especially for the navy. It has also trained English language instructors at the basic and advanced levels. Madagascar is a French-speaking country and mastery of English is a prerequisite for U.S. military training courses and participation in multinational peacekeeping operations.

The FY 2007 IMET program contributed to the U.S. strategic goals of supporting counterterrorism and combating international crime, as well as of reinforcing democracy. . The U.S. strategy for bolstering democracy in Madagascar includes a focus on enhancing the professionalism of the Malagasy military. In FY 2007, IMET programs provided training on coastal security, officer professionalism, English Instructor Training, and HIV/AIDS Planning and Policy Development Course. Using IMET, the USG also provided mobile education teams on coastal defense. Madagascar had one student attend the U.S. Naval Academy in FY 2007, while another student will begin study at the U.S. Air Force Academy in FY 2008.

The Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS) and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) support democratic governance in Madagascar by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. APCSS and ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in the Asia Pacific region and the United States.

Malawi

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

3

3

2

$12,358

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

0

0

0

$0.00

0

0

2

$0.00

IMET-1

32

18

27

$465,014

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

29

29

5

$159,467

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

64

50

34

$636,839

0

0

2

$0.00

With just over a decade of democratic rule under its belt, a professional and apolitical military is essential to continuing stability in Malawi, one of the world’s poorest countries. Malawi held its second free and fair national multi-party elections in June 1999 and its first-ever local multi-party election in November 2000. Presidential and parliamentary elections took place in May 2004 within a relatively free and fair environment. The country faces increasing and significant external threats from both the rise of terrorism in East Africa and from transnational crime. Malawi has steadily improved relations with its neighbors since its democratic transition and has sought to play a stabilizing role in the region and the continent.

Malawi takes seriously its cooperative military relationship with the United States and has been an active participant in the IMET program. Its military is small and under-funded, yet has maintained an apolitical and highly professional character. The Malawi Defense Force (MDF) has been an exemplary participant in a very active slate of programs. The MDF joins the equally resource-strapped national police force in select operations to fight crime and has distinguished itself in peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance missions. Malawi sent a mixed company of 110 peacekeepers to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in September 2005, and has volunteered to send a battalion to the UN mission in Darfur. Malawi was also the first country in the region to provide flood relief (helicopters and supplies) to Mozambique.

In addition to traditional professional military skills training, IMET and other security assistance programs are allowing the Malawi Army to bring significant resources to bear on key issues, including HIV/AIDS, structural reform, civilian-military relations, and human rights.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Malawi by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Security assistance programs and military exercises provide excellent opportunities and resources in Post’s efforts to assist in the battle against HIV/AIDS in Malawi. All in-country training includes a session on some aspect of the disease. In addition, we have been intimately involved with the USG HIV/AIDS planning exercise to develop a 5-year strategy and one year Country Operating Plan, as all in-country HIV/AIDS activities are now under the purview of the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator. As part of the strategy, we are working with the Naval Health Research Center (NHRC) to develop and implement a targeted prevention program aimed at, and in conjunction with, the MDF.

Mali

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

11

10

9

$294,277

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

391

391

3

$522,003

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

4

2

2

$28,250

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

1

1

1

$15,728

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

470

470

2

$621,309

85

85

2

$496,000

Regional Centers

25

25

7

$88,744

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

902

899

24

$1,570,310

85

85

2

$496,000

Over the past decade the Malian Armed Forces have evolved into a professional organization, which supports human rights, economic development, and conflict resolution. Although Mali has made strides in military professionalism, the overall military capability is hampered by a severe lack of resources, which directly impacts military readiness and ability to deploy. U.S. security assistance programs in Mali serve to institutionalize these changes, providing training in civil-military affairs, coordinating ongoing peacekeeping training, and conducting seminars on the role of the armed forces in a democracy.

Mali has been an effective interlocutor, mediator, and staunch supporter of regional security issues within the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Mali deployed a 250-man contingent to Liberia as part of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) presence in that country.

Mali was among the first countries to participate in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI), which provided training on basic capabilities in responding to crises. Further Peace Support Operations training under the ACRI successor, the African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) program, continued in FY 2007 with the training of 391 students. Malian leaders remain committed to and seek a greater role for Mali as a force for regional stability and peace.

Mali is one of nine partners in the Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP), an interagency program to improve its partners’ counterterrorism (CT) capabilities. As part of the broader TSCTP program, the United States has provided over $8M in FY 2007 Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) funds to train and equip two Malian CT units. In addition, DoD used section 1206 authority to provide Mali approximately $100,000 in FY 2007 in training to improve its military intelligence capability.

Mali is also a partner in the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI), a five-year program to increase the capacity of countries to participate in peacekeeping operations. Over $1.7M in FY 2005 – 2007 PKO assistance that Mali received through GPOI was used to train over 1000 peacekeepers and procure equipment for Mali’s peacekeeping training center.

FY 2007 was the first year Mali was eligible for International Military Education and Training (IMET) assistance as a result of an amendment to ASPA removing IMET as a form of prohibited military assistance. IMET funds provide training to develop the military into a non-political professional military force respectful of human rights. Mali received $182K in FY 2007 IMET assistance.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Mali by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States. Mali has participated in all available ACSS programs and has an active chapter of ACSS graduates.

Mauritania

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

24

24

4

$90,204

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

28

28

1

$40,166

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

200

200

2

$387,674

410

410

3

$1,788,000

Regional Centers

6

6

4

$85,422

5

5

4

$0.00

Section 1004

50

50

1

$250,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

308

308

12

$853,466

415

415

7

$1,788,000

Since 1999, Mauritania has been a recipient of U.S. military and security related support. However, a group of Mauritanian military and security officials carried out a coup in August 2005. The appointment of an interim civilian government caused the United States to limit its engagement with the government except that which specifically relates to issues of vital U.S. interest such as protection of U.S. citizens, some cooperation on counterterrorism, and humanitarian assistance. A recent election in March 2007 revitalized U.S. relations in many areas.

Mauritania has been an active participant in the Trans-Sahel Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP), which superseded the Pan-Sahel Initiative (PSI), a regional counterterrorism program including Mali, Niger, and Chad. The TSCTP program now includes additional countries and is intended to assist Sahelian countries in better coordinating their efforts and strengthening their capabilities to protect their borders, thereby enhancing regional peace and security.

Mauritania received Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds of nearly $90,000 in FY 2007. In FY 2007, Mauritania sent four students to CONUS for English language training, to enhance their communication skill and capacities across the different defense and security services. Mauritania hosted a MET from the Defense Institute for International Legal Studies as well as a Coast Guard MET on maritime operations.

Senior Mauritanian civilians and military leaders continue to benefit from the efforts of the Marshall Center and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). ACSS offers a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Additionally, ACSS helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction amongst participants by offering exchanges, research opportunities, and seminars in the United States, Africa, and Europe. Mauritanians participated in two different regional center seminars in FY 2007.

Mauritania recently offered 800 peacekeeping troops for Darfur but not in time for consideration by the United Nations. However, the United States will be evaluating Mauritania in October 2007 for possible inclusion in ACOTA activities.

Mauritius

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

IMET-1

50

48

8

$94,451

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

8

8

4

$142,512

7

7

7

$73,619

Service Academies

1

1

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

59

57

13

$236,963

7

7

7

$73,619

Located 600 miles east of Madagascar, Mauritius, an island nation in the Indian Ocean, enjoys one of the strongest economies and highest per capita incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa. The economy is based on export-oriented manufacturing (mainly textiles and sugar), tourism, information and communication technologies (ICT), financial services, and marine industries. While Mauritius has no military, approximately 13,135 active security personnel under the command of the Police Commissioner are divided into various units including the National Police, a VIP Protection Unit, a Police Helicopter Squadron, a paramilitary Special Mobile Force (SMF), and a National Coast Guard (NCG). Officers on loan from India head up the Coast Guard and the Police Helicopter Squadron.

U.S. military training assistance has focused a great deal on the Coast Guard, enabling Mauritius to promote professionalism in the National Coast Guard (NCG), enforce maritime law, protect territorial waters, and build capacity for anti-terrorism efforts. All of which contribute to the creation of a stable, peaceful, and equitable international regional order as well as to other U.S. foreign policy goals in this area such as increasing capability and support for the War on Terror.

In FY 2007, IMET funded Mauritian participation in the International Maritime Officer Course and HIV/AIDS Conference, which both focused on developing expertise within the National Coast Guard and government entities. DIILS held in-country training in December 2006. Mauritius also had one PME student attend the U.S. Naval Academy during FY 2007.

Mozambique

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

8

6

5

$70,119

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

47

47

1

$66,063

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

70

69

10

$231,865

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

37

37

8

$162,248

2

2

2

$16,313

Section 1004

0

0

0

$0.00

4

4

4

$84,180

Totals:

162

159

24

$530,295

6

6

6

$100,493

Mozambique is considered a post-conflict success story. Since the signing of the 1992 Rome Peace Agreement that ended sixteen years of civil war, Mozambique has made significant progress in promoting economic reform and advancing democracy. In December 2004, Mozambique held its third multi-party presidential election since independence in 1975. The result was the peaceful transfer of power from a President in office for 18 years to his duly elected successor. Since 1992, U.S. policy has been to encourage democratic consolidation and socio-economic reform. Success in achieving these goals is essential for lasting peace and prosperity for the Mozambican people and for regional stability. While there is still work to be done, Mozambique is moving in the right direction and has developed into one of Africa’s fastest growing economies.

Mozambique has remained active on the regional stage and seeks to participate in observer missions and in other peacekeeping missions. In July 2006, Mozambique contributed a 12-man team as part of SADC’s contingent monitoring the presidential elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Under the African Contingency Operations Training Assistance program in Mozambique, the U.S. government has provided peacekeeping operations support training for the 3rd Mozambique Battalion.

HIV/AIDS poses a threat to this progress as trained and ready personnel become unavailable for service and causes liabilities to the health care system. The Mozambican military is actively participating in the President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) initiative. Through PEPFAR, the capabilities and infrastructure of the Mozambican Military Health Service have been improved, and International Military Educational and Training (IMET) funds have been used to provide HIV-related training in the United States in previous years.

The consolidation of democracy in the post-war period requires that the military play a constructive role by becoming an apolitical and professional military that respects the rule of law and human rights. During FY 2007, IMET funds were used to train members of the Mozambican Navy and Border Security forces in the areas of ship boarding and search-and-seizure techniques. The training was conducted by a three-man Unites States Coast Guard (USCG) team, which also provided familiarization training on three small boats donated by the U.S. to the Mozambican Navy in March 2007. The boat donations and the training in their use have produced tangible results. For example, in August 2007, the Mozambican Navy intercepted nine commercial fishing vessels illegally fishing in Mozambican waters and maritime parks. Seven of the nine interceptions utilized USG-donated boats and crews trained by the USCG. The apprehension of nine vessels is the single highest monthly total to date and represents substantial progress in this area. Lastly, FY 2007 IMET funds were used to send one Mozambican Army officer to the Engine Infantry Captains Career Course and two others to the Center for Civil Military Relations. These officers received training on deployment operations as well as the political-military component of International Peacekeeping Operations.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Mozambique by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States. Mozambique has participated in all available ACSS programs and has an active chapter of ACSS graduates.

Namibia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

GPOI

873

873

4

$819,182

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

4

4

3

$41,622

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

877

877

7

$860,804

0

0

0

$0.00

The primary goals of the U.S. Mission to Namibia are to support global health, democracy, and economic growth and development, including natural resource management. Independent since 1990, Namibia has made significant strides in developing a stable, democratic political system and free-market economy; however, challenges remain. Assisting Namibia in its efforts to address the HIV/AIDS crisis and to overcome the legacy of apartheid provides a basis for enhanced regional stability, economic development, trade and investment opportunities, and advancement of U.S. global interests. Namibia is of growing importance as a provider of peacekeeping troops; it is contributing 650 troops to Liberia and has indicated its interest in supporting other peacekeeping operations on the continent. In February 2006, Namibia became a partner in the Africa Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program, which provides training to enhance the ability of the Namibia Defense Force to participate in peace support operations. During June-August 2007, ACOTA provided peace support operations (PSO) training for a Namibian battalion of peacekeepers preparing for deployment to the United Nations Mission in Liberia. This training was preceded by ACOTA sponsorship of a PSO Training Strategy Conference to assist Namibia in the development of a long-range PSO capacity enhancement strategy as well as Train the Trainer Training for Namibia PSO trainers.

In FY 2007, the U.S. Department of Defense continued to lead the fight against HIV/AIDS in the Namibian military by managing a program that provided annual prevention training and treatment awareness to over 12,000 Namibian soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines at 23 different bases and camps throughout the country. The DoD initiated this program in 2001 and, to date, it remains the Namibian Defense Force's (NDF) only foreign assistance for HIV/AIDS prevention.

In the past, Namibian officials have attended the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS), which supports Namibia’s young democracy by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a program in national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Niger

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

13

13

9

$284,990

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

782

782

6

$1,702,781

0

0

2

$0.00

IMET-1

3

3

1

$29,661

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

4

4

2

$43,994

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

85

85

1

$284,092

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

9

9

5

$108,258

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

896

896

23

$2,453,775

0

0

2

$0.00

According to the United Nations, Niger is the least developed country in the world, with limited resources. It has a democratic government and a primarily Muslim population, which maintains positive relations with the United States and supports U.S. security interests in the region. Niger also has long porous borders with vast tracts of uninhabited desert and savannah. It is geographically situated to the south of Algeria and Libya, north of Nigeria, and lies between Chad and Mali, making it a high-transit area for traffickers and terrorists. Niger is considered a priority country among the nine that make up the Trans-Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership program.

Since FY 2002, military-to-military programs have contributed to continued engagement. A waiver was granted in FY 2007 to allow Niger to participate in the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program. Such programs provide a vehicle to enhance the armed forces’ positive role within civil society and assist the country in its continued democratic transition.

The U.S.-funded training provided to Niger in FY 2007 included training provided by the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), the IMET program, the ACOTA Peacekeeping program, and various programs funded by the Trans-Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership Program (TSCTP). Under CTFP, Nigerien company grade officers attended various combating terrorism training in the United States, including legal aspects of and civil-military response to terrorism. Additionally, Niger was also able to send senior officers to regional center seminars in the United States and others to civil-military relations training seminars in Ghana and Senegal. Under ACOTA, two battalions of Nigerien forces received training in conduct of peacekeeping operations in advance of their deployment to UN Peacekeeping missions. Under TSCTP, military personnel from Niger attended regional leadership conferences, information sharing, and medical training.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Niger by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States. Nigerien military officers participated in ACSS-sponsored seminars in FY 2007.

Nigeria

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

8

7

7

$208,112

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

8

4

8

$641,080

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

4

4

4

$139,811

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

2317

2317

12

$2,086,906

0

0

5

$0.00

IMET-1

76

62

43

$1,190,246

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

0

0

0

$0.00

57

57

1

$204,000

Regional Centers

25

25

8

$244,113

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

2438

2418

82

$4,510,268

57

57

6

$204,000

U.S. engagement with Nigeria on political, economic and security issues is vital to the stability and prosperity of West Africa and the entire continent. Nigeria is Africa’s most populous nation, a key source of U.S. oil imports, and a crucial security partner. Two U.S.-trained battalions of the Nigerian Army played a key role in ending the civil war in Liberia and created conditions for a peace settlement in Sierra Leone. Nigeria soon will send its fourth battalion of peacekeepers--the largest contingent--in the United Nations mission in the Darfur region of Sudan (UNAMID). Under its historic border agreement with Cameroon, Nigeria promptly and peacefully withdrew its 3,500 troops from the once-disputed Bakassi Peninsula in 2006.

Nigeria is the anchor of U.S.-supported peacekeeping operations in Africa, but it lost almost a decade of U.S. military influence through training and cooperation because of sanctions over political and human rights issues. Consequently, we now are ramping up our programs to help the Nigerian military focus on military tasks and the creation of a professional, apolitical leadership. We also must continue to support the participation of the armed forces in international and regional peacekeeping and as a strong and willing ally in the war on terrorism. The Nigerian military has seen participation in peacekeeping missions, especially UN operations, as a means of restoring institutional pride as well as public confidence.

The IMET program in Nigeria will focus on defense resource management and professional military training for mid- to senior-level personnel. This training will be a key component of our effort to professionalize the Nigerian military. Every effort should be made to help Nigeria increase the professionalism of its armed forces. Similar training in FY 2000 and 2001 successfully helped shape the attitudes of the Nigerian officer corps after years of military rule and instilled a sense of their role in a democratic, civilian government. This is a key component of our strategy to consolidate democratic gains, especially in light of the military leadership’s principled refusal to get involved in the April 2007 elections.

U.S.-Nigerian security cooperation remains strong in several areas. Department of Defense Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds have been used to train Nigerian officers and officials in regional counterterrorism issues and intelligence operations. Because of continued U.S. support for the Nigerian Air Force’s C-130 fleet, Nigeria is largely able to self-deploy its own peacekeepers to Darfur. A seminar with the Nigerian Air Force to develop a strategic vision, a robust DoD HIV/AIDS program, and an active humanitarian assistance program are in operation.

Several new programs are underway, one of which links the Nigerian military with the California National Guard as part of the State Partnership Program. U.S. support of a tactical simulation center has enabled the Nigerian military to improve command and control, tactical planning, execution of tactical and peacekeeping missions, and enhanced coordination with other government agencies. In view of Nigeria’s major peacekeeping commitments, the Nigerian military is training under the Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) Program, a component of the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI). Total GPOI support includes ACOTA training activities and equipment support of a Nigerian peacekeeping training center at Jaji, as well as sending 46 Nigerian officers to COESPU in FY 2007. Participation in ACOTA in FY 2008 will further enhance Nigeria’s peacekeeping capabilities and support professionalization goals of the military’s senior leadership.

Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

20

20

1

$6,000

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

12

7

12

$134,564

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

129

129

6

$110,721

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

161

156

19

$251,285

0

0

0

$0.00

Emerging from a five-year period of instability that included a civil war, the Republic of Congo (ROC) has made considerable progress in moving towards more democratic political and economic systems and a more peaceful and stable country. Presidential and legislative elections were held in 2002, and a peace agreement was signed in March 2003 with the last vestiges of the rebel faction known as the “Ninjas.” Since the 2002 presidential and legislative elections, the government has made some progress in rebuilding institutions destroyed during the years of civil conflict in an attempt to restore the faith and confidence of the Congolese people in the government. Legislative elections held in June and July of 2007 were marred by mismanagement and disorganization, according to opposition leaders, but on the whole were carried out without incident. The leader of the Ninja rebel group has accepted a position in the government in accordance with the peace agreement signed in 2003. As a post-conflict country, the ROC still faces challenges to ensure that it remains on the path to develop fully transparent procedures, particularly in the oil sector, and to increase efforts for good governance. The country continues to require considerable repair of its infrastructure and basic social services; restoration of its crucial railroad between Brazzaville and the port city of Pointe Noire is a priority. Over the past year, the ROC has continued to address anti-corruption issues, including transparency in economic sectors, but has not met the requirements of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) program.

IMET funds have historically been used to support Congolese efforts to restructure and professionalize the Congolese military. In FY 2007, Brazzaville’s limited IMET was used to further enhance English language capabilities that prepare Congolese military officers and non-commissioned officers for professional military education (PME) courses. Under CTFP, twenty students attended a DIILS MET on rule of law. In FY 2008, we will continue to focus on the professionalization of the officers and non-commissioned officers of the Congolese armed forces, through such programs as basic, intermediate, and advanced English language instruction. Up to 20 participants will take part in a U.S. Coast Guard seminar on security and vulnerability to be held in the port city of Pointe Noire, and plans are underway to send five ROC participants to a Civil-Military Relations seminar that will be held in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2008.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Congo-Brazzaville by offering senior African civilian and military leaders courses in civil-military relations and technical issues. In FY 2007, two government officials participated in ACSS regional seminars. ACSS participation has helped to build and maintain long-term interaction among African counterparts, and has supported additional exchanges through research, seminars, conferences, and other activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Rwanda

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

2

2

2

$16,361

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

2938

2938

12

$2,275,355

0

0

7

$0.00

IMET-1

22

11

21

$374,516

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

259

259

6

$48,463

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

2

2

2

$138,947

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

3223

3212

43

$2,853,643

0

0

7

$0.00

U.S. programs in Rwanda aim at preventing the recurrence of genocide (which claimed some 800,000 lives in 1994) by helping to create the political, economic, and social conditions that will lead to a prosperous civil society that embraces democratic governance and respect for human rights. To achieve these goals, the United States has implemented a variety of political, humanitarian, military, and economic assistance programs that support U.S. interests in aiding Rwanda’s transition to sustainable development while securing regional peace and stability in Africa’s Great Lakes Region.

Following a two-year period of suspension, IMET was reinstated for Rwanda on March 5, 2003, but was limited to Expanded IMET (E-IMET). Now, however, Rwanda is no longer limited to E-IMET. Rwanda qualified to become a full ACOTA partner in June 2006. The U.S. military provides significant training in support of Rwandan troops deploying to Darfur for peacekeeping operations as part of the United Nations – African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID).

Rwanda has been a partner in the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) Program since 2006. Prior to becoming an ACOTA partner, the ACOTA program assisted the Rwandan Defense Force by providing peace support operations expeditious pre-deployment training for six RDF battalions of peacekeepers preparing to deploy to Darfur. Since becoming an ACOTA partner in 2006, the ACOTA program has provided peace support operations training and equipment for six additional Rwandan battalions of peacekeepers and trained peacekeeping trainers to provide Rwanda the long-term capacity to train its own peacekeepers and enhance their capacity to continue to participate in multinational peacekeeping operations. During FY 2007, Rwanda used IMET funding to send one student to the Army War College and another to the National War College. ACOTA will train and equip eight addition battalions of Rwandan peacekeepers in FY 2008 and continue to focus on enhancing Rwanda’s long-term peacekeeping capacities, to include assisting with the enhancement of Rwanda’s national peacekeeping training center at Gako.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Rwanda by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States. A local chapter, the Rwandan Center for Strategic Studies (RCSS), has hosted several successful seminars in Kigali on regional security topics.

Sao Tome and Principe

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

IMET-1

18

8

15

$270,179

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

8

8

3

$131,473

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

26

16

18

$401,652

0

0

0

$0.00

Sao Tome and Principe (STP) is a maturing multi-party democracy that observes political and civil liberties. In July 2003, some members of the military supported a coup attempt that was resolved through successful talks between the rebels and a multinational negotiating team, including the United States. In June 2005, the cabinet resigned in protest of alleged corruption in the awarding of oil concessions to consortiums with ties to Nigeria. The President reached an agreement with the majority party in the National Assembly and was able to appoint a new government the same month. In March 2006 the President’s party won a majority of seats in the National Assembly. In July 2006, President Fradique de Menezes was reelected in a free and fair election. STP is one of the poorest and most heavily indebted nations in Africa, and its economic problems could undermine its long-term stability and democratic institutions. At the same time, the country’s social indicators are strong for such a poor country. The possibility that there could be large oil reserves in STP’s coastal waters offers hope for considerable new revenues. It could also make Sao Tome and Principe a major player in the economically and strategically important Gulf of Guinea. So far, however, commercially viable reserves have not been identified.

IMET facilitates the building of effective relations between the Sao Tomean and U.S. militaries. It exposes the trainee-participants to U.S. professional military organizations and procedures and the manner in which the U.S. military functions under civilian control. IMET in FY 2007 focused on improving military professionalism and maritime security while continuing to develop the English language capability of STP military personnel, thereby enhancing STP’s ability to participate in other IMET courses. In addition, participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic aims in STP by reinforcing the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders. The USS Emory S. Land visited Sao Tome twice and also embarked two Sao Tomean Coast Guard Officers for several weeks of more intensive training. In addition, the USS Kauffman visited STP in FY 2007 to conduct additional training.

Senegal

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

7

4

6

$69,220

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

3

2

3

$125,562

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

960

960

16

$1,673,283

0

0

3

$0.00

IMET-1

92

38

82

$1,507,527

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

245

245

2

$465,356

0

0

2

$507,000

Regional Centers

36

36

12

$189,113

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

30

30

1

$30,000

48

48

2

$29,900

Service Academies

0

0

0

$0.00

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

1373

1315

122

$4,060,062

50

50

8

$536,900

Senegal is our most important Francophone partner in sub-Saharan Africa, a supporter of key U.S. foreign policy initiatives, and a consistent voice for moderation and compromise in multilateral and Islamic organizations. Senegal was the first sub-Saharan country to offer troops to Operation Desert Shield. Senegal plays a key role in ensuring a vital U.S. interest: regional stability. Senegal is a participant in the African Contingency Operations and Training Assistance (ACOTA) program and participated in Operation Focus Relief (OFR). It hosted the first Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminar in November 1999, the first brigade-level exercise under ACRI (ACOTA predecessor) in October 2000, and has been a leader in the program ever since. The Senegalese military has distinguished itself in peacekeeping operations in Sudan, Cote d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Liberia, Sierra Leone, Lebanon, Rwanda, Bosnia, and the Sinai. They currently have four battalions, about 25% of their army, deployed supporting PKO and recently committed to increase their PKO by 30%, for a total of 3,600 troops serving worldwide.

IMET underpins all U.S.-Senegalese cooperation. The continuing development of a cadre of professional officers through the IMET program is in the interest of the United States and will reinforce Senegal as a full partner with its neighbors in peacekeeping operations in the sub-region. IMET training and ACSS programs have complemented training under ACOTA to strengthen the level of professionalism within the Senegalese officer and NCO corps and support English language capabilities. Reinforcing the traditions of a professional civilian-controlled military that emphasizes respect for democratic principles, human rights, and the rule of law will set an example for other nations in the sub-region. By working with Senegal to further democracy and economic liberalization, the United States helps strengthen the democratic foundation of a country whose growth and successes are extremely important.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Senegal by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States. Under CTFP, four students attended terrorism and security courses at the Marshall Center in FY 2007.

Senegal is a strong supporter of the United States in the War on Terror. During FY 2007, Senegal completed the education of one officer at the National War College at Fort Leslie McNair, two at Command and General Staff Colleges, and nine at officer advanced courses. They also sent a number of officers for train-the-trainer gendarme training at the Center for Excellence for Stability Police Units (COESPU) located in Vicenza, Italy.

Seychelles

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

2

2

2

$50,648

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

9

7

9

$127,072

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

4

4

3

$75,175

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

15

13

14

$252,895

0

0

0

$0.00

Seychelles, an archipelago located in the Indian Ocean, has a population of 80,000 inhabitants. Tourism and seafood are the primary sources of income. Despite considerable economic growth since independence in 1976, many macroeconomic problems plague Seychelles and shortages of basic commodities are common.

The purpose of U.S. sponsored military training in Seychelles is to professionalize the Seychelles Peoples Defense Forces and improve the skills necessary to enforce maritime law and protect the marine environment and local fisheries. An important by-product of U.S. military engagement with Seychelles is access to air and seaports.

IMET training, administered by the Kenya-United States Liaison Office (KUSLO) in Kenya, has focused primarily on maritime training for the Seychelles Coast Guard. Training included classes on coastal security, search and rescue, and maritime law courses on environment and fisheries issues. The program continues to have a positive influence on continued access to the island. Mobile Training Team (MTT) courses have been viewed as being more productive and cost efficient, as they allow for greater numbers of the Seychelles military to participate. In FY 2007 emphasis was placed upon resident training in the United States for professional military education (PME) courses. The Seychelles had one student attend the Naval Staff College during FY 2007.PME continues to be the top IMET priority, while resident professional courses, MTTs, and individual skills training occupy the remainder of the program as limited IMET resources allow. In FY 2007, those resources supported medical and military police training. Army courses aimed at increasing military professionalism are also being added to the portfolio to provide influence on the Seychelles military land component. The FY 2008 program supports PME and the establishment of a Military Police Unit via MTT.

Seychelles received Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds, also administered by the KUSLO, in FY2007 for a Port Security MTT and for CT resident training. As CTFP support for Seychelles continues, courses will be offered that focus on developing CT awareness and expertise within military and government entities.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Seychelles by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Sierra Leone

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

IMET-1

117

117

4

$208,508

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

6

6

3

$84,629

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

20

20

1

$5,982

20

20

1

$19,875

Totals:

143

143

8

$299,119

20

20

1

$19,875

Our priorities in Sierra Leone are to consolidate peace by enhancing political and economic governance, reducing corruption, building national capacity for conflict prevention (including training a professional, civilian-led military), and preparing for nationwide local elections in 2008. The security situation in Sierra Leone continued to improve in 2007, as demonstrated by the successful election of former opposition leader, Ernest Bai Koroma to the presidency. With the departure of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) in December 2005, the UN Integrated Office (UNIOSIL) assumed a peace-building mandate.

Over 45,000 combatants were disarmed in a UNAMSIL-supervised disarmament program that was declared complete in January 2002. Parliamentary and presidential elections were held successfully in August 2007; elections were last held in May 2002 without any violence. The Special Court for Sierra Leone continues to try those most responsible for crimes during the 11-year long civil war under international humanitarian law. Notably, the trial of former Liberian leader Charles Taylor is scheduled to resume in January 2008 in The Hague. The Government of Sierra Leone’s (GoSL) efforts to consolidate constitutional order and state authority by improving its diamond industry and by decentralizing administrative machinery have been commendable, though greater reforms are needed. Many of the root causes for of Sierra Leone’s civil war are yet to be addressed, including poverty, youth unemployment, illiteracy, and the lack of basic infrastructure. They also need to establish a culture of respect for human rights by enacting recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Sierra Leone was one of the first two countries selected to work with the UN Peace building Commission to address the challenges faced by countries following the “post-conflict” state of rebuilding. The Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF) has benefited from British training and has deployed to the borders with Liberia and with Guinea, where border demarcation is ongoing.

Seven years following the end of the Civil War, Sierra Leone continues to face three major challenges: down-sizing and reforming the military and bringing it under civilian control, promoting economic development and strengthening democratic institutions. The Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces strives to be a professional military but is hampered by lack of resources, lack of education, as a result of the war, and high levels of illiteracy, which has resulted in a poorly trained and ill-equipped force. U.S. military training assistance has been, and continues to be, exceptionally beneficial to improving the RSLAF’s capabilities and professionalism. The international Military Education and Training (IMET) program is the cornerstone of U.S. assistance to Sierra Leone.

In FY 2007, IMET funded training has focused on strengthening civil-military relations, understanding; defense resource management, combating corruption through transparency and good governance by hosting a number of in-country METs and MTTs. Much of this training went to RSLAF’s Maritime Wing . . FY 2008 IMET will again focus on capacity building for the Maritime Wing in order to strengthen counter-narcotics, port security, and environmental support elements key to protecting Sierra Leone’s fragile coastal environment.

The RSLAF has an HIV/AIDS rate of 3.2% and Sierra Leone an HIV/AIDS rate of 1.5%. The United States Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP), with its funding to the RSLAF has made the military a leader in the AIDS fight in Sierra Leone providing leadership in sensitization and education campaigns throughout the country which continues to be absolutely essential to reducing HIV/AIDS rates.

South Africa

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

1

1

1

$8,375

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

60

60

16

$204,797

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

217

217

8

$1,837,831

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

2

1

2

$29,511

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

6

4

6

$98,165

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

2

2

2

$29,252

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

288

285

35

$2,207,931

0

0

0

$0.00

After South Africa’s first democratic elections in May 1994, the new government undertook a sweeping transformation of its military. The transformation has included incorporating ten former homeland militaries and anti-apartheid militant groups with the regular armed forces into what is now known as the South African National Defense Force (SANDF). The SANDF leadership struggles with issues of racial representation within the military; differences in levels of training, education, and promotion criteria among the various groups; and limited resources as the new government focuses on providing services to the historically disadvantaged majority.

The South African government is also struggling to define an appropriate mission for the SANDF and to structure the force to accomplish that mission. In recent years, SANDF forces have been deployed for border control, police support, and peace support operations in Burundi, DRC, Sudan, Lesotho, and elsewhere in Africa. A controversial multi-billion dollar defense acquisition program is adding corvettes to the naval fleet and replacing old submarines, jet fighters, trainers, and helicopters in the SANDF arsenal. At the same time, downsizing efforts are expected to bring SANDF forces from a peak of 100,000 personnel to around 70,000 active personnel.

U.S. interests are served by assisting South Africa to transform its military into a professional, apolitical force capable and willing to undertake a regional leadership role commensurate with the country’s size, population, and level of development. A successful transformation will serve as a model for other African countries with which the United States can cooperate on conflict resolution and peacekeeping. South Africa and the United States enjoy an active military relationship, meeting bi-annually to exchange views at the Defense Committee.

In FY 2007, IMET training was resumed and included funding for recipients to attend five courses. This will expand rapidly in FY 2008 to include funding for 36 recipients. Additional IMET training is also possible in technical fields. The 2007-2009 IMET training plan continues to be coordinated with the SANDF through the formal Defense Committee Meetings (DEFCOM) process.

FMF training in FY 2007 included 56 recipients in fourteen different courses. This funding level is expected to remain the same for FY 2008, with half going to fund FMS programs after FMF funds expire in FY 2008 due to ASPA sanctions.

ACOTA training for South Africa continued with brigade staff training for the 43rd and 46th Brigades. Most initial training focused on brigade staff training for the SA Army and emergency medical training for the South African Military Health Service. The DAO and ODC use the ACOTA program to push additional EUCOM Theater Security Cooperation programs, specifically mil-to-mil engagement events focusing on peace support and military disaster and consequence management operations.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in South Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

Swaziland

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

IMET-1

2

1

2

$16,038

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

7

7

3

$126,305

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

9

8

5

$142,343

0

0

0

$0.00

U.S. government funding for military training in Swaziland is designed to promote democracy, human rights, and professional development. In FY 2007, the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program sent one member of the Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (USDF) to the United States to attend courses at the Army’s Infantry School.

Over the past several years, there has been increasing pressure both internationally and domestically for Swaziland to move from its current system of absolute monarchy toward democracy. In a first step towards this end, King Mswati III ratified Swaziland’s first constitution in over 30 years on February 8, 2006. The IMET program, by promoting the professionalization of the Swazi defense force and the role of an apolitical military that respects human rights, will be of vital importance for the rule of law to take hold in this country.

In addition, USG funding has been helping the USDF combat its growing HIV/AIDS problem by training lab technicians to provide in-house services for HIV positive members of the USDF. Swaziland’s current prevalence rate is 42.6% - the highest in the world. Although the USDF has not been specifically surveyed, UNAIDS estimates that in the military HIV can be 2 to 5 percent higher than other populations.

The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Swaziland by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Swaziland has benefited from training designed to assist the next generation of African military leaders to address successfully complex domestic and regional security challenges, as well as training for the legal aspects of conflict prevention and combating terrorism.

Tanzania

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

28

28

1

$38,170

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

0

0

0

$0.00

0

0

2

$0.00

IMET-1

6

5

6

$44,025

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

6

5

6

$56,434

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

6

6

3

$106,235

1

1

1

$8,156

Totals:

46

44

13

$244,864

1

1

3

$8,156

Tanzania is in a critically important location in Africa. Porous borders and easy access from neighboring countries and overseas make Tanzania a prime target of terrorist threats, as demonstrated by the tragic bombing of the U.S. Embassy in August 1998. The port in Dar es Salaam serves as the entry point for shipment of goods to other parts of central Africa. Tanzania is also the main reception point for refugees fleeing instability in neighboring countries, most notably Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The numbers have decreased as the region slowly stabilizes, but Tanzania still hosts approximately 380,000 refugees. The economic, criminal, and possible military problems of such a large refugee group present serious security issues for Tanzania. Also since early 2007, illegal migrants from Somalia have been trying to enter Tanzania in greater numbers not to claim refugee status, but in order to transit to Malawi and South Africa.

Tanzania also serves a crucial political role, serving as the seat for the peace talks aimed at ending the ethnic bloodshed in Burundi. Arusha is the site of the International Criminal Court for Rwanda and is the secretariat of the East African Community (EAC). The Government of Tanzania is frequently called upon to mediate between its neighbors. Tanzania serves as an important partner with Kenya and Uganda in the development of the East Africa Community and Burundi and Rwanda also joined the EAC on July 1, 2007. In addition to integrating the markets and economic policies of these five countries, the EAC envisions facilitating security cooperation among the member nations through a military liaison office.

Tanzania is a relatively stable country, favorably disposed to U.S.-led initiatives and training programs, such as within the law enforcement and health sectors. Tanzania has been a cooperative partner in the War on Terror effort. As a President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) focus country, Tanzania received over USD 300 million USD through the Global HIV/AIDS Initiative for increased HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment.

The IMET program is crucial to Tanzania-U.S. relations because it helps professionalize its armed forces and enables Tanzania’s armed forces to look closely at cooperation at the regional level in organizations like the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). The counterterrorism resident training courses provided by the United States and funded by DOD have helped train Tanzania’s mid-level and senior military and civilian leaders. This is helping to provide the leadership, concept, and instructor base for Tanzania’s establishment of a National Counterterrorism Center, planned for the near future. Six of the 19 officers promoted to the rank of General in 2007 were graduates of either IMET or the Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program. The existence of Islamic extremists in Tanzania makes this effort critical for the protection of American interests in the area. In FY 2007, Tanzania sent students to budget and defense resource management courses using IMET funding. In FY 2008, IMET is set to fund training for Tanzanian intelligence officers.

Although ASPA prohibitions preclude training funded through FMF, the Tanzanian military, through SOLIC funding, participated actively in the Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program. For FY 2007, the U.S. Coast Guard sent a Mobile Training Team to Tanzania to train about 30 military, political, and other port security officials under the Coast Guard Search and Rescue Operations. All of the training programs projected for FY 2008 are exempt from ASPA restrictions.

The African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) Program conducted a Training Strategy Conference in 2007 and will be conducting peace support operations training and equipping activities, for as many as three Tanzanian battalions, during 2008. The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) continued to support democratic governance in Tanzania by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Tanzanian participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities.

Tanzania hosted the Golden Spear Planning Conference in Dar es Salaam in August 2007, at which time the entry into force of the Golden Spear Treaty was announced.

Togo

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

IMET-1

5

5

2

$79,877

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

12

12

6

$150,534

2

2

1

$2,150

Totals:

17

17

8

$230,411

2

2

1

$2,150

Thirty-eight years after seizing power in a military coup, former President Gnassingbe Eyadema unexpectedly died in February 2005. During his reign, the rule of law was not respected, human rights abuses occurred regularly, and the army was used as a tool of repression. After Eyadema’s death, the military installed his son, Faure Gnassingbe, as president in contravention of the constitution. After sustained international pressure, Faure stepped down and Togo held presidential elections. In a hotly contested election marred by serious irregularities, Faure was declared the winner.

The Government of Togo, under Eyadema, had begun formal political consultations with the European Union in 2004, promising to make improvements in the areas of democracy, civil liberties, and human rights. The current government is working within the same framework in the hopes of resuming bilateral aid programs. Faure issued statements urging reconciliation between the ruling and opposition parties, but nothing materialized until the national dialogue convened in April 2006, resulting in the global political agreement of August 2006. Pursuant to the terms of the agreement, the government, the opposition, and civil society established the framework for forming a government of national unity in Togo. Also called for in the global political agreement is the holding of legislative elections, which were scheduled for October 14, 2007. The resulting parliament, along with President Faure, is mandated with undertaking, democracy and governance reforms in a number of key areas.

In spite of its political and economic problems, Togo has played a major role - disproportionate to its small size - in the sub-region to promote peace and stability. Togo’s troops continue to support both Cote d’Ivoire and Liberia in their peacekeeping efforts.

In FY 2007, the USG provided funding assistance for officials from Togo’s Gendarmerie and Ministry of Security to participate in a MET from the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies, as well as in regional center seminars hosted by ACSS. Because of Togo’s difficult transition to democracy and because of the role the military played in the 2005 constitutional machinations and election-related violence, the USG suspended all military assistance until recently. As a result of the progress on the global political agreement, a five-day seminar on civil and military relations, cancelled as a result of the military’s role in the election related violence in 2005, was held in Togo in late March 2007.

Uganda

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

5

5

3

$20,156

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

1957

1957

8

$2,285,538

0

0

4

$0.00

IMET-1

23

16

22

$409,916

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

175

175

7

$77,089

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

2160

2153

40

$2,792,700

0

0

4

$0.00

Uganda continues to play an important role in East Africa and the Great Lakes region. Over the past few years, President Yoweri Musveni pushed a new Somali transitional government to reinstall itself in Somalia, maintained international pressure on Burundi to see through its peace accord and elect a new government, and worked with Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to enact confidence-building measures and move forward to disarm and demobilize militias in eastern Congo. Uganda also cooperated closely with the Government of South Sudan (GoSS) to end the 20-year long conflict with the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA). In the meantime, Uganda continues to professionalize its military. Uganda has been a staunch backer of the War on Terror.

The Ugandan Peoples’ Defense Force (UPDF) withdrew its forces from the DRC in mid-2003. Since then, however, the Ugandan government has complained that the DRC is unstable and provides a haven for remnants of anti-government rebel groups, the Allied Democratic Force (ADF), the People’s Redemption Army (PRA), and since late 2005, the LRA. Uganda has stepped up its joint monitoring and coordination efforts with DRC and the United Nations Mission in Congo (MONUC). In 2005, Uganda’s improved relations with Sudan enabled the UPDF to continue to score successes against the LRA, by splintering and reducing their ranks and driving the LRA’s leadership out of northern Uganda and southern Sudan into DRC. In July 2006, the Ugandan government and the LRA entered into GoSS-mediated peace talks. Improved security in northern Uganda has encouraged thousands of internally displaced persons to begin returning to or close to their homes. The UPDF provides security for the more than 1.3 million Ugandans displaced by the conflict in the North. In an election with opposition party participation for the first time in 20 years President Museveni was re-elected for a third term in February 2006.

As a result of Uganda’s withdrawal from the DRC, the State Department relaxed restrictions on the International Military Education Training (IMET) program. In 2004, the U.S. government lifted the last restrictions on Ugandan participation in regular IMET training. In FY 2007, Ugandan students attended training at the following schools or classes: Army War College; Air War College, Infantry, Armor, and Field Artillery Officer Basic Courses; Marine Officer Basic Leader Course; Staff NCO Academy, Army Sergeants Major Academy, and courses on Civil Military Strategy for International Development: Sub-Saharan Region and International Law of Military Operations. Ugandans also participated in events at the Marshall Center and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies.

The African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) Program re-engaged in Uganda in a major way during 2007, with the goal of enhancing the UPDF’s ability to perform peacekeeping in AMISOM in Somalia. ACOTA provided peace support operations pre-deployment training and equipment for the 1,850 UPDF officers and soldiers of Uganda Battle Group II preparing to deploy to Somalia. ACOTA will be providing similar training for two additional UPDF battle groups during 2008.

Zambia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

GPOI

579

579

2

$971,363

0

0

2

$0.00

IMET-1

67

55

28

$326,392

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

11

11

6

$141,126

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

657

645

36

$1,438,881

0

0

2

$0.00

Zambia has been a commendable example of peace and stability in southern Africa. Not only has Zambia avoided involvement in the civil conflicts of two of its neighbors, Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), but it also has played a role in efforts to broker and implement a cease-fire agreement for the DRC.

Zambia must confront a host of domestic political and economic challenges. The economy contracted sharply for over two decades because of irresponsible economic management and over-reliance on one commodity: copper. Zambia returned to multi-party democracy in 1991 after nearly two decades of one-party rule, but corruption and cronyism undermined the rule of law throughout the ensuing decade. Thanks to better economic management and strong world copper prices, Zambia has enjoyed annual economic growth of about 6 percent in recent years, but this is still not sufficient to alleviate widespread poverty. Zambia held its fourth multiparty national elections in September 2006. The United States and other donor countries work with the public and private sectors in Zambia to support market-driven growth, develop good governance, and combat the HIV/AIDS epidemic. A more prosperous, democratic Zambia can serve as a strong model in a region of increasing economic and political importance to the United States.

The Zambia Defence Force (ZDF) strives to be a professional military but is hampered by a lack of resources, resulting in a force that is poorly trained and ill equipped. U.S. military training assistance has been, and continues to be, exceptionally beneficial to improving the ZDF’s capabilities and professionalism. The International Military Education and Training (IMET) program is the cornerstone of this U.S. assistance.

IMET provides technical training in both operations and support fields. Programs completed in FY 2007 included aircraft maintenance, peacekeeping operations, and logistics management. Additionally, company grade officers as well as non-commissioned officers attended professional military education courses. The Defense Institute for International Legal Studies held a MET in Uganda attended by members of the Zambian Air Force in May 2007. Also, Zambian senior and mid-grade officers participated in seminars sponsored by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS). These seminars, whose topics vary but focus on cooperation and regional/international security, are held both in the United States and abroad.

Zambia participated in the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program. In late August 2007, roughly 600 ZDF personnel completed three months of peacekeeping training. This training not only served to improve Zambia’s peacekeeping abilities but is also expected to improve overall capabilities and professionalism of the force.

The ZDF has an HIV/AIDS prevalence of approximately 29 percent. USDAO Lusaka administers a program valued at almost eight million dollars to increase HIV awareness and to improve prevention and treatment programs for active duty ZDF personnel and their families. This program is under the joint auspices of the President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP).



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