U.S. Government Support for Democracy and Human Rights: The United States uses bilateral and multilateral diplomatic advocacy, foreign assistance programs, educational and cultural exchange programs, and a diverse array of policy planning tools to advance human rights and democracy. The endnotes to this description of U.S. efforts to advance democracy and human rights are illustrative of countries where such efforts are active. In addition to the range of democracy, human rights, and governance assistance programs administered by USAID and the State Department’s Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, the Department of State administers a variety of other foreign assistance programming that supports human rights and democracy, including through the U.S.-Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI), the Secretary’s Office of Global Women’s Issues’ (S/GWI) initiatives, the Near East Regional Democracy (NERD) program, the Assistance for Europe, Eurasia, and Central Asia (AEECA) account, the Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM) programming, and the Gender-Based Violence Emergency Response and Prevention Initiative. The Department of State also uses public diplomacy tools to advance democracy and human rights goals, including the International Visitor Leadership Program (IVLP),[1] the International Visitor Leadership on Demand program (formerly the Voluntary Visitors (VolVis) program),[2] Lincoln Learning Centers (LLC), [3] Ambassadors’ grants (ASG)[4] and other small grants [5] programs, American Corners, [6] and the MEPI Leaders for Democracy Fellowship, as well as youth leaders initiatives for Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Americas. Moreover, we use the Voice of America,[7] and the Fulbright,[8] Humphrey,[9] and Edward R. Murrow Fellowship[10] programs. We provide funding to prepare foreign university-level students for leadership roles,[11] and fund speakers on democracy-related issues.[12] In Africa the U.S. government promotes democratic principles and good governance through the administration of the African Growth and Opportunity Act to promote democratic principles and good governance in the areas of rule of law, political pluralism, right to due process and a fair trial, and respect for labor and human rights.

Democratic Institutions and Civil Society: The U.S. government seeks to strengthen the legal framework and institutions of democratic governance to improve governments’ capacity to respond to citizens.[13] The United States advocates for greater respect for freedoms of association and expression to empower and support civil society. The U.S. government previously has supported UN Human Rights Council resolutions to create new UN Special Rapporteurs to report on freedoms of association and assembly. Various U.S. government agencies support the President’s Stand With Civil Society (SWCS) Agenda, which aims to support, defend, and sustain civil society amid a rising tide of restrictions on civil society organizations globally. In support of the SWCS Agenda, the Department of State has used the United States’ current term as President of the Community of Democracies to encourage other democratic governments to undertake joint efforts to promote and protect civil society in emerging democracies and in multilateral fora, such as the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) Committee. The United States is also the largest overall donor to the UN Democracy Fund (UNDEF) that funds projects promoting human rights and democratization globally. U.S. government activities also support recruitment and training of professionals.[14]

The United States funds assistance programs that support civil society monitoring of government activities. We also develop civil society capacity to further democracy and human rights.[15] These programs strengthen the ability of civil society organizations to influence governments on behalf of citizens, increase accountability, advocate for political reform, promote tolerance and gender equality, provide life-saving services, build partnerships with public and private sectors, and promote more inclusive societies. Our assistance supports organizations that work on issues such as freedoms of peaceful assembly and association, religious freedom, advancing the status of women and girls, democratic governance and political participation, the prevention of all forms of gender-based violence, rule of law, and protection of indigenous independent media.[16]

Elections and the Political Process: U.S.-funded programs strengthen the capacity of electoral institutions and train election officials,[17] support improved political processes,[18] increase awareness of civic responsibilities, encourage NGOs to provide inclusive civic education and citizen advocacy,[19] and encourage citizen participation in governance.[20] The United States supports programming to promote and protect independent media coverage of elections, improve political party organization and elections legislation, and implement legislation to provide access to official information and protect freedom of peaceful assembly, including within the context of elections and political processes.[21] The United States also promotes free, fair, and inclusive elections by supporting election observation missions, encouraging participation by women and other marginalized groups, and building political party capacity.[22] The United States supports reporting to increase understanding of election processes.[23]

The United States supports programs to prevent violence related to elections and the political process and promote reconciliation, including after post-election violence.[24] Such programs work with leaders from diverse political, religious, and ethnic groups to promote tolerance, respect, and reform. Working with human rights activists, the United States combats post-election violence against women and minorities, including LGBTI persons.

Labor Rights, Economic Opportunity and Inclusive Growth: The United States works with businesses, trade unions, and other labor and human rights organizations to promote respect for human rights, worker rights, and responsible business conduct globally.

The United States works with the International Labor Organization, the International Finance Corporation, other international organizations, and a range of civil society partners to support worker rights and well-regulated labor markets. [25] The United States is committed to increasing prosperity and advancing inclusive economic growth globally. [26] The United States uses e-governance programming in its anticorruption efforts, as well as to increase government and civil society capacity. U.S. programs provide technical assistance, training, and systems support including fiscal and budget management, and support for community participation in policy discussions and associations of governors and mayors. [27] U.S. programs promote freedom of association, help strengthen the independence, good governance, and capacity of trade unions, [28] and facilitate modern industrial relations. [29] They seek to support members of vulnerable groups, including women, youth, and migrant workers, and promote fair labor standards and safe working conditions globally. [30] U.S. programs seek to address root causes of labor migration and to promote transparent information, fair treatment, access to remedy, and a seat at the table for migrant workers. The United States is also particularly concerned about child labor and the use of forced labor and works to advance the elimination of these abuses through research, policy engagement, and technical cooperation.

Press and Internet Freedom: The United enhances professionalism of journalists through workshops, program support, technical assistance, and support for national and international journalists’ associations. We utilize programming and public diplomacy to convey the importance of an independent media’s role in building a democratic society. [31] The United States supports development of self-promulgated journalistic ethics, media capacity building and professionalization, and local efforts to increase access to public information. The United States promotes academic exchanges; visits of U.S. speakers; and an open and free internet, including the use of social networks, blogs, and electronic journals.

We urge governments to promote fundamental freedoms online and offline, rescind criminal penalties for libel, [32] and advocate for transparent investigations of violent attacks against journalists.[33] We urge the release of journalists and bloggers imprisoned for politically motivated reasons. U.S.-funded projects further the professionalization of women in journalism, coverage of gender issues, and increasing women’s voices in the media. In closed societies, U.S.-supported broadcast programming provides citizens with alternative sources of news. We support access to an open and secure internet and training programs that increase citizen access to information,[34] including through U.S.-funded resource centers.[35] Our internet freedom programs promote exercise of human rights online, including freedoms of expression, and peaceful assembly and association, helping those in closed societies connect with each other and global counterparts. These programs seek to strengthen the capacity of democracy and human rights activists and organizations to help ensure they are using technology securely and not putting themselves and their organizations at risk.

Rule of Law: The U.S. government provides technical assistance to civilian courts, mobile courts for survivors of gender-based violence, legal aid services, and legislative reform efforts. U.S. assistance helps national and provincial legislatures, courts in pilot jurisdictions, and provincial and municipal authorities. U.S.-funded programs also support efforts to propose, review, and implement criminal law-related legislation; improve access to justice for women and marginalized groups; train judges, [36] police, [37] prosecutors[38], and defense attorneys;[39] improve labor governance; and offer institutional support to establish effective and accountable law enforcement structures[40] and bar associations.[41] U.S. support seeks to enhance citizen and security sector dialogue and expand access to justice.

The United States funds programs to protect judges and their families from violence or intimidation. Our work seeks to address extrajudicial killings and disappearances while encouraging the investigation and prosecution of such cases.[42] U.S. officials exchange best practices in reforming countries’ commercial laws, migration management laws, and anti-trafficking legislation, and encourage training and professional exchanges in the United States for commercial law judges.

U.S.-funded programs help strengthen laws and procedures to combat human trafficking, provide comprehensive emergency and long-term support for victims, and work to prevent and raise awareness of trafficking in persons. Our support enhances the capacity of judges, prosecutors, lawyers, law enforcement and victim service providers with the aim of advancing rule of law and justice for victims.[43]

Protection of Human Rights: U.S. officials urge governments to bring their human rights practices into compliance with their human rights commitments and obligations. We support systemic reforms and press for the release of political prisoners and prisoners of conscience. The United States urges governments to distinguish between those seeking to express political dissent and those engaged in violence.

The U.S. government funds civil society projects to support freedoms of expression, association and peaceful assembly, and the rights of children. Assistance seeks to enhance respect for labor rights, prevent gender-based violence; reduce discrimination against women and girls, assist indigenous communities in accessing effective justice, and monitor human-rights observance by local police. We provide emergency assistance to activists under threat, support local NGO advocacy for the human rights of LGBTI persons, and promote religious freedom.

U.S.-funded military training[44] encourages cooperation in legal proceedings involving human rights abuses committed during conflict. Training for foreign peacekeepers via the U.S. government’s Global Peace Operations Initiative includes instruction that promotes appropriate behavior and conduct during peacekeeping missions with the United Nations and regional organizations. Consistent with U.S. law and policy, including the Leahy law, the U.S. government does not provide assistance to a foreign security force unit if the Secretary has credible information that the unit has committed a gross violation of human rights.

The United States addresses deplorable prison conditions and prisoner abuse, urging countries to comply with their international human rights obligations and follow internationally accepted standards to improve conditions.[45]

The United States promotes international labor standards. We support efforts to eliminate exploitive child labor by engaging indigenous communities in planning, budgeting, and monitoring to move children from exploitive labor to education programs.[46] The United States funds U.S. labor rights organizations for projects overseas,[47] supports the participation and leadership of women and other vulnerable groups in trade unions, and promotes HIV/AIDS and other programs that combat workplace discrimination.[48]

The United States provides funding for international and local NGOs to identify and respond to acts of violence against women and children, including early and forced marriage. We actively campaign against female genital mutilation/cutting and other harmful practices.[49] U.S. programs support NGOs assisting survivors of gender-based violence in navigating the justice system. We also aid pro bono mediation specialists to develop materials for mediation training and law workshops.[50]

The advancement of the human rights of LGBTI persons is a high priority. The Department’s Global Equality Fund provides assistance to local civil society organizations under physical threat or that experience extreme harassment for their work to promote the human rights of LGBTI persons; to increase access to justice through provision of legal support; to document human rights abuses; and to advocate for increased protections. The United States works to ensure that the global refugee protection system addresses and is responsive to the needs of LGBTI refugees.

To support development of civil society within regions with large ethnic minorities, U.S. officials work with NGOs to organize capacity building trainings and technical assistance opportunities. We support social outreach programs, networking opportunities with domestic and international NGOs, and tolerance-in-schools projects.[51]

The United States exchanges best practices with governments globally and advocates for stronger, more comprehensive legislation against trafficking in persons. The United States produces its annual Trafficking in Persons report, a comprehensive assessment of government efforts to combat trafficking in more than 180 countries; the report provides policy recommendations to governments on the issue. We urge increased prosecution of suspected traffickers, protection and services for human trafficking victims, and prevention of the crime.[52]

U.S. programs support religious freedom and tolerance. We encourage cross-sectarian dialogues,[53] and monitor government respect for religious freedom. U.S. officials meet with religious leaders and members of interfaith dialogue committees in various communities.[54]

Promotion of Disability Rights: The United States promotes the rights of persons with disabilities by assisting the development and implementation of legal reforms, including nondiscrimination laws and accessibility standards,[55] empowering civil society organizations to promote the rights of persons with disabilities[56], and assisting organizations to monitor compliance with disability protections.[57]

Promotion of Women’s Rights: The U.S. National Action Plan (NAP) on Women, Peace, and Security outlines commitments to ensure women’s participation in conflict prevention and resolution, peace negotiations and reconstruction, protect women and children from conflict abuse, and address the needs of women in disaster response. It seeks to empower women and girls as equal partners in preventing conflict, ensure their representation in peacemaking, and protect them from violence. The Secretary’s Office of Global Women’s Issues implements programs through its Global Women, Peace, and Security initiative to further the objectives of the NAP. The U. S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-based Violence Globally is complementary and serves to marshal U.S. capacity to address gender-based violence. In March 2016 Secretary Kerry launched the new U.S. Global Strategy to Empower Adolescent Girls, aimed at ensuring adolescent girls are educated, healthy, socially and economically empowered, and free from violence and discrimination. The Department of State and USAID prioritize gender integration and gender-based violence (GBV) prevention and response from the onset of a humanitarian emergency through integrated programming and dedicated GBV funding — including nearly $40 million through the Safe from the Start initiative since it was launched in 2013 — and by leading the international Call to Action on Protection from Gender-based Violence in Emergencies from 2014-2016.

Fighting Corruption and Supporting Global Governance Initiatives: The United States funds programs that prevent and combat corruption by strengthening transparency, accountability, and integrity in public institutions that include ministries, parliaments, law enforcement agencies, and local governments, as well as NGOs, universities, the media, and private sector watchdog organizations. Through our diplomatic engagement in multilateral fora such as the UN Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), G20 Anticorruption Working Group, and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Group on Bribery, we build political will and strengthen international and regional anticorruption standards, leveraging peer pressure to push governments to uphold commitments and implement reforms. We help form and support broad coalitions to fight corruption through organizations such as the Open Government Partnership (OGP) [58]and the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). [59]

Transitional Justice: The United States supports transitional justice mechanisms that provide accountability, truth, reparation, and other guarantees of non-recurrence to redress legacies of atrocities and promote long-term, sustainable peace in countries transitioning out of armed conflict or repressive regimes. These efforts help prevent in affected countries a repeat of violence and strengthen public confidence in government and civil society. [60] In May 2016, the United States publicly released a transitional justice policy paper series to reflect U.S. policy understandings of a range of transitional justice issues. This series was created by the State Department’s Office of Global Criminal Justice, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, Bureau of Conflict Stabilization Operations, and USAID’s Center for Excellence on Democracy, Human Rights and Governance.[61]



End notes:

Comment on endnotes: Because of the complexity of U.S. government programming assistance worldwide, the endnotes on country applicability are more illustrative than definitive.

[1] Afghanistan; Armenia; Belarus Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brunei; Burma; Central African Republic; China; Democratic Republic of Congo; Comoros; Republic of Congo; Egypt; Fiji; Guinea-Bissau; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Lesotho; Libya; Macedonia; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mexico; Moldova; Morocco; Nepal; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Tajikistan; Tonga; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Vietnam

[2] Afghanistan; Nepal; Uzbekistan

[3] Afghanistan; Ecuador; Malaysia, Pakistan.

[4] Afghanistan; Pakistan; Swaziland

[5] Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Belarus; Burma; Comoros; Cote d’Ivoire; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Eritrea; Fiji; The Gambia; Georgia; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Libya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Morocco; Nicaragua; Pakistan; the Palestinian Territories; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Tajikistan; Thailand; Togo; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Yemen

[6] Albania; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burma; Cambodia; China; Comoros; DRC; Cote d’Ivoire; Ecuador; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Fiji; Georgia; Guinea; Honduras; Iraq; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Lebanon; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Malawi; Maldives; Mauritania; Mexico (Ben Franklin Library); Moldova; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Paraguay; Philippines; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Swaziland; Syria; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Venezuela Vietnam; Zambia; Zimbabwe

[7] Angola; Azerbaijan; Guinea-Bissau; Iran; Pakistan; Paraguay

[8] Armenia; Belarus; Bhutan; Brunei Darussalam; Burma; Republic of the Congo; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyz Republic; Libya; Macedonia; Maldives; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal; Pakistan; Paraguay; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan

[9] Armenia; Bhutan; Burma; Moldova; Nepal; Pakistan.

[10] Armenia; Brunei Darussalam; Moldova; Nepal; Pakistan.

[11] Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies fellows; ACCESS Micro-scholarship program; the President’s Entrepreneurial Summit; English Language Fellows; MEPI Student Leaders; Pakistan.

[12] Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bolivia; Brunei Darussalam; Burma; Central African Republic; China; Egypt; Ethiopia; The Gambia; Georgia; Guinea; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Lesotho; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mauritania; Moldova; Morocco; Nepal; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Paraguay; Pakistan; Qatar; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Thailand; Togo; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Zambia

[13] Afghanistan; Albania; Angola; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brunei Darussalam; Burkina Faso; Burma; Burundi; Cambodia; Central African Republic; Chad; China; Colombia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Republic of the Congo; Cote d’Ivoire; Djibouti; Ecuador; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Fiji; Gabon; Georgia; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Haiti; Honduras; Iraq; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malawi; Moldova; Mozambique; Montenegro; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Pakistan: Paraguay; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Serbia; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Syria; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe

[14] Afghanistan; Colombia; Guatemala; Haiti; Kyrgyz Republic; Maldives; Pakistan; Paraguay; Sri Lanka; Tajikistan; Ukraine.

[15] Albania; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Burma; Cambodia, Colombia; Cuba; Georgia; Guatemala; Indonesia, Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Libya; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Montenegro; Nepal; Pakistan: Serbia; Sri Lanka, Tajikistan; Ukraine

[16] Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Burma; Colombia; Cuba; Egypt; Georgia; Guatemala; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Montenegro; Tajikistan; Pakistan; Cote d’Ivoire; Gambia; Serbia; Senegal; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Zimbabwe

[17] Training to Independent Election Commission, National Assembly, Afghanistan; Elections Process Support Program, Armenia; Independent Electoral Commission, Colombia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Increased Trust in Electoral Processes, Egypt, Georgia; Guatemala; The Party Training Academy, Kosovo; Central Election Commission, Kyrgyz Republic; Legislative Strengthening Program, Malawi; Election Commission, Maldives; Moldovan Electoral Administration Capacity Development Program, Moldova; Election Committee, Nepal; Election Commission, Pakistan; Permanent Election Committee, Qatar; La CENA Training, Senegal; Electoral Commission, Uganda; Political Process Program, Ukraine; Yemen

[18] Training to Civil Service Commission, and the Independent Directorate of Local Governance, Afghanistan; Monitoring of Elected Bodies, and Political Process Development, Armenia; Strengthening Civic Leadership and Civic Participation in the Democratic and Electoral Process in Azerbaijan; pardons of opposition candidates, Colombia; Egypt; International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG), Guatemala; Strengthening Political Competition, Georgia; implementation of the Human Rights Action Plan, Kazakhstan; Kyrgyz Republic; Political Processes and Party Support (PPPS) Program, Strengthening Election Administration in Kosovo program, Kosovo; IVLP, Lesotho; Strengthening Democratic Political Activism, Moldova; IVLP, Morocco; IVLP, The American Library, Strengthening political parties, Electoral and legislative processes, Nepal; small grants, Nicaragua; Pilot Engagement with States (PES) program, Jos Task Force, Nigeria; IVLP, Pakistan; IVLP, Papua New Guinea; IVLP, Rwanda; ILVP, the Middle East Partnership Initiative, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain, Kuwait; American Connections, Singapore; enforcement of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, Sudan; American Corners, Tajikistan; small grants, Togo; Promoting Credible Elections and Accountable Government in Togo; Political Process, Ukraine

[19] Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; China; Republic of the Congo; Cote d’Ivoire; Egypt; Fiji; Georgia; Guatemala; Iraq; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Liberia; Maldives; Moldova; Morocco; Mozambique; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Papua New Guinea; Pakistan; Philippines; Solomon Islands; Swaziland; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Ukraine; Libya; Yemen

[20] Armenia; Azerbaijan; “Get Out the Vote” (GOtV) campaign, Georgia; Egypt; Guatemala; GOtV, Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; GOtV campaign, Moldova; Pakistan; Ukraine

[21] Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bhutan; Cuba; Georgia; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Moldova; Pakistan; Ukraine; and Zimbabwe

[22] Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bhutan; Burkina Faso; Colombia; Egypt; Georgia; Guatemala; Guinea; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Libya, Moldova; Pakistan; Sierra Leone; Tajikistan; Togo; Ukraine; Zimbabwe

[23] Azerbaijan; Armenia; Belarus; Bhutan; Burkina Faso; Burma; Central African Republic; Cuba; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Mauritania; Moldova; Nigeria; Pakistan; Tajikistan; Ukraine; Zimbabwe.

[24] Central African Republic; Guinea Bissau; Kenya; Kyrgyz Republic; Nepal, Senegal; Somalia; Zimbabwe

[25] Algeria; Armenia; Bahrain; Colombia; Cuba; Democratic Republic of Congo; Egypt; Ethiopia; Guatemala; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Liberia; Mauritania; Morocco; Nepal; Niger; Pakistan; Philippines, Saudi Arabia; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Vietnam; West Bank/Gaza; Yemen, Zimbabwe

[26] Albania; Algeria; Armenia; Bahrain; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Democratic Republic of Congo; Egypt; Ethiopia; Georgia; Guatemala; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Liberia; Macedonia; Mauritania; Moldova; Nepal; Niger; the Occupied Territories; Pakistan; Philippines, Saudi Arabia; Serbia; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Tajikistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe

[27] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Central African Republic; Democratic Republic of Congo; Egypt; Ethiopia; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Liberia; Libya; Mauritania; Morocco; Niger; Pakistan; Serbia; Somalia; Ukraine; Zimbabwe

[28] Burma; Cameroon; Colombia; Egypt; Georgia; Guatemala; Guinea; Honduras; Pakistan: the Philippines; Vietnam; Zimbabwe

[29] Colombia; Egypt; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Iraq; Mozambique; Nicaragua; Pakistan: Zambia.

[30] Bangladesh, Burma; Cambodia, China; Colombia; ; Egypt; the Gambia; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Indonesia; Jordan; Kenya; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Malaysia; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Thailand; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Vietnam

[31] Azerbaijan; Armenia; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bhutan; Burkina Faso; Central African Republic; Democratic Republic of Congo; Ecuador; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Guinea; Guinea Bissau; Honduras; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Montenegro; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal; Pakistan: Serbia; Somalia; Tajikistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Yemen; Zimbabwe

[32] Armenia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Kyrgyz Republic; Pakistan.

[33] Armenia; Azerbaijan; Colombia; Honduras; Kyrgyz Republic; Mexico; Nepal; Pakistan: Russia; Somalia; Ukraine

[34] Armenia; Azerbaijan; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia, China; Cuba; Ecuador; Eritrea; Georgia; Guinea Bissau; Iran; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Madagascar; Malaysia; Nigeria; Rwanda; Singapore; Syria, Timor Leste; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Vietnam

[35] Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Burkina Faso; Burma; Cambodia; Cameroon; China; Congo; Cuba; DRC; Cote d’Ivoire; Ecuador; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Guatemala; Georgia; Guinea; Haiti; Honduras; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Liberia; Laos; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malawi; Mexico (Ben Franklin Library); Moldova; Morocco; Mozambique; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Paraguay; Philippines; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Syria; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Vietnam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe

[36] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bahrain, Bosnia; Cameroon; Colombia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Egypt; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Indonesia, Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Liberia; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Pakistan; Qatar; Serbia; Ukraine; Uzbekistan

[37] Albania; Armenia; Bosnia; Burkina Faso; Colombia; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal; Nigeria; Pakistan; Serbia; Tajikistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates

[38] Albania; Azerbaijan, Armenia; Bahrain; Bosnia; Colombia; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Indonesia, Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Liberia; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Pakistan: Qatar; Serbia; Ukraine; Uzbekistan

[39] Albania, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Bahrain; Georgia, Guatemala; Kosovo, Kyrgyz Republic, Mexico; Moldova, Macedonia, Pakistan; Serbia; Tajikistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan

[40] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bosnia; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Colombia; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal, Pakistan: Ukraine; United Arab Emirates

[41] Armenia; Bahrain, Georgia; Kosovo; Kuwait, Kyrgyz Republic; Libya; Mexico; Moldova; Qatar; Ukraine

[42] Armenia; Central African Republic; Chad; Colombia; Guatemala; Mexico; Nepal; Russia; Pakistan: Zimbabwe

[43] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Chad; Colombia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Ethiopia; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Vietnam, Zimbabwe

[44] Albania, Bangladesh, Benin, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Colombia, Croatia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico; Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan; Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Slovenia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Vietnam

[45] Afghanistan; Cambodia; Colombia; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Guatemala; Haiti; Iraq; Lebanon; Mexico; Morocco; Pakistan; Russia; Serbia; South Sudan. In May 2012, the Department of State published a practical guide to understanding and evaluating prison systems for Department personnel, and in May of 2013, the Department also issued a congressionally mandated report on international prison conditions that includes a description of U.S. activities and programs aimed at addressing those conditions

[46] Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Colombia; Cote d’Ivoire; Democratic Republic of Congo; the Gambia; Guatemala; Guinea; Niger; Pakistan; Sierra Leone

[47] Colombia; the Gambia; Georgia; Kenya; Kyrgyz Republic; Niger; Nigeria; Ukraine;

[48] Eritrea; Guatemala; Kenya; Pakistan; Ukraine; Zimbabwe

[49] Eritrea; Guinea; Pakistan.

[50] Armenia; Burkina Faso; Cote d’Ivoire; Democratic Republic of Congo; Ethiopia; Guatemala; Guinea; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Liberia; Pakistan; Sudan; Ukraine; Mexico

[51] Azerbaijan; Cote d’Ivoire; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Pakistan.

[52] Albania; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh, Belarus; Cambodia, Egypt; Georgia; Guatemala; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Mexico; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Sierra Leone; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Zimbabwe

[53] Armenia; Azerbaijan; Burma; Cote d’Ivoire; Egypt; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Guatemala; Kyrgyz Republic; Nepal; Nigeria; Pakistan; Bahrain; Zimbabwe

[54] Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bhutan; Burma; Central African Republic; Colombia; Egypt; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Guatemala; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Macedonia; Mexico; Nepal; Nigeria; Pakistan; Sudan; Zimbabwe.

[55] Armenia; Guatemala; China; Kenya, Mexico, Vietnam.

[56] Algeria; Armenia; Cambodia, Colombia; Guatemala; Laos, Libya; Kenya, Kuwait; Mexico; Morocco; Pakistan; Tanzania, Thailand, Vietnam.

[57] Armenia; Kenya, Mexico, Pakistan; Vietnam.

[58] Armenia; Kenya; Mexico; Vietnam.

[59] Burma; Kenya; Libya; Mexico; Mozambique; Peru; the Philippines; Senegal; Ukraine; Zimbabwe.

[60] Colombia; Côte D’Ivoire; Sri Lanka; Kenya; South Sudan; Central African Republic; Nepal; Guatemala; Uganda; Democratic Republic of Congo; Iraq; Mali.

[61] These papers can be accessed at https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/gcj/transitional/index.htm

U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future