Russia recognized the U.S. on October 28, 1803, and diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Russia were formally established in 1809. Diplomatic relations were interrupted following the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution. On December 6, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson instructed all American diplomatic representatives in Russia to refrain from any direct communication with representatives of the Bolshevik Government. Although diplomatic relations were never formally severed, the U.S. refused to recognize or have any formal relations with the Bolshevik/Soviet governments until 1933. Normal diplomatic relations were resumed on November 16, 1933, when President Franklin Roosevelt informed Soviet Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov that the U.S. recognized the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and wished to re-establish normal diplomatic relations. On December 25, 1991, the U.S. recognized the Russian Federation as the successor to the Soviet Union, when President George H.W. Bush announced the decision in an address to the nation. President Bush also announced that the Embassy in Moscow would remain in place as the American Embassy to the Russian Federation. The United States and the Russian Federation established diplomatic relations on December 31, 1991.
Bilateral Economic Relations
In response to Russia’s ongoing violations of Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity, including Russia’s occupation and attempted annexation of Crimea, the U.S. has suspended most bilateral engagement with the Russian government on economic issues. The U.S. continues to investigate allegations of mistreatment of or discrimination against U.S. investors in Russia and to urge Russia to improve its investment climate, adherence to the rule of law, and transparency. In Russia, the U.S. Commercial Service continues to assist U.S. firms interested in developing market opportunities that do not violate sanctions.