Principles for Cooperation in the Civil Exploration and Use of
the Moon, Mars, Comets, and Asteroids for Peaceful Purposes
Space Unites Us
May 30, 2023
Kingdom of Spain Signs the Artemis Accords
May 30, 2023
United States Leads in Space with Diplomacy
Grounded in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 (OST), the Artemis Accords are a non-binding set of principles designed to guide civil space exploration and use in the 21st century. Co-led for the United States by the Department of State and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Artemis Accords were launched on October 13, 2020 with Australia, Canada, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States. As of May 2023, there are 25 signatories, and we continue bring together nations with a common vision for peaceful, sustainable, and transparent cooperation in space.
The Artemis Accords principles establish a common political understanding regarding mutually beneficial practices in the exploration and use of outer space, including activities conducted in support of NASA’s Artemis program. These principles will help to ensure the maintenance of a safe and predictable outer space environment.
5. Registration of Space Objects
Appropriate registration of space objects can help to mitigate risk of harmful interference. The Artemis Accords reinforce the importance of meeting our obligations under the Registration Convention.
6. Release of Scientific Data
Sharing scientific data with the global community in a timely and transparent manner can help ensure the entire world can benefit from space exploration.
9. Deconfliction of Activities
Provisions relating to due regard and harmful interference are key obligations of the Outer Space Treaty. Artemis Accords signatories help implement these obligations by providing notification of their activities, including regarding the location and general nature of their operations, and coordinating with any relevant actor to avoid harmful interference. The area covered by the notification and coordination is referred to as a “safety zone.”
10. Orbital Debris and Spacecraft Disposal
Planning to mitigate for orbital debris, as well as disposing safely of spacecrafts, is critical to maintaining a safe environment in space and operating in space sustainably.
The Artemis Accords represent the best of multilateral leadership in civil space diplomacy and bring together a diverse set of nations with a shared vision of peaceful space cooperation. The United States welcomes nations who share this vision to join us.
Artemis Accords signatories as of May 30, 2023: Australia, Bahrain, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Czech Republic, France, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, New Zealand, Nigeria, Poland, the Republic of Korea, Romania, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Spain, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States.