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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

2008 Foreign Military Training: III. State Foreign Policy Objectives--Western Hemispheric Region


Report
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
January 31, 2008

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Antigua and Barbuda

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

3

3

2

$1,184

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

19

13

19

$149,780

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

22

16

21

$150,964

0

0

0

$0.00

The United States enjoys good bilateral relations with Antigua and Barbuda. The Department has encouraged the Government of Antigua and Barbuda to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. U.S.-funded training assists in the development of a more professional and efficient security force through such exercises as Tradewinds. Participating in joint exercises and maritime training increases Antigua and Barbuda’s ability to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotics operations, search and rescue operations, and other bilateral and multilateral operations. An 82-foot patrol boat, provided by the U.S. government and delivered in 1998, continues to be used for coastal patrolling and maritime counternarcotics missions. Due to the small size of Antigua and Barbuda’s security forces, the limited IMET funding available pays great dividends in training programs.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Antigua and Barbuda at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Antigua and Barbuda.

Argentina

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

64

62

8

$112,414

0

0

0

$0.00

Exchange

4

2

4

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

27

17

18

$105,969

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

396

377

65

$942,388

0

0

0

$0.00

PME

4

3

4

$83,471

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

478

478

18

$190,540

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

0

0

0

$0.00

2

2

1

$1,840

Totals:

973

939

117

$1,434,782

2

2

1

$1,840

Argentina is a democratic nation and a partner in the strategically important Southern Cone region. We have a mature relationship with the Government of Argentina (GOA) and the Argentine military actively participates in international peacekeeping and other multilateral efforts. President Clinton named Argentina a Major Non-NATO Ally in 1998.

To promote interoperability and knowledge of U.S. operations, the Argentine military has participated in a number of joint exercises with U.S. forces in the region, including UNITAS (blue-water and amphibious) naval exercises, the SALITRE air force exercise in Chile, the SOUTHCOM-sponsored PKO-South, Fuerzas Comandos, and PANAMAX (defense of the Panama Canal) exercises. Exercises involving U.S. troops on Argentine soil require approval by the Argentine Congress on a case-by-case basis.

IMET-funded and other courses on human rights, international law, peacekeeping, counternarcotics, command and general staff and air and national war colleges, and a variety of other courses provide officer and non-commissioned officer training that enhance efforts to modernize and professionalize Argentina’s armed forces. They also help reinforce the concept of civilian control of the military and familiarize the Argentine military with U.S. military doctrine and practices. Supply management training for junior officers and courses in defense resources and logistics management increase Argentina’s ability to maintain U.S. equipment in its inventory, thus improving Argentine interoperability with U.S. forces in bilateral and multilateral activities. As South America’s third largest contributor of troops to international peacekeeping operations, training in peacekeeping further encourages Argentina’s participation in these activities. As of September 2007 Argentina contributes nearly 565 troops to the UN stabilization mission in Haiti, MINUSTAH, and contributes a total of almost 900 to UN peacekeeping missions worldwide.

Argentina started to receive Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funding in FY 2004. The Argentine Police are primarily responsible for an effective counterterrorism program in Argentina. They have a strong special operations group, skilled at real world hostage rescue and good marksmanship skills. CTFP funds will assist this group to train for more effective counterterrorism initiatives, and to strengthen the unit’s ability to conduct small-to-medium scale operations. CTFP funds have also been used to train the Gendarmes and the Coast Guard, and to allow Argentina to participate in regional center seminars in the United States.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes Argentine participation at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, as well as increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Argentina.

Bahamas

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

1

1

1

$9,106

0

0

0

$0.00

DOHS/USCG

1

1

1

$339

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

64

56

38

$363,772

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

35

34

7

$94,620

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

101

92

47

$467,837

0

0

0

$0.00

The Bahamas is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. IMET courses in basic military officer and non-commissioned officer training and a variety of maritime training courses assist The Bahamas in the development of a more professional and efficient security force. This training is tied to both operational requirements and equipment acquisitions.

The Bahamas is instrumental in assisting the United States in combating narcotics trafficking and illegal migration in the region. Training activities include instruction in operational planning and exercises with U.S. forces, such as Tradewinds. Training in maritime crisis management and vessel control verification greatly enhances The Bahamas’ ability to perform law enforcement and security activities. Training on legal issues involving the military encourages continued Bahamian participation in many bilateral and multilateral activities. One result has been close cooperation with the U.S. government on a combined law enforcement effort, Operation Bahamas, and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT), which is critical for the interdiction of aliens, drugs, and terrorists en route to the United States. In addition, this training has resulted in The Bahamas placing an increased emphasis on preventing money laundering and on asset forfeiture investigations and prosecution. In FY 2006, The Bahamas became a partner in the Enduring Friendship initiative. This initiative is to build maritime security capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President’s Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the Command’s Theater Security Cooperation Strategy.

Barbados

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

3

3

2

$1,040

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

3

3

3

$23,770

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

89

89

3

$3,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

95

95

8

$27,810

0

0

0

$0.00

Barbados is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. Training will assist Barbados in the development of a more professional and efficient security force. Being an observer in the Tradewinds exercise, that included maritime counternarcotics and counterterrorism training, as well as basic search and rescue, greatly enhanced Barbados’ ability to assist in counternarcotics efforts. Barbados has continued its leadership role in the Eastern Caribbean by passing domestic legislation that enables it to implement maritime law enforcement agreements. U.S. government training and support has facilitated execution of cooperative bilateral law enforcement efforts in the region.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Barbados at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Barbados.

Belize

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

2

2

2

$114,057

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

29

14

28

$402,391

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

53

53

1

$0.00

53

53

1

$734,000

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$1,500

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

13

10

9

$85,663

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

7

7

4

$281,013

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

105

87

45

$884,624

53

53

1

$734,000

Belize is a democratic nation that has a good bilateral relationship with the United States. We have encouraged the military of Belize to participate more actively in counternarcotics and other multilateral efforts. Because of its proximity to the United States, its long coastline dotted with many islands and inlets, and its position linking Central American and Caribbean states, Belize is an ideal transit point for illicit drugs headed for the United States. Easy access to the United States and Mexico makes Belize an attractive staging area for other international crimes as well. It is a market for vehicles stolen in the United States, a potential site for money laundering, and a point of origin for smuggled wildlife and artifacts.

IMET and other programs provide training and equipment to maintain a small but disciplined Belize Defense Force (BDF). BDF troops served with the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) Battalion during peacekeeping operations in Haiti, and participated in regional training exercises, such as Tradewinds, with United States, British, and Caribbean forces. IMET training in the areas of mid-level officer training and equipment maintenance, as well as attendance at the U.S. Naval Academy, greatly improve the professionalism and competence of the BDF. A number of activities were conducted to help make the BDF a more effective partner when operating with U.S. forces in joint exercises and operations, particularly in the counterdrug area. Belize is scheduled to become a partner in the Enduring Friendship initiative. This initiative is to build maritime security capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President’s Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the Command’s Theater Security Cooperation Strategy. The BDF has also become an observer of the Conferencia de Fuerzas Armadas Centroamericanas (CFAC), a regional military organization comprised of Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, and the Dominican Republic. This move will enhance sub-regional cooperation in training and in operations such as peacekeeping.

Bolivia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

4

2

4

$51,202

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

7

5

4

$59,508

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

8

8

4

$97,336

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

2

2

2

$28,044

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

109

106

17

$368,091

0

0

0

$0.00

INL

6

6

2

$90,788

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

14

14

4

$91,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

51

49

17

$441,532

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$67,914

2

2

1

$1,840

Totals:

202

193

54

$1,295,415

2

2

1

$1,840

Bolivia is undergoing a significant transition in its political history. It traditionally enjoyed a strong bilateral relationship with the United States. Bolivia’s policy of “coca yes, but cocaine zero” has created challenges for our cooperative counter-drug efforts. While the Morales Administration has complicated USG military-to-military engagement efforts, the Bolivian military continually expresses its desire to maintain close ties with its U.S. counterparts. Bolivia contributes over 200 troops to the MINUSTAH peacekeeping mission in Haiti. U.S. government training and participation in joint exercises had enabled Bolivia to phase out the policy of compensating individuals for drug eradication, substantially reduce the amount of coca under cultivation in the Chapare region, and increase the number of arrests and chemical seizures. This effort is hampered by resistance from those who have profited from the production and trafficking of narcotics, particularly cocaine. Special counternarcotics forces and certain select units of the military are active participants in the drug war.

While there is heightened concern about the Morales Administration’s policies that allow for increased coca cultivation, Bolivia has been certified as cooperating with U.S. counternarcotics policy, and we have provided professional military education (PME) and non-commissioned officer (NCO) training to continue to enhance the professionalism of Bolivia’s armed forces. Military training programs included courses on human rights, NCO professional development, and battalion and brigade staff officer training, which helped reinforce principles of democracy and civilian control of the military. Prior-year FMF funds provided rotary-wing aviation repair training to support counternarcotics operations.

Bolivia has received Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds to send students to English language training and to regional center seminars conducted by the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) and a Counterterrorism Fellows program at the National Defense University in 2006. In FY 2007, Bolivia used CTFP funds to send a student to a U.S. Army Intermediate Level Education course, and will send students to CHDS in FY 2008.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes Bolivian participation at CHDS executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Bolivia that will transcend the current political situation.

Brazil

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

42

40

17

$389,360

0

0

0

$0.00

DOHS/USCG

193

193

4

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

7

5

5

$45,378

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

7

4

6

$27,182

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

24

21

18

$232,694

0

0

0

$0.00

PME

2

2

2

$176,553

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

934

934

21

$103,322

1

1

1

$8,156

Section 1004

15

15

10

$117,281

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

7

7

1

$0.00

2

2

1

$1,840

Totals:

1231

1221

83

$1,091,770

3

3

2

$9,996

As a result of its geographic size and economic power, Brazil has substantial regional influence and its military actively participates in international peacekeeping and other multilateral efforts. The United States’ security relationship with this regional leader suffered a considerable decline in the late 1970s when Brazil was governed by a military regime that was displeased by U.S. foreign policy. This displeasure resulted in the abrogation of the U.S.-Brazil Military Assistance Accord that had been in effect since WWII. Brazil’s transition to civilian government in 1985 paved the way for a closer partnership, and the creation of a civilian-led Ministry of Defense in 1999 greatly facilitated our bilateral defense relationship. Today, that relationship can be characterized as mature and continually improving, indeed the Brazilian Ministry of Defense has raised the possibility of renegotiations for a new bilateral defense accord. Brazil has led the UN-sponsored MINUSTAH Peacekeeping mission in Haiti since its inception in 2003, contributing leadership and over 1200 troops to the effort, and remains the region’s second largest contributor, after Uruguay, of peacekeeping (PKO) troops over the past decade.

DoD-funded training for non-commissioned officers, mid-level, and senior officers assist Brazil’s efforts to modernize and professionalize its armed forces and help strengthen the principle of civilian control of the military. Training in security assistance management and crisis command and control also enhances Brazil’s ability to maintain its inventory and further encourages Brazil’s participation in international PKO and humanitarian operations. Brazil’s participation in joint exercises strengthens interoperability with U.S. forces.

Brazil received over $380,000 in Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds in FY 2007. Students from Brazil attended the Naval Post Graduate School’s Center for Civil-Military Relations and a Coast Guard incident command course. Brazil also sent students to several senior professional military education courses such as the National Defense University’s Counterterrorism Fellows Program, Air War College, and U.S. Army Sergeants Major Academy. Continued engagement with Brazil using the CTFP program will allow for increased security in the region and for the United States.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Brazil at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Brazil

Chile

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

9

9

5

$16,841

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

24

18

9

$3,908,432

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

370

344

75

$755,994

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

80

80

1

$1,558,407

42

42

1

$2,130,520

PME

2

2

2

$93,082

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

251

251

19

$135,071

8

8

8

$79,403

Service Academies

6

6

3

$11,600

2

2

1

$1,840

Totals:

742

710

114

$6,479,427

52

52

10

$2,211,763

Chile is a key and increasingly strategic military partner of the United States in the Western Hemisphere. U.S. military training activities with Chile help advance U.S. interests in regional stability, interoperability with U.S. forces, and the maintenance and protection of basic democratic values and human rights. As the Chilean armed forces are modern and professional, they have expanded their participation in activities such as international peacekeeping, exemplified by their participation in both the Multinational Interim Force and subsequent UN Mission (MINUSTAH) in Haiti, the latter routinely seeing Chilean participation of over 500 troops. They were also one of the founding members of the SOUTHCOM-funded PANAMAX exercises in Panama.

The IMET program has been an invaluable tool to strengthen our defense relationship and help Chile advance. Technical training has supported Chile’s efforts to modernize its forces, which, combined with Chile’s participation in joint training exercises with American personnel, has enhanced effective interoperability with the United States. The provision of logistics maintenance and management training for non-commissioned, mid-level and senior officers has helped Chile to further professionalize its armed forces. Overall, contacts between Chilean and U.S. military and civilian personnel through the IMET program have strengthened Chile’s democracy and strengthened our defense relationship.

Increased peacekeeping readiness encourages cooperation among the Chilean services, strengthens and further motivates Chile’s rationale for defense modernization, and promotes collaboration and exchanges with the United States and other regional militaries. Due in part to training programs such as these, today’s Chilean military is more modern, professional, and willing and able to support the United States better than ever before. They have, with Argentina, formed a joint PKO brigade, another positive step in sub-regional integration.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes Chilean participation at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) and other executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Chile.

Colombia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

1

1

1

$23,840

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

21

21

12

$434,590

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

507

502

65

$4,387,387

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

100

100

31

$164,477

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

497

451

112

$1,987,467

0

0

0

$0.00

INL

381

380

62

$1,048,816

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

204

204

3

$585,993

40

40

2

$1,250,000

Regional Centers

139

139

12

$189,146

2

2

2

$16,313

Section 1004

12603

12603

74

$25,652,848

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

7

7

4

$481,636

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

14460

14408

329

$34,956,200

42

42

4

$1,266,313

Colombia is Latin America’s oldest formal democracy and a major partner of the United States in the fight against international narcotics trafficking and terrorism. As the source of most of the cocaine and much of the heroin consumed in the United States, Colombia is the focus of a significant share of the U.S. government’s international counterdrug effort. Prior to the passage of the FY 2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act, the largest part of the training provided to the Colombian military was in direct support of the U.S. counterdrug strategy. Since then, U.S. training has broadened to reflect U.S. support to assist the Colombian military in its unified campaign against narcotics traffickers and designated terrorist groups in support of Plan Colombia. Additional funding will be provided by the USG in the consolidation phase of Plan Colombia. Training programs and equipment acquisitions are closely tied to the operational requirements of the consolidation phase of Plan Colombia.

The FY 2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act provided State with expanded authority to use Colombian assistance funds to support the GOC in its unified campaign against narcotics trafficking and terrorist groups such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the National Liberation Army (ELN), and the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC), and to take actions to protect human health and welfare in emergency circumstances, including undertaking rescue operations. This authority has been renewed. In 2007, FMF funding continued to support Colombia’s unified campaign against narcotics trafficking and terrorist organizations, an effort that is projected to continue in FY 2008.

In FY 2007, section 1004 (National Defense Authorization Act for FY 1991) counterdrug training for Colombia included aviation aircrew and aircraft repair training, maintenance of patrol craft, and light infantry training of Colombian police and military. All section 1004 training is provided in support of drug eradication and interdiction efforts. Extensive sustainment training occurred, as did increased support for training of aircraft mechanics, crew, and pilots for the assets provided to the Government of Colombia (GOC) for counternarcotics and counterterrorism programs. Additionally, Colombia received in excess of $400,000 in CTFP funding for FY 2007 training programs.

The IMET program adds to these training efforts, and funds a broad range of courses for the Colombian military at all levels that promote mutually beneficial mil-to-mil relations and increased understanding and defense cooperation between the United States and Colombia. Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) and IMET-funded courses include a strong emphasis on human rights, including courses on democratic sustainment. IMET also provides technical training for non-commissioned officers and field-grade officers, as well as training in maintenance, logistics, and acquisition and resource management. These courses assist the Colombian military by increasing its abilities to better care for and maintain U.S.-provided equipment, thus increasing Colombia’s ability to pursue its counterdrug and counterterrorist efforts, as well as its efforts to reestablish security throughout Colombia.

The Urban Antiterrorism Special Forces Group, a joint unit comprised of personnel and equipment from all of Colombia’s military services, formally manages Colombia’s counterterrorism program. This unit has real world combat experience and excellent planning skills, and Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funding is geared toward giving them counterterrorism training to supplement this experience. CTFP funds have already allowed Colombians to attend courses designed to assist them to combat terrorism, manage resources, understand better the dynamics of international terrorism, and develop international and U.S. ties through senior leader attendance at U.S. senior military schools. These courses will provide Colombia’s elite counterterrorism unit with a greater understanding of the international threat of terrorism and an increased ability to counter it.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes Colombian participation at CHDS executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Colombia.

Costa Rica

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

2

2

2

$5,911

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

7

5

7

$29,802

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

17

15

8

$131,581

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

0

0

0

$0.00

45

45

1

$170,000

Regional Centers

7

7

5

$24,050

3

3

1

$13,500

Section 1004

12

11

9

$105,183

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

45

40

27

$296,527

48

48

2

$183,500

Costa Rica is a democratic nation, a major partner in Central America and was the first Central American nation to sign and ratify a Maritime Counternarcotics Agreement with the United States. Costa Rica actively participates in efforts to reduce illegal migration, drug trafficking, and poaching of marine fisheries in the region, and has become a staunch U.S. partner in the fight against international crime, greatly expanding and complementing our law enforcement efforts in the region.

Costa Rica does not have a military, relying on its Public Security Forces for defense and security matters. IMET training would serve to professionalize the Coast Guard and law enforcement services through courses such as counterdrug operations, rule of law and discipline in military operations, and technical training. Likewise, as the Government of Costa Rica assumes an increasingly sophisticated counternarcotics role, other training provides access to modern, state-of-the-art law enforcement methods, as well as assistance in equipment maintenance, logistics, and resource management. A counternarcotic training focuses on operational skills, as well as on joint exercises to improve interoperability with U.S. forces.

As a means of strengthening security ties, the United States welcomes participation by Costa Rica at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Costa Rica.

Dominica

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

20

20

2

$75,290

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

4

3

4

$44,174

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

24

23

6

$119,464

0

0

0

$0.00

Dominica is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. The Department of State has encouraged the Government of Dominica to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. IMET training assists Dominica in the development of a more professional and efficient security force and will enable Dominica to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotics and anti-terrorism activities, search and rescue operations, and other bilateral and multilateral operations. Dominica’s participation in the Tradewinds exercise enhanced their security posture for the World Cup of Cricket.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Dominica at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Dominica.

Dominican Republic

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

7

7

4

$25,512

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

58

49

21

$685,191

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

131

98

99

$1,627,879

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

90

90

2

$494,447

117

117

2

$1,844,000

Regional Centers

179

179

12

$73,200

3

3

1

$13,500

Section 1004

12

12

5

$120,415

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$71,033

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

478

436

134

$3,097,677

120

120

3

$1,857,500

The Dominican Republic is a democratic nation and a close ally of the United States. The Department has encouraged the Dominican Republic military to participate more actively in counternarcotics operations and other multilateral efforts. In 2002, the Dominican Republic was one of the first countries in the Western Hemisphere to sign an Article 98 agreement with the United States, and also participated in coalition operations in Iraq, one of only four nations from the region to do so.

IMET-funded and other training in areas such as civil-military operations will contribute to the Dominican Republic’s support for the principles of human rights, democracy, and civilian control of the military. Professional training and education at all levels (including non-commissioned officer training and command and staff colleges) improves the professionalism of the Dominican Republic’s armed forces. Other training included technical and counternarcotics training to increase the Dominican Republic’s ability to operate with U.S. forces, and joint exercises that promoted team building and provided baseline knowledge of U.S. operations. Effective in FY 2006, the Dominican Republic became a partner in the Enduring Friendship initiative. This initiative will build maritime security capacity and capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President’s Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the U.S. Southern Command’s Theater Security Cooperation Strategy.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from the Dominican Republic at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from the Dominican Republic.

Ecuador

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

3

2

3

$26,248

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

9

9

7

$479,309

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

4

4

3

$285,027

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

10

10

4

$99,520

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

18

18

3

$41,576

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

32

28

21

$306,239

0

0

0

$0.00

INL

5

5

1

$46,500

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

102

102

8

$101,650

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

268

252

65

$1,814,455

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

5

5

3

$203,742

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

456

435

108

$3,404,266

0

0

0

$0.00

The United States has mature, bilateral relations with Ecuador. Ecuador’s democracy has been struggling in recent years under various pressures, including a severe financial crisis, rivalries between domestic regions, high-profile corruption, and lack of support for the president. Ecuador’s military has a great deal of independence and political influence, and they have some funding sources of their own which reduce their dependence on the budget process. The Ecuadorian military played a controversial role in the January 2000 political crisis, but has since reaffirmed its commitment to civilian control.

Training in peace operations, the rule of law and discipline in military operations, and NCO professional development, as well as participation at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS), help reinforce the principles of civilian control of the military and strengthen the principles of human rights. Ecuador is designated as a major drug-transiting country and many of the activities, such as counternarcotics operations, officer training, resource management, logistics, and equipment maintenance provide training needed to professionalize and modernize Ecuador’s military. Significant training efforts in counterdrug operations have also been conducted. Joint exercises with U.S. forces contributed to continued cooperation with U.S. counternarcotics efforts. In November 1999, Ecuador and the United States concluded a ten-year agreement for access to, and use of, the Manta Cooperative Security Location, Ecuador, as a support base for U.S. aircraft monitoring drug trafficking flights through the region. The agreement terminates in November 2009.

Ecuador began its association with the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) in FY 2005, receiving $58,000 in CTFP invitational courses. It received over $350,000 in CTFP in FY 2007. Ecuador sent three students to port security training, a student to the Naval Command and General Staff College and the Air War College, and two students to the National Defense University’s Counterterrorism Fellows Program. The NDU program offers selected foreign officials graduate accredited courses from NDU’s School for Senior National Security Executive Education (SNSEE). CT Fellows participate in these seminars and also attend elective courses alongside American counterparts from the military services, DoD, other Executive Branch agencies, and relevant congressional staffs. SNSEE brings a broad strategic perspective to these interservice, interagency, and international deliberations. Attendance at these and similar courses will allow Ecuadorians to analyze global threats and their various manifestations; recognize global terrorism mechanisms, including the modes, means, roots, and psychology of transnational terrorism; and evaluate the means to counter this threat within and outside Ecuador.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Ecuador at CHDS executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Ecuador.

El Salvador

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

4

1

4

$41,273

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

41

41

9

$230,709

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

5

5

2

$34,345

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

14

14

6

$13,034

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

231

199

80

$2,409,127

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

0

0

0

$0.00

95

95

1

$898,732

Regional Centers

307

307

15

$174,974

6

6

3

$34,313

Section 1004

52

52

6

$92,905

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

2

2

2

$71,033

2

2

1

$1,840

Totals:

656

621

124

$3,067,399

103

103

5

$934,885

El Salvador is a democratic country with a historically close relationship and strong mil-mil ties with the United States. Though bilateral military assistance was dramatically reduced since the end of the civil war in 1992, overall relations have flourished with the civilian government and military cooperation remaining strong. The principal U.S. interests in El Salvador are supporting democracy, fighting international crime and illegal drugs, encouraging economic development, deterring illegal immigration to the United States and promoting U.S. exports. Our bilateral relationship is further influenced by the fact that one in six Salvadorans lives in the United States, and that El Salvador has remained a solid troop contributor to Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF).

Security cooperation is geared towards professional training programs that will sustain the dramatic improvement in

civil-military relations and consequent improvement in the democratic climate and regional stability seen in recent years. Officer training at all levels, including command and staff colleges and courses in civil-military relations and democratic sustainment, help reinforce the notion of civilian control of the military and reinforce the principles of human rights. El Salvador has strongly supported the War on Terror and repeatedly sent Special Forces troops to Iraq. It is the only country in the SOUTHCOM AOR with soldiers presently deployed to Iraq. Training in international peacekeeping will allow the Salvadoran armed forces to develop expertise and participate in future peace support operations. El Salvador is one of the four members of the Conferencia de Fuerzas Armadas Centroamericanas (CFAC) combined PKO battalion and receives Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) funds to support these efforts. This initiative is providing new peacekeepers and peacekeeping units to deploy in support of global peacekeeping missions.

In March 2000, the USG opened one of three Cooperative Security Locations (CSL) that support counterdrug operations in the Pacific corridor. The Government of El Salvador (GOES) granted the concession to base our operations in their country at great political expense, and our continued close relations with their military through IMET is vital to the longevity of this operation. Training, through the Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), IMET, FMS, and Section 1004 funds in counternarcotics operations, resource management, logistics and equipment maintenance provides assistance needed to professionalize and modernize the Salvadoran military and encourage its continued cooperation with U.S. counternarcotics efforts. Joint training exercises with U.S. forces contribute to team building and give the armed forces exposure to U.S. counterdrug operations. El Salvador is also a transit point for illegal immigration and drugs to the United States, and IMET assists the GOES to better patrol its borders. Since the earthquakes of January and February 2001, emphasis has been given to helping the Salvadoran military carry out its disaster relief and reconstruction mission, as well as to building its disaster preparedness capabilities. The new roles of patrolling borders and disaster relief have created a needed and positive role for the military, helping to erase years of distrust of the armed forces by the population.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from El Salvador at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from El Salvador.

Grenada

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

3

3

2

$1,220

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

17

13

16

$140,096

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

20

16

18

$141,316

0

0

0

$0.00

Grenada is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the United States. The Department has encouraged the Government of Grenada to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. Training is focused on specialized skills training to assist in the development of a more professional and efficient security force that will be able to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotics operations, search and rescue operations, and other bilateral and multilateral exercises (such as Tradewinds) and operations. Joint training and exercises with U.S. forces will contribute to greater interoperability and baseline understanding of U.S. counterdrug operations. Though limited, IMET funding pays big dividends given the small size of the Grenada security forces.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Grenada at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Grenada.

Guatemala

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

5

2

5

$65,976

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

7

7

4

$145,157

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

293

293

11

$163,004

10

10

1

$30,900

IMET-1

44

44

13

$391,884

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

50

50

1

$160,123

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

147

147

10

$88,650

1

1

1

$4,500

Section 1004

145

145

12

$1,696,658

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

2

2

1

$135,828

2

2

1

$1,840

Totals:

693

690

57

$2,847,280

13

13

3

$37,240

Guatemala is a democracy with a traditionally cooperative relationship with the United States. The principal U.S. interests in Guatemala include strengthening Guatemala’s democracy and rule of law, fighting transnational crime and drug trafficking, and encouraging the growth of a stable market economy. In July 2004, the Guatemalan military was reduced to 15,500 personnel, the latest in a series of reductions that has cut the size of the Guatemalan Armed Forces by 66 percent between 1997 and 2004. The Guatemalan military has also carried out an extensive revision of its doctrine, training, and education and eliminated internal security as a military role. The revision also includes a strong emphasis on human rights training. Efforts to modernize the military to reflect its new role in a democratic society have been stymied by budget constraints and the Government of Guatemala is seeking foreign assistance to help fund military modernization. Because of continuing concerns regarding past human rights cases, as well as issues regarding implementation of various aspects of the Peace Accords, Guatemala is restricted by Congress to receiving only Expanded IMET (E-IMET), and not full IMET or FMF.

Participation in Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) activities, and training in civil-military relations and peacekeeping operations help reinforce the goal of civilian control of the military and human rights principles. Other training activities help Guatemalan forces strengthen their drug enforcement capabilities, conduct drug interdiction and eradication activities, and improve their ability to integrate their planning and execution with U.S. entities in regional counternarcotics, disaster relief, and humanitarian operations. Guatemala is also a major recipient of Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) funds. This initiative is providing new peacekeepers and helping peacekeeping units to deploy in support of global peacekeeping missions. Guatemala has been the driving force and cornerstone in the formation of the Conferencia de Fuerzas Armadas Centroamericanas (CFAC) multinational peacekeeping battalion, an initiative strongly supported by GPOI funding. Currently Guatemala is the only Central American country with troops deployed to UN Peacekeeping missions (Haiti and Congo). In FY 2007 Guatemala became a partner in the Enduring Friendship initiative. This initiative is to build maritime security capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President’s Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the Command’s Theater Security Cooperation Strategy.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Guatemala at CHDS executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Guatemala. Guatemala is leading the region in the development of a Regional Security Strategy to counter emerging regional threats.

Guyana

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

20

20

2

$57,090

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

32

20

32

$478,149

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

0

0

0

$0.00

107

107

2

$1,504,581

Regional Centers

12

12

2

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

3

3

2

$71,033

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

67

55

38

$606,272

107

107

2

$1,504,581

The United States has friendly relations with Guyana, a small, poor and heavily indebted country with a wealth of natural resources. Guyana is making a slow transition to a free-market system and has held several free and fair elections over the past fifteen years. Guyana has an unresolved border dispute with neighboring Suriname. Venezuela also has an outstanding claim to approximately two thirds of Guyana’s territory. However, neither border controversy is likely to lead to armed conflict in the short-to-medium term.

Although Guyana has not been identified as a major drug-transit or producing country, narcotics trafficking is increasingly a concern. The U.S. government has encouraged the Government of Guyana (GOG) to participate more actively in counternarcotics and other multilateral security activities. IMET-funded and other training in professional military education (PME), a variety of maritime-related courses and those which support counternarcotics and anti-terrorism efforts assist in the development of a more professional and efficient security force. Participating in joint exercises and training in maritime search and rescue increases Guyana’s ability to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotics and other bilateral and multilateral operations. A Maritime Law Enforcement Agreement giving ship riders law enforcement authority was enacted in 2003.

Haiti

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

FMF

81

81

5

$105,560

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

84

71

18

$190,230

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

27

27

6

$6,650

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

192

179

29

$302,440

0

0

0

$0.00

The Haitian Coast Guard performed admirably during the period of instability leading up to former President Aristide’s departure in March 2004. It remains the most stable and cooperative element of the Haitian government in recent years. Continued targeted support to the Haitian Coast Guard in FY 2007 provided an opportunity to build on former achievements. Planned continued engagement in FY 2008 with the Haitian Coast Guard will further increase its professionalism and interdiction capacity and help to reinforce the rule of law in Haiti’s ports and territorial waters. U.S. government training and support will enable Haiti to cooperate more fully with the U.S. Coast Guard and other U.S. law enforcement agencies working to control narcotics trafficking, illegal migration, and alien smuggling. Additional grant transfers and resources will allow the Haitian Coast Guard to expand its presence on the north and south coasts of the country and to conduct self-sustained operations in areas of concern.

Honduras

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

2

2

2

$20,058

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

10

9

8

$170,566

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

75

75

11

$50,510

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

301

265

92

$1,700,566

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

0

0

1

$883,958

270

270

1

$1,722,174

Regional Centers

262

262

10

$93,140

2

2

1

$9,000

Section 1004

10

10

4

$105,916

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

3

3

2

$67,914

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

663

626

128

$3,092,628

272

272

2

$1,731,174

Honduras is a democratic country and a close partner of the United States in Central America, with traditionally strong mil-mil ties with the United States. Although Honduras is not designated as a major drug-transit country, narcotics trafficking remain a growing concern. Because of its geographic location, Honduras has become a transshipment point for narcotics entering the United States. IMET-funded training is geared towards professional military education (PME) courses that encourage the continued dramatic improvement in civil-military relations, as well as improvement in the democratic climate and regional integration/stability. Training at all levels, from non-commissioned officer professional development up to command and staff and war colleges, as well as courses on civil-military relations and participation in the Counterterrorism Fellows program, helps reinforce the notion of civilian control of the military and promote the principles of human rights.

Honduras, which deployed a task force to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, remains a strong supporter of the War on Terror. Training in international peacekeeping will allow the Honduran armed forces to more fully develop expertise in this area and to participate in future PKO. Honduras is also one of the members of the four-nation Conferencia de Fuerzas Armadas Centroamericanas (CFAC) PKO battalion, primarily funded through Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI). This key initiative will provide new peacekeepers and peacekeeping units to deploy in support of global peacekeeping missions. Training in counternarcotics operations, resource management, logistics and equipment maintenance, and participation in exercises with U.S. forces provide opportunities needed to professionalize and modernize the Honduran military and encourage its continued cooperation with U.S. counternarcotics efforts. In FY 2007, Honduras became a partner in the Enduring Friendship initiative. This initiative builds maritime security capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President’s Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the Command’s Theater Security Cooperation Strategy.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Honduras at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Honduras.

Jamaica

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

5

5

3

$11,701

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

136

91

89

$1,116,342

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

0

0

0

$0.00

49

49

2

$1,048,563

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$50

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

3

3

3

$138,947

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

145

100

96

$1,267,040

49

49

2

$1,048,563

Jamaica is a stable democracy, and the Government of Jamaica (GOJ) cooperates with the United States on a variety of international and regional issues. Although Jamaica is a major transit country for cocaine and the largest Caribbean producer and exporter of marijuana, the GOJ has fully cooperated with U.S. counternarcotics goals. Jamaica has no serious external threats to its security and maintains a very small military.

Training in the rule of law and discipline in military operations and non-commissioned officer and junior- to mid-level officer professional development help maintain a professional military force subject to civilian control. Additionally, training in aircraft maintenance, information systems, logistics, maritime operations, and maintenance and repair of maritime equipment assists in maintaining the technical proficiencies of the Jamaican military. Port security training on boarding operations enhances Jamaica’s ability to combat narcotics traffickers. U.S. government training and exercises have enabled Jamaica to improve its participation in bilateral counterdrug initiatives, strengthen its drug enforcement, money laundering and anti-corruption laws, and improve its counternarcotics enforcement capabilities. Effective in FY 2006, Jamaica became a partner in the Enduring Friendship initiative. This initiative builds maritime security capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President’s Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the Command’s Theater Security Cooperation Strategy. Participation in the Tradewinds exercise enhanced its security posture for the World Cup of Cricket,

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Jamaica at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Jamaica.

Mexico

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

52

43

23

$614,512

0

0

0

$0.00

DOHS/USCG

104

104

3

$0.00

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

6

4

6

$205,754

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

19

9

18

$241,054

0

0

0

$0.00

INL

24

24

12

$58,340

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

52

52

1

$736,792

68

68

1

$1,200,000

Regional Centers

188

188

13

$157,540

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

250

195

60

$2,849,166

203

203

74

$2,104,193

Service Academies

0

0

0

$0.00

2

2

1

$1,840

Totals:

695

619

132

$4,863,158

273

273

76

$3,306,033

Mexico, our third largest trading partner, shares a border with the United States of more than 2,000 miles. The U.S. and Mexican governments have significantly improved cooperation across a range of common interests and concerns, including counterterrorism, counternarcotics, and the fight against corruption. The Mexican military focuses primarily on internal security, but also plays a significant role in infrastructure protection, border and airport security, disaster relief, and counternarcotics activities. Given our extensive border and close cultural and commercial ties, both governments recognize the fundamental importance of effective coordination of counterterrorism efforts. The Mexican military also plays a central role in the government’s counternarcotics efforts, including interdiction and the deployment of some 20,000 troops at any one time to manually eradicate marijuana and opium poppy fields. Mexico nonetheless remains an important source of marijuana and opium poppy. Additionally, as much as 70 percent of the cocaine entering the United States from South America passes through Mexico or its surrounding waters off both coasts. The U.S. and Mexican governments coordinate counternarcotics cooperation through various mechanisms, including the Bi-national Commission (BNC), the Senior Law Enforcement Plenary (SLEP), and the Bilateral Interdiction Working Group (BIWG).

The administration of President Felipe Calderon has taken a courageous stand against transnational crime and corruption, viewing both as fundamental threats to Mexican national security. As a result, levels of coordination and bilateral counternarcotics cooperation have reached unprecedented levels. Mexican efforts to attack internal corruption have also been dramatic and include the disbanding of an entire battalion in Sinaloa and the arrest of several senior officers for suspected ties to narcotraffickers. An indicator of the progress in our defense relationship is the deployment of Mexican military to the United States in support of Hurricane Katrina relief efforts. Mil-mil relationships have steadily improved over the last several years, an area that traditionally saw little contact or cooperation.

The USG will resume IMET-funded training during the Calderon Administration to strengthen the rule of law and respect for human rights in Mexico’s law enforcement agencies and in its armed forces. Mid-to-senior level officer training helps maintain the professionalism of the Mexican military. The United States conducts extensive counterterrorism and counternarcotics training, focusing its efforts on helping Mexico improve its air and sea reconnaissance capabilities to enhance their ability to detect and thwart illicit activity. Technical assistance covering a broad range of counterterrorism and counternarcotics capabilities and assets also enhances Mexico’s ability to cooperate more effectively with U.S. counterterrorism and counternarcotics efforts.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Mexico at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their Mexican counterparts.

Nicaragua

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

32

32

7

$198,684

0

0

0

$0.00

GPOI

24

24

8

$26,108

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

69

57

35

$990,715

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

0

0

0

$0.00

30

30

1

$723,563

Regional Centers

86

86

7

$44,000

4

4

1

$18,000

Section 1004

50

50

6

$133,098

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

2

2

1

$142,066

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

263

251

61

$1,534,671

34

34

2

$741,563

The primary national interests of the United States in Nicaragua are to support and strengthen democratic institutions, foster regional security, interdict international crime, and promote broad-based economic growth. Since the return of a democratically elected government in 1990, Nicaragua has made great strides in opening its economy and in establishing legitimate, responsive democratic institutions. In particular, the Nicaraguan National Army (EN), once the political tool of the Sandinistas (FSLN), has undergone a dramatic transformation and has become a respected democratic institution. The armed forces continue to maintain good relations with the U.S. military, following the return to power of President Daniel Ortega. Continued engagement will further contribute to this process. Training activities promote regional security and strengthen democratic institutions. Nicaragua has strongly supported the War on Terror and is one of four regional countries to contribute troops to stabilization efforts in Iraq. Training in international peacekeeping will allow the Nicaraguan armed forces to develop the expertise needed to participate in future peacekeeping operations (PKO). Nicaragua is also one of the members of the four-nation Conferencia de Fuerzas Armadas Centroamericanas (CFAC) PKO battalion, a Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI)-funded initiative. This initiative is providing new peacekeepers and peacekeeping units to deploy in support of global peacekeeping missions. In FY 2007, Nicaragua became a partner in the Enduring Friendship initiative. This initiative is to build maritime security capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President’s Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the Command’s Theater Security Cooperation Strategy. Nicaragua signed an Article 98 agreement in 2004 and approved the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) in 2005. The Nicaraguan Army needs assistance in resourcing transformation to help it build capabilities to respond to emerging regional threats.

Indicative of the EN’s evolution from merely an armed instrument of the FSLN Party to a professional, apolitical institution was the complete support offered by the Commander of the Nicaraguan Army for passage of the Nicaraguan Counterdrug Maritime Agreement, enacted in November 2001. The Counterdrug Maritime Agreement allows Coast Guard/law enforcement elements to conduct joint interdiction operations against narcotraffickers in Nicaraguan waters. Embassy Managua has made a concerted effort to cross-train elements of the Nicaraguan Military and Nicaraguan National Police in ship boarding, interdiction techniques, and drug enforcement operations.

The Government of Nicaragua presented its first ever white paper to President Bolanos on September 2, 2004. This paper is an important step in defining the role of the military under a civilian Minister of Defense. The white paper examines once taboo topics such as civilian formulation of the military budget, structure and size of the armed forces, national and regional emerging threats, force modernization requirements, and senior officer promotions. The white paper was signed and implemented in June 2005.

The Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program, section 1004 and IMET-funded training, such as civil-military relations, joint operations, and rule of law and discipline in military operations, have helped the EN make great progress in professionalizing its officer corps and supporting the leadership of a civilian president and a civilian Minister of Defense.

The IMET program contains an English language component, as well as human rights training, maritime operations and aircraft maintenance, and professional military education (PME) courses such as captain’s career course and Air Command and Staff College.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Nicaragua at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Nicaragua.

Panama

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

6

6

3

$30,220

0

0

0

$0.00

FMF

32

32

9

$378,309

0

0

0

$0.00

FMS

1

1

1

$46,500

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

64

54

38

$754,509

0

0

0

$0.00

INL

6

4

3

$34,684

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

60

60

1

$289,891

86

86

3

$1,671,000

Regional Centers

4

4

3

$19,550

2

2

2

$12,656

Section 1004

206

206

6

$2,177,128

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

379

366

60

$3,730,791

88

88

5

$1,683,656

Panama remains important to U.S. national interests following the transfer of the Panama Canal, and our bilateral relationship remains strong. Approximately two-thirds of Canal traffic originates in, or is destined for, the United States. Panama’s strategic location between South and North America makes it a crossroads for international commerce, and also a center for illegal activity such as drug trafficking, money laundering, arms smuggling, and illegal immigration. U.S. security engagement with Panama will become more crucial as Panama deals with any spillover from the Colombian conflict along its porous border. Cooperation with the Torrijos Administration has been excellent, with a range of new initiatives taking shape. In FY 2006, Panama became a partner in the Enduring Friendship initiative. This initiative is to build maritime security capabilities for partner nations located in high illicit trafficking lanes. It supports the President’s Western Hemisphere Strategy, the Proliferation Security Initiative, the Command’s Theater Security Cooperation Strategy, and the U.S./Panama Secure Trade and Transportation Initiative. Panama also hosts the annual PANAMAX defense of the Panama Canal exercise, the largest exercise conducted annually by the U.S. Southern Command.

As Panama has no standing military, the United States needs to continue cooperative efforts with Panamanian security elements of the Public Force (law enforcement authorities) to counter transnational crime, increase border security, and address other threats. U.S. assistance supports all four services of Panama’s Public Force (PPF): National Police, National Air Service, National Maritime Service and Institutional Protection Service. IMET-funded and other training programs provided to the PPF are used for technical and operational courses focused on security, counternarcotics, and counterterrorism.

As a means of strengthening security ties, the United States welcomes participation from Panama at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Panama.

Paraguay

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

34

32

13

$402,598

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

2

2

1

$38,815

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

4

4

3

$44,517

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

0

0

0

$0.00

30

30

1

$150,000

Regional Centers

204

204

11

$178,109

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

100

100

2

$806,000

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

1

1

1

$71,033

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

345

343

30

$1,541,072

30

30

1

$150,000

Over eighteen years after the overthrow of the Alfredo Stroessner dictatorship, the consolidation of a democratic society and state continues. Bilateral relations between the United States and Paraguay are strong, with Paraguay providing excellent cooperation in the fight against terrorism, especially in the Tri-Border area of Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil. As there are no serious external threats to Paraguay’s sovereignty, the Paraguayan government and military are redefining the military’s roles and missions in the 21st century.

The Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) strengthens counterterrorism and peacekeeping capabilities within the Paraguayan military. Courses at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) and participation in Unified Command seminars and military exercises advance the concept of civilian control of the military, support human rights principles, and maintain the rule of law and discipline in military operations. They also contribute to Paraguay’s making proportionally significant contributions to international peace and regional security. Peacekeeping observers have served in Africa under United Nations deployment since 2001. The United States conducted numerous military exercises and offered seminars on counterterrorism, peacekeeping, and senior leadership and plans more joint activities to continue advancing these objectives. As a partner in the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) Paraguay is developing peacekeeping units to deploy in support of global peacekeeping missions, and is currently participating in three UN-sponsored PKO missions

Paraguay’s counterterrorism program is formally managed by their Police Special Operations Force, a branch of the Paraguayan National Police, a highly motivated unit that is able to tap into other police units for support. CTFP funds have allowed this unit to train more effectively and improve their operational skills. CTFP funds allow Paraguayans to attend courses on the dynamics of international terrorism and on the importance and application of intelligence in counterdrug operations. These courses will move Paraguay’s elite counterterrorism unit toward a greater ability to counter the international threat of terrorism. Some of the courses completed include counterdrug information analysis, regional civil-military relations, the Counterterrorism Fellows Program, and special reaction team training.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Paraguay at CHDS executive courses. CDHS courses are designed to focus on the non-combat aspects of security and international relations, and increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Paraguay. Paraguay is an active participant in CHDS programs.

Peru

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

3

2

3

$25,192

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

62

62

11

$199,611

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

4

4

1

$35,052

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

42

42

7

$261,868

0

0

0

$0.00

INL

56

56

17

$347,213

0

0

0

$0.00

PME

1

1

1

$44,948

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

2010

2010

32

$213,427

6

6

6

$60,727

Section 1004

221

214

31

$2,203,543

40

40

1

$250,000

Service Academies

6

6

4

$274,775

2

2

1

$1,840

Totals:

2405

2397

98

$3,605,629

48

48

8

$312,567

Peru maintains a strong bilateral relationship with the United States. The United States seeks to strengthen Peru’s democratic institutions and its ability to interdict and disrupt narcotics production and distribution. The United States has enjoyed excellent cooperation from the Government of Peru and the administration of President Alan Garcia on counternarcotics activities.

Training in civil military relations, the rule of law and discipline in military operations, and comprehensive security responses to terrorism helps reinforce the notion of civilian control of the military and reinforces support for the principles of human rights. Training in port security, joint operations, maintenance management, and helicopter and outboard motor repair provide the tools needed to professionalize and modernize Peru’s military and enhance its capabilities in air operations, search and rescue, and demining operations. This training is particularly important in supporting the 1998 border dispute settlement between Peru and Ecuador. Finally, significant training efforts in the area of counterdrug operations are underway. These activities include training to improve helicopter and other aircraft capabilities, as well as participation in training exercises with U.S. forces to improve interoperability. The Peruvian military continues to conduct operations against insurgents and narcoterrorists. Professionalization of the Peruvian military will help make these operations more efficient while training the military to avoid the excesses of counterinsurgency efforts of past decades as recently reported by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Acting on the Commission’s recommendations, which include reforming the military as an institution, will be important for Peruvian society to continue developing ongoing counternarcotics and counterterrorist operations while respecting the rule of law and human rights. The Peruvian military’s increased participation in peacekeeping operations (PKO) training and exercises, as well as their ongoing contributions to the UN Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), with hopes of gaining additional PKO capability, has also been a source of pride and has helped to improve their image. Peru has recently become a Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) partner of the United States.

The Emergency Tactical Actions Group, a branch of the Peruvian National Police, formally manages Peru’s counterterrorism program. FY 2007 Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds allowed this unit to train more effectively and improve its skills in planning initiatives against complex targets and local threats imposed by terrorist organizations in Peru. CTFP funds have already allowed Peruvians to attend courses designed to help them better understand international counterterrorism defense and the dynamics of international terrorism. These funds have also allowed for participation in counterterrorism military education team training, as well as courses in intelligence in combating terrorism - all geared to improving Peru’s ability to counter the international threat of terrorism.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Peru at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Peru.

St Kitts and Nevis

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

3

3

2

$1,310

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

19

14

19

$161,740

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

22

17

21

$163,050

0

0

0

$0.00

St. Kitts and Nevis is a democratic nation that maintains good bilateral relations with the United States. The Department of State has encouraged the Government of St. Kitts and Nevis to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. IMET-funded and other training assists St. Kitts and Nevis in the development of a more professional and efficient security force, which will be able to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotics operations, search and rescue operations, and other bilateral and multilateral operations. Participation in training exercises with U.S. forces augments counterdrug capabilities and enhances interoperability, while participation in the Tradewinds exercise improved its security posture for the World Cup of Cricket. Though limited, IMET funding gives the best return on the investment for this nation’s small security force. St. Kitts and Nevis signed an Article 98 agreement with the United States and is eligible for the full range of security assistance.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomed St Kitts and Nevis’ participation at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS). This course was designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and it increases awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The course also allows U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from St. Kitts and Nevis.

St Lucia

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

3

3

2

$1,264

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

19

14

19

$154,350

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

22

17

21

$155,614

0

0

0

$0.00

St. Lucia is a democratic nation that maintains good bilateral relations with the United States. The Department of State has encouraged the Government of St. Lucia to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. IMET-funded and other training assists in the development of a more professional and efficient security force that will be able to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotics operations, search and rescue operations and other bilateral and multilateral operations. Joint training exercises with U.S. forces improve counterdrug capabilities and enhance interoperability, while participation in the Tradewinds exercise improved its security posture for the World Cup of Cricket. Though limited, IMET funding pays big dividends for this nation’s small security force.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomed St Lucia’s participation at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS). This course was designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and it increases awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The course also allows U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from St. Lucia.

St Vincent and Grenadines

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

2

2

1

$620

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

4

4

4

$44,660

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

6

5

6

$63,717

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

12

11

11

$108,997

0

0

0

$0.00

St. Vincent and the Grenadines is a democratic nation that maintains good bilateral relations with the United States. The Department of State has encouraged the Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. Participation in the Tradewinds exercise enhanced its security posture for the World Cup of Cricket in 2007.

Suriname

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

1

1

1

$2,600

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

22

11

21

$228,735

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

0

0

0

$0.00

20

20

1

$800,000

Regional Centers

1

1

1

$4,540

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

2

2

1

$135,828

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

26

15

24

$371,703

20

20

1

$800,000

United States military security assistance objectives in Suriname are achieved through IMET, the Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program, the Humanitarian Assistance Program and SOUTHCOM’s Traditional Activities Program, which assists the Surinamese Armed Forces (Nationale Leger) in becoming a more professional, apolitical service, providing external and internal security for the country, under democratic civilian control. The U.S. military will continue to assist the Surinamese Armed Forces with the development of counterdrug and counterterrorism capabilities, with added emphasis on better systems and procedures for effective rapid response in land- and sea-based tracking and interdiction operations. Particular emphasis has been devoted to encouraging the armed forces to use their IMET budget for professional military education (PME), to commit national funds to future FMS purchases, and to setting up an effective Excess Defense Articles (EDA) program.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomed Suriname’s participation in a Caribbean Defense and Security Course at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS). This course was designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and it increased awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The course also allowed U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Suriname.

Trinidad and Tobago

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

CTFP

17

14

11

$117,364

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

5

5

3

$40,125

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

22

20

9

$108,771

0

0

0

$0.00

Non-SA, UC

30

30

1

$143,973

24

24

2

$1,071,000

Regional Centers

5

5

3

$17,930

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

2

2

1

$135,828

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

81

76

28

$563,991

24

24

2

$1,071,000

Trinidad and Tobago is a democratic nation that enjoys strong bilateral relations with the United States. The Department of State has encouraged the Government of Trinidad and Tobago (GOTT) to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. Officer and senior non-commissioned officer training assists in professionalizing the military, while training in intelligence, crisis command and control, regional port security, and maritime maintenance help maintain the technical proficiencies of the armed forces of Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago continues to support its interagency coordination center that gathers narcotics-related information from multiple sources and disseminates it to military and enforcement agencies involved in drug interdiction operations. U.S. government counterdrug-funded training and support have enabled Trinidad and Tobago to improve its ability to interdict illegal drug shipments, strengthen anti-drug trafficking laws, and participate in bilateral maritime exercises. Participation in the Tradewinds exercise enhanced its security posture for the World Cup of Cricket in 2007.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes participation from Trinidad and Tobago at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Trinidad and Tobago.

Uruguay

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

ALP

1

1

1

$6,007

0

0

0

$0.00

CTFP

45

45

8

$122,280

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-1

5

4

4

$45,565

0

0

0

$0.00

IMET-X

89

85

21

$374,767

0

0

0

$0.00

Regional Centers

31

31

8

$95,890

0

0

0

$0.00

Section 1004

40

36

8

$135,865

0

0

0

$0.00

Service Academies

0

0

0

$0.00

2

2

1

$1,840

Totals:

211

202

49

$780,374

2

2

1

$1,840

The U.S. has maintained strong bilateral relations with the Government of Uruguay. Indications are positive in the relationship with the Tabare Vasquez Administration, which recently inaugurated a SOUTHCOM humanitarian assistance program emergency operations center in Montevideo and five other departments in the interior of the country, and continues to support military-military training and exchange programs. The military is subordinate to the control of the civilian political leadership. The armed forces conduct a robust program of confidence- and security-building exercises and professional exchanges with the Brazilian and Argentine militaries make the Southern Cone one of the least conflictive regions of the world. Among Latin American nations, the Uruguayan armed forces have been number one in overall numbers, and worldwide are the largest per capita contributor of personnel for international peacekeeping missions, having deployed over 12,000 troops over the past decade. As of September 2007, Uruguay had 2,599 soldiers deployed on 12 peacekeeping missions. The Uruguayan government also has been a consistent contributor of humanitarian assistance to other Latin American countries during natural disasters. The Uruguayan Air Force has flown water purification equipment, medicine, and other emergency supplies to Colombia, Venezuela, and Central America over the past seven years. The armed forces also provide all logistical and operational support for the Uruguayan scientific research station in Antarctica that is performing valuable research on environmental issues.

Civilians and military officers attending the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) and participating in IMET-funded training help improve civil-military relations, rationalize the defense policy planning process thus making the process increasingly transparent, build civilian expertise in defense matters, and inculcate the principals of human rights in future leaders. Mid- to senior-grade officers attending professional development courses have facilitated the modernization and professionalization of the armed forces. Technical and maintenance training help Uruguay maintain and manage its defense resources, improving the Uruguayans’ ability to operate with U.S. and international forces in peacekeeping operations, disaster relief missions and other joint operations.

Venezuela

FY 2007

FY 2008

Program

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Training

Sessions

Individual

Students

Course

Count

Dollar

Value

Regional Centers

5

5

4

$28,500

0

0

0

$0.00

Totals:

5

5

4

$28,500

0

0

0

$0.00

President Hugo Chavez’s Administration, in which many military officers occupy ministerial and other senior positions, has increasingly politicized the Venezuelan Armed Forces. Meanwhile, U.S.-Venezuelan military relations have suffered, culminating in the expulsion of the U.S. military liaison group from Venezuelan military headquarters in May 2004 and all Personnel Exchange Program officers in 2005. The military liaison group has relocated to the Embassy compound and retains limited contact with the Venezuelan Armed Forces. Since President Chavez personally disapproved two counterdrug training support missions for military personnel in October 2003, their armed forces have received no U.S. training.

Any U.S. military training accepted by the Venezuelan government, especially in the areas of civil-military affairs and human rights, would help reinforce the military’s responsibility to maintain democratic and constitutional order. Many Venezuelan NCOs and officers have previously benefited from U.S. training.

The only U.S. military training received by Venezuela in recent years has been the participation in seminars or conferences conducted by the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS). Their courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence.



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