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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

2008 Foreign Military Training: III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--Europe Region


Report
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
January 31, 2008

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Albania

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

11

11

5

$166,085

0

0

0

$0.00

DOHS/USCG

27

27

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

91

72

52

$1,098,359

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

15

15

1

$475,951

200

200

2

$563,000

Regional Centers

50

50

15

$208,414

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

3

3

3

$142,066

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

197

178

77

$2,090,875

200

200

2

$563,000

Albania is a cooperative security partner of the United States and NATO in Southeastern Europe, as well as a reliable ally in the War on Terror (WOT). Its security relationship with the United States and Allied forces has continued to grow, as evidenced by combat troop deployments to Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan, and the European Force in Bosnia-Herzegovina (EUFOR). The GOA has also assisted in the WOT by resettling eight individuals who had been detained by the U.S. Department of Defense at Guantanamo Bay and determined to be no longer enemy combatants, an important humanitarian gesture. A primary U.S. goal in Albania is to use the currently positive atmosphere to help create long-term stability in Albania and the region.

U.S. military training efforts in Albania are a crucial means to this end. In particular, training through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program, Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), and English language programs all advance U.S. goals of assisting Albanian defense restructuring efforts and fostering an Albanian ability to patrol its land and sea borders. Albania has a cadet attending the United States Naval Academy as part of the Class of 2008. More fundamentally, U.S. training in Albania is helping to bring the country more firmly into the Euro-Atlantic community and increases Albania’s ability to participate in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) exercises and activities. Albania received a membership invitation at the NATO Summit in Bucharest in April 2008. Therefore, U.S. military training is critical in augmenting Albanian Armed Forces’ interoperability with NATO forces. Training under the IMET program helps in staffing key Albanian units to be used for future tactical deployments, with IMET graduates at the platoon, company, and battalion levels, as well as in key officer and non-commissioned officer (NCO) positions.

In FY 2007, IMET funded training for 62 students in the United States, and also included mobile training teams to provide cost-effective training in-country. Courses included basic English language instruction, lieutenant and captain basic and career courses in the infantry, military police, signal, intelligence, and quartermaster, as well as defense acquisition management, logistics, NCO development, and other specialties. An Albanian officer also receive advanced training at the Army War College.

Albanian military officers trained under the CTFP will be instrumental in building the institutions Albania will need to be an effective partner in the WOT. This effort will continue as long as CTFP funding is provided for this purpose.

Albanian soldiers and civilian defense officials also have received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

Armenia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

IMET-1

133

90

80

$1,237,288

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

118

118

13

$216,459

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

251

208

93

$1,453,747

0

0

0

$0.00

The United States hopes to promote peace, stability, democracy, and economic prosperity in the Caucasus, and a stable, prosperous, and independent Armenia is critical to advancing U.S. national interests and promoting regional goals. U.S. objectives are served by assisting Armenia in the reform of its military technology and armed forces, and by providing Armenia an alternative to military cooperation with Russia. We seek increased engagement with Armenia’s defense establishment in ways that advance our objectives and at the same time do not disturb the military balance with Azerbaijan. The U.S. focus on the Armenian 12th Peacekeeping Battalion will support this approach, as U.S. assistance is provided to develop NATO interoperability and enhanced capability. The end goal is a unit that will work directly with NATO, coalition, and U.S. forces, but which is geared towards international peacekeeping operations in support of the war on terror.

The waiver of section 907 of the Freedom Support Act in 2002 permitted the expansion of this kind of cooperation. Section 907 previously prohibited most USG assistance to the Government of Azerbaijan and, as part of a policy of even-handedness, the Administration extended this prohibition to security assistance to Armenia. Congress provided the President the authority to issue a renewable one-year waiver of the section 907 restrictions on assistance to Azerbaijan (most recently exercised in March 2007), which the Administration has also used to permit fuller cooperation between the United States and Armenia. Since 2002, authorized exceptions to section 907 restrictions have enabled numerous key Armenian officials from various services to attend conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center instructs representatives from throughout the former Soviet Union and Central Europe in the undertakings necessary for defense reform in states undergoing democratic transition. Forty-two students received some form of instruction funded through the International Military Education and Training program during FY 2007, and it is projected that another 17 may receive such training in FY 2008. The Department believes the first step to military reform and expanded cooperation is exposure to U.S. professional military education (PME). Our policy will hold, however, that no assistance be provided which disturbs regional stability or the military balance between Armenia and Azerbaijan.

The United States hopes to expand further its contacts and cooperation with Armenia, in line with U.S. and Armenian national security objectives. As one facet of our strategic objectives, we continue to urge Armenia to continue to expand its cooperation in NATO’s Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and the Partnership for Peace (PfP). Armenia ratified a PfP Status of Forces Agreement in April 2004 and agreed to an Individual Partnership Action Plan (IPAP) with NATO in December 2005.

Austria

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

1

1

1

$1,000

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

28

19

21

$257,694

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

4

4

3

$10,296

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

3

3

1

$3,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

36

27

26

$271,990

0

0

0

$0.00

Several European non-NATO members, including Austria, are committed to a broad approach to security that recognizes the importance of political, economic, social, and environmental factors, in addition to the indispensable defense dimension. Our collective aim should be to build a European security architecture in which the security and stability of the Euro-Atlantic area are complementary and mutually reinforcing. Exposure to U.S. military education, also for non-NATO countries, is vital to counteract tendencies in Europe that seek to decouple U.S. and European Union security strategies.

Public Law 104-164 prohibits the United States from providing Foreign Military Financing (FMF) or International Military Education and Training (IMET) to high-income countries, including Austria. Therefore, Austria procures training for its Ministry of Defense officials on a cash basis, through Foreign Military Sales. This consists primarily of U.S. professional military education (PME) and technical training for company and field-grade officers.

The United States supports Austria, a friendly nation that generally assists U.S. security efforts in Europe, in all types of training, both professional and specialty skill training, and seeks to develop educational opportunities to broaden and deepen our mutually beneficial relationship. Much of the technical training provided is in direct support of U.S. equipment sales to Austria.

Professional military education adds an important political dimension to our military-to-military contacts and improves Austrian understanding of the social and economic factors that affect our relationship. In addition, professional military education promotes understanding of U.S. strategy, doctrine, and tactics in the deployment of allied resources across the entire spectrum of international conflict.

Azerbaijan

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

3

1

3

$39,414

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

15

10

12

$174,513

0

0

0

$0.00

DOHS/USCG

11

11

2

$15,738

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

50

50

1

$161,868

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

78

49

67

$1,258,612

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

40

40

1

$193,222

70

70

3

$1,020,000

Regional Centers

39

39

14

$222,245

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

55

53

7

$970,777

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

291

253

107

$3,036,389

70

70

3

$1,020,000

Azerbaijan is a key partner of the United States in the War on Terror (WOT). Its cooperative efforts include making force contributions to Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan (ISAF), and Kosovo Force (KFOR), as well as granting blanket over-flight rights for U.S. aircraft en route from Central Europe to the Middle East. Our long-term security cooperation objectives are aimed at enhancing this mutually beneficial partnership by increasing Azerbaijan’s ability to operate with coalition forces, secure its own borders and energy resources, interdict the flow of transnational threats across the Caspian Sea to the West, and promote institutional reform and democratization. To this end, the United States plans to use International Military Education and Training (IMET) to continue the education of junior military officers and border security forces in U.S./NATO tactics and procedures to ensure greater interoperability in the field.

Azerbaijan’s participation in IMET-funded training also exposes it to Western values and culture. The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) program is also aimed at this objective, and additionally serves as a means for educating young policy-makers on the benefits of Western-style institutional reforms. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) has been used to enhance the capabilities of Azerbaijan’s peacekeepers to serve in coalition operations, as well as to enhance the capabilities of the Azerbaijani Navy and Air Force. All of these initiatives are part of a broader U.S. effort to promote regional stability, democracy, and institutional reform within Azerbaijan.

Prior to 9/11, section 907 of the Freedom Support Act prohibited most USG assistance to the Government of Azerbaijan. After 9/11, Congress granted the President the authority to waive section 907 on an annual basis. The President exercised this authority for the first time in 2002 and has continued to do so, most recently in March 2007.

In FY 2007, approximately 30 Azerbaijani officials participated in Marshall Center conferences and courses. Such participation in conferences or seminars of some form at the Marshall Center is expected to continue during FY 2008.

U.S. military relations in Azerbaijan are in the development stage, but Azerbaijan has demonstrated a strong level of support for U.S. WOT efforts, to include vital exchanges of information on international terrorism. CTFP has proven a vital tool for increasing positive results from this extensive cooperation, and it continues to help Azerbaijan build the institutional tools necessary to withstand threats posed by international terrorist organizations working in Central Asia and the Caspian Region, as well as the destabilizing influences from neighboring Iran. Azerbaijan has sent its officials to numerous courses, to include English language training, civil-military relations, terrorism security studies, response to terrorism, and diver and underwater explosive ordnance disposal training. In the coming years, the Office of Defense Cooperation at Baku hopes to increase the number of Azerbaijani counterterrorism planners and mid-level policy makers that attend CTFP training in order to make local institutions stronger, and continue robust bilateral cooperation with the United States.

Belarus

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Regional Centers

111

111

10

$49,127

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

111

111

10

$49,127

0

0

0

$0.00

The United States has an interest in seeing Belarus evolve into a state characterized by democratic rule and respect for human rights. As part of the U.S. Selective Engagement Policy, adopted after the illegal electoral referendum in Belarus in 1996, the United States has strictly focused its aid to Belarus on democratization and civil society development as well as humanitarian and health assistance.

However, mid-level military officers and officials from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are being nominated and sent to attend Marshall Center courses. This is being done in order to expose potential future leadership of the respective ministries to democratic ideals and educate them on the proper interaction of the various power structures in a democracy. The Department of State also sends representatives from civil society and the democratic opposition to ensure the entire spectrum of political society is represented, trained, and offered the opportunity to exchange ideas and points of view.

Bosnia & Herzegovina

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

25

25

3

$82,543

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

1

1

1

$7,343

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

51

31

41

$1,120,420

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

101

101

17

$217,485

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

178

158

62

$1,427,792

0

0

0

$0.00

In 2005, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) enacted a comprehensive defense reform legislative package that abolished the entity armies and Ministries of Defense (MODs) and created a unified, multi-ethnic, NATO-compatible, professional military under a single command and control structure. The legislation was drafted by the High Representative’s Defense Reform Commission, which issued a report advocating far-reaching defense reforms that would enable BiH to become a credible candidate for full NATO membership. With passage of the defense reform law, USG military assistance is now being provided in direct support of implementation of its reforms, to include establishment and training of the MOD, Joint Staff, Operational Command, and other state-level assets, and integration of entity defense institutions and assets into the state structure. Additional assistance is being directed to assist BiH in deploying state-level units, including an explosive ordnance disposal team serving in Iraq in support of the Multinational Force.

Training Bosnian forces through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program emphasizes the professional development of junior and mid-level officers (army advanced courses and command and general staff colleges), and non-commissioned officers (Army Sergeants Major Academy). Training is also provided for mid- to upper-level officials in the defense sector. Training activities support the development of the new state Ministry of Defense and Joint Staff, and other state-level defense structures in furtherance of efforts to meet NATO’s requirements for Partnership for Peace (PfP) membership.

One of the key objectives of U.S. assistance is to help BiH develop the capability to work with other European and NATO nations in maintaining regional stability and participating in peacekeeping operations. Knowledge of English is fundamental to this effort and the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) has provided the funding needed to obtain the equipment to support this effort. This will help to create a cadre of senior and mid-level officials capable of working with the United States in the War on Terror. The U.S. country team is coordinating the efforts of all agencies in support of counterterrorism (CT) training. BiH used CTFP funding for a program on terrorism security studies and a Mobile Education Team on civil-military relations. IMET-funded training focused on English language training, officer and non-commissioned officer professional military education (PME), and specialized skills training. The goal is to educate the leadership of BiH CT organizations at the highest level possible. Terrorism is a growing concern in BiH, and responsible organizations have to learn how to identify terrorists and their networks. In addition, they also need to understand the legalities of CT and how to eliminate terrorist activity in BiH effectively.

We anticipate a number of new Foreign Military Financing (FMF)-funded cases for contractor-provided mentoring, advice, and assistance to the new Ministry of Defense, Joint Staff, and Operational Command in the areas of: organization and manning; development of NATO-compatible training, doctrine, and procedures; and longer-term work plans. Such programs were invaluable in preparing Bosnia for PfP membership, and all share the objective of preparing BiH for its eventual candidacy for NATO membership.

BiH civilian defense officials have received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

Croatia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

8

7

6

$63,439

0

0

0

$0.00

DOHS/USCG

2

2

2

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

16

16

6

$33,442

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

5

5

3

$16,009

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

18

15

13

$102,669

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

85

85

19

$184,013

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

134

130

49

$399,572

0

0

0

$0.00

Helping Croatia integrate into Euro-Atlantic institutions is vital to ensuring the long-term stability of Croatia and the entire region. Our military training efforts are a valuable tool in pursuing these objectives. Croatia has made increasing use of its membership in NATO’s Partnership for Peace (PfP) program since joining in 2000 and received a membership invitation at the NATO Summit in Bucharest in April 2008. In May 2003, Croatia signed the Adriatic Charter with Albania and Macedonia, pledging to work together towards the goal of NATO membership. In August 2005, the Adriatic Charter countries sent a joint medical team to International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. Croatian contributions to ISAF have steadily grown, reaching 200 troops in 2007 with government commitment to increase to 300 in 2008. Prime Minister Ivo Sanader continues to indicate that NATO membership is a top priority for his government.

Previous International Military Education and Training (IMET) programs have supported Croatia’s NATO ambitions and fostered appreciation among Croatian military officials for the proper role of the armed forces in a democracy. IMET-trained officers helped initiate implementation of basic defense reforms, including enhanced civilian control of the military. In

FY 2003, the IMET program focused on the professionalization and democratization of the Croatian armed forces. In FY 2004, 2005, and 2006, IMET funds were allocated but reprogrammed because Croatia was prohibited by § 2007 of the American Servicemembers’ Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7426) from receiving military assistance. Since ASPA was amended to remove the prohibition on IMET, Croatia was eligible to receive IMET beginning in FY 2007.

Croatia is committed to implementing the military reforms needed for NATO membership. IMET would help broaden and deepen current attitudinal changes in the Croatian military and helps build a cadre of officers and non-commissioned officers throughout the command structure ready to implement restructuring with the goal of creating a national armed forces integrated into NATO’s collective security and expeditionary missions. In FY 2008, IMET-funded programs will continue to focus on the objectives described above. Efforts will strive towards enhancing the professionalization of the armed forces through IMET programs, as well as assisting the Ministry of Defense in meeting its NATO MAP goals. This effort would include addressing specific MAP goals, such as deployable niche capabilities and personnel resource management. Foreign Military Sales (FMS) and Direct Military Sales (DCS) would enhance NATO-compatible communications (through the continued purchase of tactical radios), interoperability, and expanding support for English language training.

Croatian soldiers and civilian defense officials also have received U.S.-funded instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

Finland

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

FMS

24

22

14

$97,495

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$2,322

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

25

23

15

$99,817

0

0

0

$0.00

Although not a NATO member, Finland is an active participant in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and a solid partner with the United States in many areas of national security concern. It is actively engaged in the Balkans, where Finland distinguished itself as the first non-NATO nation to lead a multi-national NATO brigade in Kosovo. Currently Finland has 400 troops in Kosovo and the number will likely remain between 350 and 450 for the foreseeable future. Finland also contributes a little more than 50 troops to the EU operation in Bosnia.

Finland is supporting International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operations in Afghanistan with a force of about 80. The GoF is looking to increase troop presence in 2008, with the aim of staffing at least one Operational Mentor and Liaison Team (OMLT) in 2008 and a goal of perhaps taking leadership of a PRT in Northern Afghanistan in 2009. Finland actively assists the three Baltic countries’ efforts to achieve military interoperability with the West, although Finland has significantly cut back on this support since the Baltics entered NATO in April 2004. Geographically, Finland shares a border with Russia, giving it strategic importance beyond its size.

With respect to the European Security Defense Identity (ESDI), Finland supports a strong EU crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged and which does not duplicate NATO structures. It is a great proponent of interoperability. In defense trade matters, Finland supports the trans-Atlantic link, although it also supports the European Defense Agency, and has a stated policy to buy defense products from Finnish industry first, Europe second, and the rest of the world third.

Most U.S. assistance is designed to promote interoperability, an essential element to increasingly close cooperation on defense matters, not only with Finland, but also worldwide. Finland annually sends 20 to 40 military students to the United States for various training opportunities. Although a relatively small program, U.S. training is Finland’s largest source of foreign training. The Finnish military spends its training money carefully, and sends only handpicked candidates to the United States. Most of the courses students attend are technical in nature. They are expected to return to Finland and pass their knowledge on in a “train the trainer” capacity. U.S. training significantly helps Finland’s NATO interoperability.

Finland spent $3 billion to buy a fleet of 63 U.S. F-18 Hornet fighters to provide air defense for the country, taking delivery of the last one in 2001. The Finns are now investing over a billion dollars more in Foreign Military Sales purchases to further upgrade the capabilities of those fighters.

Georgia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

12

10

8

$116,127

0

0

0

$0.00

DOHS/USCG

91

73

21

$154,993

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

28

18

26

$338,907

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

174

127

89

$1,463,923

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

400

400

1

$197,904

100

100

1

$271,000

Regional Centers

93

93

15

$280,345

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$71,033

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

799

722

161

$2,623,232

100

100

1

$271,000

Georgia occupies a strategic position in the South Caucasus astride the Trans-Caspian trade and energy corridor, bordering the Black Sea on the West and Russia to its north. Although relations with Russia are tense, Georgia enjoys friendly and cooperative relationships with its other neighbors, Turkey, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. Georgia is unique among the states of the Former Soviet Union, outside the Baltics, in that it has enthusiastically embraced democracy, free markets, friendship with the United States, and eventual NATO membership. It is one of the largest contributors of troops alongside the United States to operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. It is in the U.S. national security interest to support Georgia’s sovereignty, territorial integrity, and economic development, because its political and economic success can serve as a model for other states of the Former Soviet Union as well as the Mideast. Its success also ensures the continued viability of an alternate route for Caspian Basin oil and gas to reach markets in the West. Stability and increasing prosperity in Georgia reduce the chance of the spread of military conflict, international crime, and weapons of mass destruction in a region that lies at the crossroads of Russia, Turkey, and Iran. Georgia must retain the ability it has developed to prevent the use of its territory as a safe haven for terrorists. United States economic assistance, military training efforts, and active support for broad military reforms enhance Georgia's progress toward NATO membership and its demonstrated ability to make a real, effective contribution to regional and global security.

Military cooperation between the United States and Georgia is coordinated using the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), Foreign Military Financing (FMF), International Military Education and Training (IMET) funds, and other U.S. assistance programs. Assistance is focused on capacity building and enhancing Georgia’s interoperability with NATO. An additional focus of assistance is border control and law enforcement.

The 1st Brigade (formerly the 11th Brigade) of the Georgian Armed Forces is the parent unit to three of the four battalions trained by the United States under the Georgia Train and Equip Program (GTEP). In June 2006, the 2nd Brigade completed the Sustainment and Stability Operations Program (SSOP), and is also trained to GTEP standards. The 3rd Brigade began its training in the summer of 2006 under the SSOP II program and completed training in June 2007. All infantry battalions in the 1st and 2nd Brigades have completed at least one rotation in Iraq. The 3rd Brigade infantry battalion rotated to Iraq in September 2007.

Ireland

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Exchange

3

1

3

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

13

10

9

$83,161

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$71,033

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

17

12

13

$154,194

0

0

0

$0.00

Although not a NATO member, Ireland is an active participant in UN peacekeeping missions and in the NATO Partnership for Peace (PfP) program, working as a solid partner with the United States in many areas of national security concern. Ireland currently has roughly 800 service members, approximately 94% of the limit authorized under Irish law, deployed to various peacekeeping and observer missions worldwide. In Fiscal Year 2007, Irish service members served in operations in Afghanistan (ISAF), Lebanon (UNIFIL), Bosnia (SFOR), Kosovo (KFOR Framework Nation), and Liberia (UNMIL), where they worked closely with U.S. and NATO troops. Additionally, Ireland deployed a number of personnel to the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), the UN Headquarters in NY (UNNY), the UN Observer mission in Western Sahara (MINURSO), the UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), the UN Observer Mission in the Congo (MONUC), the UN Observer Mission in the Ivory Coast (ONUCI), the OSCE, the European Community Monitor Mission (EUMM), the EU Military Staff, and the European Union Observers (EUMO) with African Union Peacekeepers in the Darfur area of Sudan. As a member of the European Union, Ireland also participates in the European Security and Defense Policy. In Fiscal Year 2008, Ireland is expected to deploy 300-350 service members to Chad in support of the UN mission to Chad and the Central African Republic (MINURCAT) as well as provide the European Union operational command for the 4,000 strong European Union contribution to MINURCAT. Training provided to Ireland is intended to increase interoperability and to strengthen the capabilities of the Irish Defense Forces in carrying out these duties and responsibilities.

Kosovo

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

3

3

1

$3,360

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

29

29

13

$152,176

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

32

32

14

$155,536

0

0

0

$0.00

In June 2007, Kosovo declared its independence. As part of the continuing international role in Kosovo, an international military presence (NATO) will continue to help provide a safe and secure environment while also overseeing and training a small, lightly armed Kosovo security force

In FY 2007, Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds were used to provide training on civil-military relations to three Kosovars. Additionally, 27 students from Kosovo participated in seminars and other courses held at, or hosted by the Marshall Center. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

Macedonia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

3

3

3

$35,408

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

50

28

45

$1,020,065

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

0

0

0

$0.00

50

50

1

$160,000

Regional Centers

132

132

17

$171,876

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

180

180

1

$50,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

365

343

66

$1,277,349

50

50

1

$160,000

The August 2001 Ohrid Framework Agreement (FWA), which ended the 2001 ethnic Albanian insurgency in Macedonia, laid the groundwork for Macedonia’s peace and stability in the context of improved civil rights for minority groups. Among other provisions, the FWA called for strengthening Macedonia’s democratic institutions, including the armed forces and police, by making them more ethnically inclusive. With international assistance, Macedonia’s political leaders completed the legislative requirements of the FWA and continue to take important steps toward its practical implementation. NATO’s Task Force Fox departed Macedonia in April 2003 and was replaced by the EU’s Operation Concordia, which helped government authorities monitor the former conflict area. Improvements in the security situation allowed the Concordia mission to terminate in December 2003, ending such international military deployments in Macedonia.

Macedonia’s relations with its neighbors are friendly and constructive. One of the highest foreign policy priorities of the Macedonian government is accession to NATO. As a member of NATO’s Membership Action Plan and Partnership for Peace, Macedonia is working to improve its military capabilities and interoperability with NATO. Under the 2003 Adriatic Charter, Macedonia is working with its partners, Albania and Croatia, to deepen regional cooperation and contribute jointly to international military missions, including to NATO operations in Afghanistan. Macedonian public and governmental support for NATO and Macedonian NATO membership remains very strong, with 89-90 percent of the population favoring membership in NATO. A series of multiethnic government coalitions consistently have pursued Euro-Atlantic integration, advancing reforms on the path to eventual EU and NATO membership. Macedonia has been a strong ally in the War on Terror (WOT), increasing contributions to multinational coalition operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Under the Adriatic Charter, Macedonia, Albania, and Croatia deployed a combined medical team to Kabul in support of the International Stabilization and Assistance force (ISAF) in Afghanistan in August 2005. Additionally, Macedonia is contributing troops and helicopter support to the EU peacekeeping operation in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

The United States is committed to helping Macedonia progress toward full Euro-Atlantic integration. USG military training, funded through International Military Education and Training (IMET), is essential to building support for and implementing necessary reforms. Professional Military Education (PME) for infantry, logistics, and military intelligence officers, defense management, the Air Command and General Staff College, and English language training is consistent with the U.S. and NATO goals of improving Macedonian interoperability with NATO forces and enhancing Macedonia’s capacity to deploy units in support of international peacekeeping operations. Continued United States government educational programs will further increase support for broad military reforms within the officer corps.

Scheduled FY 2008 IMET-funded training continues its focus on PME for both commissioned and non-commissioned officers. Highlights of projected FY 2008 training include Air Command and General Staff College, logistics and infantry officer career courses, First Sergeant and Sergeants Major courses, and the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. IMET training is improving Macedonia’s potential for NATO interoperability and Partnership for Peace (PfP) participation. Reflecting the high regard Macedonia’s civilian and military leadership accord the IMET program, an increasing number of Macedonia’s IMET graduates are assuming positions of prominence within the military, such as defense attachés, brigade and garrison commanders, and general staff officers.

The Marshall Center in Germany continues to provide U.S.-funded training to civilian and uniformed Macedonian Defense and national security affairs officials. Through seminars and conferences, the Marshall Center instructs Central and Eastern European students in civil-military relations, ethnic conflict prevention, anticorruption measures, and defense economics.

Finally, as a NATO aspirant and PfP participant, Macedonia’s Ministry of Defense continues to use NATO’s Kosovo presence to familiarize military officers with NATO procedures. Macedonia has assumed from NATO HQ Skopje full “host-nation support cell” functions supporting movement control and logistics coordination for all NATO operations (including KFOR) through Macedonia.

Malta

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

3

3

2

$11,503

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

3

3

3

$33,625

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

10

9

6

$60,777

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

3

3

2

$4,480

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

21

21

3

$153,000

19

19

2

$105,000

Totals:

40

39

16

$263,385

19

19

2

$105,000

Malta is strategically located in the Central Mediterranean. It is a key forward boundary that bridges Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. One-third of all international maritime traffic passes through Maltese ports or waters. Malta has two large ports, including a regionally important container port (Freeport) and a major ship repair facility used regularly by the U.S. Navy. The threat of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and dual-use material transshipment through the Maltese Freeport is potentially serious. In 2004, the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL) established Freeport as its Mediterranean hub. Malta is also close in proximity to other states of interest (specifically Libya and Algeria).

Malta is an active partner with the United States in combating terrorism and WMD proliferation. Malta also serves to promote regional security and stability by cooperating closely on a wide range of security-related activities with the United States.

In July 2003, the provision of International Military Education and Training (IMET) and Foreign Military Financing (FMF) funds were prohibited since Malta had not entered into an Article 98 agreement with the United States. At that time, Malta was a candidate for membership in the European Union (and became an EU member in May 2004) and felt pressured not to sign such an agreement as it might endanger its candidacy. The suspension and withdrawal of virtually all U.S. military assistance seriously hindered Malta’s ability to continue development and standardization of its armed forces. On October 17, 2006, section 1222 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 (Public Law 109-364) removed IMET as one of the types of military assistance prohibited pursuant to section 2007 of the American Servicemembers’ Protection Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-206), and Malta became eligible to receive IMET beginning in FY 2007.

Funding through the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) has been essential in sustaining accomplishments achieved through the IMET and FMF programs in Malta, particularly in the development of effective Maritime Law Enforcement operations capabilities oriented toward detection and interdiction of WMD and dual-use materials transiting Maltese ports and waters. Malta acknowledges its armed forces’ limitations in the area of counterterrorism and has actively sought U.S. assistance in resolving recognized shortcomings. The current Maltese focus for counterterrorism efforts is on increasing response capability to terrorist activity. This includes developing the capability to identify, manage, and respond to terrorist threats and logistics activities.

Moldova

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

7

7

2

$9,258

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

1

1

1

$10,457

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

101

67

70

$1,350,793

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

85

85

14

$128,123

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

194

160

87

$1,498,631

0

0

0

$0.00

Moldova has developed a cooperative security relationship with the United States, both bilaterally in such areas as nonproliferation and multilaterally through such avenues as NATO’s Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). Moldova’s military is active in Partnership for Peace (PfP) activities, despite being short on resources as the country’s economy continues to struggle. Finally, the Moldovan government has made efforts to settle peacefully its dispute with the Transnistrian separatists in eastern Moldova.

The fundamental U.S. goals in Moldova are regional stability, economic prosperity, and the promotion of democracy.

U.S.-funded military training comprises an important part of the strategy employed to meet these goals. In particular, U.S. military training funded through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program, military-to-military programs, the State Partnership Program (SPP) with North Carolina, and U.S.-Moldovan bilateral exercises help Moldovan soldiers acquire the skills necessary to operate alongside NATO forces, participate more actively in PfP activities, and support peacekeeping operations, as demonstrated by continued deployments of Moldovan deminer troops to Iraq.

Numerous Moldovan officers receive training under the IMET program, with training concentrated in developing the operational skills of officers in a wide range of specializations. Moldovan signal, medical, engineer, and finance officers, as well as air defense artillery, armor, and infantry lieutenants and captains have been trained under the IMET program. More senior officers have attended the Air Force Command and General Staff Colleges and one officer has attended the Army War College. Moldovan IMET attendees also have taken more universally applicable classes in such areas as English language and language instruction, civil-military relations, and information systems management. IMET funds were also used to upgrade the five English language laboratories that are operated by the Ministry of Defense. EIPC funds were used to help Moldova establish a Peacekeeping Training Center at the Ministry of Defense Headquarters in November 2006. In addition to IMET funds, the Moldovan military also uses Foreign Military Financing (FMF) funds to obtain more NATO-compatible equipment, such as radios.

In 2004, Moldova participated in a USEUCOM-sponsored National Defense Assessment, during which the Moldovan National Army granted unprecedented openness and transparency to U.S. military experts. Based on the Assessment, the Moldovans moved along fairly smoothly in defense reform in 2005 and 2006 with the assistance of the Center for Civil-Military Relations out of Monterey, California. Since the fall of 2006, however, very little has been done. U.S. defense reform initiatives are on hold because of a delay in governmental approval of the Terms of Reference for restructuring the Ministry of Defense and more importantly, the National Security Concept. When the documents are approved, defense reform initiatives should begin again. All future defense reform will be tied into chapter two of Moldova’s Individual Partnership Action Plan (IPAP) with NATO, which they signed in 2006.

Moldovan officials also benefited from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe. To date, over 213 Moldovans have completed Marshall Center programs.

Republic of Montenegro

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

DOHS/USCG

20

20

1

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

30

30

15

$113,293

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

50

50

16

$113,293

0

0

0

$0.00

Since its independence in 2006, Montenegro has placed a strong priority on developing its capacity as a cooperative security partner of the United States and NATO and developing its defense and military structures in close collaboration with the United States. Montenegro concluded a number of security and technical military agreements with the United States, including the SOFA and ACSA agreements. U.S. funding supports our bilateral cooperation in areas such as destruction of small arms and light weapons. In an initial step to its growing contributions to U.S.-led and NATO operations in the War on Terror, Montenegro donated $1million worth of arms and military equipment to the Afghan Army in August 2007. The Montenegrin Parliament has taken measures towards adopting legislation governing the future deployment of Montenegrin soldiers in international missions.

In FY 2007, twenty Montenegrin officers, from the Navy, Maritime police and Customs, participated in a Mobile Training Team exercise on Small Boat operations. Officials from Montenegro also participated in a variety of seminar and executive training courses at the George C. Marshall Center.

Russia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

IMET-1

16

13

8

$180,311

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

23

23

10

$100,756

10

10

8

$90,986

Totals:

39

36

18

$281,067

10

10

8

$90,986

The United States and Russia cooperate on the prevention of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and counterterrorism. The United States encourages Russia’s development as a democratic society which respects the rule of law and human rights. However, the year has seen continued reports of acts of intolerance of ethnic minorities, further centralization of power in the executive branch, problematic December 2 Duma elections, a judiciary lacking independence in political cases, corruption and selectivity in the enforcement of the law, continuing media manipulation and some

self-censorship, and harassment of some non-governmental organizations. Still a nuclear power, Russia plays a significant role in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, as well as in the UN Security Council and other international organizations. Russia also participates in the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI).

The NATO-Russia Council (NRC) was established at the Rome Summit in May 2002. The NRC places emphasis on individual NATO Allies and Russia working as equal members on selected, mutually-agreed initiatives. The work of the NRC is centered on specific, practical projects designed to enhance cooperation and the interoperability of NATO and Russian forces. Programs have included civil emergency planning exercises, joint search and rescue exercises, counternarcotics training, and naval counterterrorist interdiction efforts. The NATO-Russia Council’s military-to-military interoperability program promotes the ability of NATO and Russian forces to work side-by-side in the field to face the 21st century threats of terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

Warsaw Initiative Funding for Partnership for Peace (PfP) exercises provides opportunities for Russian officers to interact with U.S. and NATO counterparts. Russian officers can develop greater understanding of NATO doctrine and concepts of coalition contingency operations and the role of the military in a democracy. These programs seek to increase cooperation between NATO and Russia and to reduce Russian fears that NATO threatens Russian security. Russia has contributed to Operation Active Endeavor in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

The International Military Education and Training (IMET) program has historically played the largest role in Russian military assistance from the United States. Russia’s FY 2007 allocation for IMET was $500,000. The Russian IMET program has focused on interoperability, counterterrorism, military medicine, and the development of a professional military enlisted force. In FY 2007, Russia attended medical observer, military peacekeeping operations, and defense management courses, which directly supported these objectives. They also participated in HIV/AIDS awareness, education and prevention events and English language training. There is very little interest by the Russian military in more traditional IMET-funded events like Professional Military Education and war colleges. In FY 2007, the IMET program for Russia was suspended by the State Department. Due to this suspension, only $99,000 of FY 2007 funding was used by the Russians and numerous courses and training events were cancelled. Additionally, the Russians continue to show only limited interest in either the George C. Marshall Center in Germany or the Asia-Pacific Center in Hawaii. Approximately 23 individuals from various government agencies attended courses/seminars at the Marshall Center in FY 2007.

The Russian-Georgian conflict in August 2008 resulted in a suspension of military-to-military activities with Russia. Continuation of military-to-military contacts will be dependent upon Russian compliance with the Sarkozy-Medvedev ceasefire agreement.

Serbia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

5

5

3

$47,897

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

4

2

4

$104,886

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

28

28

5

$144,784

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

9

8

3

$81,061

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

8

6

8

$118,153

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

396

396

21

$285,509

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$67,914

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

451

446

45

$850,204

2

2

1

$0.00

Sustainable defense reform within a Serbia on the path to Euro-Atlantic integration is key to ensuring long-term stability in the Balkans. Following the democratic transition in Belgrade, our policy for both Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro has been to encourage development of a professional military that is cooperative and compatible with Western standards, respects human rights, and whose actions do not pose a threat to peace and stability in the Balkans. During FY 2007, Serbia participated in civil-military response to terrorism and regional civil-military training funded by the Combatting Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), in peacekeeping training at the Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units, and in an intelligence officer career course funded by the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program.

Sweden

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

FMF

12

7

10

$65,342

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

65

59

38

$1,880,860

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$934

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

78

67

49

$1,947,136

0

0

0

$0.00

Although Sweden is not a member of NATO, it is an active participant in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and a solid partner with the United States in many areas of national security concern. For example, Sweden is an energetic player in the Balkans, was one of the first with troops on the ground in Kosovo, and provided support to the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan. Sweden is a staunch supporter of NATO’s Open Door and assisted the three Baltic countries with military interoperability issues. Sweden also donated equipment to outfit troops in the Baltics. Sweden has expressed interest in engaging in joint military exercises with Russia, which is an effort the United States government supports.

With respect to the European Security Defense Identity (ESDI), Sweden supports a strong European Union crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged and which does not duplicate NATO structures. The Swedish government has committed to lead an EU battle group (providing 1100 of the 1500 soldiers) that would be available in 2008. In FY 2007, Sweden paid for U.S. professional military education (PME) opportunities at the Army career courses for infantry captains, a psychological operations officer course, and combat sasualty care and advance trauma life support training. Sweden also remains a great proponent of interoperability and defense cooperation. It is important to continue prompting close cooperation on security issues between Sweden and the United States.

Sweden has benefited from seminars at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

Switzerland

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

FMS

53

31

45

$740,993

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

5

5

3

$11,719

1

1

1

$0.00

Totals:

58

36

48

$752,712

1

1

1

$0.00

The United States and Switzerland work closely to advance human rights, democracy, nonproliferation, and other issues of global concern. A traditionally neutral democratic nation, Switzerland has focused on its ability to participate in democracy-building and peacekeeping exercises since joining NATO’s Partnership for Peace (PfP) in 1996. Its PfP goals focus largely on enhancing interoperability of forces and capabilities that may be declared available for PfP activities, but within

self-imposed limits on participation related to the Swiss concept of neutrality. Switzerland participates in KFOR with one combat service support company (logistic service) of approximately 220 plus two medium transport helicopters and some 25 personnel plus two medium transport helicopters to EUFOR in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Approximately 20 officers also serve as UN observers and five officers are deployed with the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission in Korea. Some specialized military personnel can be called up at short notice for humanitarian operations, as was done for an unarmed task force deployed to Sumatra in January/February 2005 (some 50 personnel and three medium transport helicopters.) Switzerland regularly supports PfP Trust Fund projects in order to reduce stockpiles of arms, mines, and munitions. It has done so in Albania, Serbia, Montenegro, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Ukraine. Switzerland maintains three centers focused on its security goals: the Geneva Center for Humanitarian Demining, the Geneva Center for Security Policy, and the Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. Switzerland planned about 250 activities in its 2007 program, which mainly involved the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, the Swiss Federal Department of Defense, Civil Protection and Sports, and the Armed Forces.

Ukraine

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

11

10

8

$190,919

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

5

5

4

$8,143,645

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

64

64

4

$572,392

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

145

78

127

$2,872,410

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

149

149

15

$431,910

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

0

0

0

$0.00

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

374

306

158

$12,211,276

2

2

1

$0.00

Ukraine is an important partner for the United States in the former Soviet space, and an important contributor to the War on Terror. Although, in fulfillment of a campaign pledge, President Yushchenko pulled Ukrainian troops out of Iraq in December 2005, the Government of Ukraine continues to contribute up to fifty troops to Iraq at any given time and has provided needed materials to the Iraqi army. Ukraine has deployed troops in support of U.S. and UN operations in Kosovo (KFOR), Sierra Leone, Lebanon, and in other UN observer groups. Ukraine has made a national contribution of airlift for NATO’s support operations in Darfur, Sudan, and has provided airlift for troops and supplies from European partners participating in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. Urkraine also began participation in Operation Active Endeavor in late 2007 through the deployment of the Ukrainian corvettes “Ternopil” and “Lutsk.” The United States continues to work with Ukraine to bolster the capabilities of the State Border Guard Service to block efforts by terrorists and others to secure components, materials, and expertise related to weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs.

Ukraine and NATO have strengthened their relationship through the continued development of the NATO-Ukraine Commission established in 1997 on the basis of the NATO-Ukraine Charter, and through an intensified dialogue on Ukraine’s membership aspirations that began in April 2005. Ukraine’s Euro-Atlantic orientation and close partnership with NATO have been key elements of a strengthened Western orientation in Ukrainian foreign policy under President Yushchenko. Ukraine has shown strong commitment to NATO membership and recently asked to join the alliance’s Membership Action Plan – a precursor to membership – at the next NATO summit. Although 2007 NATO activities were slowed due to elections and political uncertainty in country, there were numerous bilateral and multilateral military activities between NATO member countries and Ukraine in 2007. Short term military priorities and assistance included work to transition to a NATO-compatible defense planning system, manage the significant manpower cuts required through the Armed Forces, improve areas of training, education and social security, and improve operational readiness and capability for peace support operations. The effectiveness of civil and democratic control of Ukraine’s Armed Forces was advanced in 2007 through a combination of educational, and personnel initiatives, as well as public awareness and governmental oversight programmes. The Ministry of Defence released the second annual edition of the White Book (in February 2007) as a means of ensuring transparency on its defence policy and plans. Despite uncertainty of funding, plans for the restructuring of the Ukrainian Armed Forces to 2011 continue to include the establishment of a well-equipped and well-trained Joint Rapid Reaction Force of up to 29,000 regular military personnel; comprising a small Immediate Reaction Force of up to 6,000 personnel and a larger Rapid Reaction Force of up to 23,000 personnel, supported by a Main Defence Forces of up to 65,000 regular and reserve military and civilian personnel. Finally, Ukraine recently announced its intention to contribute to the NATO Response Force (still under consideration at HQ NATO).

The United States continues to work for the development of an independent, democratic Ukraine with a market-oriented economy. The November-December 2004 Orange Revolution served as a benchmark for democratic progress in the post-Soviet era, however. Ukrainian politics continue to be unsettled as competing players seek to interpret and apply new constitutional arrangements that give more power to the Rada and the Cabinet, at the expense of the Presidency. In April 2007, the President of Ukraine dissolved the parliament due to an eight-month power struggle between the President and Parliament. Early parliamentary elections were eventually held in September 2007, where international observers declared that elections met all international standards for democratic elections. The government spent the latter part of 2007 forming electoral blocs and alliances, but is now fully formed and focused on work towards Ukraine’s Euro-Atlantic Integration.

We seek to reinforce the democratic gains made during the Orange Revolution and realized in the recent elections, including such fundamental rights as freedom of expression and freedom of association. Along these lines, U.S. goals for engaging Ukraine’s military include strengthening civilian control, fostering the reforms necessary for increasing integration of Ukraine into the security institutions of the larger Euro-Atlantic community, and enhancing the capability and interoperability of Ukrainian forces for coalition operations. U.S.-funded military training efforts are a crucial part of this effort.

Training received through International Military Education and Training (IMET), Foreign Military Financing (FMF), Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) and other U.S. military assistance programs contributes to U.S. goals by augmenting Ukraine’s ability to participate alongside NATO forces in crisis response operations, in Partnership for Peace (PfP) exercises, and other activities. Ukraine makes extensive use of the IMET program to improve Ukrainian military readiness in a broad range of functional areas. Areas of concentration include military legal training, civil-military relations, officer professional military education (logistics, signal, infantry, engineer, and military police), classes in information systems and defense resource management, strategic intelligence, and air traffic control operations. In addition, senior Ukrainian officers have been trained at command and general staff colleges, as well as the Army War College and the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. Equipment purchased with FMF has aided Ukraine’s participation in KFOR, which has led to critical, practical training through real-world peacekeeping experience for Ukrainian troops. A particular priority is communications equipment for Ukrainian units, further enhancing their interoperability when deployed with NATO forces.



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