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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

2008 Foreign Military Training: III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--South Central Asia Region


Report
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
January 31, 2008

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Afghanistan

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

1

1

1

$56,480

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

31

29

12

$419,279

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

22

14

21

$264,071

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

75

34

64

$1,280,698

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

53

49

24

$11,143,284

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

72

72

22

$426,648

16

16

8

$52,484

Section 1004

3921

3921

15

$67,910,643

3806

3806

4

$106,482,000

Service Academies

2

2

2

$138,947

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

4177

4122

157

$81,640,050

3822

3822

12

$106,534,484

Since 2001, Operation Enduring Freedom Coalition Forces and NATO's International Security Assistance Force have made immense progress toward the elimination of Al Qaeda infrastructure and the regimes of Taliban and other insurgents. However, terrorism and other threats to stability continue, and a strong, sustainable Afghan security force is necessary to address these threats in the long-term. The continued U.S. military and diplomatic presence in Afghanistan aims to set conditions that will permit the new government in Afghanistan to establish a secure and stable environment, preventing Afghanistan from again becoming a host for terrorist organizations and operations. Key to this endeavor is establishing and maintaining an Afghan National Army (ANA) that is truly representative of the population; subject to central civilian authority; and supportive of human rights, rule of law and democracy. The ANA must also be capable of protecting the Government of Afghanistan from internal threats and ensuring regime survivability.

A stable and secure Afghanistan is extremely important for regional security. A strong military to support the national government will prevent dissension, regional rifts and ethnic feuds that have often spilled over Afghanistan’s borders into neighboring countries. Without a strong sense of how the Government of Afghanistan reaches and protects the people of Afghanistan, there is a risk of continued domestic support for the Taliban and other insurgents. Without security protection and basic services from the Government, large unemployed populations are subject to recruitment to insurgents and narcotics traffickers. A long-term and well-rounded program to build and train the ANA and extend its reach throughout the country is essential to the USG’s objectives in Afghanistan and the region.

International Military Education and Training is an integral part of the long-term ANA training program. IMET funding supports courses in logistics, vehicle maintenance, language, and professionalization. The USG has provided sufficient funds for English language labs, their installation and use. Mobile Training Teams (MTTs) provide training on military equipment. Training also develops skills needed by the military to support combat forces and enhance interoperability, such as aviation training, communications, legal, medical, intelligence, and border patrol skills.

As the capacity of the ANA grows, so has Afghan participation in classes that introduce the military leadership to the concept of civilian control, a professional military ethos, and recognition of internationally accepted human rights. The ANA has sent officers to the National Defense University’s International Fellow’s program, the Marshall European Center for Security Studies, and the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies. In FY 2007, the ANA also sent officers to the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College and the Army War College.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) directly supports U.S. strategic objectives by providing the ANA with the military training necessary to maintain the country’s sovereignty in its fight against insurgency and terrorism. The current emphasis on developing in-country English language training capabilities will enable the ANA to spend less on language training in the United States and more on professional military education (PME) courses that will improve ANA’s interoperability with U.S. forces and increase their participation in future CTFP opportunities, as well as their prosecution of the War on Terror in the South Asia region.

Bangladesh

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

1

1

1

$24,438

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

21

20

16

$250,450

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

54

54

4

$258,021

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

90

72

53

$1,295,515

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

196

196

3

$558,537

127

127

4

$935,000

Regional Centers

184

184

19

$313,804

37

37

16

$264,194

Totals:

546

527

96

$2,700,764

164

164

20

$1,199,194

The U.S. priorities in Bangladesh are combating terrorism and maritime security. Primary U.S. interests in Bangladesh are democracy, security and stability, and economic prosperity. Greater respect for human rights and the rule of law, curbing corruption, and the strengthening of democratic institutions are essential to ensuring political stability and expanding economic growth. Other U.S. interests include environmental concerns, fighting the trafficking of women and children, and combating piracy.

IMET funds facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts through attendance at professional military education (PME) courses in the United States and by participation in U.S. mobile training team (MTT) training in Bangladesh. Developing an apolitical, well-trained, and professional military contributes to political stability, a closer relationship between our two countries, and increased participation in UN peacekeeping operations. Specifically, Bangladesh uses its IMET funding to send students to a variety of mid-level and senior U.S. service schools and war colleges, peacekeeping-type courses, and numerous courses in support of the war against terrorism. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of: a professional and well-trained military, peaceful relations with the United States and other states, increased interoperability, respect for human dignity, and greater familiarity within the Bangladeshi officer corps’ with U.S. values and military practices. Bangladeshi military personnel also take part in courses on defense acquisition management, engineering, shipyard management, military intelligence, and the military’s role in peacekeeping operations. Collectively, these courses strengthen the Bangladeshi military’s ability to counter terrorism, secure its borders, and enhance its value as a peacekeeping provider and potential future partner of the United States.

Bangladeshi participation in executive courses at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the Near East South Asia (NESA) Center for Security Studies, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, is an effective means of strengthening defense ties with Bangladesh. The executive courses enhance awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Bangladesh.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provides important training and education to assist Bangladesh in integrating its interagency (military and civil-military) approach to combating terrorism. These funds focus on the counterterrorism and counter-smuggling effort (led by the Bangladesh Coast Guard) in the vast inter-coastal and riverine waterways system. These waterways are the primary means of transporting people, weapons, drugs, and other goods into and out of the country. The CTFP brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the counterterrorism (CT) spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, Bangladesh is building a more comprehensive and cohesive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism; other countries in the region are gaining an understanding of the challenges, successes, and failures of CT efforts in Bangladesh; and the United States is building Bangladesh’s long-term CT capacity.

Bhutan

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Regional Centers

2

2

2

$28,298

2

2

2

$16,313

Totals:

2

2

2

$28,298

2

2

2

$16,313

Bhutan is a small country bordered by India and China. Bhutan and the United States do not have formal diplomatic relations, and informal bilateral relations are modest yet cordial. Traditionally an absolute monarchy, Bhutan is undergoing a gradual transition to a constitutional monarchy. The Royal Bhutan Army has been actively involved in trying to limit the activities of insurgents from northeast India that use Bhutan as a base for operations. In 2001 and 2002, the Bhutanese government asked the rebels to leave and while some camps were disbanded, the Bhutanese government found an increased number of insurgents within its borders during 2003. Working closely with the Indian military, the Royal Bhutan Army conducted military operations under the name "Operation All Clear" beginning in December 2003 for a five-week period against the insurgents, capturing or killing approximately 450 and driving others across the border toward waiting Indian troops. The Royal Bhutan Army continues to work closely with the Indian military on border patrol activities. With the military operations seen as a success for both the Indians and the Bhutanese, cooperation between the two armies has increased and senior level military officials have met several times since 2004.

There are approximately 8000 members of the Royal Bhutan Army (official numbers are not published). Bhutan does not have a navy or air force. While the United States has no IMET program with Bhutan, officials from their Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Royal Bhutan Police participated in executive courses at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS) in FY 2007 and are expected to continue to do so in FY 2008. It is in the U.S. interest to encourage Bhutan’s transition to democracy, to help its military forces attain the ability to control the nation’s borders, and to encourage military professionalism and respect for human rights. Participating in seminars at the APCSS helps promote these goals.

India

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

2

2

2

$40,774

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

27

24

24

$295,675

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

825

386

106

$11,639,064

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

112

112

11

$573,184

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

103

65

99

$2,330,649

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

52

52

2

$268,229

70

70

1

$750,000

Regional Centers

28

28

18

$273,509

32

32

16

$251,245

Service Academies

0

0

0

$0.00

2

2

1

$0.00

Totals:

1149

669

262

$15,421,083

104

104

18

$1,001,245

India is the world’s second most populous nation and the predominant military power in South Asia and the Indian Ocean. The Indian government was among the first in the world to offer support for the War on Terror after the September 11 attacks. The United States and India continue to work closely together in the fight against terrorism, as evidenced by regular meetings of the Indo-U.S. Joint Working Group on Counterterrorism. The Indo-U.S. bilateral diplomatic and commercial relationship has been growing steadily since President Clinton’s visit in 2000 and throughout the Bush Administration, including Prime Minister Singh’s visit in July 2005 and President Bush’s visit in March 2006.

The Next Steps in Strategic Partnership (NSSP), announced in July 2005, laid out an ambitious path of cooperation in four strategic areas: civil nuclear energy, civilian space programs, high-technology commerce, and missile defense. The U.S.-India bilateral relationship continues to grow in a wide range of areas, including defense cooperation, counterterrorism efforts, coordination on regional conflicts, and cooperation in a growing range of multilateral flora.

IMET funds are used to facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assist in training. India has used IMET funding to send students to the Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine Command and Staff Colleges, the Army and Air War Colleges, and various other officer-training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of stability, effective civil-military relations, and defense cooperation in areas of mutual interests. They increase the Indian officer corps’ familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Indian military personnel also take part in courses dealing with areas of combat service support, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants.

As a means of strengthening defense ties with India, during the past year the United States has held numerous joint exercises with India, including several in India where U.S. forces participated, and in the United States where Indian forces took part. The United States welcomed continued Indian participation in FY 2007 at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, the Marshall Center, and at the Near East South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses, all of which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from India. The United States proposes India’s continued participation at these executive courses in FY 2008, as well.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provides important training and education to assist India in combating terrorism. This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the counterterrorism (CT) spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, India is building a more comprehensive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism; other countries in the region are gaining an understanding of the challenges, successes, and failures of CT efforts in India; and the United States is building India’s long-term CT capacity.

Kazakhstan

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

1

1

1

$25,031

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

10

8

9

$377,404

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

47

29

22

$864,948

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

107

52

97

$1,476,679

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

43

43

13

$253,280

3

3

3

$29,190

Service Academies

1

1

1

$71,033

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

209

134

143

$3,068,375

3

3

3

$29,190

Kazakhstan is a vast, resource-rich country, bordering both Russia and China that has consistently advanced U.S. national security interests in Central Asia through its support for Operation Iraqi Freedom in Iraq and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Kazakhstan has deployed a military engineering unit to Iraq since 2003 that has disposed of over 4.5 million unexploded ordnance. It deployed its tenth unit of engineers in April 2008. Other U.S. interests include continuing the successful cooperation in the dismantling of Kazakhstan’s inherited weapons of mass destruction infrastructure; advancing Kazakhstan’s long-term political stability by developing democratic institutions and respect for human rights; modernizing and professionalizing Kazakhstan’s military institutions and armed forces; and encouraging the development of both the Caspian basin’s hydrocarbon resources and the means for their secure access to international markets. Additionally, to further Kazakhstan’s support of the War on Terror (WOT), we are seeking to improve Kazakhstan’s capability to combat terrorist insurgents, eliminate internal terrorist cells, and foster regional cooperation in the area of counterterrorism. To strengthen our mutually beneficial bilateral military relationship with Kazakhstan, our military-to-military goals include enhancing the capabilities of Kazakhstan’s peacekeeping battalion (KAZBAT) by deepening Kazakhstan’s participation in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) and in USCENTCOM regional exercises. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and International Military and Education and Training (IMET) enhance regional cooperation by creating needed capabilities, expanding Kazakhstan’s cooperation in PfP, supporting KAZBAT and USCENTCOM regional exercises, and enhancing Kazakhstan’s military interoperability with NATO forces. They also facilitate the professionalization of the armed forces and promote a better understanding of the role of the military in a democracy and the development of appropriate civil-military relations and human rights practices.

Military training with Kazakhstan focuses in particular on leadership, professional military education (PME), and civil-military relations. Courses related to international staff officer training contribute to PfP goals. Courses for junior infantry, intelligence, and military police officers as well as leadership training provided to non-commissioned officers further the U.S. goal of developing interoperable forces capable of coalition missions. Aircraft power plant repair, aircraft structural repair, and military and peacekeeping operations courses contribute directly to Kazakhstan’s ability to meet specified PfP and coalition interoperability goals.

Kazakhstan’s Defense Institute for Foreign Languages officially opened on September 10, 2005. It has the capacity to train up to 500 military students per year in foreign languages (primarily English, but others as well). The Government of Kazakhstan would like to make it a regional language training center by inviting military students from other Central Asian countries. Spreading English language skills more broadly remains a priority in a region where Russian is the most frequently spoken first or second language. English-language proficiency supports all of our training programs, facilitates interactions with all levels of the Kazakhstani military, and supports interoperability.

The primary focus for the near- and mid-term is the execution of the second Five-Year Military Cooperation plan, signed in February 2008 by the Kazakhstani Ministry of Defense and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. This plan ties mission to task in three areas of development: establishing a professional armed force with rapid deployment capability compatible with NATO force standards; establishing a rapid-reaction military capability in the Caspian region; and pursuing general systemic reform within the spheres of military education and training, transition to an all-volunteer force, and equipment modernization. Each of these task areas will better develop the U.S.-Kazakhstan-NATO interoperability needed to fight the WOT. In support of the country’s intent to develop counterterrorism/special operations capabilities in the Caspian Sea region, with the end state being a NATO-interoperable, 150-man special operations force/counterterrorism force capable of conducting hostage rescue and terrorist interdiction, the Atyrau construction project was dedicated in July 2004. The project, tailored to the development of a Special Forces Training Center for Counterterrorism, will allow for increased joint exercises and will support the work that is done with KAZBAT. It will also provide the means and a venue for other cooperative exercises between Kazakhstan and its neighbors, something that is also a key objective of U.S. strategy in the region. The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) promotes building close ties with Kazakhstan through PME and counterterrorism focused training initiatives that support the WOT.

In FY 2007, the Department built upon training received in previous years to reflect post 9/11 goals. The U.S. will continue to emphasize multilateral training of special purpose and counterterrorism forces from interested Coalition and NATO countries, seeking to gain greater synergy through greater cooperation in the planning stages. Key areas of emphasis will be the development of a Kazakhstani counterterrorism capability, and cooperation and combined training with similar forces from the other Central Asian States.

Kyrgyzstan

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

4

4

3

$50,876

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

94

55

63

$1,673,352

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

175

175

3

$1,293,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

35

35

11

$204,637

4

4

4

$42,066

Section 1004

60

60

1

$299,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

3

3

2

$209,980

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

371

332

83

$3,730,845

4

4

4

$42,066

U.S. national interests are furthered by the continued development of a stable, prosperous, and independent Kyrgyz Republic, as well as by its continuing support for Operation Enduring Freedom. Bilateral relations, including those related to military training, are aimed at helping the Kyrgyz Republic contribute to security and regional cooperation in Central Asia, a region that borders on Russia, China, Iran, and Afghanistan. While seeking to enhance Kyrgyzstan’s capabilities to combat terrorist cells and secure its borders, our security cooperation encourages the Kyrgyz Republic to reform its military along democratic lines, including the areas of civil-military relations and defense management. To further these goals, the United States uses assistance for international military education and training. Another key component of U.S. policy is to encourage and facilitate active participation by the Kyrgyz Republic in NATO’s Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities.

The United States has used the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), International Military Education and Training (IMET), and Partnership for Peace (PfP) activities to expose Kyrgyz officers to U.S. and other democratic military processes. Mountain leaders’ courses, Marshall Center seminars and professional military education (PME) targeting junior and mid-grade officers and non-commissioned officers have given Kyrgyz military personnel opportunities to interact with U.S., NATO, and PfP counterparts as well as others from Central Asia. In order to provide training that would allow greater interoperability within PfP; efforts have also included defense management, strategic intelligence, military peacekeeping operations, and training officers as leaders of infantry, airborne, and other related units.

Kyrgyzstan continues to receive U.S. assistance in counterterrorism training. The request was prompted by incursions by the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) in 1999 and 2000. Kyrgyzstan also experienced terrorist bombings by alleged members of the IMU in 2002 and 2003, and there was an attack on a southern Kyrgyz border post/customs station in May 2006. The government has expressed concern over the possibility of future border incursions.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) has funded regional seminars and participation in command and general staff colleges and arranged for training on responding to terrorism. Initiatives such as these build on U.S. and Kyrgyzstan bilateral relationships and promote interoperability against global terrorism.

English-language instruction plays a key role in preparing Kyrgyzstan for NATO interoperability and PfP activities. Spreading English language skills more broadly remains a priority in a region where Russian is the most common second language and it facilitates U.S. training. A number of Kyrgyz military officers have received a full year of English language instruction and follow-on military training. Others received specialized training as English language instructors. IMET-funded English language laboratories have been established and books and audio-visual materials are being acquired using IMET funds to supplement the language training programs. In addition, the Defense Language Institute has provided an English language mobile training team to Kyrgyzstan for six months to help further enhance English language instruction.

Maldives

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

IMET-1

20

12

20

$214,860

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

5

5

4

$76,566

8

8

8

$73,619

Service Academies

4

4

3

$213,099

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

29

21

27

$504,525

8

8

8

$73,619

The Maldives provides important access for U.S. vessels and allows aircraft transit rights in its airspace. This moderate Muslim nation provided airport access during Operation Desert Storm, and offered to do so again during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. It is in the U.S. national security interest to maintain stability in this small island nation by strengthening its democratic institutions. The USG is also working with the Maldivian government to coordinate policies in international organizations, especially on such issues of shared interest as global warming, drug trafficking, nonproliferation, and international crime and terrorism. Because there is no resident Mission in Maldives, the United States will continue to pursue its national interests there through regular diplomatic exchanges managed by the U.S. Embassy in Colombo, through the IMET program, and through Regional Democracy Fund programs.

U.S.-funded training facilitates U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assists in training exercises. Development of an apolitical, professional military contributes to political stability. It may also provide a basis for future participation by Maldives in peacekeeping exercises. The Maldives uses its IMET funds to send students to basic officer career courses, maritime training, and various other officer and technical training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of enhancing stability and democracy, and increase the Maldivian officer corps’ familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Maldivian military personnel also take part in courses on maintenance, crisis command and control, and instructor training, all of which strengthen the Maldivian military’s ability to secure its territory and waters as well as enhance its potential as possible future peacekeeping provider. The 15th Marine expeditionary unit conducted additional training with the Maldivian military in October 2006. Those exercises focused on non-commissioned officer professional development and marksmanship.

The United States welcomed continued Maldives participation in FY 2007 at both the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the Near East South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from the Maldives. The U.S. Service Academy Program provides the Maldives National Defense Force increased opportunities to enroll cadets in the U.S. Army, Naval and Coast Guard academies.

Nepal

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

14

14

9

$177,387

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

2

2

1

$24,038

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

5

5

3

$19,903

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

59

37

43

$773,046

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

5

5

5

$250,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Misc DOD/DOS Non-SA

1

1

1

$1,870

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

227

227

2

$237,000

196

196

2

$650,000

Regional Centers

161

161

19

$352,197

26

26

14

$201,392

Totals:

474

452

83

$1,835,441

222

222

16

$851,392

Nepal is a small, poor country wedged between India and China. Relations between the United States and the Government of Nepal (GON) have been historically friendly. The USG wants to help the GON entrench multi-party democracy and civil liberties, ensure professional security forces, implement economic development programs, and improve the Nepal Army’s (NA) human rights record. Professional military education is particularly critical during Nepal’s period of political transition.

Nepal uses IMET funding to send students to various officer-training courses that provide professional military education (PME) as well as familiarize the Nepali officer corps with U.S. values and military practices. The courses provide the opportunity for military-to-military professional contacts, and facilitate cooperation on training exercises and in peacekeeping operations. The USG has specifically tailored its IMET program to address the most pressing needs of the NA, and to educating NA personnel on the mechanics and importance of civilian control of the military. Nepali military personnel take courses on health care skills as well as civil affairs, infantry, ranger, warrior leader, and public affairs training, with a special emphasis on establishing and adhering to rules of engagement during military operations that protect human rights. This training significantly enhances the NA’s capabilities as peacekeepers and in pursuing domestic stability.

The NA continues to be a world leader in participation in UN peacekeeping operations (PKO). The Bijendra Peace Operations Training Center established in Panchkal provides excellent pre-deployment training for units participating in upcoming PKOs.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provides important training and education to assist Nepal in counterterrorism (CT). This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the CT spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, Nepal advances a more comprehensive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism, and other countries in the region gain an understanding of the challenges, successes, and failures of CT efforts in Nepal.

As a means of strengthening defense ties with Nepal, the U.S. welcomes Nepali participation at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and at the Near East South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Nepal. The United States proposes increased Nepali participation in Asia-Pacific Center executive courses in FY 2008 and beyond, as well as continuing to fund students to attend the Near East South Asia Center and other institutions.

Pakistan

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

4

2

4

$53,261

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

59

54

32

$1,080,986

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

155

81

44

$99,800

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

96

93

31

$124,590

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

22

22

3

$104,866

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

150

117

91

$2,268,355

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

579

579

6

$2,047,133

600

600

6

$3,373,000

Regional Centers

77

77

25

$313,667

41

41

17

$250,310

Section 1004

314

314

4

$1,527,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

6

6

3

$203,742

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

1462

1344

243

$7,823,399

641

641

23

$3,623,310

The United States has vital interests in Pakistan, a key partner in the War on Terror. Continued strong support from Pakistan’s government in fighting the War on Terror, promoting stability in nuclear-armed South Asia, and advancing Pakistani political and economic reforms are all priority U.S. foreign policy interests. None can be achieved without the support of the Pakistani military, which has, and will retain, broad political influence in Pakistan, even after the transition to full civilian rule. For democratization and economic growth to take root, the military must become more open to transparency and accountability in budgeting and civilian decision-making.

A supporter of U.S. efforts since the beginning of the War on Terror, Pakistan’s efforts continue to expand. Pakistan’s military operations against terrorists have cost the lives of over a thousand members of its security forces. The Pakistani military’s security operations in the Tribal Areas are disrupting terrorist activities, and have targeted and raided al Qaeda and other militant safe havens. Pakistan has helped kill or capture hundreds of other suspected al Qaeda operatives, including major Taliban leaders. The U.S. military benefits from transit rights over Pakistani territory, the use of certain bases and facilities, and the sharing information. The majority of high-level terrorists captured in the past three years were caught by Pakistan. Pakistan’s support to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) remains crucial to rooting out terrorists exploiting Pakistan’s border areas with Afghanistan. Pakistan also plays a key role in Afghanistan’s reconstruction process.

Due to sanctions in place for a ten-year period, Pakistan’s military was denied training in the United States and exposure to U.S. military doctrine, relationships, and culture. Pakistan’s IMET program was reinstated in October 2001 after Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act section 508 sanctions against Pakistan were waived. IMET funding increases opportunities for military-to-military professional contact, improves interoperability, enhances respect for civilian rule, and improves technical capabilities. IMET courses also focus on professionalism, and expose Pakistani personnel to U.S. ethos, military doctrine, and management. A portion of IMET is also earmarked for E-IMET courses as a means to increase exposure to issues related to human rights and the law of war. FY 2007 IMET courses included budget preparation, ammunition specialist, and advanced management.

The executive courses of the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, the Marshall Center, and the Near East South Asia Center for Security Studies continue to emphasize the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which lead to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build relationships with counterparts from Pakistan that will extend to the post-military government era.

The Pakistan Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) supports current efforts in the War on Terror by educating officers directly involved in counterterrorism (CT) efforts, thus allowing the country to develop policy and plans that support coalition efforts. Through CTFP, the Pakistanis will gain the necessary tools and capabilities to improve not only their CT abilities, but also their military capacity as a whole.

Sri Lanka

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

24

22

15

$395,181

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

48

48

4

$228,556

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

40

25

36

$637,594

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

0

0

0

$0.00

40

40

1

$150,000

Regional Centers

82

82

21

$403,632

33

33

16

$220,545

Service Academies

7

7

4

$481,636

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

201

184

79

$2,146,599

73

73

17

$370,545

Sri Lanka has a long tradition of vigorous democracy and was the first country in the region to liberalize its economy. Sri Lanka is a strategically located island in the Indian Ocean. The Sri Lankan government has been engaged in a protracted conflict with the terrorist designated Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) for over twenty years. Despite ceasefire talks between the government and the Tigers, the conflict continued to escalate throughout the reporting period, ultimately leading to the government’s formal withdrawal from the ceasefire in January 2008. In the reporting period, the human rights situation in Sri Lanka has deteriorated. The USG’s top priority remains the protection of the lives, rights, and property of American citizens; although Sri Lanka’s poor human rights record has caused U.S. officials to criticize the government and placed Sri Lanka under congressional scrutiny.

The United States and Sri Lanka share a strong interest in the suppression of international terrorism. Sri Lanka has been cooperative in allowing transit through airspace, husbanding of ships and aircraft, and supporting operational missions such as Desert Storm, Desert Shield, and, more recently, Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Other U.S. interests in Sri Lanka are strengthening democratic institutions, increasing respect for human rights, alleviating a conflict-related humanitarian crisis in the east, improving U.S.-Sri Lankan economic ties and cooperation, and enhancing regional stability.

USG assistance to Sri Lanka includes funds to facilitate U.S. military-to-military professional contacts and assist in training exercises. Developing an apolitical, professional military contributes to political stability and allows for increased participation in peacekeeping exercises. Specifically, Sri Lanka uses its IMET funding to send students to the Army, Air Force, and Navy Command and Staff Colleges and various other officer training courses. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of enhancing stability and democracy, and increase the Sri Lankan officer corps’ familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Sri Lanka’s interoperability with U.S. forces improves through IMET-funded specialized English language training. During FY 2007, Sri Lankan military personnel took part in basic courses for intelligence and marine officers and career courses for field artillery and infantry, all of which enhance their value as future peacekeeping participants and increase professionalism within the force. Further, Sri Lanka’s participation in Khaan Quest in Mongolia enhanced the capabilities of its peacekeeping forces and has increased its capacity to provide troops for UN peace support operations.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provided important training and education to assist Sri Lanka in counterterrorism (CT). This program brings together counterparts from different countries and agencies across the CT spectrum. Through this cross-fertilization, Sri Lanka is building a more comprehensive approach to addressing its particular concerns in combating terrorism; other countries in the region are gaining an understanding of the challenges, successes and failures of CT efforts in Sri Lanka; and the United States is building Sri Lanka’s long-term CT capacity.

The United States welcomed continued Sri Lankan participation in FY 2007 at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, the Marshall Center, and the Near East South Asia Center for Security Studies executive courses and seminars, which are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. These opportunities increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Sri Lanka.

Participation in the U.S. Service Academy Program has enabled young Sri Lankan service cadets to enter the U.S. Military Academy and U.S. Air Force Academy and receive graduate-level military education not available in Sri Lankan institutions.

FY 2007 1206 funding provided maritime security training and equipment. This equipment enhanced the Navy’s search and interdiction capability against smuggling of drug, small arms, and persons around the island’s coastline.

Tajikistan

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

8

7

5

$48,254

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

41

35

14

$408,640

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

230

230

4

$1,940,685

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

68

68

10

$125,288

3

3

3

$29,190

Totals:

347

340

33

$2,522,867

3

3

3

$29,190

The U.S.-Tajikistan bilateral military relationship continues to develop in a mutually beneficial way, building on our joint efforts in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and the War on Terror. Tajikistan borders Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, China, and Kyrgyzstan. Its porous borders make it highly vulnerable as a transit point for the movement of terrorist insurgents, narcotics, and weapons that can destabilize other parts of the region. U.S. goals in Tajikistan remain the promotion of the development of a strong civil society, a market economy, stable borders, and democratic rule with full respect for human rights.

FY 2007 IMET was used to fund training on subjects including English language and professional military education (PME). Spreading English-language skills more broadly remains a priority in a region where Russian is the most common second language. More widespread English language capability facilitates U.S. training, as well as furthering our goal to build interoperability with US and NATO forces, especially in support of peacekeeping operations. A number of Tajik military officers have received a full year of English language instruction and follow-on military training in the fields of infantry skills, mountain operations and intelligence. Others have received specialized training as English language instructors. IMET-funded English language laboratories have been established and books and audio-visual materials are acquired annually using IMET funds to supplement local language training programs. In addition, the Defense Language Institute provided an English language mobile training team to Tajikistan for four months to help further enhance English language instruction. The team was quite successful in building English language skills, both as preparation to study in the United States, and to build interoperability capability.

FY 2007 FMF primarily focused on providing communications equipment, training, and support for the enhancement of capabilities for selected units in the Ministry of Defense and the National Guard. We also provided press center equipment to the National Guard under an FMF case, and are bringing in professional public affairs staff as part of our military cooperation program to support the Tajik ability to offset extremist rhetoric by building a modern strategic communications capability in the armed forces. Up through this year, Tajikistan has enjoyed a backlog of FMF funds dating to FY 2002-2004. By the end of FY 2008, those funds will be expended. Limited current FMF funding for Tajikistan will limit it to relatively small purchases in the future, until funding levels rise.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) helps to build strong bilateral ties between the United States and Tajikistan, critical for sustaining our collaborative efforts in the War on Terror (WOT). In 2007, CTFP funded a seminar in methods to fight corruption, money laundering and other financial crimes that can provide support for terrorists, as well as discrediting the government in public eyes.

Tajik officials also benefit from instruction at the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Attendance at Marshall Center courses and conferences exposes Tajik officers and defense officials to their peers in NATO, other former Soviet and former Warsaw Pact countries. These countries provide examples of success in defense reform, and the benefits of an open society and economy, information to which Tajik citizens otherwise have little to no access.

Tajikistan has been approved for inclusion in the Global Peacekeeping Operations Initiative, with funding in FY2007 approved in the amount of $1.5 million. Tajikistan has tentatively accepted the program, but has not yet signed the 505 Agreement necessary for full participation. The Embassy continues to urge the Tajiks to complete the necessary documentation, so that training and preparations for building a PKO capability may begin.

In light of the withdrawal of Russian Border Forces from the Tajik-Afghan border in September 2005, border security remained a large focus of the Department’s assistance efforts in FY 2007, and will continue into FY 2008. In September 2007 a major delivery of communications equipment to the Border Guards and Drug Control Agency was accomplished. Operator and maintainer training has been initiated, and equipment deliveries are underway to border posts and to the mobile counter-narcotics teams that operate along the Tajik-Afghan border. This equipment will greatly enhance the ability of Tajik forces to control the movement of narcotics, criminals, terrorists, and other persons and materials of concern across the border, reducing safe havens and continuing to build interdiction rates.

Turkmenistan

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$5,200

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

28

12

22

$658,395

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

12

12

7

$38,603

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

42

26

30

$702,198

0

0

0

$0.00

The United States seeks a stable, independent Turkmenistan that contributes to regional stability and prosperity, and enhances U.S. national security. Turkmenistan, rich in oil and gas reserves, borders Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and the Caspian Sea. A principle U.S. interest is enhancing Turkmenistan’s ability to secure its borders since it is a key potential transit state in Central Asia for the movement of narcotics, weapons, and terrorists. The United States also seeks Turkmenistan’s assistance in the War on Terror, counternarcotics efforts, and preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and associated delivery systems, materials, technologies, and expertise. The United States encourages Turkmenistan’s further participation in Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities as part of our overall goal of introducing Turkmenistan to military cooperation regionally and fostering greater exposure.

Warsaw Initiative Funding for participation in PfP activities furthers on-the-ground-experience, including regional cooperation, interoperability with NATO forces, and reform of Turkmenistan’s military along Western, democratic lines. These activities also increase Turkmenistan’s engagement with Euro-Atlantic security institutions.

In FY 2007, Turkmenistan used International Military Education and Training (IMET) funds to send military personnel to the United States for English language training and for professional military education (PME) courses to include the armor officer basic course and Intermediate Level Education (ILE), which support Turkmenistan’s military reform by exposing officers to U.S. democratic standards and values.

Spreading English language skills more broadly remains a priority in a region where Russian is the most common second language and it facilitates U.S. training. The IMET program for Turkmenistan remains focused on language training, as well as on professional officer development for junior and mid-grade officers from all branches of service. The goal of the program is to further Turkmenistan’s military professionalization and to enhance the ability of Turkmenistan’s forces to participate in PfP activities and/or any future coalition contingencies.

Uzbekistan

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$5,200

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

7

7

4

$29,200

4

4

4

$42,066

Totals:

9

9

5

$34,400

4

4

4

$42,066

Uzbekistan is a strategically important country that is vital to stability in Central Asia. Half of Central Asia’s population lives in Uzbekistan, and ethnic Uzbeks are the largest minority in most of the other Central Asian countries. Uzbekistan has the strongest military in the region. Uzbekistan borders all the other Central Asian countries and Afghanistan. Accordingly, its security policies directly affect its neighbors, especially in the heavily populated Ferghana Valley.

Uzbekistan has been an important past partner in efforts to combat international terrorism. It allowed U.S. forces access to the Karshi-Khanabad airbase until November 2005, provided blanket overflight rights until January 2006, and continues to permit Germany and other coalition partners’ access to the Termez airport in support of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operations in Afghanistan. The Uzbek government allows Department of Defense commercial charter aircraft to overfly its territory. The government has also facilitated past humanitarian shipments to Afghanistan.

Uzbekistan is ineligible for International Military, Education and Training (IMET) and Foreign Military Financing (FMF) assistance because the Secretary of State has been unable, since FY 2004, to certify Uzbekistan under the U.S.-Uzbekistan Strategic Partnership Agreement, as required by section 568(a) of the Foreign Operations Authorization Act. That Agreement calls for substantial and significant progress on issues including respect for human rights; establishing a genuine multi-party system; and ensuring free and fair elections, freedom of expression, and independence of the media. Uzbekistan does participate in courses at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and the Marshall European Center for Security Studies, which exposes officers to U.S. democratic standards and values.



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