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Entered into force August 6, 1989.

In accordance with Article VI, paragraph 1, as soon as ten of the signatory States deposited their instruments of ratification of the Protocol, it entered into force between them thirty days after the date of the deposit of the tenth instrument of ratification. The Protocol enters into force for each State which deposits its instrument of ratification after that date on the thirtieth day after deposit of its instrument of ratification. In accordance with Article VII, the Protocol shall, after it has entered into force, be open for accession by any non-signatory State. Any State which is not a Contracting State to the Convention of 23 September 1971 may accede to the Protocol if at the same time it ratifies or accedes to the Convention in accordance with Article 15 thereof. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Depositaries [International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Russia, UK and USA] and accession shall take effect on the thirtieth day after the deposit.

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U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future