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Artemis Accords

Principles for Cooperation in the Civil Exploration and Use of
the Moon, Mars, Comets, and Asteroids for Peaceful Purposes


Grounded in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 (OST), the Artemis Accords are a non-binding set of principles designed to guide civil space exploration and use in the 21st century. Co-led for the United States by the Department of State and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Artemis Accords were launched on October 13, 2020 with Australia, Canada, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States. As of December 2023, there were 33 signatories, and we continue bring together nations with a common vision for peaceful, sustainable, and transparent cooperation in space. 


The Artemis Accords principles establish a common political understanding regarding mutually beneficial practices in the exploration and use of outer space, including activities conducted in support of NASA’s Artemis program. These principles will help to ensure the maintenance of a safe and predictable outer space environment. 

1. Peaceful Purposes

Consistent with the Outer Space Treaty, the Artemis Accords affirm that cooperative activities should be exclusively for peaceful purposes and in accordance with international law. 

2. Transparency

Transparency is a key principle for responsible civil space exploration and use. Artemis Accords signatories are committed to the broad dissemination of information regarding their respective national space policies and space exploration plans in accordance with their national rules and regulations. 

3. Interoperability

Working in the space environment is incredibly challenging. Interoperability enhances the potential for space exploration that is safe and robust among cooperating nations.

4. Emergency Assistance

The provision of emergency assistance is vital. Artemis Accords signatories commit to taking all reasonable efforts to render necessary assistance to personnel in outer space who are in distress and acknowledge their obligations under the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space. 

5. Registration of Space Objects

Appropriate registration of space objects can help to mitigate risk of harmful interference. The Artemis Accords reinforce the importance of meeting our obligations under the Registration Convention.

6. Release of Scientific Data

Sharing scientific data with the global community in a timely and transparent manner can help ensure the entire world can benefit from space exploration.

7. Protecting Heritage

Outer space heritage is our shared heritage. Accords signatories intend to preserve historically significant human or robotics landing sites, artifacts, spacecraft, and other evidence of activity on celestial bodies, and contribute to multilateral efforts to further develop applicable international practices and rules. 

8. Space Resources

The utilization of space resources should be done in a manner that complies with the Outer Space Treaty, can benefit humankind and is critical to sustainable operations. 

9. Deconfliction of Activities

Provisions relating to due regard and harmful interference are key obligations of the Outer Space Treaty. Artemis Accords signatories help implement these obligations by providing notification of their activities, including regarding the location and general nature of their operations, and coordinating with any relevant actor to avoid harmful interference. The area covered by the notification and coordination is referred to as a “safety zone.”

10. Orbital Debris and Spacecraft Disposal

Planning to mitigate for orbital debris, as well as disposing safely of spacecrafts, is critical to maintaining a safe environment in space and operating in space sustainably. 


The Artemis Accords represent the best of multilateral leadership in civil space diplomacy and bring together a diverse set of nations with a shared vision of peaceful space cooperation. The United States welcomes nations who share this vision to join us. 

Artemis Accords signatories as of December 2023: Angola, Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Colombia, Czech Republic, Ecuador, France, Germany, Iceland, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Poland, the Republic of Korea, Romania, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Spain, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future