The Arms Control and International Security Papers are produced by the Office of the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security to make U.S. State Department policy analysis available in an electronically accessible format compatible with “social distancing” during the COVID-19 crisis.
Paper #20: 10/20/2020
International Security in Cyberspace: New Models for Reducing Risk
In this ACIS Paper, Assistant Secretary Ford recounts the evolution of U.S. cyberspace security diplomacy over the last several years, describing the difficulty of making traditional “arms control” concepts work in this novel domain, but emphasizing the valuable contributions nonetheless already being made through the articulation of voluntary, nonbinding norms of responsible state behavior and a shift to a more explicitly deterrence-focused cyberspace security policy.
Paper #19: 10/15/2020
Competitive Strategy in Divided Times
Dr. Ford participated in a workshop hosted by the University of Pennsylvania Perry World House and Brookings Institution entitled “Roadmap for Reentry in 2021 and Beyond: Advancing Institutional Commitments in a New Geostrategic Environment.” He presented this latest ACIS paper to workshop panelists and attendees.
Paper #18: 9/9/2020
Deterrence and the U.S. Nuclear Weapons Infrastructure
This latest addition to the Arms Control and International Security paper series — prepared by Under Secretary of Energy and National Nuclear Security Administration Administrator Lisa Gordon-Hagerty and with an introduction by Assistant Secretary Ford — offers a perspective upon the United States’ nuclear deterrent needs and what NNSA is doing to meet them.
This addition to the ACIS Papers series looks at recent changes in United States national security export controls as they apply to Hong Kong, and as U.S. officials have readjusted these controls in response to changes in that territory and the degree of control over it exercised by the People’s Republic of China.
Paper #16: 8/19/2020
Export Controls and National Security Strategy in the 21st Century
This ACIS paper reprints the full text that Assistant Secretary Ford prepared for his presentation to the Center for a New American Security on August 19, 2020, as a part of CNAS’ new Project on Export Controls and National Security.
Paper #15: 8/4/2020
Evolving Approaches to the “Middle East WMD-Free Zone”
In this ACIS Paper, Assistant Secretary Ford looks back at the history of efforts to implement the Middle East WMD-Free Zone called for in the Resolution on the Middle East adopted by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty’s Review and Extension Conference in 1995, outlining how traditional ways of trying to achieve this goal have become irrelevant or counterproductive, and calling for a new approach based around trying to ameliorate challenges in the security environment and develop good-faith engagement between all regional states.
In this paper, Assistant Secretary Ford offers some thoughts on conceptual currents in international relations thinking over the last generation that helped both produce and lead to the failure of major elements of the post-Cold War agenda in arms control, disarmament policy, and great power relations. This paper, however, also explores how we may find a better path forward, informed by a sounder understanding of some of these same currents.
In this ACIS Paper, Assistant Secretary Ford recounts the United States’ effort to reform the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) controls with respect to a subcategory of Unmanned Aerial Systems, and explains the new U.S. national approach to implementing the MTCR’s “strong presumption of denial” for proliferation-responsible transfers of “Category I” items under the MTCR Guidelines.
Paper #12: 7/24/2020
Arms Control in Outer Space: History and Prospects
In this ACIS Paper, Assistant Secretary Ford discuss his long-standing efforts to find effective forms of arms control in outer space and the reasons such efforts have failed in the modern era, before exploring what prospects there yet may be for international efforts to reduce risk, increase transparency and predictability, and head off the dangers of an outer space arms race — even as both the Russian federation and the People’s Republic of China (PRC) are rushing to weaponize the space domain.
This edition of the Arms Control and International Security Papers — produced by the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, and with an introduction by Assistant Secretary Ford — explains the U.S. policy and strategy behind the Sea-Launched Cruise Missile-Nuclear (SLCM-N).
Paper #10: 6/18/2020
Russian Arms Control Compliance: A Report Card, 1984-2020
Following the public release of the unclassified “Executive Summary” of the State Department’s 2020 report on Adherence to and Compliance with Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament Agreements and Commitments, Assistant Secretary Ford looks back at 35 years of U.S. compliance assessments to outline the history of U.S. concerns over Russian/Soviet behavior in this arena. In particular, he describes how the history of Moscow’s noncompliance closely tracks the global security environment’s evolution, from Cold War tensions to post-Cold War relaxation, and more recently back to competitive tension.
In this addition to the ACIS Papers, Assistant Secretary Ford outlines the changes the United States recently announced to rules pertaining to the entry of certain students and researchers from the People’s Republic of China in response to the national security challenges presented by Beijing’s Military-Civil Fusion strategy.
In this latest addition to the ACIS Papers, Assistant Secretary Ford discusses recent U.S. moves to restrict transfers of cutting-edge U.S. technology to the Chinese technology company Huawei, explaining these steps and placing them in the strategic context of a great power competition with the People’s Republic of China brought on by Beijing’s geopolitical revisionism, exploitation of such firms to steal and divert foreign technology to support the Chinese military, abuses of human rights in China itself, and employment of companies such as Huawei as tools of strategic influence.
Paper #7: 5/20/2020
Arms Control and Disarmament: Adjusting to a New Era
This latest ACIS Paper publishes Assistant Secretary Ford’s remarks on May 20, 2020, as the keynote speaker at an event commemorating the 25th anniversary of the Sandia National Laboratory’s Cooperative Monitoring Center. He offers thoughts on some of the most critical challenges the public policy community is facing regarding how diplomacy in arms control and disarmament can contribute to global security. How we adapt our approaches to a changing security environment is perhaps the most important and potentially consequential decision diplomats have faced since the height of the Cold War.
Paper #6: 5/11/2020
Competitive Strategy vis-à-vis China and Russia: A View from the “T Suite”
In this latest part of the series, Assistant Secretary Ford outlines the approach being taken in the “T” family of bureaus at the Department of State in support of U.S. competitive strategy vis-à-vis the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation, as inspired by the U.S. National Security Strategy.
In this issue of the ACIS papers, Assistant Secretary Ford discusses new evidence that has emerged suggesting the possible presence of undeclared nuclear material or activity in Iran, and what this information means, not just for Iran diplomacy but for the integrity of the global nuclear safeguards regime.
This latest monograph in the Arms Control and International Security Paper Series – produced by the State Department’s Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance, and with an introduction by Assistant Secretary Ford – explains U.S. thinking behind the supplemental low-yield W76-2 Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile.
Paper #3: 4/21/2020
Security Assistance and U.S. Competitive Strategy: Improving Our Game
In this third issue of the T paper series, Assistant Secretary Ford outlines the ways in which the State Department applies U.S. arms transfers to enhance the capabilities of allies and partners in support of U.S. competitive strategy vis-à-vis state-level competitors.
This second in the T series of papers offers thoughts on the public policy challenges presented by the prospect of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (LAWS). In this paper, Assistant Secretary Ford offers his perspective upon these issues, urging readers not to be seduced by sensationalized simplifications, and calling for careful, sustained attention to the complexities they raised – such as through the work already being done by the LAWS Group of Governmental Experts.
Paper #1: 4/6/2020
U.S. Priorities for “Next-Generation Arms Control”
The first of a series of papers offers thoughts on U.S. priorities for “next-generation arms control” involving both Moscow and Beijing, which we hope will be able to forestall the global nuclear arms race that may otherwise be sparked by the ongoing nuclear build-ups by both Russia and the People’s Republic of China.