printable banner

U.S. Department of State - Great Seal

U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

2008 Foreign Military Training: III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--Near East Region


Report
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
January 31, 2008

Share

Algeria

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

14

11

11

$525,704

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

51

36

46

$1,398,490

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

23

23

11

$143,746

1

1

1

$0.00

Service Academies

2

2

2

$67,914

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

90

72

70

$2,135,854

1

1

1

$0.00

The United States has a clear interest in increasing regional stability by promoting democracy, economic reform, and security in Algeria. Training in FY 2007 followed a measured approach in order to encourage continuing reform within the Algerian military establishment, including gradual moves towards greater pluralism and respect for civilian authority and human rights. After more than a decade of bitter conflict, and despite a recent uptick in attacks, activity by armed insurgents has generally diminished. This has allowed the Algerian military to begin to refocus its counterterrorism efforts on collaborative programs with regional partners. In tandem with these regional partners, the Algerian military is currently working to secure its long and porous borders. In addition, Algeria created the Algiers-based African Union Center for the Research and Study of Terrorism in October 2004. The Center aims to provide a coordinated regional research and training venue for counterterrorism efforts in all African Union countries. The Government of Algeria continues to seek to expand the scope of its cooperation with the United States in its efforts to combat terrorism and ensure stability in the Mediterranean. In recent years Algeria has proven to be an important partner in U.S. efforts to stem the tide of terrorist activity in North Africa and the Mediterranean and as such has seen substantial increases in the amount of United States counterterrorism cooperation. To further this burgeoning relationship, the single most important area of education for Algerian military personnel is, and will remain, professional military education (PME) of mid- and senior-level leaders in order to build a cadre of personnel who can function effectively with the United States and regional counterparts.

Participation in the IMET program helps Algerian military officers build contacts with U.S. counterparts, better understand U.S. policy, become more aware of international norms, and develop greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military. IMET training promotes professionalism and reinforces the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. Those officers who participate in the IMET program will establish essential contacts with U.S. counterparts whose influence can encourage reform within the Algerian military. In FY 2008, IMET funds will be used to send Algerian officers to key PME courses as well as to selected technical training courses. We will continue to focus on IMET-funded English language training in order to expand and improve the Algerian military’s interoperability with U.S. and Coalition forces, facilitate interaction in potential future contingency operations such as joint counterterrorism and peacekeeping missions, and prepare Algerian military personnel for increased training opportunities.

In addition, Algerian participation in programs with the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS), the Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA) and the National Defense University (NDU) supports democratic governance in Algeria by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Such participation helps build and maintain long-term interaction amongst participants. It also supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities between these participants on relevant topics in Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and the United States.

Bahrain

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

FMF

16

15

5

$37,345

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

21

15

15

$3,480,677

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

140

79

114

$695,733

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

51

51

2

$147,249

15

15

1

$200,000

Regional Centers

8

8

2

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

236

168

138

$4,361,004

15

15

1

$200,000

The United States has an enduring national security interest in maintaining its access to Bahraini military facilities in order to maintain our influence in the Persian Gulf and to conduct operations in the War on Terror. Bahrain has hosted the U.S. Navy 5th Fleet for more than 50 years. The relatively open access to facilities, land, and airspace needed to support contingency operations, including joint task force, fleet, and Multinational Interception Force (MIF) operations, are critical to maintaining U.S. operations in the region. In addition, Bahrain annually hosts important exercises that involve U.S. and Coalition forces.

Our security and political relationship with Bahrain continues to be strong. Bahrain and the United States have maintained a Defense Cooperation Agreement (DCA) since 1991. Bahrain has been a steadfast supporter of our foreign policy objectives throughout the Near East region. In 2001, the President designated Bahrain a Major Non-NATO Ally. Bahrain has also been a key supporter of critical U.S. regional security initiatives, including those associated with fighting the War on Terror. Bahrain responded positively to all U.S. military requests connected to Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, and will remain a critical hub for the U.S. presence in the Gulf and Southwest Asia. Bahrain has been an active participant in the War on Terror and was the only Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) country to sail as part of a coalition task force, providing three ships to support CTF-152. Bahrain has assumed a leadership role in regional efforts to cut the flow of funding to terrorist groups.

Training activities funded under IMET and approval of select commercial and FMS sales promote the interoperability of the Bahrain Defense Forces with U.S. and GCC regional forces. Through the IMET program, Bahrain sends officers to U.S. command and staff colleges, war colleges, and other key professional military education and technical courses. IMET training reinforces democratic principles of civilian control of the military, enhances interoperability with U.S. forces, promotes professionalism, and reinforces among core supporters of the regime the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. In addition, Bahrain has in the past sent students to the U.S. service academies. By improving English language skills and their understanding of the U.S. military, these training programs directly enhance the effectiveness of our bilateral and multilateral joint training programs. Lastly, IMET helps establish critical long-term professional relationships between our current and future respective military leaders.

Egypt

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

7

7

4

$21,263

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

1445

636

447

$14,804,901

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

6

6

6

$3,346,833

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

85

38

73

$1,642,381

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

36

36

14

$261,672

10

10

7

$16,313

Service Academies

0

0

0

$0.00

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

1579

723

533

$20,077,050

12

12

8

$16,313

The United States has a vital interest in enhancing Egypt's national defense and in supporting its role as a vital U.S. coalition partner and regional leader - one that is secure in its own borders and at peace with its neighbors. In 1996, the President designated Egypt a Major Non-NATO Ally, recognizing Egypt's critical regional role and support for U.S. policies in the Middle East.

Egypt is one of the largest recipients of U.S. security assistance, and providing military training to Egypt's armed forces through both IMET and FMF is a crucial element of broader U.S. support for Egypt and its military. The technical expertise and exposure to U.S. doctrine and personnel that U.S.-funded training provides enhances Egypt's counter-terrorism capability, improves the military's professionalism and readiness, and strengthens ties between the U.S. and Egyptian militaries. Professional military education courses give the future leaders of Egypt's armed forces opportunities to refine their leadership skills and improve cross-cultural communication between our respective militaries. Marshall Center, Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA), and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) seminars offer Egypt's senior civilian and military leaders practical instruction in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics and create opportunities for further exchange and strategic regional cooperation. The full range of FMF and IMET supported training will enhance U.S.-Egyptian military ties and cooperation.

Iraq

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

2

2

1

$43,260

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

10

9

9

$197,130

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

31

29

15

$1,365,528

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

14

12

9

$182,399

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

24

16

17

$357,555

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

35

35

10

$510,648

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

21

21

8

$70,316

15

15

7

$16,313

Service Academies

1

1

1

$67,914

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

138

125

70

$2,794,750

15

15

7

$16,313

A United States’ strategic goal in Iraq is to continue to assist in maintaining a unified, democratic and federal Iraq that can govern, defend, and sustain itself; and that will remain an ally in the War on Terror. Iraq has achieved significant economic and security progress as well as momentum in reconciliation at the local and provincial levels. The United States, its coalition partners, and others in the international community remain committed to assisting the Government of Iraq (GoI) in capitalizing on this progress. The Multi-National Force-Iraq (MNF-I) continues to help train, equip, develop, and contribute to the readiness of Iraqi Security Forces (ISF). Iraq is making progress in building security forces that are capable of independently combating insurgents and fighting terrorists. U.S. stabilization support has thus far focused much of its effort on counterinsurgency and counterterrorism training. Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funding was instrumental in securing U.S-based training for many Iraqi officers, a precedent that the United States hopes to continue. CTFP support enables Iraq to develop English language training to facilitate further participation of Iraqi forces in future military training programs. CTFP efforts in FY 2007 included command and staff colleges, the Army War College and regional center seminars. This education promotes U.S.-Iraqi interoperability and will allow for greater cooperation in the continuing War on Terror. A tailored 2008 CTFP program may allow for mobile in-country or regional training to expand CT training possibilities for suitable Iraqi candidates.

In early 2007 the President delegated to the Secretary of State, the waiver of section 530 (b) of the Foreign Relations Authorizations Act for Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995 that prohibited the provision of foreign assistance to countries that violated IAEA full safeguards agreement. In June 2007, the Deputy Secretary of State approved this waiver which authorized provisions for the IMET program. The 2007 IMET program funded over 30 Iraqi Officers who participated in command and staff and the Air War College curriculums, Defense Language Institute classes, and the Distinguished Visitor Orientation Tours.

The Iraqi PM, Minister of Defense, and Minister of Interior are particularly supportive of IMET–supported mobile training teams, and will work to maximize training possibilities under such a framework.

IMET-funded training helps Iraqi military personnel learn democratic principles of civilian control of the military, as well as how to operate with U.S. forces. This training also promotes professionalism, and reinforces among core supporters of the new government the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States.

Israel

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

2

2

2

$13,903

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

182

169

73

$1,086,180

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

356

330

123

$236,562

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

240

240

2

$188,596

0

0

1

$226,000

Regional Centers

71

71

15

$12,579

9

9

4

$0.00

Totals:

851

812

215

$1,537,820

9

9

5

$226,000

The United States has a vested interest in promoting a stable, democratic, and militarily strong Israel that is secure at home and at peace with its neighbors. President Bush has reiterated the United States’ steadfast commitment to Israel’s security, to the maintenance of Israel’s qualitative military edge, and to strengthening Israel’s ability to both defend itself and deter potential aggressors. Maintaining Israel’s qualitative military edge in the regional balance of power enhances Israel’s security and helps prevent regional conflict.

The United States has provided Israel with over $100 billion in economic and military assistance since 1949 and Israel continues to receive the largest worldwide share of U.S. security assistance. Foreign military training, both as a portion of State Department-provided FMF and as DoD-funded non-security assistance, is important to maintain Israel’s qualitative military edge, which, in turn, enhances Israel’s security. Training for Israeli personnel during FY 2007 included participation in the Army War College, the National Defense University, and Air and Naval Command and General Staff Colleges, flight simulator and flight safety officer training, resource management training, and others. By providing both technical expertise and exposure to U.S. military culture and personnel, these programs significantly strengthen U.S.-Israel military ties and bolster Israel’s ability to protect itself.

Jordan

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

2

2

2

$37,347

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

51

49

21

$685,253

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

140

110

50

$1,180,944

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

1

1

1

$12,200

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

143

143

11

$732,712

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

302

210

241

$3,966,188

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

575

575

5

$1,817,116

144

144

4

$1,250,000

Regional Centers

41

41

14

$138,820

12

12

4

$0.00

Service Academies

2

2

2

$138,947

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

1257

1133

342

$8,709,528

158

158

9

$1,250,000

Stability and economic prosperity in the Middle East support U.S. national security objectives. Jordan is well-positioned to play a pivotal role as a stabilizing influence in the region because of its moderate, pro-Western stance and because of the geographic and cultural borders it shares with Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Syria, the Palestinian Territories, and Israel. Continuing political stability and economic development, however, are necessary prerequisites for enhancing Jordan’s ability to exert a moderate influence in the region. King Abdullah II has made significant progress increasing Jordan’s governmental accountability and further integrating Jordan into the world economy. Jordan continues to lead the region in its quest for moderation and accountability in religious and lay institutions.

Achieving an Israeli-Palestinian peace accord is one of Jordan’s highest priorities, especially in light of its significant Palestinian population and its peace treaty with Israel. Jordan is also in a unique position to contribute to collective regional security goals. Jordan has played a key role supporting Iraqi stability and reconstruction, to include facilitating training for up to 32,000 Iraqi police cadets and corrections officers, as well as by providing training for some 2,200 Iraqi military officers at Jordanian military colleges [if included, these numbers should be validated with DSCA or CENTCOM] . Jordan continues to facilitate training for Iraqi Security Forces and corrections Officers whenever called upon to do It has deployed a field hospital to Fallujah, which has treated over 763,268 Iraqi civilians and conducted 1,828 operations as of March 2007 [DSCA/CENTCOM should update numbers]. King Abdullah has been a strong supporter of the War on Terror, and Jordan has deployed an airborne company, field hospital, de-mining unit, and a special operations battalion to Afghanistan in support of coalition operations. Jordan receives Coalition Support Funding for its incremental operational costs associated with providing direct support to ongoing operations. Due to its relatively porous borders with Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Iraq, transnational terrorism is a major consideration and threat.

The Jordanian Armed Forces’ (JAF) main mission is to protect against external threats; however, the JAF maintains close ties with Jordan’s Public Security Directorate regarding transnational threats, and has appropriately increased its focus against internal threats which could jeopardize the security of the Kingdom. The JAF’s efforts to curb transnational terrorism within the region directly support U.S. security interests within the Middle East.

The U.S.-Jordan military-to-military relationship is excellent, and Jordan has been designated a Major Non-NATO ally. FMF helps the Jordanian Armed Forces address their readiness and sustainment requirements as well as interoperability with U.S. forces, and this program remains the only source of funds for Jordanian military modernization programs as outlined in the JAF’s Five-Year Plan. FMF also supports counterterrorism and border security requirements. Jordan’s successful efforts at border control are critical to preventing foreign fighter entry into Iraq, illicit trafficking of arms, explosives, drugs, terrorists, and equipment for use in the production of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Improved security for Jordanian borders translates into enhanced domestic stability for Jordan, improved security for Israel, assists U.S. interests in Saudi Arabia, and strengthens coalition forces in Iraq.

Jordan has one of the most robust combined education and training programs in the world. Through its IMET program - the second largest in the world - Jordan regularly sends officers to U.S. senior service schools, command and staff colleges, and other key professional military education (PME), as well as to numerous resource management and technical courses. IMET training reinforces democratic principles of civilian control of the military, enhances interoperability with U.S. forces, promotes professionalism, and reinforces with core supporters of the regime the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. Jordan is also the second largest recipient in the world of Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funding. This program has greatly contributed to the United States building long-term relations with members of JAF who are directly involved in counterterrorism operations. The exercise program is also robust, and Jordan participates in multiple bilateral and multilateral exercises annually, the largest exercise program in the CENTCOM AOR. The exercises have a major impact on U.S.-Jordan interoperability, development of Jordan’s armed forces proficiency in a wide range of skills, and increased capabilities for conducting counter-terrorist/counter-smuggling operations in Jordan. In close association with exercises, component commanders use Traditional Commander’s Activities (TCA) funds to augment the exercise-training opportunities. TCA events allow Jordanian units to participate in their exercises with a higher level of proficiency and achieve a greater level of benefit from them.

Kuwait

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

FMS

672

284

280

$21,233,810

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

5

5

2

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

0

0

0

$0.00

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

677

289

282

$21,233,810

2

2

1

$0.00

The United States has a demonstrable interest in maintaining access to Kuwait’s facilities, land, and airspace. Kuwait faces the difficult task of securing its Iraqi border and a continuous U.S. presence has been important to Kuwait’s security since the 1991 Gulf War. In January 2004, the President designated Kuwait a Major Non-NATO Ally for its consistent support to our operations in the Gulf and in South Asia, as well as for its international counterterrorism efforts. Kuwait hosts the forward headquarters of CENTCOM’s ground forces and approximately 12,000 U.S. and coalition military personnel operating in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. The open access to facilities, land, and airspace needed to support contingency operations, including joint task force and fleet operations, are critical to the U.S. presence in the region and ongoing military operations there. Kuwait is an important ally in the War on Terror.

The continued participation of Kuwaitis in military-to-military training initiatives and joint military exercises promotes interoperability with U.S. and Gulf Cooperation Council forces, recognizes Kuwait’s invaluable support for U.S. force deployments, and helps Kuwait to assume greater responsibility for its own defense and regional security by encouraging the development of its professional military command.

Military-to-military contacts facilitated by the IMET program are particularly important in the case of Near Eastern countries because they pay high dividends, far into the future, as students ascend the military and political ranks of their respective countries. Because Kuwaitis are native Arabic-speakers and have difficulties learning English, the Kuwaiti Government must invest substantial amounts of money into language training before students may be sent to the United States for other technical and professional military schools.

Lebanon

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

14

14

13

$604,773

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

93

79

34

$881,023

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

144

90

108

$988,428

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

730

730

5

$2,183,850

150

150

3

$2,646,000

Regional Centers

23

23

10

$138,620

5

5

3

$0.00

Totals:

1004

936

166

$4,796,694

155

155

6

$2,646,000

U.S. interests lie with sustainment of a free and independent Lebanon enjoying internal stability and at peace with its neighbors. To minimize the destabilizing influence of internal armed groups and external forces such as Syria and Iran, the United States continues to support the development of independent Lebanese institutions, especially the security services,. The mission of the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) has greatly expanded since the departure of Syrian troops in 2005 and the end of the 2006 summer war, with new deployments adding to security services’ already heavy burdens. Historically, personnel costs have absorbed over 90 percent of Lebanon’s military budget, leaving little funding for operations, maintenance, new acquisitions, and training. To support the LAF’s greatly expanded responsibilities, the USG has reinvigorated its security assistance program in Lebanon, most recently with an unprecedented $220M in supplemental FMF. This funding, along with Lebanon’s regular FMF appropriations, will support a comprehensive train and equip program that will provide the LAF with weapons, vehicles, spare parts, ammunition, individual equipment, and a comprehensive training program.

The LAF takes full advantage of the opportunity for IMET-funded professional military education (PME) and technical training. The Country Team reports that IMET graduates are employed in positions of command and responsibility and achieve proportionally higher rank and influence than their non-IMET peers. In addition, USG assistance to the LAF has played a critical role in the professional integration of the LAF. IMET training also provides an important alternative to military training with Syria and other countries. In FY 2007, Lebanon sent 158 students to various PME and technical courses. Lebanon also continues to benefit from non-security assistance humanitarian mine action de-mining training, which helps finance an on-going program to remove landmines throughout Lebanon (especially in southern Lebanon where we strongly urge increased deployments of the armed forces in order to stabilize the border areas).

The LAF has demonstrated that, as U.S. security assistance expands its capabilities, it is more willing and able to address the myriad challenges to Lebanon’s sovereignty and security. In the summer of 2007, emergency U.S. security assistance helped the LAF achieve a comprehensive victory over Fatah al-Islam terrorists in the Nahr al-Barid refugee camp - a fight from which the LAF might otherwise have shied away. To fully implement UN Security Council Resolutions 1559 and 1701, the LAF will require significant and sustained FMF and IMET funding in addition to persistent USG engagement via military visits and exercises.

LIBYA (new program)

The United States has a clear interest in increasing regional stability by promoting democracy, economic reform, and security in Libya as the two countries enter a new phase in their bilateral relations, particularly in security affairs. Since Libya's renunciation of weapons of mass destruction and terrorism in 2003 and its rescission from the U.S. state-sponsor of terrorism list in 2006, Libya has shown itself to be an important partner in counterterrorism and regional stability. It plays a significant role in combating terrorism in North Africa, as well as in stemming the flow of foreign fighters to Iraq and Afghanistan. In addition, it constructively supports efforts to curb regional conflict in Darfur, Chad, and Somalia. Libya will have the opportunity to play an even larger and more constructive role with its 2008-2009 tenure as a non-permanent member of the U.N. Security Council. Regionally, the United States will work with the Arab Maghreb Union, of which Libya currently holds the presidency, to foster regional counterterrorism cooperation among its members. In addition, Libya is expected to become a phased-in member of the Trans-Sahara Counter-Terrorism Partnership, thereby strengthening counterterrorism efforts throughout North Africa and the Sahel region.

After decades of isolation and a combative past bilateral relationship, FY 2008 will mark the first year that Libya will be eligible for limited foreign military training. Whereas in the 1960s and 1970s the majority of Libya's mid-level and senior leaders participated in professional military education (PME), Libya's new generation of leaders lack these ties or the basic English language skills to participate in such programs. As such, IMET funding will be used exclusively to establish an English language lab to build capacity among the eligible Libyan officer corps so that they may profit from Libyan-financed courses and/or future IMET-funded PME. Participation in PME will help Libyan military officers build contacts with U.S. counterparts, better understand U.S. policy, become more aware of international norms, and develop greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military. Professional military training and technical training courses promote professionalism and reinforces the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. Those officers who participate will establish essential contacts with U.S. counterparts whose influence can encourage reform within the Libyan military. Moreover, such training and language capability will improve the Libyan military’s interoperability with U.S. forces, facilitate interaction in potential future contingency operations such as joint counterterrorism and peacekeeping missions, and prepare Libyan military personnel for increased training opportunities.

In addition, Libya may soon participate in regional center seminars, which would support democratic governance by offering Libyan civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Such participation helps build and maintain long-term interaction among participants. It also supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities between these participants on relevant topics in Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and the United States.

Libya

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$11,809

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

1

1

1

$11,809

0

0

0

$0.00

The United States has a clear interest in increasing regional stability by promoting democracy, economic reform, and security in Libya as the two countries enter a new phase in their bilateral relations, particularly in security affairs. Since Libya's renunciation of weapons of mass destruction and terrorism in 2003 and its rescission from the U.S. state-sponsor of terrorism list in 2006, Libya has shown itself to be an important partner in counterterrorism and regional stability. It plays a significant role in combating terrorism in North Africa, as well as in stemming the flow of foreign fighters to Iraq and Afghanistan. In addition, it constructively supports efforts to curb regional conflict in Darfur, Chad, and Somalia. Libya will have the opportunity to play an even larger and more constructive role with its 2008-2009 tenure as a non-permanent member of the U.N. Security Council. Regionally, the United States will work with the Arab Maghreb Union, of which Libya currently holds the presidency, to foster regional counterterrorism cooperation among its members. In addition, Libya is expected to become a phased-in member of the Trans-Sahara Counter-Terrorism Partnership, thereby strengthening counterterrorism efforts throughout North Africa and the Sahel region.

After decades of isolation and a combative past bilateral relationship, FY 2008 was the first year that Libya has been eligible for limited foreign military training. Future funding decisions will be made if/when the Department of State certifies to Congress that Libya has met its obligations to compensate victims of terrorism. Whereas in the 1960s and 1970s the majority of Libya's mid-level and senior leaders participated in professional military education (PME), Libya's new generation of leaders lack these ties or the basic English language skills to participate in such programs. As such, IMET funding will be used exclusively to establish an English language lab to build capacity among the eligible Libyan officer corps so that they may profit from Libyan-financed courses and/or future IMET-funded PME. Participation in PME will help Libyan military officers build contacts with U.S. counterparts, better understand U.S. policy, become more aware of international norms, and develop greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military. Professional military training and technical training courses promote professionalism and reinforces the importance of a strong, cooperative political/military relationship with the United States. Those officers who participate will establish essential contacts with U.S. counterparts whose influence can encourage reform within the Libyan military. Moreover, such training and language capability will improve the Libyan military’s interoperability with U.S. forces, facilitate interaction in potential future contingency operations such as joint counterterrorism and peacekeeping missions, and prepare Libyan military personnel for increased training opportunities.

In addition, Libya may increase its participation in regional center seminars, which would support democratic governance by offering Libyan civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Such participation helps build and maintain long-term interaction among participants. It also supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities between these participants on relevant topics in Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and the United States.

Morocco

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

11

11

9

$76,032

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

160

109

88

$1,969,046

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

400

400

1

$239,352

220

220

2

$665,872

Regional Centers

28

28

14

$205,121

10

10

4

$0.00

Totals:

599

548

112

$2,489,551

230

230

6

$665,872

From the start of his reign in 1999, Morocco’s King Mohamed VI has encouraged economic, political, and security reforms within Morocco. However, Morocco remains poor – a middle-ranked developing country – with a political system whose reforms are far from complete. Nonetheless, the government appears to be oriented in a positive political, economic, and military direction. It held free and fair parliamentary elections in September 2007 and encouraged economic liberalization by attracting foreign investment, developing its burgeoning tourist industry, and implementing both regional and bilateral trade agreements. Also, more than 19 years after the cease fire that ended hostilities between the government and the Polisario, Morocco has developed a proposal for autonomy and on the basis of it has entered UN-sponsored negotiations with the Polisario to resolve the Western Sahara issue.

Morocco remains a proven U.S. counterterrorism partner and has seen substantial increases in U.S. counterterrorism assistance. Morocco has foiled several terrorist plots directed at U.S. interests in recent years, to include an al-Qaida plot against U.S. shipping interests in the Straits of Gibraltar. Morocco has taken advantage of U.S. assistance to combat terrorist financing, and recently implemented a new anti-money laundering law. Currently, the Moroccan military is working to secure its long and porous borders. Morocco is also a steadfast supporter of the Middle East Peace process and has maintained a dialogue to increase cooperation with NATO.

Training in FY 2007 and 2008 follows a forward-leaning approach in order to encourage Moroccan military reform, improved bilateral cooperation, and interoperability with U.S. and NATO forces. To encourage a closer U.S.-Moroccan relationship, the single most important area of education for Moroccan military personnel is, and will remain, professional military education (PME) of mid-level and senior leaders in order to build a cadre of personnel who can function effectively with the United States and regional counterparts.

The IMET program fosters increased respect for human rights and the principle of civilian control of the military, and helps Moroccan military officers better understand U.S. foreign policies. Morocco sends students to PME courses including U.S. senior service schools, command and staff colleges, and other key training activities. IMET-funded defense management and logistics readiness courses, as well as English language training, enhance Morocco’s value as a partner in multinational training exercises, peacekeeping missions, and potential future coalition contingency actions. Morocco has participated in numerous peacekeeping operations and currently has 1,537 peacekeepers deployed in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Cote d’Ivoire, and an additional 200 soldiers deployed in Kosovo under NATO command. Morocco also uses its IMET funds to benefit from acquisition planning and execution through the Naval Postgraduate School’s International Defense Acquisition and Resource Management course.

The Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA) in Washington D.C. encourages democratic governance in Morocco by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. NESA participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in the Middle East. Other regional centers include the Marshall Center and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies.

Oman

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

4

4

3

$32,717

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

35

20

24

$238,331

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

127

80

77

$1,607,390

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

85

85

2

$421,663

160

160

1

$1,265,000

Regional Centers

32

32

8

$80,935

6

6

4

$0.00

Service Academies

2

2

1

$135,828

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

285

223

115

$2,516,864

166

166

5

$1,265,000

Oman remains a committed ally in the War on Terror (WOT). Oman’s long coastlines and borders offer significant security challenges as they are vulnerable to illegal transit by terrorists, smugglers, migrant workers, and individuals involved in the traffic and sale of illegal drugs. Currently the Omani Defense Forces are working hard to address this high-level concern. However, due to Oman’s geostrategic position and the steady flow of illegal transit originating from Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia, and Yemen, it is imperative that Omani security forces receive the equipment and training necessary to provide them with increased capability to combat this particular threat. The Government of Oman increasingly uses FMF funding to enhance Omani capabilities that support U.S. regional efforts in the War on Terror, such as bolstering coastal patrol efforts, modernizing Oman’s coastal surveillance system, enhancing the capabilities of the Sultan’s Special Force, and making Oman’s remote inland borders with Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and the U.A.E. less porous and more observable.

Oman’s bases remain important for current U.S. operations in the region and to support potential contingencies in the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Gulf, or in South Asia. Oman also controls the shipping lanes through the Strait of Hormuz; NAVCENT and Omani officials regularly meet to discuss mechanisms to help ensure that this vital strait remains open. Additionally, the three CENTAF War Reserve Materials sites in Oman are important to CENTCOM’s basing and contingency operations plans for the area. A strong military-to-military relationship increases the likelihood that Oman will be prepared to commit resources to support USCENTCOM efforts in contingency operations and the GWOT. Omani forces support U.S. and coalition operations in areas such as force protection, basing and logistics, and communications. Oman’s ability to monitor and seal its land borders (particularly the border with Yemen) reduces the ability of terrorists to evade government controls in the WOT. Improved protection of Oman’s maritime borders mitigates the vulnerability of the Sultanate to instability caused by illegal immigrants from South Asia (often transported by Iranian smugglers); counters the flow of drugs, and counters the possible movement of weapons and/or terrorists using traditional smuggling routes. Oman’s internal command and control architecture also supports the WOT by allowing the Sultanate to coordinate efforts across the breadth of various organizations that monitor and secure its borders.

As a key ally with moderate views, Oman serves as an important voice of toleration and moderation in the region, including in its relations with Iran. U.S. assistance helps to ensure that Oman has the resources needed for its legitimate self-defense and security, and that it remains a strong ally in the War on Terror. The IMET program increases awareness of international norms regarding human rights, fosters greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military, and helps Omani military officers understand U.S. foreign policies. Oman sends students to professional military education (PME) courses including U.S. senior service schools, command and staff colleges, and other key training activities. Attending these PME courses fosters one-to-one relationships that pay invaluable dividends in the form of access, trust, improved interoperability, coordination, and mutual understanding.

Qatar

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

FMS

19

14

18

$821,858

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

40

40

1

$319,889

15

15

1

$345,000

Regional Centers

14

14

9

$0.00

3

3

2

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$67,914

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

74

69

29

$1,209,661

20

20

4

$345,000

Qatar remains a key regional ally. The Amir, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, continues to pursue democratic principles in governance and to strengthen ties with the United States, particularly in the military arena. Qatari support to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) has been vital to our efforts in the region. The U.S.-Qatar Defense Cooperation Agreement, which was signed in 1992, established the basis for our growing military-to-military relationship. Qatar has hosted the CENTCOM Forward Headquarters (CFH) at Camp As Sayliyah since 2002 and is funding the partial construction of a new CFH facility on Al Udeid Airbase at a cost that currently exceeds $138 million. In 2002, Qatar concluded an Implementing Agreement with the United States outlining the use of Al Udeid Airbase by U.S. forces. This agreement included approximately $200 million in Qatari-funded construction to build operational and logistics facilities to support U.S. basing requirements. Over the last several years, Qatar has hosted a number of Air Expeditionary Forces (AEF) and related deployments. The U.S. presence at Al Udeid Airbase has grown significantly, and the base that now hosts the largest overseas Air Expeditionary Wing is also home to CENTCOM’s Combined Air Operations Center (in charge of all air operations in OEF and OIF).

Given Qatar’s strategic location in the Gulf, it is vital that the United States continues to support military-to-military cooperation and training as well as joint exercises and training. As a result of strong bilateral engagement and exposure to U.S. military training and education, future leaders of Qatar’s military will be predisposed to implement principles and doctrine that will enhance future Coalition understanding, cooperation, and most importantly, interoperability. Qatar hosted Exercise EAGLE RESOLVE in 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, and again in 2007. The exercise is a CJCS-sponsored, USCENTCOM-executed regional exercise for the Arabian Peninsula that is intended to address regional needs for security and consequence management. Qatar has used its regional influence with Bahrain, Kuwait, UAE, and Pakistan to convince these countries to participate in the exercise. The exercise has grown to include twelve observer countries, including Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Afghanistan. In 2005, 2006, and 2007, the theme and design of the exercise was crisis management. Eagle Resolve 2007 also included traditional concepts addressing theater missile defense and mutual cooperation among the GCC. The Qataris invited 29 military chiefs of staff and ministers of defense as well as senior U.S. Defense Department officials to attend the Qatari-led executive seminar.

The Near East/South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA) in Washington supports democratic reform and good governance in Qatar by offering senior civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. NESA participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and among participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in the Middle East.

Saudi Arabia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

6

6

5

$30,907

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

1317

727

785

$38,744,655

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

1

1

1

$15,103

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

70

70

2

$269,343

0

0

1

$0.00

Regional Centers

45

45

18

$104,202

5

5

4

$16,313

Totals:

1439

849

811

$39,164,210

5

5

5

$16,313

Saudi Arabia is an increasingly important ally in the War on Terror and plays a central political role in all security initiatives in the region. Despite post 9/11 strains, military-to-military relations remain positive, based on decades of cooperation and close consultation, as well as years of U.S. support to Saudi Arabia’s military programs including training, joint exercises, FMS, and commercial arms sales. Providing a nominal amount of IMET to Saudi Arabia permits them to purchase military training at the significantly reduced FMS incremental rate, ensuring a continued high level of Saudi attendance at U.S. military institutions that enhances the technical capabilities of the Saudi military; enhances strategic interoperability; exposes all levels of Saudi military personnel and their families to U.S. values, ideas, and policies; and increases awareness of international norms of human rights, the principle of civilian control of the military, and the rule of law. Many of the Saudi students are either senior military leaders or those identified to become senior leaders in the future. Continued military-to-military contacts and joint military exercises will encourage the development of a professional military command and armed forces compatible with and favorably disposed towards its U.S. counterparts. This continued cooperation will allow the Kingdom to assume a greater role in self-defense, assist the United States in achieving its policy goals in the region, and support our efforts to promote security cooperation among the Gulf Cooperation Council members.

Tunisia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

3

1

3

$35,714

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

6

6

4

$171,202

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

13

13

1

$63,404

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

117

77

112

$2,300,634

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

230

230

3

$306,901

0

0

1

$394,000

Regional Centers

12

12

9

$83,202

1

1

1

$0.00

Service Academies

9

9

5

$413,722

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

390

348

137

$3,374,779

3

3

3

$394,000

Anchoring one end of the Mediterranean’s Sicily chokepoint, Tunisia is an important regional ally that maintains safe and open lines-of-communication (LOC) for daily transit of several hundred ships. These ships include up to 40 hydrocarbon carriers per day, transiting United States Navy Battle Groups, NATO-sponsored ships conducting Operation Active Endeavor, and a whole range of international commercial ships. Tunisia also plays an increasingly positive role in stemming the rising tide of illegal/clandestine immigration originating from neighboring Libya. Under the Mediterranean Dialogue Initiative, Tunisia continues to enlarge its involvement and training opportunities with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and as a signature country to the Trans-Sahara Counter-Terrorism Partnership they have taken an active role in those activities. Finally, they have participated in over twelve United Nations-led peacekeeping operations and currently have observers supporting the African Union’s efforts to bring stability in parts of east Africa.

There is a direct relationship between Tunisia’s continued positive involvement in these international military activities and a stable bilateral military relationship with the United States. Over the years the span of bilateral activities include coordinated force realignments, modernizations, joint exercises, humanitarian assistance programs, and the hugely successful IMET program. Of note, two of the three active Tunisian Military Service Chiefs have had some form of U.S.-sponsored training and it is estimated that up to 40 percent of their mid- to senior-level officers have been exposed to U.S. standards, values, and democratic principles. A positive indication of this is the Tunisian government’s policy of almost unfettered access to its airspace and airfields by transiting U.S. senior civilian officials, military leaders, and military transport aircraft.

Tunisia also welcomes opportunities to participate in the seminars sponsored by the Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA), the Marshall Center, and other programs aimed at promoting counter-terrorism efforts, civil-military affairs, national security strategy, and democratic governance. Many of their senior civilian and military leaders are now alumni of these programs and have continued their interaction with counterparts and acquaintances through both formal and informal exchanges.

United Arab Emirates

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

FMS

247

201

131

$8,060,767

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

0

0

0

$0.00

90

90

3

$2,295,004

Regional Centers

19

19

8

$0.00

2

2

2

$0.00

Totals:

266

220

139

$8,060,767

92

92

5

$2,295,004

The United States continues its strong security relationship with the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The UAE has a small yet capable military which enjoys significant cooperation with the United States and other allies. The UAE is a key regional partner in the Gulf region and supports U.S. policy initiatives in the region. The UAE is a strong supporter of the War on Terror, has cooperated with the United States in Afghanistan and Iraq, and provides basing and overflight for U. S. reconnaissance and refueling assets. The UAE provides access for U.S. forces and hosts more U.S. naval ship visits (including aircraft carriers) than any other port outside of the United States. The UAE is a major procurer of advanced U.S. military technologies and the Emirati military continues to make strides toward interoperability with U.S. and coalition forces. Therefore, military-to-military education opportunities are a top priority for the UAE. At the same time, attendance at training schools by UAE officers supports the Central Command’s objective of forward engagement and interoperability. A representative highlight of U.S.-UAE military cooperation is the Gulf Air Warfare Center at Al Dhafra Air Base outside Abu Dhabi, which opened in January 2004.

Yemen

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

9

9

5

$152,282

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

45

40

17

$1,076,057

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

4

4

2

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

71

34

61

$1,118,303

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

215

215

3

$522,834

60

60

2

$400,000

Regional Centers

116

116

12

$246,580

8

8

4

$0.00

Totals:

460

418

100

$3,116,056

68

68

6

$400,000

Yemen continues to be an essential U.S. partner in the war on terror. While the United States and Yemen have made great progress in uprooting the al-Qaida presence in the country, Yemen requires continued material support and training to sustain success in its ongoing internal security and counterterrorism efforts. Due to its location adjacent to the Bab al-Mandab, one of the world’s most important shipping routes, as well as its proximity to U.S. allies Saudi Arabia and Oman, and the volatile Horn of Africa, Yemen’s security has a direct effect on U.S. interests in the region. Yemen is the second most populous and the poorest nation on the Arabian Peninsula, and under President Saleh, is undergoing an incremental process of political and social reform aimed at making it the first fully functioning democracy in the region. It held successful parliamentary elections in April 2003 and multiparty presidential elections in September 2006. Yemen provides a unique location to conduct Horn of Africa operations and maritime interdiction missions in and around the Gulf of Suez, the Red Sea, and Indian Ocean areas (the Red Sea, Bab-al-Mandab Straits, and the Gulf of Aden comprise the second-busiest shipping lane in the world). U.S. policy has supported the Yemeni government’s efforts to eradicate terrorism and support for terrorism as well as to create an environment that deters the return of any active indigenous or transnational terrorist elements,

Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and International Military Education and Training (IMET) funds continue to directly support U.S. counterterrorism goals through the ongoing improvement of Yemen’s ability to act against terrorist elements either in cooperation with the United States or unilaterally. U.S. assistance supported the on-going, three-pronged security assistance program that focuses on developing Yemeni Counter-Terrorism Unit and Special Operations Forces capabilities, building a viable Coast Guard, and improving military capacity to conduct security missions. This approach is designed to improve the capability of Yemen’s counterterrorism forces to uproot the al-Qaida presence in Yemen, safeguard its borders and territorial waters, and assist the United States in fighting the war on terror. U.S. funds went towards equipping and training the newly established Yemeni Counter-Terrorism Unit that supports efforts to ensure that al-Qaida cannot reconstitute itself in Yemen. Funds also supported training and equipment for the Yemeni Special Operations Force, which handles counter-terrorism and border security, as well as supported the continued development of the Yemeni Coast Guard. Funding for U.S. military training and the professional and technical education of Yemeni military personnel helped military leaders in Yemen understand U.S. practices, increased awareness of international norms of human rights, and fostered greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military. Our cooperation reaped concrete dividends in 2006 when their Ministry of Interior’s CT unit, which was created with FMF resources, successfully took down an al-Qaida cell in Sana’a that was preparing an attack with more than 800 pounds of ammonium nitrate; the same unit rescued Italian hostages and captured their kidnappers. In 2007, the CT unit was deployed in at least three operations, killing 10 suspects with ties to al-Qaida.

Training provided with Non-Proliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining and Related Programs (NADR) funding supported export control and related border security assistance (EXBS) efforts, small arms and light weapons (SA/LW) programs, and continued training to sustain Yemen’s counterterrorism training capabilities (ATA).



Back to Top
Sign-in

Do you already have an account on one of these sites? Click the logo to sign in and create your own customized State Department page. Want to learn more? Check out our FAQ!

OpenID is a service that allows you to sign in to many different websites using a single identity. Find out more about OpenID and how to get an OpenID-enabled account.