(This report covers the timeframe from May 2016 to May 2017.)

U.S. Government Support for Democracy and Human Rights: The United States uses bilateral and multilateral diplomatic advocacy, foreign assistance programs, educational and cultural exchange programs, and a diverse array of policy planning tools to advance human rights and democracy around the world. The endnotes to this description of U.S. efforts to advance democracy and human rights are illustrative of countries where such efforts are active. The United States supports democracy, human rights, and governance through foreign assistance programs administered by USAID and several State Department bureaus and offices, such as the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (DRL); the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement (INL); the Bureau for International Organizations (IO); and the Office of Global Women’s Issues (S/GWI). We also support democracy and human rights through regionally focused efforts such as the Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI) and the Near East Regional Democracy (NERD) program. Democracy, human rights, and governance programs support rule of law and human rights, good governance, political competition and consensus building, and civil society. Core democracy programs are funded from a variety of appropriation accounts, including Assistance for Europe, Eurasia, and Central Asia (AEECA), Democracy Fund (DF), Development Assistance (DA), Economic Support Fund (ESF), International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE), International Organizations and Programs (IO&P), and Transition Initiatives (TI). Beyond core democracy foreign assistance programming, this report also documents how other sources of foreign assistance and diplomatic engagement tools contribute to promoting democracy, governance, and human rights abroad.

The Department also uses public diplomacy tools to advance democracy and human rights. For example, through people-to-people exchanges, including the International Visitor Leadership Program (IVLP),[1] and the Fulbright,[2]Humphrey,[3] and Edward R. Murrow Fellowship[4] programs, participants sometimes develop and share expertise on topics related to democracy and human rights. Undergraduate exchanges, including English language programs and Study of the U.S. Institutes, can build linkages and empower participants to tackle democracy and human rights challenges. The Department also reaches diverse audiences on a variety of topics, including democracy and human rights, through American Spaces, also known as Lincoln Learning Centers (LLCs) in some countries,[5] Ambassadors’ grants (ASG)[6] and other small grants [7] programs, American Corners,[8] as well as young leaders’ initiatives for Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Americas. Moreover, we coordinate with the Voice of America[9] and also fund U.S. speakers on democracy and human rights-related issues.[10] In Africa, the U.S. promotes democratic principles and good governance through the administration of the African Growth and Opportunity Act to promote democratic principles and good governance in the areas of rule of law, political pluralism, right to due process and a fair trial, and respect for labor and human rights.

Democratic Institutions and Civil Society: During the reporting period, the U.S. government sought to strengthen the legal framework and institutions of democratic governance to improve capacity of governments to respond to citizens.[11] The U.S. government supported initiatives and programs aimed at defending and sustaining civil society amid growing restrictions on civil society organizations globally. Such restrictions impeded efforts to advance democracy, human rights, and governance and hindered progress in other development sectors such as education, economic growth, and health. Among others, USAID’s programs to strengthen civil society include: the Civil Society Innovation Initiative, the Legal Enabling Environment Program, the Global Alliance for Community Philanthropy, Information Safety and Capacity Program, Human Rights Grant Program, Supporting Civil Society Globally, and Global Labor Program. The Department has used the United States’ current term as President of the Community of Democracies to encourage other democratic governments to undertake joint efforts to promote and protect civil society in emerging democracies and in multilateral fora, such as the UN Economic and Social Council Non-Governmental Organization Committee. The United States is also the largest overall donor to the UN Democracy Fund that funds projects promoting human rights and democratization globally. U.S. government activities also supported recruitment and training of democracy and civil society professionals.[12]

U.S. support enables local organizations to further their countries’ own democratic development, as well as in areas such as disaster relief, social services, and capacity building opportunities. U.S. support also enables civil society organizations to drive innovations and develop new ideas and approaches to solve social, economic, and political problems. Additionally, through support from the U.S. government, civil society actors develop their capacity to advocate to leaders to promote human rights and foster democratic institutions.[13] These programs strengthen the ability of civil society organizations to influence governments on behalf of citizens, increase accountability, advocate for political reform, and promote tolerance. Our assistance supports organizations that work on issues such as freedoms of peaceful assembly and association, religious freedom, advancing the status of women and girls, democratic governance and political participation, the prevention of human trafficking and gender-based violence (GBV), rule of law, and protection of local independent media.[14] These activities increase economic growth and strengthen regional security by creating a space for underrepresented groups to participate within the government rather than on the margins.

Elections and the Political Process: The U.S. conducts or funds programs that strengthen the capacity of electoral institutions and train election officials,[15]support improved political processes,[16] increase awareness of civic responsibilities, encourage NGOs to provide inclusive civic education and citizen advocacy,[17] and encourage citizen participation in governance.[18]The United States conducts and supports programming to promote and protect independent media coverage of elections, improve political party organization and elections legislation, and implement legislation to provide access to official information and protect freedom of peaceful assembly, including within the context of elections and political processes.[19] The United States also promotes free, fair, and inclusive elections by supporting election observation missions, encouraging participation and representation by women and other marginalized groups, and building political party capacity.[20] The United States supports free and independent media reporting to increase understanding of election processes.[21]

The United States supports programs to promote reconciliation and prevent violence during and after elections.[22] Such programs work with leaders from diverse political, religious, and ethnic groups to promote tolerance, respect, and reform.

Labor Rights, Economic Opportunity, and Inclusive Growth: The United States works with businesses, trade unions, and other labor and human rights organizations to promote respect for human rights, worker rights, and responsible business conduct globally. We support efforts to eliminate exploitive child labor by engaging indigenous and other communities in planning, budgeting, and monitoring to move children from exploitive labor to education programs. We support efforts to reduce and ultimately end labor trafficking by working with private sector partners to mitigate forced labor in their supply chains, and by supporting access to justice for victims of trafficking. The United States funds U.S. and local labor rights organizations for projects overseas, supports the participation and leadership of women and other vulnerable groups in worker organizations, and supports programs that combat workplace discrimination.

The United States works with the International Labor Organization, the International Finance Corporation, other international organizations, and a range of civil society partners to support worker rights and well-regulated labor markets. [23] The United States uses e-governance programming in its anticorruption efforts, as well as to increase government and civil society capacity. U.S. programs provide technical assistance, training, and systems support including fiscal and budget management, and support for community participation in policy discussions and associations of governors and mayors.[24] U.S. programs help strengthen the independence and good governance of trade unions,[25] and facilitate modern, rights-respecting industrial relations. [26] They seek to support the rights of members of vulnerable groups, including women, youth, and migrant workers, and promote fair labor standards and safe working conditions globally. [27] U.S. programs seek to address root causes of labor migration and to protect labor rights. The United States is also particularly concerned about the worst forms of child labor and forced labor/labor trafficking, and works to advance the elimination of these abuses through research, policy engagement, private sector partnerships, and technical cooperation.

Independent Media, Press Freedom, and Internet Freedom: The United States enhances professionalism of journalists through workshops, program support, technical assistance, and support for national and international journalists’ associations. We utilize programming and public diplomacy to convey the importance of an independent media’s role in building a democratic society.[28] The United States supports development of journalistic ethics, media capacity, innovation, and local efforts to increase access to public information. The United States promotes academic exchanges that support independent media; visits of U.S. speakers; and an open and free internet, including the use of social networks, blogs, and electronic journals.

U.S. internet freedom programs promote the exercise of human rights online, including freedoms of expression, peaceful assembly, and association. Our programs seek to strengthen the capacity of democracy and human rights activists and organizations by helping to ensure they are using technology securely and not putting themselves or their organizations at risk. We urge the release of journalists and bloggers imprisoned for politically motivated reasons. We urge governments also to rescind criminal penalties for libel,[29]and advocate for transparent investigations of violence against journalists.[30]We work to address GBV that occurs online. U.S. projects further the professionalization of women in journalism, coverage of gender issues, and women’s voices in the media. In closed societies, U.S.-supported broadcast programming provides the public with alternative sources of news. We support access to an open and secure internet as well as training programs that increase citizen access to information,[31] including through U.S.-funded resource centers.[32]

Criminal Justice, Law Enforcement, and Rule of Law: The U.S. government provides technical assistance to criminal justice and law enforcement authorities to prevent and mitigate transnational organized crime, corruption, drug trafficking, and other threats that can undermine the rule of law, often lead to human rights violations, and threaten the security and stability of the United States and its partners. U.S.-funded programs support efforts to propose, review, and implement criminal law-related legislation; train judges,[33] police,[34] prosecutors[35], corrections authorities, and defense attorneys;[36] offer institutional support to establish and strengthen effective and accountable law enforcement structures[37] and bar associations;[38] and improve access to justice for women and marginalized groups. U.S. assistance further promotes the availability and use of civilian courts, mobile courts and one-stop centers for survivors of GBV. The U.S. government provides financial, intelligence, law enforcement, and/or diplomatic support to international, hybrid, mixed, and in-country criminal tribunals that pursue justice and accountability for atrocity crimes, including war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide.[39] The Office of Global Criminal Justice (GCJ) – as the primary liaison for the U.S. government to these justice mechanisms – additionally provides direct technical advice and encouragement to support accountability for atrocities. We also support legal aid services. U.S. assistance helps national and provincial legislatures, courts, correctional institutions and authorities, and provincial and municipal authorities to advance the rule of law. U.S. support seeks to enhance citizen and security sector dialogue and expand access to justice.

The United States funds programs to protect judges and their families from violence and intimidation. Our work seeks to prevent extrajudicial killings and disappearances while encouraging the investigation and prosecution of such cases.[40] U.S. officials exchange best practices with counterparts in reforming countries related to commercial laws, migration management laws, and anti-trafficking legislation, and support training and professional exchanges in the United States for commercial law judges.

U.S.-funded programs and U.S. engagement with foreign governments and civil society help strengthen laws and procedures to combat human trafficking, provide comprehensive emergency and long-term support for victims, and prevent and raise awareness of trafficking in persons. Our support enhances the capacity of judges, prosecutors, lawyers, law enforcement and victim service providers with the aim of advancing rule of law and justice for trafficking victims.[41]

Promotion of Human Rights: U.S. officials urge governments to bring their human rights practices into compliance with their human rights commitments and obligations. We support systemic reforms and press for the release of political prisoners and prisoners of conscience. The United States urges governments to distinguish between those who are only seeking to express political dissent and those who are engaged in criminal activity, and then to respect the rights of those voicing dissent to exercise their freedom of expression. The U.S. government supports civil society projects to bolster freedoms of expression, association and peaceful assembly, and the rights of children, among others. U.S. assistance seeks to enhance respect for labor rights, prevent and respond to GBV, reduce discrimination against women and girls, assist indigenous communities in accessing justice mechanisms, and monitor human-rights observance by local police. We provide emergency assistance to activists under threat, support local NGO advocacy for the human rights of those under threat, and promote religious freedom.

U.S.-funded military training encourages cooperation in legal proceedings involving human rights abuses committed during conflict civilian control of the military, encourages the adoption of U.S. standards for military conduct, and improves the capacity and professionalism of militaries to be just security guarantors of their populations. Training for foreign peacekeepers through the U.S. Global Peace Operations Initiative includes instruction on human rights and promotes appropriate behavior and conduct during peacekeeping missions with the United Nations and regional organizations. Consistent with U.S. law and policy, including the Leahy law, the U.S. government does not provide assistance to any foreign security force unit for which there is credible information that the unit has committed a gross violation of human rights.

The United States works to improve deplorable prison conditions and prevent prisoner abuse, urging countries to comply with their international human rights commitments and obligations and follow internationally accepted standards to improve conditions.[42]

The United States provides funding for international and local NGOs to identify and respond to acts of violence against women and children, including early and forced marriage. We work with community-based organizations to end the practice of female genital mutilation/cutting and other harmful practices.[43]U.S. programs support NGOs assisting survivors of GBV in navigating the justice system, and we help provide psychosocial support to survivors. We also aid pro bono mediation specialists to develop materials for mediation training and law workshops.[44]

Promoting the human rights of all persons is an area where the Department of State has worked to make significant progress. The Lifeline: Embattled CSOs Assistance Fund; Dignity for All; Voices Against Violence: the Gender Based Violence Initiative; and other quick-acting, U.S.-created mechanisms, some of which are supported by multiple government, private sector, and civil society partners, provide assistance to individuals and civil society organizations at the local level when they are under threat. These mechanisms also increase access to justice through provision of legal support and advocate for increased protections.

To support development of civil society within regions with large ethnic minority populations, U.S. officials work with NGOs to organize capacity building trainings and technical assistance opportunities. We support social outreach programs, networking opportunities with domestic and international NGOs, and tolerance-in-schools projects.[45]

The United States exchanges best practices with governments globally and advocates for stronger, more comprehensive legislation against trafficking in persons. The United States produces an annual Trafficking in Persons Report, a comprehensive assessment of government efforts to combat trafficking in more than 180 countries. The report also provides policy recommendations to governments on the issue. We urge increased prosecution of suspected traffickers, protection and services for human trafficking victims, and prevention of the crime.[46]

U.S. programs support promotion of religious freedom and tolerance. We encourage cross-sectarian dialogues[47] and monitor government respect for religious freedom. U.S. officials meet with religious leaders and members of interfaith dialogue committees, as appropriate, in various communities.[48]

Promotion of Disability Rights: The United States promoted the rights of persons with disabilities by assisting the development and implementation of legal reforms, including nondiscrimination laws and accessibility standards,[49] empowering civil society organizations to promote the rights of persons with disabilities[50], and assisting organizations to monitor compliance with disability protections.[51]

Promotion of Women’s Rights: The U.S. National Action Plan (NAP) on Women, Peace, and Security outlines commitments to ensure women’s participation in conflict prevention and resolution, peace negotiations and reconstruction, protect women and children from conflict abuse, and address the needs of women in disaster response. It sought to empower women and girls as equal partners in preventing conflict, ensure their representation in peacemaking, and protect them from violence. The Office of Global Women’s Issues implements programs through its Global Women, Peace, and Security initiative to further the objectives of the NAP. The U. S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-based Violence Globally is complementary to the NAP and serves to marshal U.S. capacity to address GBV. The Office of Global Women’s Issues leads policy development for the Department on bilateral, multilateral and public diplomacy tracks to prevent and respond to GBV. The Department also administers the Gender-based Violence Emergency Response and Prevention Initiative, which provides immediate relief to survivors of extreme GBV. The Department developed the first-ever U.S. Global Strategy to Empower Adolescent Girls, aimed at ensuring adolescent girls are educated, healthy, socially and economically empowered, and free from violence and discrimination, which is being implemented closely with USAID, especially in four focus countries.[52] The Department and USAID prioritize gender integration in all aspects of their work and support standalone and integrated interventions from the onset of a humanitarian emergency, including more than $55 million obligated through the Safe from the Start initiative since it was launched in 2013 and by leading the international Call to Action on Protection from Gender-based Violence in Emergencies.

Fighting Corruption and Supporting Good Governance: The United States funds programs that help prevent and combat corruption by strengthening transparency, accountability, and integrity in public institutions. Such institutions can that range from ministries, parliaments, and law enforcement agencies, to local governments. The U.S. government also supports the anticorruption initiatives of NGOs, universities, the media, and private sector watchdog organizations. U.S. programs build the capacity of law enforcement, anticorruption authorities, and prosecutors to manage complex corruption cases, developing strong partners for U.S. law enforcement. We help form and support broad coalitions to build transparency and fight corruption through organizations such as the Open Government Partnership (OGP) [53]and the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). [54]

Transitional Justice: The United States supports transitional justice processes that provide accountability, truth, reparation, and other guarantees of non-recurrence to redress legacies of atrocities. [55] This support is provided through expert technical expertise, high-level diplomatic engagement, and programmatic assistance to partner governments and civil society actors by USAID, DRL, GCJ, and INL.

End notes:

Comment on endnotes: Because of the complexity of U.S. government programming assistance worldwide, the endnotes on country applicability are more illustrative than definitive.

[1] Afghanistan; Armenia; Bangladesh, Belarus Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brunei; Burma; Central African Republic; China; Democratic Republic of Congo; Comoros; Republic of Congo; Egypt; Fiji; Guinea-Bissau; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Lesotho; Libya; Macedonia; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mexico; Moldova; Morocco; Nepal; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Tajikistan; Tonga; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Vietnam.

[2] Armenia; Belarus; Bhutan; Brunei Darussalam; Burma; Republic of the Congo; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyz Republic; Libya; Macedonia; Maldives; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal; Pakistan; Paraguay; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan.

[3] Armenia; Bhutan; Burma; Moldova; Nepal; Pakistan.

[4] Armenia; Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Moldova; Nepal; Pakistan.

[5] Afghanistan; Ecuador; Malaysia; Pakistan.

[6] Afghanistan; Pakistan; Swaziland

[7] Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh, Belarus; Burma; Comoros; Cote d’Ivoire; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Eritrea; Fiji; The Gambia; Georgia; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Libya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Morocco; Nepal; Pakistan; the Palestinian Territories; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Tajikistan; Thailand; Togo; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Yemen

[8] Albania; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burma; Cambodia; China; Comoros; DRC; Cote d’Ivoire; Ecuador; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Fiji; Georgia; Guinea; Honduras; Iraq; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Lebanon; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Malawi; Maldives; Mauritania; Mexico (Ben Franklin Library); Moldova; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Paraguay; Philippines; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Swaziland; Syria; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Venezuela Vietnam; Zambia; Zimbabwe.

[9] Angola; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Guinea-Bissau; Iran; Pakistan; Paraguay.

[10] Afghanistan; Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bolivia; Brunei Darussalam; Burma; Central African Republic; China; Egypt; Ethiopia; The Gambia; Georgia; Guinea; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Lesotho; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mauritania; Moldova; Morocco; Nepal; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Paraguay; Pakistan; Qatar; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Thailand; Togo; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Zambia.

[11] Afghanistan; Albania; Angola; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brunei Darussalam; Burkina Faso; Burma; Burundi; Cambodia; Central African Republic; Chad; China; Colombia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Republic of the Congo; Cote d’Ivoire; Djibouti; Ecuador; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Fiji; Gabon; Georgia; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Haiti; Honduras; Iraq; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malawi; Moldova; Mozambique; Montenegro; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Pakistan: Paraguay; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Serbia; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Syria; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe.

[12] Afghanistan; Colombia; Guatemala; Haiti; Kyrgyz Republic; Maldives; Pakistan; Paraguay; Sri Lanka; Tajikistan; Ukraine.

[13] Afghanistan; Albania; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Burma; Cambodia, Colombia; Cuba; Georgia; Guatemala; Indonesia, Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Libya; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Montenegro; Nepal; Pakistan: Serbia; Sri Lanka, Tajikistan; Uzbekistan; Ukraine.

[14] Afghanistan; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Burma; Colombia; Cuba; Egypt; Georgia; Guatemala; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Montenegro; Tajikistan; Pakistan; Cote d’Ivoire; Gambia; Serbia; Senegal; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Zimbabwe.

[15] Training to Independent Election Commission, National Assembly, Afghanistan; Elections Process Support Program, Armenia; Independent Electoral Commission, Colombia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Increased Trust in Electoral Processes, Egypt, Georgia; Guatemala; The Party Training Academy, Kosovo; Central Election Commission, Kyrgyz Republic; Legislative Strengthening Program, Malawi; Moldovan Electoral Administration Capacity Development Program, Moldova; Election Committee, Nepal; Election Commission, Pakistan; Permanent Election Committee, Qatar; La CENA Training, Senegal; Election Commission, Sri Lanka; Electoral Commission, Uganda; Political Process Program, Ukraine; Yemen.

[16] Training to Civil Service Commission, and the Independent Directorate of Local Governance, Afghanistan; Monitoring of Elected Bodies, and Political Process Development, Armenia; Strengthening Civic Leadership and Civic Participation in the Democratic and Electoral Process in Azerbaijan; pardons of opposition candidates, Colombia; Egypt; Guatemala; Strengthening Political Competition, Georgia; implementation of the Human Rights Action Plan, Kazakhstan; Kyrgyz Republic; Political Processes and Party Support (PPPS) Program, Strengthening Election Administration in Kosovo program, Kosovo; IVLP, Lesotho; Strengthening Democratic Political Activism, Moldova; IVLP, Morocco; IVLP, The American Library, Strengthening political parties, Electoral and legislative processes, Nepal; small grants, Nicaragua; Pilot Engagement with States (PES) program, Jos Task Force, Nigeria; IVLP, Pakistan; IVLP, Papua New Guinea; IVLP, Rwanda; ILVP, the Middle East Partnership Initiative, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain, Kuwait; American Connections, Singapore; enforcement of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, Sudan; American Corners, Tajikistan; small grants, Togo; Promoting Credible Elections and Accountable Government in Togo; Political Process, Ukraine.

[17] Afghanistan; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; China; Republic of the Congo; Cote d’Ivoire; Egypt; Fiji; Georgia; Guatemala; Iraq; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Liberia; Moldova; Morocco; Mozambique; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Papua New Guinea; Pakistan; Philippines; Solomon Islands; Swaziland; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Ukraine; Libya; Yemen.

[18] Afghanistan; Armenia; Azerbaijan; “Get Out the Vote” (GOtV) campaign, Georgia; Egypt; Guatemala; GOtV, Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; GOtV campaign, Moldova; Pakistan; Ukraine.

[19] Afghanistan; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bhutan; Cuba; Georgia; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Moldova; Pakistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan: Zimbabwe.

[20] Afghanistan; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bhutan; Burkina Faso; Colombia; Egypt; Georgia; Guatemala; Guinea; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Libya, Moldova; Pakistan; Sierra Leone; Tajikistan; Togo; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Zimbabwe.

[21] Azerbaijan; Armenia; Belarus; Bhutan; Burkina Faso; Burma; Central African Republic; Cuba; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Mauritania; Moldova; Nigeria; Pakistan; Tajikistan; Ukraine; Zimbabwe.

[22] Central African Republic; Guinea Bissau; Kenya; Kyrgyz Republic; Nepal, Senegal; Somalia; Zimbabwe.

[23] Algeria; Armenia; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Colombia; Cuba; Democratic Republic of Congo; Egypt; Ethiopia; Guatemala; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Liberia; Mauritania; Morocco; Nepal; Niger; Pakistan; Philippines, Saudi Arabia; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Vietnam; West Bank/Gaza; Yemen; Zimbabwe.

[24] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Central African Republic; Democratic Republic of Congo; Egypt; Ethiopia; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Liberia; Libya; Mauritania; Morocco; Niger; Pakistan; Serbia; Somalia; Ukraine; Zimbabwe.

[25] Bangladesh; Burma; Cameroon; Colombia; Egypt; Georgia; Guatemala; Guinea; Honduras; Pakistan: the Philippines; Vietnam; Zimbabwe.

[26] Bangladesh; Colombia; Egypt; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Iraq; Mozambique; Nicaragua; Pakistan; Zambia.

[27] Bangladesh, Burma; Cambodia, China; Colombia; Egypt; the Gambia; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Indonesia; Jordan; Kenya; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Malaysia; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Thailand; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Vietnam.

[28] Afghanistan; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bhutan; Burkina Faso; Central African Republic; Democratic Republic of Congo; Ecuador; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Guinea; Guinea Bissau; Honduras; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Montenegro; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal; Pakistan; Serbia; Somalia; Tajikistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Yemen; Zimbabwe.

[29] Armenia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Kyrgyz Republic; Pakistan.

[30]A rmenia; Azerbaijan; Colombia; Honduras; Kyrgyz Republic; Mexico; Nepal; Pakistan; Russia; Somalia; Ukraine.

[31] Afghanistan; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia, China; Cuba; Ecuador; Eritrea; Georgia; Guinea Bissau; Iran; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Madagascar; Malaysia; Nigeria; Rwanda; Singapore; Syria, Timor Leste; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Vietnam.

[32] Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Burkina Faso; Burma; Cambodia; Cameroon; China; Congo; Cuba; DRC; Cote d’Ivoire; Ecuador; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Guatemala; Georgia; Guinea; Haiti; Honduras; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Liberia; Laos; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malawi; Mexico (Ben Franklin Library); Moldova; Morocco; Mozambique; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Paraguay; Philippines; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Syria; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Vietnam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe.

[33] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bahrain, Bosnia; Cameroon; Colombia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Egypt; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Indonesia, Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Liberia; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal; Pakistan; Qatar; Serbia; Ukraine; Uzbekistan.

[34] Albania; Armenia; Bosnia; Burkina Faso; Colombia; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal; Nigeria; Pakistan; Serbia; Tajikistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates.

[35] Albania; Azerbaijan, Armenia; Bahrain; Bosnia; Colombia; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Indonesia, Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Liberia; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Pakistan; Qatar; Serbia; Sri Lanka; Ukraine; Uzbekistan.

[36] Albania, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Bahrain; Georgia, Guatemala; Kosovo, Kyrgyz Republic, Mexico; Moldova; Macedonia; Pakistan; Serbia; Sri Lanka; Tajikistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan.

[37] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bosnia; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Colombia; Georgia; Guatemala, including through the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG); Honduras; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal, Pakistan; Sri Lanka; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates.

[38] Armenia; Bahrain; Georgia; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Libya; Mexico; Moldova; Qatar; Ukraine.

[39] Cambodia; Central African Republic; Chad; Colombia; Guatemala; Guinea; Lebanon; Rwanda; South Sudan; former Yugoslavia;

[40] Armenia; Central African Republic; Chad; Colombia; Guatemala; Mexico; Nepal; Russia; Pakistan; the Philippines; Zimbabwe.

[41] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Chad; Colombia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Ethiopia; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Vietnam; Zimbabwe.

[42] Afghanistan; Cambodia; Colombia; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Guatemala; Haiti; Iraq; Lebanon; Mexico; Morocco; Pakistan; Russia; Serbia; South Sudan; Uzbekistan. In May 2012, the Department of State published a practical guide to understanding and evaluating prison systems for Department personnel, and in May of 2013, the Department also issued a congressionally mandated report on international prison conditions that includes a description of U.S. activities and programs aimed at addressing those conditions.

[43] Eritrea; Guinea; Pakistan.

[44] Armenia; Bangladesh; Burkina Faso; Cote d’Ivoire; Democratic Republic of Congo; Ethiopia; Guatemala; Guinea; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Liberia; Pakistan; Sudan; Ukraine; Mexico.

[45] Azerbaijan; Cote d’Ivoire; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Pakistan; Sri Lanka.

[46] Albania; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh, Belarus; Cambodia, Egypt; Georgia; Guatemala; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Mexico; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Sierra Leone; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Zimbabwe.

[47] Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Burma; Cote d’Ivoire; Egypt; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Guatemala; Kyrgyz Republic; Nepal; Nigeria; Pakistan; Uzbekistan; Zimbabwe.

[48] Afghanistan; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bhutan; Burma; Central African Republic; Colombia; Egypt; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Guatemala; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Macedonia; Mexico; Nepal; Nigeria; Pakistan; Sudan; Uzbekistan; Zimbabwe.

[49] Armenia; Guatemala; China; Kenya; Mexico; Vietnam.

[50] Afghanistan; Algeria; Armenia; Cambodia, Colombia; Guatemala; Laos, Libya; Kenya, Kuwait; Mexico; Morocco; Pakistan; Sri Lanka; Tanzania; Thailand; Vietnam.

[51] Armenia; Kenya, Mexico, Pakistan.

[52] Malawi; Nepal; Laos; Tanzania.

[53] Armenia; Kenya; Mexico; Pakistan; the Philippines; Sri Lanka.

[54] Burma; Kenya; Libya; Mexico; Mozambique; Peru; the Philippines; Senegal; Ukraine; Zimbabwe.

[55] Afghanistan; Burundi; Central African Republic; Colombia; Côte D’Ivoire; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Guatemala; Guinea; Iraq; Kenya; Mali; Nepal; Rwanda; Sri Lanka; South Sudan; Syria; Uganda.

U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future