P. Michael McKinley was appointed to the position of Senior Advisor to the Secretary of State in May 2018. He most recently served as the U.S. Ambassador to Brazil from 2017-2018, and as the U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan from 2014 to 2016. He was also U.S. Deputy Ambassador to Afghanistan from 2013 to 2014. Ambassador McKinley was the U.S. Ambassador to Colombia from 2010-2013 and the U.S. Ambassador to Peru from 2007-2010. He was Deputy Chief of Mission and Charge d’Affaires at the U.S. Mission to the European Union in Brussels between 2004 and 2007. From 2001-2004, he served as Deputy Assistant Secretary in the Department of State’s Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration. Between 1994 and 2001, Ambassador McKinley was Deputy Chief of Mission and Charge d’ Affaires at U.S. Embassies in Mozambique, Uganda, and Belgium. Earlier assignments include U.S. Embassy London (1990-94), three tours in Washington (1985-90), and Bolivia (1983-85). Ambassador McKinley joined the Foreign Service in 1982. Ambassador McKinley was born in Venezuela and grew up in Brazil, Mexico, Spain, and the United States. He did his undergraduate and graduate studies in the United Kingdom, and has a doctorate from Oxford University. His history of colonial Venezuela was published by Cambridge University Press as part of its Latin America series, and also appeared in a Spanish edition.