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U.S. Government Support for Democracy: The United States supports democracy, human rights, and governance reforms through bilateral diplomatic engagement, advocacy within multilateral organizations, and foreign assistance programs. Support is provided by the State Department’s regional bureaus as well as the Bureaus of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (DRL); International Narcotics and Law Enforcement (INL); International Organizations (IO); the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP); the Office of Global Women’s Issues (S/GWI); USAID, including by the Center of Excellence on Democracy, Human Rights and Governance; and by our embassies and consulates abroad, including regional and bilateral USAID missions.

Democracy, human rights, and governance programs support rule of law and human rights, good governance, political competition and consensus building, and civil society. Core democracy programs are funded by various appropriation accounts, including: Assistance for Europe, Eurasia, and Central Asia (AEECA), Democracy Fund/Human Rights and Democracy Fund (DF/HRDF), Development Assistance (DA), Economic Support Fund (ESF), International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE), and International Organizations and Programs (IO&P).

In addition to the core democracy foreign assistance programming areas described below, State also uses public diplomacy tools to advance democracy and human rights. For example, through people-to-people exchanges, including the International Visitor Leadership Program (IVLP) [1], and the Fulbright [2], Humphrey [3], and Edward R. Murrow Fellowship [4] programs, participants develop and share expertise on topics related to democracy and human rights.

Undergraduate exchanges, including English language programs and Study of the U.S. Institutes, can build linkages and empower participants to tackle democracy and human rights challenges. The Department also reaches diverse audiences on a variety of topics, including democracy and human rights, through American Spaces, also known as Lincoln Learning Centers in some countries [5]; the U.S. Speaker Program; Ambassadors’ grants [6], and other small grants [7] programs; American Corners [8]; as well as young leaders’ initiatives for Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Americas. The Department coordinates with the Voice of America [9] and funds U.S. speakers on democracy and human rights-related issues [10]. In Africa, the United States promotes democratic principles and good governance through the administration of the African Growth and Opportunity Act.

Promotion of Religious Freedom and Tolerance: The United States encourages cross- sectarian dialogue [11] and monitors government respect for religious freedom. U.S. officials meet with religious leaders and members of interfaith dialogue committees, as appropriate, in various communities [12].

Civil Society Strengthening: The U.S. government strengthens legal frameworks and institutions of democratic governance to improve governments’ responsiveness to citizens [13]. The U.S. government supports initiatives and programs aimed at defending and sustaining civil society amid growing restrictions on civil society organizations globally. Such restrictions impede efforts to advance democracy, human rights, and good governance and hinder progress in other development sectors such as education, economic growth, and health. USAID’s global programs to strengthen civil society include: the Civil Society Innovation Initiative, the Legal Enabling Environment Program, the Global Alliance for Community Philanthropy, Information Safety and Capacity Program, Human Rights Grant Program, Supporting Civil Society Globally, and Global Labor Program.

The Department used the previous term (through September 2017) of the United States as President of the Community of Democracies to encourage other democratic governments to undertake joint efforts to promote and protect civil society in emerging democracies and in multilateral fora, such as the UN Economic and Social Council Non-Governmental Organization Committee. U.S. government activities also support the training of civil society activists [14].

The Department also provides direct financial support to civil society organizations (CSOs) that have come under threat for their work through the Lifeline: Embattled CSOs Assistance Fund. Lifeline is a multilateral mechanism supported by the United States and 17 other governments that provides quick assistance to frontline CSOs so that they can (1) withstand harassment, threats, and attacks from state and non-state actors, and (2) push back at domestic and international levels against the escalating repression targeting local CSOs. Since Lifeline began in 2011, it has assisted more than 1,500 CSOs in more than 100 countries.

U.S. support enables local organizations to further their countries’ own democratic development and encourages civil society organizations to develop new ideas to solve social, economic, and political problems. Additionally, through support from the U.S. government, civil society actors can promote human rights and foster democratic institutions [15]. These programs strengthen the ability of civil society organizations to influence governments on behalf of citizens, increase accountability, advocate for political reform, and promote tolerance. U.S. assistance supports organizations that work on issues such as freedoms of peaceful assembly and association; religious freedom; advancing the status of women and girls; democratic governance and political participation; preventing human trafficking; protecting trafficking victims; and prosecuting traffickers. U.S. assistance also supports the prevention of gender-based violence (GBV); rule of law; and protection of local independent media [16]. These activities increase economic growth and strengthen security so that underrepresented groups can participate within the government rather than from the sidelines.

Elections and the Political Process: The United States conducts or funds programs that train election officials [17], support improved political processes [18], increase awareness of civic responsibilities, encourage NGOs to provide civic education and citizen advocacy [19], and encourage citizen participation in governance [20].

U.S. programming promotes independent media coverage of elections and elections legislation, encourages legislation to provide access to official information, and protects freedom of peaceful assembly [21]. The United States also supports election observation missions and encourages participation by women and other marginalized groups [22]. The United States supports free and independent media reporting to increase understanding of election processes [23].

The United States supports programs to promote reconciliation and prevent violence prior to, during, and after elections [24]. Such programs work with leaders from diverse political, religious, and ethnic groups to promote peace, tolerance, respect, and democratic reform.

Labor Rights, Economic Opportunity, and Inclusive Growth: The United States works with private sector actors, worker organizations, and other civil society organizations to promote respect for human rights, worker rights, and responsible business practices globally. We support efforts to eliminate exploitive child labor by engaging indigenous and other communities in planning, budgeting, and monitoring to move children from exploitative labor to education programs. We support efforts to prevent and ultimately end forced labor by working with private sector partners to address the risks of forced labor in their supply chains and by supporting access to justice for victims of trafficking. The United States funds U.S. and local labor rights organizations for projects overseas, supports the participation and leadership of women and other marginalized and vulnerable groups in worker organizations, and supports programs that combat workplace discrimination.

The United States works with the International Labor Organization, the International Finance Corporation, and other international organizations, as well as civil society partners to support worker rights and well-regulated labor markets [25]. U.S. programs help strengthen the independence and good governance of worker organizations [26] and facilitate modern, rights- respecting industrial relations [27]. The programs also promote fair labor standards and safe working conditions globally.

The United States supports building strong enabling environments that increase women’s economic empowerment by reducing barriers and enhancing protections in policies, laws, and regulations [28]. Some of the economic barriers women face arise from foundational limitations such as laws abridging women’s rights to inherit, own property, or enter contracts. Addressing these barriers, while ensuring women have the legal and policy protections they need, requires deliberate efforts of government, private sector, and civil society.

U.S. programs seek to address root causes of labor migration to protect labor rights and address abuses. The United States is also particularly concerned about the worst forms of child labor and forced labor and works to advance the elimination of these abuses and crimes through research, policy engagement, private sector partnerships, and technical cooperation [29].

Independent Media, Press Freedom, and Internet Freedom: The United States enhances professionalism of journalists through workshops, program support, technical assistance, and funding for national and international journalists’ associations. We support investigative journalism to empower citizens with information to hold governments accountable and fight corruption. We utilize programming and public diplomacy to convey the importance of an independent, professional, and fact-based media’s role in building a democratic society [30]. We support media literacy to enhance resilience against malign influence and promote an active, engaged citizenry. The United States supports development of journalistic ethics, media capacity, financial sustainability, innovation, and local efforts to increase access to public information. The United States promotes academic exchanges that support professional, independent media; visits of U.S. speakers; and an open and interoperable/secure internet, including the use of social networks, blogs, and electronic journals.

U.S. internet freedom programs promote the exercise of human rights online, including freedoms of expression, peaceful assembly, and association. Our programs seek to strengthen the capacity of democracy and human rights activists and organizations by helping ensure they are using technology securely and not putting themselves or their organizations at unnecessary risk. Our programs support the work of advocates to advance and promote an open internet that supports the free flow of information through the participation in local, regional, and international internet governance fora. We urge the release of journalists and bloggers imprisoned for politically motivated reasons. We urge governments also to rescind criminal penalties for libel [31] and advocate for transparent investigations of violence against journalists [32]. U.S. projects further the professionalization of women in journalism, coverage of gender issues, and women’s voices in the media. In closed societies, U.S.-supported broadcast programming provides the public with alternative sources of accurate news. We support technology solutions that provide uncensored access to the free and open internet, digital safety capacity-building programs for civil society, applied research into policy and technical threats to the exercise of human rights online, and training programs that increase access to information [33], including through U.S.- funded resource centers [34].

Criminal Justice, Law Enforcement, and Rule of Law: The U.S. government provides technical assistance to criminal justice and law enforcement authorities to prevent and mitigate transnational organized crime. U.S.-funded programs support efforts to propose, review, and implement criminal law-related legislation; train judges [35], police [36], prosecutors [37], corrections authorities, and defense attorneys [38]; offer institutional support to establish and strengthen effective and accountable law enforcement structures [39] and bar associations [40]; and improve access to justice for all, inclusive of women and other marginalized groups. U.S. assistance further promotes the availability and use of civilian courts; mobile courts; and one- stop centers, such as those for survivors of human trafficking and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) that provide both justice services and psychological/social assistance.

The U.S. government provides financial, intelligence, law enforcement, and/or diplomatic support to international, hybrid, mixed, and in-country criminal tribunals that pursue justice and accountability for atrocity crimes, including war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide [41]. The Office of Global Criminal Justice provides direct technical advice and encouragement to support accountability for and prevention of atrocities. We also support legal aid services. U.S. assistance helps national and provincial legislatures, courts, correctional institutions and authorities, and provincial and municipal authorities to advance the rule of law.

The United States funds programs to protect judges and their families from violence and intimidation. Our work seeks to prevent extrajudicial killings and disappearances while encouraging the investigation and prosecution of such cases [42]. U.S. rule of law assistance also strengthens the capacity of justice systems to respond to civil disputes and related grievances that can give rise to violence [43]. U.S. officials exchange best practices with counterparts in reforming countries related to commercial laws, migration management laws, and anti-trafficking legislation, and support training and professional exchanges in the United States for commercial law judges [44].

Promotion of Human Rights: U.S. officials urge governments to bring their human rights practices into compliance with their human rights commitments and obligations. We support systemic reforms and press for the release of political prisoners and prisoners of conscience. The United States urges governments to respect the rights of those voicing dissent to exercise their freedom of expression. The U.S. government supports civil society to bolster freedoms of expression, religion, association, and peaceful assembly.

U.S.-funded military training encourages cooperation in legal proceedings involving human rights abuses committed during conflict, civilian control of the military, and the adoption of U.S. standards for military conduct. Training for foreign peacekeepers through the U.S. Global Peace Operations Initiative includes instruction on human rights and promotes appropriate behavior and conduct during peacekeeping missions with the UN and regional organizations. Consistent with U.S. law and policy, including the Leahy law, the U.S. government does not provide assistance to any foreign security force unit for which there is credible information that the unit has committed a gross violation of human rights.

The United States works to improve deplorable prison conditions and prevent prisoner abuse, urging countries to comply with their international human rights commitments and obligations and follow internationally accepted standards to improve conditions [45].

The United States provides funding for international and local NGOs to identify and respond to acts of violence against women and children and against early and forced marriage. We work with community-based organizations to end the practice of female genital mutilation/cutting and other harmful practices [46]. U.S. programs support NGOs assisting survivors of SGBV in navigating the justice system, accessing legal assistance, and helping provide psychosocial and relevant health support to survivors. We also aid pro bono mediation specialists to develop materials for mediation training and law workshops [47].

Quick-acting emergency mechanisms, some of which are supported by multiple government, private sector, and civil society partners, provide assistance to individuals and civil society organizations at the local level when they are under threat.

To support development of civil society within regions with large ethnic minority populations, U.S. officials work with NGOs to organize capacity building trainings and technical assistance opportunities. We support social outreach programs, networking opportunities with domestic and international NGOs, and tolerance-in-schools projects [48].

The U.S. exchanges best practices with governments globally and advocates for stronger, more comprehensive legislation against trafficking in persons. The United States produces an annual Trafficking in Persons Report, a comprehensive assessment of government efforts to combat trafficking in more than 180 countries. The report also provides policy recommendations to governments. We urge increased prosecution of suspected traffickers, protection and services for human trafficking victims, and prevention of the crime [49]. The U.S. supports foreign assistance programs overseas to prevent trafficking by raising awareness and addressing its root causes; provide protection and services to survivors; and prosecute traffickers.

Promotion of Disability Rights: The United States promotes the rights of persons with disabilities by assisting the development and implementation of legal reforms, including nondiscrimination laws and accessibility standards [50], empowering civil society organizations to promote the rights of persons with disabilities [51], and assisting organizations to monitor compliance with disability protections [52].

Promotion of Women’s Rights: The U.S. promotes women’s human rights through policy and programming initiatives that promote legal reforms protecting women’s rights and freedoms.

Through foreign assistance programming, we seek to increase women’s leadership and influence their participation in public life. USAID is building an evidence base for these programs by supporting reviews of scholarly literature on strategies to promote women’s civic and political participation.

The Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) Act of 2017 reaffirmed the United States’ commitment to amplify the role women can play in preventing violent conflict, countering violent extremism, and building sustainable peace and security. For example, we support activities to promote women’s participation in peacekeeping and peacebuilding processes and conflict prevention; to ensure access to justice and provide critical services for survivors of SGBV; and to engage women in efforts to prevent and respond to violent extremism. State and USAID promote the creation and implementation of worldwide National Action Plans on WPS.

The Office of Global Women’s Issues in the Department of State leads policy development for the Department on bilateral, multilateral, and public diplomacy tracks to prevent and respond to GBV. The Department also administers Voices Against Violence, the Gender-based Violence Initiative that provides immediate relief to survivors of extreme GBV. The U.S. Global Strategy to Empower Adolescent Girls is being implemented with USAID. The program is aimed at ensuring adolescent girls are educated, healthy, socially and economically empowered, and free from violence and discrimination [53]. INL also advances women’s full participation in criminal justice professions and works with cooperating governments to hold perpetrators of sexual and gender-based violence accountable. The U.S. government also provides assistance to civil society organizations analyzing draft legislation and providing recommendations to governments to strengthen measures to prevent and mitigate gender based violence in the workplace.

Fighting Corruption and Supporting Good Governance: Since passage in 1977 of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), U.S. government agencies have worked to fight corruption and support good governance. The U.S. seeks to help countries implement measures consistent with agreed-upon international standards such as the UN Convention against Corruption (UNCAC). To prevent corruption, U.S.-funded programs aim to strengthen the internal transparency, accountability, and integrity of public institutions and processes across all branches of government and at the national and local levels. Programs are aimed at bolstering the effectiveness of institutions that oversee public spending and investment, improving public financial management systems, strengthening asset declaration protocols, enhancing anti- corruption agencies and legislative oversight commissions, and supporting specialized anti- corruption courts [54].

U.S-funded programs also support transparency and accountability to help ensure an open and fair business environment. Programs can include helping form broad coalitions to build transparency and fight corruption and support implementation of country-level commitments under reform platforms such as UNCAC, the Open Government Partnership [55], and the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative [56]. It also includes building the capabilities of NGOs, universities, the media, and private sector watchdog organizations to demand greater government openness and responsiveness. Using new communications technologies, as well as supporting public access to information through open data portals and the implementation of freedom of information laws and practices, U.S.-funded programs empower citizens to monitor public spending and report on bribery. The United States also uses e-governance programming in its anticorruption efforts. U.S. programs provide technical assistance, training, and systems support, including fiscal and budget management and support for community participation in policy discussions and associations of governors and mayors.

Justice: The United States supports accountability and truth efforts to redress legacies of gross human rights violations and mass atrocities [57].

End notes:

Comment on endnotes: Because of the complexity of U.S. Government programming assistance worldwide, the endnotes on country applicability are more illustrative than definitive.

[1] Afghanistan; Armenia; Bangladesh, Belarus; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brunei; Burma; Central African Republic; China; Democratic Republic of Congo; Comoros; Republic of Congo; Egypt; Fiji; Guinea-Bissau; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Lesotho; Libya; Macedonia; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mexico; Moldova; Morocco; Nepal; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Tajikistan; Tonga; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Vietnam.

[2] Armenia; Belarus; Bhutan; Brunei Darussalam; Burma; Republic of the Congo; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyz Republic; Libya; Macedonia; Maldives; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal; Pakistan; Paraguay; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan.

[3] Armenia; Bhutan; Burma; Moldova; Nepal; Pakistan.

[4] Armenia; Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Moldova; Nepal; Pakistan.

[5] Afghanistan; Ecuador; Malaysia; Pakistan.

[6] Afghanistan; Pakistan; Swaziland.

[7] Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh, Belarus; Burma; Comoros; Cote d’Ivoire; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Eritrea; Fiji; The Gambia; Georgia; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Libya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Morocco; Nepal; Pakistan; the Palestinian Territories; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Tajikistan; Thailand; Togo; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Yemen.

[8] Albania; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burma; Cambodia; China; Comoros; DRC; Cote d’Ivoire; Ecuador; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Fiji; Georgia; Guinea; Honduras; Iraq; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Lebanon; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Malawi; Maldives; Mauritania; Mexico (Ben Franklin Library); Moldova; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Paraguay; Philippines; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Swaziland; Syria; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Venezuela; Vietnam; Zambia; Zimbabwe.

[9] Angola; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Guinea-Bissau; Iran; Pakistan; Paraguay.

[10] Afghanistan; Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bolivia; Brunei Darussalam; Burma; Central African Republic; China; Egypt; Ethiopia; The Gambia; Georgia; Guinea; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Lesotho; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mauritania; Moldova; Morocco; Nepal; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Paraguay; Pakistan; Qatar; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Thailand; Togo; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Zambia.

[11] Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Burma; Cote d’Ivoire; Egypt; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Guatemala; Kyrgyz Republic; Nepal; Nigeria; Pakistan; Uzbekistan; Zimbabwe.

[12] Afghanistan; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bhutan; Burma; Central African Republic; Colombia; Egypt; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Guatemala; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Macedonia; Mexico; Nepal; Nigeria; Pakistan; Sudan; Uzbekistan; Zimbabwe.

[13] Afghanistan; Albania; Angola; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brunei Darussalam; Burkina Faso; Burma; Burundi; Cambodia; Central African Republic; Chad; China; Colombia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Republic of the Congo; Cote d’Ivoire; Djibouti; Ecuador; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Fiji; Gabon; Georgia; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Haiti; Honduras; Iraq; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malawi; Moldova; Mozambique; Montenegro; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Pakistan: Paraguay; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Serbia; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Syria; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe.

[14] Afghanistan; Colombia; Guatemala; Haiti; Kyrgyz Republic; Maldives; Pakistan; Paraguay; Sri Lanka; Tajikistan; Ukraine.

[15] Afghanistan; Albania; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Burma; Cambodia, Colombia; Cuba; Georgia; Guatemala; Indonesia, Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Libya; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Montenegro; Nepal; Pakistan: Serbia; Sri Lanka, Tajikistan; Uzbekistan; Ukraine.

[16] Afghanistan; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Burma; Colombia; Cuba; Egypt; Georgia; Guatemala; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Montenegro; Tajikistan; Pakistan; Cote d’Ivoire; Gambia; Serbia; Senegal; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Zimbabwe.

[17] Training to Independent Election Commission, National Assembly, Afghanistan; Elections Process Support Program, Armenia; Independent Electoral Commission, Colombia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Coordinating Donor Support for Salvadoran Elections, El Salvador; Increased Trust in Electoral Processes, Egypt, Georgia; Electoral Governance and Reforms Project, Guatemala; Elections and Political Processes Support Activity, Haiti; The Party Training Academy, Kosovo; Central Election Commission, Kyrgyz Republic;; Moldovan Electoral Administration Capacity Development Program, Moldova; Election Committee, Nepal; Election Commission, Pakistan; Permanent Election Committee, Qatar; La CENA Training, Senegal; Election Commission, Sri Lanka; Electoral Commission, Uganda; Political Process Program, Ukraine; Yemen.

[18] Training to Civil Service Commission, and the Independent Directorate of Local Governance, Afghanistan; Monitoring of Elected Bodies, and Political Process Development, Armenia; Strengthening Civic Leadership and Civic Participation in the Democratic and Electoral Process in Azerbaijan; pardons of opposition candidates, Colombia; Egypt; Guatemala; Strengthening Political Competition, Georgia; implementation of the Human Rights Action Plan, Kazakhstan; Kyrgyz Republic; Political Processes and Party Support (PPPS) Program, Strengthening Election Administration in Kosovo program, Kosovo; IVLP, Lesotho; Strengthening Democratic Political Activism, Moldova; IVLP, Morocco; IVLP, The American Library, Strengthening political parties, Electoral and legislative processes, Nepal; Nicaragua; Pilot Engagement with States (PES) program, Jos Task Force, Nigeria; IVLP, Pakistan; IVLP, Papua New Guinea; IVLP, Rwanda; ILVP, the Middle East Partnership Initiative, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain, Kuwait; American Connections, Singapore; enforcement of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, Sudan; American Corners, Tajikistan; small grants, Togo; Promoting Credible Elections and Accountable Government in Togo; Political Process, Ukraine.

[19] Afghanistan; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; China; Republic of the Congo; Cote d’Ivoire; Egypt; Fiji; Georgia; Guatemala; Iraq; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Liberia; Moldova; Morocco; Mozambique; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Papua New Guinea; Pakistan; Philippines; Solomon Islands; Swaziland; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Ukraine; Libya; Yemen.

[20] Afghanistan; Armenia; Azerbaijan; “Get Out the Vote” (GOtV) campaign, Georgia; Egypt; Guatemala; GOtV, Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; GOtV campaign, Moldova; Pakistan; Ukraine.

[21] Afghanistan; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bhutan; Cuba; Georgia; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Moldova; Pakistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan: Zimbabwe.

[22] Afghanistan; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bhutan; Burkina Faso; Colombia; Egypt; Georgia; Guatemala; Guinea; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Libya, Moldova; Pakistan; Sierra Leone; Tajikistan; Togo; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Zimbabwe.

[23] Azerbaijan; Armenia; Belarus; Bhutan; Burkina Faso; Burma; Central African Republic; Cuba; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Mauritania; Moldova; Nigeria; Pakistan; Tajikistan; Ukraine; Zimbabwe.

[24] Central African Republic; Guinea Bissau; Kenya; Kyrgyz Republic; Nepal, Senegal; Somalia; Zimbabwe.

[25] Algeria; Armenia; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Burma; China; Colombia; Cuba; Democratic Republic of Congo; Ecuador; Egypt; Ethiopia; Guatemala; Honduras; India; Iraq; Kenya; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Liberia; Mauritania; Mexico; Morocco; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Philippines, Saudi Arabia; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Tunisia; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Vietnam; West Bank/Gaza; Yemen; Zimbabwe.

[26] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Central African Republic; Democratic Republic of Congo; Egypt; Ethiopia; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Liberia; Libya; Mauritania; Morocco; Niger; Pakistan; Serbia; Somalia; Ukraine; Zimbabwe.

[27] Bangladesh; Burma; Cameroon; Colombia; Ecuador; Egypt; Georgia; Guatemala; Guinea; Honduras; India; Iraq; Kenya; Mexico; Morocco; Nigeria; Pakistan: the Philippines; Tunisia; Vietnam; Zimbabwe.

[28] Bangladesh; Colombia; Egypt; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Iraq; Mozambique; Nicaragua; Pakistan; Zambia.

[29] Bangladesh, Burma; Cambodia, China; Colombia; Ecuador; Egypt; the Gambia; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; India; Iraq; Indonesia; Jordan; Kenya; Kyrgyz Republic; Laos; Malaysia; Mexico; Morocco; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Qatar; Thailand; Tunisia; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Vietnam.

[30] Burma, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Iraq, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Qatar, Tunisia, UAE, and Vietnam.

[31] Afghanistan; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bhutan; Burkina Faso; Central African Republic; Democratic Republic of Congo; Ecuador; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Guinea; Guinea Bissau; Honduras; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Montenegro; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal; Pakistan; Serbia; Somalia; Tajikistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Yemen; Zimbabwe.

[32] Armenia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Kyrgyz Republic; Pakistan.

[33] Armenia; Azerbaijan; Colombia; Honduras; Kyrgyz Republic; Mexico; Nepal; Pakistan; Russia; Somalia; Ukraine.

[34] Afghanistan; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia, China; Cuba; Ecuador; Eritrea; Georgia; Guinea Bissau; Iran; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Madagascar; Malaysia; Nigeria; Rwanda; Singapore; Syria, Timor-Leste; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Vietnam.

[35] Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Burkina Faso; Burma; Cambodia; Cameroon; China; Congo; Cuba; DRC; Cote d’Ivoire; Ecuador; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Guatemala; Georgia; Guinea; Haiti; Honduras; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Liberia; Laos; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malawi; Mexico (Ben Franklin Library); Moldova; Morocco; Mozambique; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Paraguay; Philippines; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Syria; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Vietnam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe.

[36] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bahrain, Bosnia; Cameroon; Colombia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Egypt; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Indonesia, Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Liberia; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal; Pakistan; Qatar; Serbia; Ukraine; Uzbekistan.

[37] Albania; Armenia; Bosnia; Burkina Faso; Colombia; Ethiopia; the Gambia; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal; Nigeria; Pakistan; Serbia; Tajikistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates.

[38] Albania; Azerbaijan, Armenia; Bahrain; Bosnia; Colombia; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Indonesia, Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Liberia; Macedonia; Mexico; Moldova; Pakistan; Qatar; Serbia; Sri Lanka; Ukraine; Uzbekistan.

[39] Albania, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Bahrain; Georgia, Guatemala; Kosovo, Kyrgyz Republic, Mexico; Moldova; Macedonia; Pakistan; Serbia; Sri Lanka; Tajikistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan.

[40] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Bosnia; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Colombia; Georgia; Guatemala, including through the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG); Honduras; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal, Pakistan; Sri Lanka; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates.

[41] Armenia; Bahrain; Georgia; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Libya; Mexico; Moldova; Qatar; Ukraine.

[42] Cambodia; Central African Republic; Chad; Colombia; Guatemala; Guinea; Lebanon; Rwanda; South Sudan; former Yugoslavia.

[43] Armenia; Central African Republic; Chad; Colombia; Guatemala; Mexico; Nepal; Russia; Pakistan; the Philippines; Zimbabwe.

[44] Albania; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Chad; Colombia; Democratic Republic of Congo; Ethiopia; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Mexico; Moldova; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Vietnam; Zimbabwe.

[45] Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bosnia Herzegovina, Colombia, Cote d’Ivoire, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Georgia, Indonesia, Iraq, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Mali, Myanmar, Rwanda, Serbia, Uganda, and Ukraine.

[46] In partnership with the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, USAID supported the development of research that quantified anti-LGBTI stigma levels in 141 countries and provided small grants to organizations combating violence and discrimination against LGBTI people.

[47] Afghanistan; Cambodia; Colombia; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Guatemala; Haiti; Iraq; Lebanon; Mexico; Morocco; Pakistan; Russia; Serbia; South Sudan; Uzbekistan. In May 2012, the Department of State published a practical guide to understanding and evaluating prison systems for Department personnel, and in May of 2013, the Department issued a congressionally mandated report on international prison conditions that included a description of U.S. activities and programs aimed at addressing those conditions.

[48] Eritrea; Guinea; Pakistan.

[49] Armenia; Bangladesh; Burkina Faso; Cote d’Ivoire; Democratic Republic of Congo; Ethiopia; Guatemala; Guinea; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Liberia; Pakistan; Sudan; Ukraine; Mexico.

[50] Azerbaijan; Burma; Cote d’Ivoire; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Pakistan; Sri Lanka.

[51] Albania; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh, Belarus; Cambodia, Egypt; Georgia; Guatemala; Kenya; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Lebanon; Mexico; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Sierra Leone; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Zimbabwe.

[52] Armenia; Guatemala; China; Kenya; Mexico; Vietnam.

[53] Afghanistan; Algeria; Armenia; Cambodia, Colombia; Guatemala; Laos, Libya; Kenya, Kuwait; Mexico; Morocco; Pakistan; Sri Lanka; Tanzania; Thailand; Vietnam.

[54]Armenia; Kenya, Mexico, Pakistan.

[55] Malawi; Nepal; Laos; Tanzania.

[56] Afghanistan; Colombia; El Salvador; Guatemala; Indonesia; Jordan; Kosovo; Nigeria; Senegal; Serbia; Sri Lanka; Philippines; Mexico; Ukraine; Mexico; [54]Afghanistan; El Salvador; Georgia; Guatemala; Honduras; Indonesia; Kenya; Kosovo; Mexico; Pakistan; the Philippines; Sri Lanka; Ukraine.

[57] Armenia; Burma; Colombia; Indonesia; Kenya; Libya; Mexico; Mozambique; Nigeria; Peru; the Philippines; Senegal; Ukraine; Zimbabwe.

U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future