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Diplomacy in Action

Europe


To Walk the Earth in Safety (2008)
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
June 2008
Report
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Albania

Deminer training during 2001 by HELP in Tropoja, Northeast Albania. [Arben Braha, Albania Mine Action Executive]
Deminer training during 2001 by HELP in Tropoja, Northeast Albania. [Arben Braha, Albania Mine Action Executive]
Flag of Albania is red with a black two-headed eagle in the center.Landmine and explosive remnants of war (ERW) contamination in Albania is primarily due to two events. In the northeast, landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) were emplaced during a conflict in neighboring Kosovo between 1998 and 1999. The former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia forces laid these minefields during the Kosovo conflict. The central regions of Albania are littered with mines, ERW, and abandoned ordnance from the looting of military depots during civil disorder in 1997.

In FY 2006 the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA) in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs contributed $1 million for humanitarian mine action in Albania through the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance (ITF). Of these funds, $371,741 went to DanChurchAid for demining and battle area clearance activities. The Albanian Mine Action Executive Quality Management Team received $22,707 for equipment. Of the ITF funds from PM/WRA, VMA–Kukes received $115,464 for two UXO/mine risk education projects in northeast Albania. PM/WRA funded demining along the Albanian-Serbian border in the districts of Tropoje, Has, and Kukes, resulting in the destruction of 887 mines and 1,196 pieces of ERW.

In FY 2007 PM/WRA contributed $244,516 for demining activities in Albania through the ITF. All of these funds went to DanChurchAid for demining and battle area clearance activities.

The United States also supports ongoing destruction of surplus and at-risk small arms and light weapons and munitions in Albania. In FY 2006 and FY 2007, PM/WRA provided $1.1 million to fund this life-saving work, which is destroying 25,000 surplus and obsolete weapons, and 15,000 tons of excess and aging ammunition.

Azerbaijan

Flag of Azerbaijan is three equal horizontal bands of blue at top, red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band.

Perry Baltimore, President and Executive Director of the Marshall Legacy Institute (MLI), center, poses with deminers from ANAMA, with ANAMA mine-detecting dog handlers and mine-detecting dogs (MDDs). The MDDs were donated to ANAMA through an MLI initiative in a Public-Private Partnership with PM/WRA. Through its CHAMPS program and other fund-raising efforts, MLI has had remarkable success in raising awareness among the American public, schoolchildren, and corporations about the global landmine problem, and in raising funds to donate MDDs to several mine-affected countries. [Deborah Netland, Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement]
Perry Baltimore, President and Executive Director of the Marshall Legacy Institute (MLI), center, poses with deminers from ANAMA, with ANAMA mine-detecting dog handlers and mine-detecting dogs (MDDs). The MDDs were donated to ANAMA through an MLI initiative in a Public-Private Partnership with PM/WRA. Through its CHAMPS program and other fund-raising efforts, MLI has had remarkable success in raising awareness among the American public, schoolchildren, and corporations about the global landmine problem, and in raising funds to donate MDDs to several mine-affected countries. [Deborah Netland, Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement]
Conflict with Armenia from 1988–1994, plus the presence of dilapidated former Soviet bases on its territory, left Azerbaijan with a landmine, explosive remnants of war, and abandoned ordnance problem. A Landmine Impact Survey completed in 2003 indicated that 643 communities were contaminated by landmines and/or unexploded ordnance (UXO), located in 18 of 65 districts in the country. Between 1991 and July 2006, there were 2,297 landmine or UXO casualties registered. According to the Azerbaijan Agency for National Mine Action (ANAMA), in 2006 there were 17 reported incidents in which two people were killed and 15 injured, including some deminers. The exact extent of the problem in areas occupied by Armenian forces remains unknown but is believed to be significant. As of July 2006, ANAMA had identified approximately 164 square kilometers of land contaminated with mines and UXO. ANAMA reports that it has successfully developed a Mine Action Strategic Plan to eliminate the humanitarian impact of landmines and UXO from accessible regions of the country by 2008.

Azerbaijan’s wide plains lend themselves to mechanical demining with heavy machinery as seen here. [ArmorGroup]
Azerbaijan’s wide plains lend themselves to mechanical demining with heavy machinery as seen here. [ArmorGroup]
In FY 2006, the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA) in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs provided $3,106,246 for mine action support to Azerbaijan, consisting of $2,326,840 for program operating costs and $709,866 for technical support to ANAMA through the PM/WRA contractor ArmorGroup. Additionally, PM/WRA granted the International Eurasia Press Fund (IEPF) $69,540 to establish a sustainable Mine Victims Association in the Tartar district that will provide support and assistance in the social and vocational reintegration of landmine survivors.

In FY 2007, PM/WRA provided $2,487,000 to support Azerbaijan mine action; $2.3 million of that support went to ANAMA for ongoing clearance operations, and $187,000 was provided to the IEPF to establish regional branches of the Azerbaijan Mine Victims Association in the Fizuli and Aghstafa districts.

In FY 2006 and FY 2007, the Department of Defense’s Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program continued an operational field evaluation of the Rhino Earth Tiller in partnership with ANAMA. This $1,750,000 remote-controlled mechanical system, used for large area anti-personnel mine clearance and area reduction, has two horizontally mounted, counter-rotating drums fitted with tungsten carbide chisels to excavate and grind soil and contaminants, including mines, to a depth of 30 centimeters. In FY 2007, the U.S. Department of Defense’s Humanitarian Demining Training Center also provided $322,000 in “Train-the-Trainer” assistance to ANAMA.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

A screenshot of the Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Center’s Web site.
A screenshot of the Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Center’s Web site.
The Bosnia and Herzegovina flag is a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle.Bosnia and Herzegovina is contaminated with landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW), primarily stemming from the 1992 – 1995 conflict related to the break-up of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. A 2002–2003 Landmine Impact Survey recorded that minefields and ERW affected 1,366 of 2,935 municipalities to some degree.

In FY 2006, the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA) in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs contributed $3,300,000 through the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victim’s Assistance (ITF) to support mine action in Bosnia and Herzegovina. As a result of demining operations performed by commercial companies and nongovernmental organization, 1,498,455 square meters of land were cleared and an additional 4,259,757 square meters of land returned to safe use through technical survey operations. Four Community Integrated Mine Action Plans (CIMAP) were implemented, which released 1,115,403 square meters, and four CIMAP mine risk education projects concluded in 2006. PM/WRA support continued through the ITF for the program “Landmine Survivors Network in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” which provided economic assistance to 97 landmine survivors to facilitate the start-up of the businesses, and to assist in their education. PM/WRA assistance via the ITF also continued to support the Regional Mine Detection Dog Center in Konjic, which trained 22 mine-detecting dogs in FY 2006.

Also in FY 2006, PM/WRA contributed $69,214 to the Marshall Legacy Institute (MLI) for its CHAMPS Outreach in Bosnia program. MLI’S CHAMPS initiative raises awareness among U.S. schoolchildren about the global landmine problem and inspires them to raise funds to provide MDDs to safely sniff out landmines and ERW around the world. This particular PM/WRA – MLI Public-Private Partnership resulted in the provision of three MDDs to work in Bosnia, and the promise of on-going PM/WRA funding to help feed and care for them.

In FY 2007, PM/WRA contributed $3,000 through the ITF for further demining in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Bulgaria

Flag of Bulgaria is three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red.In FY 2006, the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs granted $400,000 to a Bulgarian contractor, TEREM EAD, for the destruction of 76,000 tons of military small arms and light weapons that were excess to Bulgaria’s national security needs.



Croatia

A  screenshot of the Croatian Mine Action Centre’s Web site.
A screenshot of the Croatian Mine Action Centre’s Web site.
Flag of Croatia is three horizontal bands of red at top, white, and blue, with Croatian coat of arms in center.The landmines and explosive remnants of war that remain in Croatia are a byproduct of the armed conflict that accompanied the break up of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia during the early 1990s.

The Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA) in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs granted a total of $2,300,000 for mine action activities in Croatia during FY 2006 through the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance (ITF). This enabled 11 demining operations and six technical surveys to be completed by various commercial companies and nongovernmental organizations. The program “Town of Karlovac Without Mines” was successfully implemented with donations from the Rotary Club Vienna Nord-Ost and PM/WRA matching funds. The technical survey project “Cherry Plantations Maraska” was completed with matching fund contributions from PM/WRA. The U.S. Embassy in Zagreb, the ITF, the Croatian Mine Victims Association, and Norwegian People’s Aid combined efforts and funds to assist the mine survivors project “The Winter Workshops for Psycho-Social Rehabilitation of Young Landmine and UXO Survivors.” This project, WATCH OUT—MINE, used both PM/WRA and ITF funds to produce a mine risk education (MRE) storybook, which was submitted by the Center for Neo-humanistic Studies from Karlovac, Croatia. The project created and distributed 10,000 of the MRE storybooks to disseminate MRE messages in elementary schools in different parts of Croatia.

In FY 2007, PM/WRA contributed $2,000,000 through the ITF for additional demining in Croatia.

Estonia

Estonia flag is three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white.

Supporting law enforcement, deminers discovered 19 mortars, 32 hand grenades and various empty projectiles. [Estonian EOD Center]
Supporting law enforcement, deminers discovered 19 mortars, 32 hand grenades and various empty projectiles. [Estonian EOD Center]
As part of a long-standing effort to help Estonia deal with explosive remnants of war (ERW), primarily from World War II (for example, a 100 kilogram aviation bomb was unearthed in the capital, Tallinn, in October 2007) the U.S. Department of State and the U.S. Department of Defense have provided various forms of ERW and landmine clearance assistance.

In FY 2006, the U.S. Department of Defense’s Humanitarian Demining Program contributed $55,000 to support humanitarian mine action in Estonia. To learn more about the program, visit www.humanitariandemining.org and www.wood.army.mil/hdtc.

In FY 2007, the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA) in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs provided the Estonian Rescue Board with new explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) equipment worth $157,000 to assist in clearing underwater ERW. The Estonian EOD/demining specialists received three heavy bomb disposal suits, diving equipment, a motor boat, and remote-detonation devices.

Georgia

Flag of Georgia is red cross on white background, with smaller red cross in each of four quadrants.

Georgian deminers employed by HALO under a grant from the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA) take a break from their demanding work during a rain storm. [Katherine Baker, Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement]
Georgian deminers employed by HALO under a grant from the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA) take a break from their demanding work during a rain storm. [Katherine Baker, Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement]
Georgia’s Abkhazia region is affected by landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW), the majority of which are located near the Inguri River, thereby isolating this region from the rest of the country. This contamination occurred during the 1992–1993 civil conflict. Civilians are also affected by landmines that were laid or abandoned around former Soviet and existing Russian military bases. Abkhazia is currently forecast to become free from the humanitarian impact of mines and ERW (“impact free”) by 2009.

Katherine Baker, a policy officer with PM/WRA, is briefed during a visit to a minefield around a holy spring in Georgia’s Abkhaz region. This minefield was being cleared by HALO through a grant from PM/WRA. [Katherine Baker, Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement]
Katherine Baker, a policy officer with PM/WRA, is briefed during a visit to a minefield around a holy spring in Georgia’s Abkhaz region. This minefield was being cleared by HALO through a grant from PM/WRA. [Katherine Baker, Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement]
In FY 2006, the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA) in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, granted $3,000,000 to The HALO Trust (HALO) for demining activities in an effort to maintain increased operational capacity for accelerated clearance in Abkhazia. These funds covered approximately 78 percent of HALO’s operating costs, supporting 30 manual demining teams and nine mechanical clearance units operating armored medium-wheel front-end loaders, vegetation cutters, and anti-personnel mine rollers. The funds also provided for one survey/marking team, as well as some management and administrative costs.

In FY 2007, PM/WRA provided $1,750,000 to HALO for further clearance in Abkhazia, finding their work progressing well. All HALO designated sites have been cleared and the program is focusing on more remote minefields, which are increasing in priority since with greater stability and security, tourists are now visiting the interior of Abkhazia where the remaining minefields are located. Agricultural activities are also expanding in Abkhazia and clearance in areas currently considered remote is essential prior to Abkhazia being declared impact free in 2009. There are only 17 more village administrations to be cleared; 101 of 118 (86 percent) of them have already been declared impact free.

 

 Hungary

U.S. Ambassador George H. Walker III (left) and Minister of Defense Ferenc Juhász  take questions from the media during the ceremony to mark the agreement between Hungary and the U.S. to destroy MANPADS. [U.S. Embassy–Budapest]U.S. Ambassador George H. Walker III (left) and Minister of Defense Ferenc Juhász take questions from the media during the ceremony to mark the agreement between Hungary and the U.S. to destroy MANPADS. [U.S. Embassy–Budapest]
Flag of Hungary is three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green.In a one-time assistance project, the United States worked with Hungary to destroy 1,540 of Hungary’s man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS), which were no longer needed for Hungary’s defense.

Hungary’s Minister of Defense, Ferenc Juhász, and U.S. Ambassador George H. Walker formally signed the cooperation agreement on September 27, 2005, at a ceremony in Budapest, to destroy 1,540 of the Strela 2 (SA-7) variety of the MANPADS and related equipment in Hungary’s stockpile. Destruction, which was coordinated and funded by the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA) in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, was completed in February 2006.

Kosovo

Mine risk education pamphlet that was distributed in Kosovo. Translation: (top) Don’t ever touch mines or unknown objects! (bottom) Children, mines can kill you! [International Committee of the Red Cross]
Mine risk education pamphlet that was distributed in Kosovo. Translation: (top) Don’t ever touch mines or unknown objects! (bottom) Children, mines can kill you! [International Committee of the Red Cross]
Flag of Kosovo is blue with six white, five-pointed stars in an arc above a gold-colored silhouette of the country in the center.Kosovo, a province of Serbia until February 17, 2008, when it declared independence, was affected significantly by explosive remnants of war (ERW), including unexploded cluster bomblets from NATO air strikes in 1999, and by landmines, booby traps, and ERW from conflict between former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Kosovo Liberation Army forces. Due to a humanitarian mine action assistance surge from the United States, the United Nations, and many other generous donor nations and groups immediately after Federal forces withdrew from Kosovo, it was effectively rendered free from the humanitarian impact of mines and ERW (“impact free”) in 2001. Thanks in part to the United States, Kosovo also was able to develop its own capacity through the Kosovo Protection Corps to deal with the few mines and ERW that remain mostly in remote locations.

Working through the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance, the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs contributed approximately $110,000 in FY 2006 towards humanitarian mine action efforts in Kosovo. These funds helped to purchase critical demining gear, such as mine detectors and personal protective equipment, for Kosovo Protection Corps’ demining teams.

Macedonia

Flag of Macedonia is a yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field.The northwest and southern regions of Macedonia are the two main areas of the country affected by mines and explosive remnants of war (ERW). In 2001, conflict between government forces and ethnic-Albanian insurgents led to mine and ERW contamination at the northwestern borders with Kosovo and Albania in the regions of Tetovo, Kumanovo, and Skopje. In the south, the border with Greece spanning from Gevgelija to Ohrid is scattered with ERW left from World Wars I and II.

Four large artillery shells that were abandoned but subsequently placed carefully in padded boxes in the back of a truck for transportation and safe destruction at a disposal site. Abandoned ordnance, not just landmines, also pose a hazard to innocent civilians in former conflict zones. [International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance]            Four large artillery shells that were abandoned but subsequently placed carefully in padded boxes in the back of a truck for transportation and safe destruction at a disposal site. Abandoned ordnance, not just landmines, also pose a hazard to innocent civilians in former conflict zones. [International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance]
Through the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance, the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA) in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs contributed $50,000 to Macedonian demining projects in FY 2006. These funds were used to conduct a training course for 10 deminers and clearance operations in the last three mine-suspected areas of the country. PM/WRA’s assistance and U.S. Department of State mine action aid in previous years had good effect. On September 15, 2006, Macedonia’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that all anti-personnel mines had been destroyed in areas under its jurisdiction where they were known or suspected to be emplaced.

 

Montenegro

Some of the divers from the Regional Center for Underwater Demining (RCUD) during a training dive from a quay at the center. The RCUD in Bijela, Montenegro, a center for excellence, is the only such non-military humanitarian underwater node in the world. Its divers, and those that it trains, are able to safely recover and arrange for the proper destruction of munitions that have been dumped at sea, unexploded ordnance that remains hazardous even when underwater, sea mines, and landmines that in some cases may have washed up on beaches or been displaced into rivers, streams, and lakes by heavy rains. Some of the unexploded ordnance and munitions encountered by RCUD divers date back to World War II. [Regional Center for Underwater Demining]
Some of the divers from the Regional Center for Underwater Demining (RCUD) during a training dive from a quay at the center. The RCUD in Bijela, Montenegro, a center for excellence, is the only such non-military humanitarian underwater node in the world. Its divers, and those that it trains, are able to safely recover and arrange for the proper destruction of munitions that have been dumped at sea, unexploded ordnance that remains hazardous even when underwater, sea mines, and landmines that in some cases may have washed up on beaches or been displaced into rivers, streams, and lakes by heavy rains. Some of the unexploded ordnance and munitions encountered by RCUD divers date back to World War II. [Regional Center for Underwater Demining]
Montenegro flag is a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered.In Montenegro, landmine and explosive remnants of war (ERW) contamination is primarily a result of events that occurred in the 1990s. Some contamination is a result of conflict during the break up of former Yugoslavia in the 1990s. Mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from previous wars, including unexploded cluster bomblets from NATO air strikes in 1999, also affected parts of Montenegro. In 1991, the municipality of Plav between the Bogicevic and Lipovica mountains was mined. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia forces also planted mines in Montenegro during the conflict in 1999.

Through the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance, the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA) in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs contributed $22,000 towards demining efforts in Montenegro. These funds were awarded in a single grant to the Regional Center for Underwater Demining to enable the refitting and equipping of a surplus patrol boat, donated by the former State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, to support divers conducting underwater clearance of unexploded ordnance in littoral waters.

In FY 2007, PM/WRA contributed $50,000 through the ITF for demining in Montenegro. PM/WRA also expended $2,476,000 to help Montenegro destroy its excess and obsolete small arms and light weapons (SA/LW), and munitions; 1,500 surplus man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS), 2,000 sea mines, 175 cluster munitions, and 90 torpedoes were destroyed during this effort.

Serbia

Flag of Serbia is three equal horizontal stripes of red - top - blue, and white; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side.The presence of persistent landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) in Serbia stem primarily from events during the 1990s. Some contamination is a result of conflict during the break up of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, and from air strikes by United States and other NATO air forces during the campaign to halt ethnic cleansing in Kosovo. Additionally, some mines and ERW that remained from previous wars affected parts of Serbia.

In FY 2006 the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA) in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs contributed approximately $815,000 to the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance (ITF) towards ERW clearance in Serbia. Additionally, $205,830 was awarded to the Serbia Mine Action Center (Serbia MAC) for three battle area clearance (BAC) projects on the mountain of Kopaonik. The Serbia MAC was also awarded one grant for $40,000 for the BAC project “Dusko Radovic” schoolyard, and a second grant for $350,000 for the “Samalia 1” BAC project. Norwegian People’s Aid received $219,102 for mine clearance activities on the Serbian side of the Croatian-Serbian border.

In FY 2007, PM/WRA contributed $700,000 through the ITF for additional demining in Serbia.

Ukraine

In addition to working with NATO to destroy its national stockpiles of excess and aging arms and munitions, Ukraine is also still clearing explosive remnants of war dating back to World War II left from the savage fighting between Soviet and Nazi forces. Here, a Ukrainian deminer 35 meters (over 114 feet) from the surface, carefully examines a section of underground ammunition storage depot complex on the Crimean peninsula. Several such depots, filled with tons of Soviet Army munitions, blew up in 1942, leaving behind significant quantities of unexploded ordnance that continue to pose a threat to inhabitants and to infrastructure within a three-kilometer (nearly two miles) radius. [Ukroboronservice]
In addition to working with NATO to destroy its national stockpiles of excess and aging arms and munitions, Ukraine is also still clearing explosive remnants of war dating back to World War II left from the savage fighting between Soviet and Nazi forces. Here, a Ukrainian deminer 35 meters (over 114 feet) from the surface, carefully examines a section of underground ammunition storage depot complex on the Crimean peninsula. Several such depots, filled with tons of Soviet Army munitions, blew up in 1942, leaving behind significant quantities of unexploded ordnance that continue to pose a threat to inhabitants and to infrastructure within a three-kilometer (nearly two miles) radius. [Ukroboronservice]
The flag of Ukraine is two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grainfields under a blue sky. The United States is the lead nation for Phase 1 of a NATO Partnership for Peace Trust Fund project to help Ukraine destroy its stockpiles of excess munitions, small arms and light weapons (SA/LW), and man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS). Other donors to the project are Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, Germany, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the European Union.

This represents the largest Partnership Trust Fund project ever undertaken by NATO—and in fact is one of the largest weapons destruction projects in history—and responds to Ukraine’s request for help in eliminating 133,000 tons of munitions, and 1.5 million SA/LW. These stockpiles, most of which date from the Soviet era, are a threat to public safety and the environment, and a potential proliferation risk. The four-phase project will span 12 years and cost approximately $27 million in donor contributions. Ukraine will provide most of the operational and in-kind demilitarization costs. Phase 1 will destroy 15,000 tons of munitions, 400,000 SA/LW, and 1,000 MANPADS, and cost donors over $8.5 million.

In FY 2006 the United States contributed an additional $1.5 million to this long-term project, and an additional $1.8 million in FY 2007 for a total of $5,442,000 to date.

In 2006 with the assistance of the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA) in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, 1,000 MANPADS were destroyed. Additional SA/LW destruction began in 2007, resulting in the elimination of 108,000 weapons. The United States looks forward to continuing this project.



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