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To Walk the Earth in Safety: The United States Commitment to Humanitarian Demining
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
November 2001
Report
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Angola

The Landmine Problem
More than three decades of internal conflict have left Angola with one of the world's most serious landmine problems. Since no comprehensive national mine survey exists, the actual number of landmines in the country is unknown, with estimates ranging from 200,000 to around 6 million. Eight heavily mined provinces cover nearly 50 percent of the country in a band from the northwest border with the Congo to the southeast border with Namibia. These mines were planted by combatants to destroy or deny access to Angola's infrastructure. Mines are concentrated around roads, railways, bridges, and public facilities such as schools, churches, water supply points, and health care facilities. These mines hinder humanitarian aid programs, economic reconstruction, and the resettlement of Angola's 3.8 million refugees and internally displaced persons (IDP). During 2000, landmines claimed 840 victims, 26 more than the previous year. Half the casualties occurred on Angola's roads, confirming that there is still no safe movement of people and goods in the country.

United States Assistance
In Fiscal Year (FY) 00, the United States provided Angola with approximately $3.1 million for humanitarian demining, through grants to nongovernmental organizations (NGO). The NGO, Hazardous Area Life-support Organization (HALO) Trust, received some of this assistance to upgrade the skills of two survey/mine awareness teams and two mine clearance teams and to fund the addition of two mine clearance teams and two explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) teams in Beguela, Huambo, and Bie Provinces. The latter four teams supported international agencies and NGOs in providing humanitarian relief to IDPs in Angola's central highlands—a high priority area for government and international community resettlement programs. Grants also went to the NGOs, Norwegian Peoples Aid (NPA) and Stiftung Menschen Gegen Minen (MgM) for mine clearance. The Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF) received funding from USAID, assisting the Foundation in making progress in addressing the needs of amputees through the establishment of a rehabilitation center in Eastern Angola.

In FY01, the United States provided $3.188 million to Angola for mine action, including $2,844,000 in NGO Grants. The HALO Trust received $800,000 and NPA received $2,044,000. The HALO Trust continued landmine and unexploded ordnance (UXO) removal in the Kuito area of Bie Province. This is one of the most mine-contaminated areas in Angola, and has one of the highest numbers of IDPs. NPA continued manual demining operations in five provinces to clear land for IDP resettlement and agricultural use. USAID's Leahy War Victims Fund (LWVF) signed a new agreement with the Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF) to provide orthopedic service in Luena to an additional 3,000 people as well as establish a satellite workshop in Saurimo. In addition, a small business development effort will promote a new emphasis on economic rehabilitation.

Since FY95, the United States has contributed $29 million in humanitarian demining assistance to Angola. This assistance is provided exclusively through NGOs, primarily to facilitate IDP and refugee resettlement and the delivery of humanitarian assistance. U.S.-funded mine clearance operations occur only in areas where there is no ongoing conflict, the risk to demining personnel is low, and the proposed area to be cleared lacks military or strategic value. The U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Assistance Program has provided excess equipment to supplement the mine detectors, vehicles, and safety and communications equipment previously purchased with U.S. funds.

In Angola, some 70,000 people (one in 334 inhabitants) are amputees, and the United States has funded programs to assist these landmine victims. USAID contributed $1 million to support the International Committee of the Red Cross' Prosthetic Production and Fitting Operation, and more than $3 million to the VVAF to establish a regional rehabilitation center that will meet the mobility needs of 3,600 Angolans. Since 1996, LWVF has supported VVAF to meet the physical, social, and economic needs of mine victims and other amputees in Luena City, Moxico Province. The United States has also funded a feasibility study on mine victims in Angola conducted by the Landmine Survivors Network. The study examined the potential for launching a locally managed network of survivors to raise awareness on activities designed to alleviate suffering.

Accomplishments
U.S. humanitarian demining assistance has helped Angola establish the National Institute for the Removal of Explosive Obstacles, train and equip more than 800 deminers, medical technicians, and supervisors, return thousands of refugees and IDPs to Angola's central highlands—a high priority area for government and international community resettlement programs—and provide prosthetics and training in their use to thousands of landmine victims. In 2000 alone, Angolan and NGO deminers, supported with U.S. financial assistance, cleared more than 600,000 sq. m of land, resulting in increased food production and the opening of additional areas for the resettlement of IDPs.

With U.S. and international support, Angola continues to make progress in eliminating landmines, a major hindrance to the implementation of humanitarian aid programs, economic reconstruction, and internal movement and resettlement in those areas of the country that are relatively free from conflict. Since 1995, more than 315,00 landmines have been destroyed and some 9 million sq. m. of land have been rendered mine-safe.

Chad

The Landmine Problem
There are an estimated 500,000 landmines in Chad. A Level One Survey, funded by the United States and the United Kingdom and completed in May 2001, identified the presence of landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) in 249 of the 347 localities in Chad. The most severely affected areas are in the north and east of the country. The Libyan occupation of northern Chad in the 1980s left large (2-60 km long) defensive minefields around all key population centers in the desert. Rebellions in the south, east, and west left a large number of small minefields and thousands of tons of UXO spread throughout the regions. UXO is found in homes, schools, former ammunition storage areas, and abandoned combat vehicles. According to the Survey, there were 339 landmine and UXO victims between March 1999 and March 2001, half due to mines and half to UXO. Approximately 50 percent of the victims succumbed to their injuries.

United States Assistance
In Fiscal Year (FY) 00, the United States contributed nearly $640,000 to Chad's demining program. Renewed fighting in early 2000 forced the United States to suspend its assistance temporarily, halting construction of a regional demining compound in Faya Largeau, but not the provision of demining equipment, trauma kits, ambulances, demining vehicles, communications equipment and an air transport/Medevac capability. Canada also suspended its assistance, preventing the completion of a Level One Survey to determine the extent of Chad's landmine problem. The Survey had begun in February 2000, using U.S. trained Chadian deminers. Once fighting ceased, renewed U.S. assistance enabled the Government of Chad to begin mine clearance operations and to complete the Survey.

In FY01, the United States contributed $325,000 to Chad's humanitarian demining program for the purchase of demining equipment and the completion of a contract, which will guarantee medical evacuation by air for landmine victims.

The United States has contributed more than $4.5 million to Chad's humanitarian demining program since it began in 1998. The assistance has helped fund the renovation of Chad's national demining office (NDO) building, the establishment of a national Mine Action Center (MAC), and the creation of a database identifying the location of minefields.

Accomplishments
The United States played a key role in launching Chad's demining program in January 1998. U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) trained a cadre of Chadian deminers, who are now capable of independently training personnel in humanitarian demining techniques and procedures. The United States also provided necessary demining equipment. These deminers have destroyed over 250 tons of UXO and cleared more than 104,000 sq. m since operations began in September 2000. U.S. humanitarian demining assistance will enable the Government of Chad to demine its northern provinces and to benefit from economic and social development in those regions.

Djibouti

The Landmine Problem
Djibouti has a small landmine problem as a result of the 1991-1994 internal conflict between the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) and the Government of Djibouti. The exact number of landmines and their areas of concentration are not known. A small unexploded ordnance (UXO) threat also exists. According to figures provided by the Djiboutian military, landmines have killed 31 people and injured 90 since 1997, including seven casualties in 2000. The majority of the victims have been military.

Djibouti's northern plateau, the most heavily contested area during the civil war, contains most of the suspected minefields or mined routes, particularly in the districts of Obock and Tadjoura, north of Dijibouti City. Deminers conducted a Level One Survey in these areas in September 2001 to determine the extent of the landmine and UXO problems. In the town of Obock, the Djibouti army laid mines to protect an army camp and key installations. FRUD forces are said to have also mined these areas as well as access roads out of Obock and sites near the village of Andoli. A section of road leading south from Ali Sabieh town to the Somali/Ethiopian/Djiboutian border is also mined.

United States Assistance
In Fiscal Year (FY) 00, the United States provided $973,000 in assistance to initiate a humanitarian demining program in Djibouti. The new program included training, the provision of equipment, the establishment of a Mine Action Center (MAC) and the refurbishment of facilities for demining training. The United States provided $1.18 million in assistance in FY01 to fund a U.S. military train-the-trainer program for Djiboutian military personnel, and the provision of mine clearance supplies and equipment.

Accomplishments
U.S. military forces completed training the first cadre of 35 Djiboutian deminers in May 2001, and some of them began immediately to clear areas around military bases in the north. The Government of Djibouti has outfitted a MAC, refurbished the facilities for demining training, and taken delivery of an initial complement of vehicles, including ambulances, for transporting deminers and mine victims.

Eritrea

Landmine Problem
Thirty years of civil strife and the 1998-2000 war with Ethiopia have left Eritrea with a severe landmine problem. The National Demining Center in Asmara estimates there are 1.5 to two million mines and an equal amount of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the country. Since 1995, the Eritrean Historical Research Department has identified more than 100 minefields in 38 villages. Ten of the 11 major battle sites believed to contain mines are in the northern and northwestern provinces; the eleventh is in the southeast province. The majority of the landmines are around the cities of Keren, Nafka, and Asha Golgol. Combatants used landmines to defend strongholds around cities and populated areas, military camps, and roadways. Landmines are also found in rural farmlands, near water sources, and along borders.

The landmines and minefields, many located in populated areas, routinely inflict casualties on people and animals alike, and they present major problems to Eritrea's reconstruction, rehabilitation, and development efforts. Landmines in the Temporary Security Zone (TSZ) pose a major danger to internally displaced persons (IDP) now returning to their homes. The UN estimates landmine incidents in 2000 inflicted 200 casualties.

United States Assistance
The United States funds the majority of the Eritrean humanitarian demining program. Because of renewed hostilities between Eritrea and Ethiopia, the United States did not provide FY00 humanitarian demining assistance to Eritrea. In FY01, the United States gave Eritrea an additional $1.05 million in humanitarian demining assistance.

Since FY94, Eritrea has received more than $9 million in humanitarian demining assistance from the United States. The funds have paid for the establishment of a national demining headquarters in Keren, renovation of two regional demining headquarters, training for deminers and medical personnel, and shipping of 60 trucks from Germany to transport demining teams. In August 2001, a U.S. State Department contractor, funded with previously allocated assistance, completed training of a second company of 80 Eritrean deminers and medical staff. Training for another 80 Eritrean personnel is underway. Additionally, eight teams of mine detection dogs and their handlers began mine clearance operations in late summer 2001.

Accomplishments
Since 1996, the first Eritrean demining company, trained by U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF), has cleared significant amounts of land for farming, grazing, road building, utility projects, and harvesting of natural resources. Even during the 1998-2000 war, the demining company removed or destroyed more than 1,600 mines and 4,000 items of UXO, opening 1,650 hectares of land and 110 km of road. Hundreds of thousands of refugees from Sudan have resettled the cleared land. Significantly, the demining company has not suffered a single serious injury, while mine awareness programs have reduced civilian casualty rates dramatically. The successes of the Eritrean humanitarian demining program are making a vital contribution to the country's continued economic growth.

Ethiopia

The Landmine Problem
The Government of Ethiopia's National Demining Office estimates that 1.5 to two million landmines, as well as a large amount of unexploded ordnance (UXO) litter its territory. Prior to the 1998-2000 border war with Eritrea, the Ethiopian Demining Headquarters identified 97 minefields in three regions of the country where it was operating. Many of the mines and minefields are near populated areas and inflict casualties on both people and livestock. According to the headquarters, since 1995 landmines have killed at least 172 civilians, and injured 113, while Ethiopian deminers have suffered 4 deaths and 16 wounded in clearance operations. More than half of these casualties occurred in 2000. During the same period, landmines and UXO have killed almost 2000 animals.

United States Assistance
In FY93, the United States began funding humanitarian demining activities in Ethiopia. Because of renewed hostilities between Ethiopia and Eritrea, the United States did not provide Ethiopia with humanitarian demining assistance in FY00. In FY01, the United States provided Ethiopia with $1 million in humanitarian demining assistance.

Accomplishments
U.S. Special Operation Forces (SOF) train-the-trainer programs produced an initial cadre of 180 Ethiopian deminers. From 1995 until the resumption of hostilities with Eritrea in 1998, these deminers destroyed over 68,000 landmines and more than 364,000 pieces of UXO. After the cessation of hostilities, deminers and combat engineers cleared an additional 203,011 anti-personnel mines and 10,319 anti-tank mines. By October 1999, deminers had also cleared 17,401 hectares of land and 1,500 km of road. The people of Ethiopia are now using the cleared land for farming, grazing, electric power and telecommunications projects, road construction, exploitation of natural resources, such as mining and drilling, and resettlement of refugees in more than 170 villages. A U.S. State Department contractor completed training of an additional 160 deminers in September 2001. The Government of Ethiopia will use the deminers to clear areas in the north of the country and return land to productive use.

Since 1993, USAID has funded the Prosthetic Orthotic Training Center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Center has provided training in the manufacture and use of prosthetic components to more than 108 technicians from 28 countries, and produced more than 6,600 prostheses, 6,200 orthoses, and 6,200 pairs of crutches.

Guinea-Bissau

The Landmine Problem
There are an estimated 16,000 -20,000 landmines in Guinea-Bissau, with Sengalese forces responsible for laying a significant number of them. Some mines date from the war for independence, but the majority is from the 1998-99 military mutiny. Minefields infest approximately 30 sq. km of land, most of it close to populous areas in Central Bissau and its environs. In addition, unexploded ordnance (UXO) is scattered throughout populated and agricultural areas. The mines and UXO represent a persistent danger to the civilian population and a hindrance to the resumption of normal commercial activity.

United States Assistance
The United States provided Guinea-Bissau with $99,145 in humanitarian demining assistance in Fiscal Year (FY) 00. The funds provided equipment to clear landmines and UXO found in the urban areas of Bissau, the capital. In FY01, the United States provided Guinea Bissau with $489,000 in assistance, primarily to support the nongovernmental organization HUMAID's mine clearance operations, the remainder for the purchase of equipment for Guinea-Bissau's Mine Action Center, which oversees demining operations in the country.

Accomplishments
Since September 2000, when demining operations began, Guinea Bissau deminers have cleared 110,00 sq. m. of land, and destroyed 1,600 landmines and 267 UXO.

Mauritania

The Landmine Problem
An estimated 50,000-100,000 landmines remain in Mauritania from the war in the Western Sahara. The majority of the mines are on the Cap Blanc Peninsula. Others are at B�r Mogre�n, A�n BinTili, and around Zouirat. Shifting of dunes, instability of the soils, and absence of natural barriers present huge obstacles to locating and neutralizing landmines. The landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) in northern Mauritania have prevented economic development. Although landmine casualties are not extensive, Mauritanian military personnel and civilians continue to suffer injuries.

United States Assistance
Since Fiscal Year (FY) 99, the United States has provided more than $3.2 million to Mauritania's humanitarian demining program. In FY00, the United States allocated $1.5 million to mine action assistance. The funds provided for a mine awareness campaign, training of deminers, construction of a building for a demining school, establishment of a National Demining Office, and provision of vehicles and demining equipment, all with the objective of creating an indigenous demining capability for Mauritania. In FY01, the United States provided $729,000 in humanitarian demining assistance to construct a regional demining center in northern Mauritania and to establish a long-range radio communications system.

Accomplishments
There has been a significant reduction in landmine casualties in Mauritania since the inception of the U.S.-supported humanitarian demining program. Between 1978 and 1999, there was an average of 13 landmine casualties a year; in 2000 there were two. U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) trained 52 deminers, who then trained additional numbers of their countrymen in demining techniques. Mauritanian deminers have destroyed more than 8,000 landmines and over 5,700 pieces of UXO, clearing 141 hectares of land for productive use. Deminers have also opened 90 km of a roadway to permit the transport of water from the wells in Boulenoir to the population of Nouadhibou.

Mozambique

The Landmine Problem
Two decades of war have left Mozambique littered with landmines. A study by the Canadian Demining Institute estimates there are approximately two million landmines, contaminating almost 70 percent of Mozambique's territory. Other estimates place the number of landmines between 800,000 and one million. The most heavily mined regions are in the north, along the Zimbabwean border, Zambezia in Tete Province, and in Maputo and Inhambane Provinces. Landmines continue to injure people, inhibit refugee resettlement, and hinder economic development. Landmines surround entire communities and many residents are unable to farm. Their presence also makes it difficult to install water supply systems. In 2000, there were 20 landmine accidents, involving 29 people, eight of whom subsequently died from their injuries.

United States Assistance
Two typhoons struck Mozambique early in 2000, and the subsequent heavy flooding displaced many landmines. At the request of the Mozambique National Demining Institute (IND), the U.S. Department of State used some of the $3.8 million in Fiscal Year (FY) 00 assistance to Mozambique in funding a U.S. contractor. The contractor conducted high priority demining, under IND direction, of the most dangerous threats. In FY01, the United States provided more than $2.2 million to Mozambique to fund demining operations on the Sena rail line between Beira and the Malawi border, and training for the IND staff.

Since FY93, the United States has provided nearly $28 million in humanitarian demining assistance to Mozambique. The assistance has funded U.S. Special Operation Forces (SOF) mine awareness campaigns, train-the-trainer programs, and provisioning of demining equipment to support the training; U.S. State Department provision of additional equipment, such as trucks, metal detectors, protective body gear, and terrain-clearing tools, and a mine detection dog capability; support of nongovernmental (NGO) demining operations; and, USAID victim assistance programs and mine clearance operations.

Accomplishments
Since 1992, NGO mine clearance operations, funded by the United States, such as USAID's Demobilization/Reintegration Project, have removed more than 15,000 landmines, 13,000 UXO, and opened more than 4,500 km of roads, facilitating post-war resettlement of agricultural land, and reconnecting nearly one million people to their local economies. In a partnership with Japan, the United States contributed $1 million to the Massingir Dam demining project, a vital key to Mozambique's overall development strategy. The dam is capable of supplying electricity and irrigating 9,000 hectares of land. Using trucks purchased with U.S. assistance funds to transport deminers, the Hazardous Area Life-Support Organization (HALO) Trust is clearing land in the four severely mine-affected northern provinces for agriculture and refugee resettlement. The HALO Trust has also cleared key roads and power lines there. Mozambican armed forces' deminers, trained by U.S. SOF, have cleared the Komatipoort to Maputo power lines, the capitol's main source of electricity. The U.S. demining contractor, RONCO, is now clearing the Sena rail line, Mozambique's top national demining priority. The restored rail line will open large areas of the Zambezi River Valley for development by facilitating the export of agricultural and mineral products to the country's second largest city and port of Beira. Mine detecting dogs, provided by the United States, have increased the capacity of the Accelerated Demining Program (ADP) operations in the southern provinces. Refugees have returned to land cleared by the ADP; agricultural production has resumed; and, schools and clinics have been built on it. In central Mozambique, USAID has funded a charter airline company to supply all logistical support for demining operations, including emergency evacuation of landmine victims.

USAID's Patrick J. Leahy War Victims Fund currently provides support to the nongovernmental organization, Prosthetic and Orthotic Worldwide Education and Relief (POWER). POWER's goal is to strengthen Mozambican management capabilities, improve outreach, and support private sector opportunities to assume production and distribution of prosthetic devices. To date, POWER has provided more than 5,000 amputees and other people with disabilities with appropriate devices to assist their mobility.

The United States continues to work with the IND to increase the Institute's responsibility in overseeing all aspects of mine action and to improve interaction and cooperation between the various demining organizations and NGOs operating in the country.

Namibia

The Landmine Problem
Landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) infest about 100,000 sq. km of land, (about 12 percent of Namibian territory), but this land contains some of the highest population densities in the country. By the time Namibia achieved independence from South Africa in 1988, South African Defense Forces had laid an estimated 50,000 landmines in defensive perimeters around military bases and other strategic facilities, in areas along or near the Angolan border in northwest Namibia, and in berms around hundreds of electric power pylons, from the northern town of Ruacana, 120 km south to the western part of the Estosha National Park. A 900 sq. m area around each pylon contained 24 to 48 landmines and four to six antitank mines. Since December 1999, UNITA and FAA factions in the Angolan civil war have been laying landmines in the Caprivi and Kavango regions of northeast Namibia. Although these mines affect a relatively small geographic area, they endanger many of the rural population, frighten away tourists, and discourage farmers from planting crops. The mines have increased casualties dramatically over the last 18 months, with at least 12 deaths and more than 100 injuries in 2000 alone.

United States Assistance
In Fiscal Year (FY) 00, Namibia received more than $485,000 in U.S. humanitarian demining assistance. The funds provided technical expertise, through a U.S. contractor, to the Namibian Defense Force to enable it to continue clearing the remaining berms surrounding electric power pylons in northern Namibia. FY01 assistance of $40,000 funded a nation-wide mine awareness program.

Since FY94, the United States has provided almost $9 million in humanitarian demining assistance to Namibia. U.S. assistance has funded a multiphase demining program, including training, clearance, mine awareness, medical assistance, communications, and the purchase of equipment. The United States also provided a berm processor to extract landmines in the berms around electric pylons. Additionally, the U.S. Government participated in a highly successful test of a Namibian-built machine, the Rotar, to sift mines from the soil. The Rotar proved so effective that the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) paid for the development of an improved system in Namibia. Finally, when rugged terrain hampered UXO disposal efforts in the northern regions, United States funding purchased 4x4 vehicles to enable deminers to reach the clearance sites.

Accomplishments
Overall, the establishment of Namibia's demining program is complete. In April 2000, the DoD completed its train-the-trainer program for the Namibian Defense Force and Police. Namibia now possesses a modern demining capability and a dedicated unit of 1,000 deminers. These deminers have cleared more than one million sq. m of land, restoring it to productive use, and destroyed more than 5,000 mines and 1,300 UXO. With the clearance of its ten known minefields and 410 electric power pylons, Namibia continued its progress toward becoming a mine-safe country. Although this progress is in jeopardy, given the cross-border minelaying by Angolan rebel forces, the U.S. Department of State will continue to provide funding for mine action activities as appropriate.

Rwanda

The Landmine Problem
Rwanda emerged from civil war with an estimated 100,000-250,000 landmines in its soil. The heaviest concentrations of landmines, some 50,000-60,000, are in the Kigali area and in four prefectures in the North and Northwest, an area approximately 120 km long and about 10 km inside Rwanda along the border with Uganda. There is an additional 1,200 sq. km of suspected mine contamination south of this region.

United States Assistance
In Fiscal Year (FY) 00, Rwanda received $285,000 in U.S. humanitarian demining assistance to promote mine awareness, conduct mine clearance operations, and purchase demining equipment. FY01 assistance of $400,000 enabled the National Demining Office (NDO) to continue its aggressive mine awareness campaign, replenish some of the equipment it has used in conducting mine clearance operations in Rwanda's rough terrain, and provide deminers and medics with refresher training.

Rwanda has been receiving U.S. humanitarian demining assistance since FY95, with total contributions now surpassing $13 million. In 1995, U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) personnel established a NDO in Kigali and trained 120 Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) personnel in humanitarian demining techniques. SOF soldiers returned in 1996 to conduct refresher training and to assist the NDO in integrating mine detection dogs, funded by USAID, into its demining operations. In 1997, SOF personnel established a computer training program at the NDO, revitalized the NDO's data collection center, and conducted mine awareness training. Another U.S. military team, including explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) specialists, trained 93 RPA deminers and EOD personnel. In 1998 and 1999, U.S. assistance funded the renovation of NDO facilities at the Rebero training camp, purchase of demining equipment, and provided additional EOD training. A quality assurance program is also underway to help Rwanda attain UN mine clearance standards.

Accomplishments
U.S. demining assistance has dramatically impacted Rwandan society. More than 200 U.S.-trained deminers and EOD personnel have cleared over seven million sq. m of land, including 6000 km of bush roads, destroying almost 24,000 mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the process. Much of the cleared land supports subsistence farming. Landmine and UXO fatalities have dropped from 108 in 1994 to three in 2000, while related injuries have decreased from 128 to four over the same period. Some 400,000 refugees and 200,000 internally displaced persons (IDP) have returned to their villages, many to houses built by the RPA on cleared land. The humanitarian demining program in Rwanda is now at the sustainment phase—the mark of success for U.S. humanitarian demining programs.

Somalia (Northwest Somalia)

The Landmine Problem
Northwest Somalia has a severe landmine and unexploded ordnance (UXO) problem. Several conflicts have left large amounts of landmines and UXO along the border between Northwest Somalia and Ethiopia, the perimeters surrounding military installations, important access routes, and urban areas. The Somalia Mine Action Center has confirmed the presence of at least 28 mined roads, as well as 63 known and 17 suspected minefields.

United States Assistance
In Fiscal Year (FY) 00, the United States provided $1.4 million in humanitarian demining assistance to Northwest Somalia through the Hazardous Awareness Life-support Organization (HALO) Trust. In FY01, the HALO Trust received an additional $1.4 million to enable it to continue its demining efforts. Since 1998, the United States has given almost $4.3 million in demining assistance to Northwest Somalia.

Accomplishments
Through August 2000, the HALO Trust has cleared 1,428,750 sq. m of land, while destroying 997 mines and UXO. The cleared land has enabled refugees to return to their homes in Burao.

Swaziland

The Landmine Problem
Swaziland has one minefield in the extreme northeastern part of the country along its border with Mozambique. It is approximately 10 km long and varies in width from 50 to 100 m. The field is believed to contain about a dozen mines.

United States Assistance
The United States provided Swaziland with $8,377 in humanitarian demining assistance during Fiscal Year (FY) 00, and an estimated $26,000 will be allocated to the program in FY01. The country has $289,000 in FY98 funds on account in a trust fund with the U.S. Department of Defense's Defense Security Cooperation Agency.

Since FY98, the United States has provided more than $1 million in assistance. The funds provided for training of deminers and demining equipment. In 1999 and 2000, U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) conducted train-the-trainer programs, and the U.S. Department of State provided mine detectors and protective gear.

Accomplishments
U.S. training has created an indigenous Swazi capability to conduct humanitarian demining operations using methods that meet UN and international standards. The United States believes Swaziland's experience in clearing its minefield will enable it to contribute to possible future peacekeeping operations.

Zambia

The Landmine Problem
Zambia's almost two decades' long fight for independence left the country with a landmine problem of largely unknown dimensions. The Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ) is unable to estimate the number and type of landmines in its soil, since combatants laid the mines in a "nuisance pattern." Requests by the GRZ to former colonial authorities and former liberation movement participants to obtain information about the landmines they emplaced have not been successful. The GRZ's best estimate is that landmines affect 2,500 sq. km in five provinces, stretching from Mwinilunga on the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the northwestern province, and continuing along the western borders to Lundazi in the eastern province, and encompass the southern, Lusaka, and central provinces as well. Large amounts of productive land in the mine-affected provinces have been virtually "no go" areas for over 30 years. The fear of mines has prevented the use of roads, schools, waterways, rural health centers, and even airports. Since Zambia achieved its independence in 1980, landmines have killed or maimed at least 200 people. The number may be higher, since hospitals do not specifically identify landmine victims in their overall casualty records.

United States Assistance
In Fiscal Year (FY) 01, the United States Department of State provided $750,000 in humanitarian demining assistance to Zambia to fund a U.S. contractor to train the newly established Mine Action Center in the operation and management of a national humanitarian demining program. In April 2001, representatives of the U.S Department of State and the U.S. Department of Defense visited Zambia to assess the feasibility of conducting a complementary mine awareness program.

Accomplishments
Completion of the U.S. contractor's training and the implementation of a mine awareness program by the end of 2001 will place Zambia on the road to developing an indigenous, sustainable humanitarian demining capability.

Zimbabwe

The Landmine Problem
The Zimbabwean National Demining Office (NDO) estimates that the War of Liberation, which ended in 1980, left 656 sq. km of land infested with 2.5 million landmines. Although combatants did not prepare or maintain minefield records adequately, the NDO believes the majority of the mines are in minefields stretching 700 km along borders with Zambia and Mozambique. This is a remote region of the country with rough terrain, making landmine surveys difficult to conduct. There were three reported landmine casualties in 2000.

United States Assistance
Zimbabwe received almost $2 million in U.S. humanitarian demining assistance in Fiscal Year (FY) 00 for a train-the-trainer program and the purchase of mine awareness materials and demining equipment. In FY01, the United States provided an additional $621,000 to fully equip another demining platoon. Since FY98, U.S. contributions for humanitarian demining have totaled more than $6 million.

U.S. assistance has funded U.S. Special Operation Forces (SOF) training of three platoons of Zimbabwean Army Combat Engineers in minefield survey procedures, basic demining techniques, medical orderly skills, and vehicle maintenance, as well as the purchase of equipment and vehicles necessary to outfit and transport the platoons. In addition, a NDO is now in place, and training in staff management and organizational structure is complete.

Accomplishments
The NDO's mine awareness unit, which is responsible for training in target audience analysis and mine awareness information campaign design, has helped reduce the country's landmine casualty rate. Zimbabwean Army Combat Engineers and private sector deminers have destroyed 26,000 landmines and have cleared more than 800,000 sq. m of land, opening large tracts of land in Victoria Falls to tourism and in the Zambezi Valley for resettlement. As Zimbabwe approaches the sustainment phase in its mine clearance operations, the United States will continue its support so that the country can benefit from the estimated hundreds of millions of dollars that can be earned annually through full use of presently mine-affected land.



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