Ghana

Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs
Report
June 29, 2017

This is the basic text view. SWITCH NOW to the new, more interactive format.


Executive SummaryShare    

Previously one of the fastest growing economies in the world, Ghana's GDP growth rate has slowed considerably over the last five years. In 2016, GDP growth was 3.6 percent. The country's economy is highly dependent on the export of primary commodities such as gold, cocoa, and oil, and consequently remains vulnerable to potential slowdowns in the global economy and commodity price shocks. A new government was elected in December 2016 on a platform of promoting private sector-led growth, and has made attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) a priority, given the urgent need to restore the country's economic momentum and overcome an annual infrastructure funding gap of at least $1.5 billion.

Increased inflation and devaluation of the Ghanaian cedi since late 2013 has dampened Ghana’s earlier macroeconomic success story. Ghana’s power sector, especially on the distribution side, remains one of the biggest factors negatively affecting the economy. In 2015, the government signed a three-year $918 million extended credit facility agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in an effort to stabilize Ghana's struggling economy. Under the ongoing IMF program, inflation has declined but the economic situation remains difficult, with a fiscal deficit of at least nine percent and a debt-to-GDP ratio of 73 percent. Ghana will likely seek an extension of the IMF program as the new government works to renegotiate targets to ensure long-term economic success.

Among the challenges hindering foreign direct investment are: a burdensome bureaucracy, weak productivity, costly and difficult financial services, under-developed infrastructure, ambiguous property laws, an unreliable power and water supply, and an unskilled labor force. Enforcement of laws and policies is weak. Public procurements are often opaque and there are often issues of non-payment. There have also been troubling trends in investment policy, with the passage of local content regulations in the petroleum sector, and the increase in minimum required investment levels with the amendment of the Ghana Investment Promotion Center (GIPC) Act in 2013.

Despite these challenges, Ghana's abundant raw materials (gold, cocoa, and oil/gas), good governance, political stability, and policy reforms make it stand out as one of the better locations for investment in sub-Saharan Africa. The investment climate in Ghana is relatively welcoming to foreign investment – with no discrimination against foreign-owned businesses, investment laws that protect investors against expropriation and nationalization, a free-floating exchange rate regime and guarantees that investors can transfer profits out of Ghana, and a lower degree of corruption than that of some regional counterparts. Among the most promising sectors are agribusiness, food processing, textiles and apparel, downstream oil, gas, and minerals processing, as well as the energy, especially renewable energy, and mining-related services subsectors.

With the change in government, there is optimism among the business community that steps will be taken to address some of the challenges and promote investment. The new government has acknowledged the need to foster an enabling environment to attract FDI, and has announced plans to overhaul the regulatory system and improve the ease of doing business, maintain fiscal discipline, combat corruption, and promote better transparency and accountability.

Table 1

Measure

Year

Index/Rank

Website Address

TI Corruption Perceptions Index

2016

70 of 176

http://www.transparency.org/
research/cpi/overview

World Bank’s Doing Business Report “Ease of Doing Business”

2017

108 of 190

doingbusiness.org/rankings

Global Innovation Index

2016

102 of 128

https://www.globalinnovationindex.org/
analysis-indicator

U.S. FDI in partner country ($M USD, stock positions)

2013

$3140

http://www.bea.gov/
international/factsheet/

World Bank GNI per capita

2015

$1480

http://data.worldbank.org/
indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

1. Openness To, and Restrictions Upon, Foreign InvestmentShare    

Policies Towards Foreign Direct Investment

The Government of Ghana has no overall economic or industrial strategy that discriminates against foreign-owned businesses. The government has made increasing FDI a priority and acknowledged the importance of having an enabling environment for the private sector to thrive. Officials have announced plans to undertake regulatory and other reforms to improve the ease of doing business and make investing in Ghana more attractive. The government also plans to hold an annual business summit.

In the past, the government passed laws to encourage foreign investment and replaced regulations perceived as unfriendly to investors. The 2013 GIPC Act regulates investments in almost every sector, except minerals and mining, oil and gas, and the industries within Free Zones. Sector-specific laws further regulate banking, non-banking financial institutions, insurance, fishing, securities, telecommunications, energy, and real estate. In the oil and gas sector, these laws include specific local content requirements that could discourage international investment. Foreign investors are required to satisfy the provisions of the investment act as well as the provisions of sector-specific laws. New GIPC leadership has pledged to work in closer collaboration with the private sector to address investor concerns but there have been no significant changes to the laws as of yet. More information on investing in Ghana can be obtained from GIPC's website, www.gipcghana.com.

Limits on Foreign Control and Right to Private Ownership and Establishment

Ghana is one of the more open economies to foreign equity ownership in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most of its major sectors are fully open to foreign capital participation.

U.S. investors in Ghana are treated the same as any other foreign investor. All foreign investment projects must register with the Ghana Investment Promotion Center (GIPC). Foreign investments are subject to the following minimum capital requirements: $200,000 for joint ventures with a Ghanaian partner; $500,000 for enterprises wholly-owned by a non-Ghanaian; and $1 million for trading companies (firms that buy or sell imported goods or services) wholly owned by non-Ghanaian entities. Trading companies are also required to employ at least 20 skilled Ghanaian nationals.

Ghana’s investment code excludes foreign investors from participating in eight economic sectors: petty trading; the operation of taxi and car rental services with fleets of fewer than 25 vehicles; lotteries (excluding soccer pools); the operation of beauty salons and barber shops; printing of recharge scratch cards for subscribers to telecommunications services; production of exercise books and stationery; retail of finished pharmaceutical products; and the production, supply, and retail of drinking water in sealed pouches. Sectors where foreign investors are allowed limited market access include: telecommunications, banking, fishing, mining, petroleum, and real estate.

Real Estate

The 1992 Constitution recognized existing private and traditional titles to land; however, freehold acquisition of land is no longer permitted. There is an exception for transfer of freehold title between family members for land held under the traditional system. Foreigners are allowed to enter into long-term leases of up to 50 years and the lease may be bought, sold or renewed for consecutive terms. Nationals are allowed to enter into 99-year leases.

Oil and Gas

The oil and gas sector is subject to a variety of state ownership and local content requirements. The Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act (2016, Act 919) mandates local participation. All entities seeking petroleum exploration licenses in Ghana must create a consortium in which the state-owned Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC) holds a minimum 10 percent stake. The Petroleum Commission issues all licenses, but exploration licenses must be approved by Parliament. Further, local content regulations specify in-country sourcing requirements with respect to the full range of goods, services, hiring, and training associated with petroleum operations. The regulations also require mandatory local equity participation for all suppliers and contractors. The Minister of Energy must approve all contracts, sub-contracts, and purchase orders above $100,000. Non-compliance with these regulations may result in a criminal penalty, including imprisonment for up to five years.

The Petroleum Commission applies registration fees and annual renewal fees on foreign oil and gas service providers, which, depending on a company’s annual revenues, range from $70,000 to $150,000, compared to fees of between $5,000 and $30,000 for local companies.

Mining

Per the Minerals and Mining Act, 2006 (Act 703), foreign investors are restricted from obtaining a small scale mining license for mining operations less than or equal to an area of 25 acres (10 hectares). Non-Ghanaians may only apply for industrial mineral rights if the proposed investment is $10 million or above. The Act mandates compulsory local participation, whereby the government acquires 10 percent equity in ventures at no cost. In order to qualify for a license, a non-Ghanaian company must be registered in Ghana, either as a branch office or a subsidiary that is incorporated under the Ghana Companies Code or Incorporated Private Partnership Act.

The Minerals and Mining Act provides for a stability agreement, which protects the holder of a mining lease for a period of 15 years from future changes in law that may impose a financial burden on the license holder. When investment exceeds $500 million, lease holders can negotiate a development agreement which contains elements of a stability agreement and more favorable fiscal terms. Parliament passed a new Minerals and Mining (Amendment) Act (Act 900) in December 2015. One significant provision of the new act requires the mining lease-holder to, “…pay royalty to the Republic at the rate and in the manner that may be prescribed.” The previous Act 703 capped the royalty rate at six percent. The Minerals Commission implements the law.

Insurance

The National Insurance Commission (NIC) imposes nationality requirements with respect to the board and senior management of locally-incorporated insurance and reinsurance companies. At least two board members must be Ghanaians, and either the Chairman of the board or Chief Executive Officer (CEO) must be Ghanaian. In situations where the CEO is not a Ghanaian, the NIC requires that the Chief Financial Officer be Ghanaian. Minimum initial capital investment in the insurance sector is 15 million Ghana cedis ($4 million).

Telecommunications

The National Communications Authority (NCA), under the Electronic Communications Act of 2008, regulates and manages the nation’s telecommunications and broadcast sectors. For licenses for 800 MHz spectrum for mobile telecommunications services, Ghana restricts foreign participation to a joint venture or consortium that includes a minimum of 35 percent indigenous Ghanaian ownership. Applicants that do not reach 35 percent Ghanaian ownership within 13 months from the effective date of the license risk severe penalties. In 2013, a portion of Ghana’s 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE) bandwidth was auctioned under restrictions that prevented foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) from being directly involved.

There are no significant limits on foreign investment or differences in the treatment of foreign and national investors in other sectors of the economy.

Other Investment Policy Reviews

Ghana has not conducted an investment policy review (IPR) through the OECD in recent times. UNCTAD last conducted an IPR in 2003.

The WTO last conducted a Trade Policy Review (TPR) in May 2014. The TPR concluded that the 2013 amendment to the investment law raised the minimum capital that foreigners must invest to levels above those specified in Ghana's 1994 GATS horizontal commitments, and excludes new activities from foreign competition. But it was determined that overall this would have minimum impact on dissuading future foreign investment due to the size of the companies traditionally seeking to do business within the country. An Executive Summary of the findings can be found at: https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp398_e.htm

Business Facilitation

Per the Ghana Investment Promotion Centre (GIPC) Act, all foreign companies are required to register with GIPC. Registration can be completed online at http://www.gipcghana.com. While the registration process is designed to be completed within five business days, the process often takes significantly longer. With the exception of the extractive industries, international companies are free to establish a business in Ghana without prior approval of GIPC. However, the Ghanaian business environment is unique and guidance can be extremely helpful. In some cases, a foreign investment may enjoy certain tax benefits under the law or additional incentives if the project is deemed critical to the country's development, which makes registration with GIPC beneficial.

Although registering a business is a relatively easy procedure, the process involved in establishing a business is lengthy, complex, and requires compliance with regulations and procedures of at least five different government agencies including GIPC, Registrar General Department, Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA), Ghana Immigration Service, and Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT).

According to the World Bank’s 2016 Doing Business Report, it takes 10 procedures and 72 days to establish a foreign-owned limited liability company (LLC) that wants to engage in international trade in Ghana. This is longer than the regional average for Sub-Saharan Africa. Foreign investors must obtain a certificate of capital importation, which can take 14 days. The local authorized dealer must confirm the import of capital with the Bank of Ghana, which will then confirm the transaction to GIPC for investment registration purposes.

Most companies or individuals considering investing in Ghana or trading with Ghanaian counterparts find it useful to consult with a local attorney or business facilitation company. The Embassy maintains a list of local attorneys which is available through the embassy’s Foreign Commercial Section (www.export.gov/ghana). Specific information about setting up a business is available at the GIPC website: http://www.gipcghana.com/invest-in-ghana/doing-business-in-ghana.html.

Note that mining or oil and gas sector companies are required to obtain licensing/approval from the following relevant bodies:

Ghana Investment Promotion Centre
Post: P. O. Box M193, Accra-Ghana
Telephone: +233 (0) 302 665125, +233 (0)302 665126, +233 (0) 302 665127, +233 (0) 302 665128/ +233 (0) 302 665129
Telephone: +233 (0) 302 244318254/ 244318252
Email: info@gipcghana.com
Website: www.gipcghana.com

Petroleum Commission Head Office
Plot No. 4A, George Bush Highway, Accra, Ghana
P.O. Box CT 228 Cantonments, Accra, Ghana
Telephone: +233 [0] 302 953392 | +233 [0] 302 953393
Website: http://www.petrocom.gov.gh/

Minerals Commission
No. 9 Switchback Road, Cantonments, Accra
P. O. Box M 248
Telephone: +233 (0) 302 772 783 /+233 (0) 302 772 786 /+233 (0) 302 773 053
Email: mincom@mc.ghanamining.org
Website: http://www.ghanamining.org

Outward Investment

Ghana has significantly liberalized both inward and outward foreign investment policies, but it has no specific outward investment policy. It has entered into bilateral treaties with a number of countries to promote and protect foreign investment on a reciprocal basis. A few Ghanaian companies have established operations in other West African countries.

2. Bilateral Investment Agreements and Taxation TreatiesShare    

Ghana has signed and ratified Bilateral Investment Treaties (BIT) with the following countries: China; Denmark; Germany; Malaysia; the Netherlands; Switzerland; the United Kingdom. Ghana has concluded the BIT negotiation process with 26 countries in total, 19 of which are awaiting Parliament ratification. The countries with concluded Bilateral Investment Treaties that have not yet been internally ratified are: Barbados; Benin; Botswana; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Cote d’Ivoire; Cuba; Egypt; France; Guinea; Italy, Mauritania; Mauritius; Romania; Spain; Yugoslavia; Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Agreements with the United States, Pakistan, South Korea, North Korea, and Belgium are being discussed.

The United States has signed several investment related agreements with Ghana: the Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA), OPIC Investment Incentive Agreement, and the Open Skies Agreement. In 2012, the U.S. and Ghana initiated exploratory BIT discussions but discussions have stalled.

Ghana has continued to meet eligibility requirements to participate in the benefits afforded by the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and also separately qualifies for the apparel benefits under AGOA.

3. Legal RegimeShare    

Transparency of the Regulatory System

The Government of Ghana’s policies on trade liberalization and investment promotion are guiding its effort to create a clear and transparent regulatory system.

Ghana does not have a standardized consultation process but ministries generally share the text or summary of proposed regulations and solicit comments directly from stakeholders or via public meetings. All laws that are currently in effect are printed in the Ghana Gazette.

The Government of Ghana has established regulatory bodies such as the National Communications Authority, the National Petroleum Authority, the Petroleum Commission, Energy Commission, and the Public Utilities Regulatory Commission to oversee activities in the telecommunications, downstream and upstream petroleum, electricity and natural gas, and water sectors, respectively. The creation of these bodies was a positive step but they remain relatively under-resourced and subject to political influence, thus their ability to deliver the intended level of oversight is limited.

The government has announced a 36 month regulatory reform strategy/program, which includes plans to improve the ease of doing business, review all rules and regulations to identify and reduce unnecessary costs and requirements, establish an e-registry of all laws, establish a centralized public consultation web portal, provide regulatory relief for entrepreneurs, and eventually implement a regulatory impact analysis system.

International Regulatory Considerations

Ghana has been a World Trade Organization (WTO) member since January 1995. Ghana issues its own standards for most products under the auspices of the Ghana Standards Authority (GSA). The GSA has promulgated more than 500 Ghanaian standards and adopted more than 2,000 international standards for certification purposes. The Ghanaian Food and Drugs Authority is responsible for enforcing standards for food, drugs, cosmetics, and health items. Ghana notifies all draft technical regulations to the WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT).

Legal System and Judicial Independence

Ghana's legal system is based on British common law and customary law. Investors should note that the acquisition of real property is governed by both statutory and customary law. The judiciary comprises both the lower courts and the superior courts. The superior courts are the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, and the High Court and Regional Tribunals. Lawsuits are permitted and usually begin in the High Court. The High Court has jurisdiction in all matters, civil and criminal, other than those involving treason. There is a history of government intervention in the court system, although somewhat less so in commercial matters. The courts have, when the circumstances require, entered judgments against the government. However, the courts have been slow in disposing of cases and at times face challenges in enforcing decisions, largely due to resource constraints and institutional inefficiencies.

Laws and Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment

The GIPC Act codified the government's desire to present foreign investors with a transparent foreign investment regulatory regime. GIPC regulates foreign investment in acquisitions, mergers, takeovers and new investments, as well as portfolio investment in stocks, bonds, and other securities traded on the Ghana Stock Exchange. The GIPC Act also specifies areas of investment reserved for locals, and further delineates incentives and guarantees that relate to taxation, transfer of capital, profits and dividends, and guarantees against expropriation.

While Ghana does not currently have a “one stop shop” for business registration, GIPC helps to facilitate the process and provides economic, commercial and investment information for companies and business people interested in starting a business or investing in Ghana. GIPC provides assistance to enable investors to take advantage of relevant incentives. Registration can be completed online at www.gipcghana.com. The government has announced plans to establish a “one stop shop” and aims to significantly reduce the time it takes to start a business by automating the process for registration across the relevant agencies.

As detailed in the previous section on “Limits on Foreign Control and Right to Private Ownership and Establishment,” sector specific laws regulate foreign participation/investment in telecommunications, banking, fishing, mining, petroleum, and real estate.

Ghana regulates the transfer of technologies not freely available in Ghana. According to the 1992 Technology Transfer Regulations, total management and technical fee levels higher than eight percent of net sales must be approved by GIPC. The regulations do not allow agreements that impose obligations to procure personnel, inputs, and equipment from the transferor or specific source. The duration of related contracts cannot exceed ten years and cannot be renewed for more than five years. Any provisions in the agreement inconsistent with Ghanaian regulations are unenforceable in Ghana.

Competition and Anti-Trust Laws

Ghana does not have a competition law.

Expropriation and Compensation

The Constitution sets out some exceptions and a clear procedure for the payment of compensation in allowable cases of expropriation or nationalization. Additionally, Ghana's investment laws generally protect investors against expropriation and nationalization. The Government of Ghana may, however, expropriate property if it is required to protect national defense, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, town and country planning, or to ensure the development or utilization of property in a manner to promote public benefit. In such cases, the GOG must provide prompt payment of fair and adequate compensation to the property owner. The Government of Ghana guarantees due process by allowing access to the high court by any person who has an interest or right over the property.

U.S. investors are generally not subject to differential or discriminatory treatment in Ghana, and there have been no official government expropriations in recent times. There have been no reported instances of indirect expropriation or any government action equivalent to expropriation during the past year. 

Dispute Settlement

ICSID Convention and New York Convention

Ghana is a member state to the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID Convention). Ghana is a signatory to the convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (1958 New York Convention).

There is a caveat for investment disputes arising from within the energy sector: the Government of Ghana has expressed a preference for handling disputes under the ad hoc arbitration rules of the U N Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL Model Law).

Investor-State Dispute Settlement

Ghana’s track record for sound governance and a relatively reliable legal system result in a dispute resolution process that benefits foreign investors, in comparison to other countries in the region.

Since 2001, four American investors have filed for international arbitration against the Ghanaian government. Two of these cases were resolved when the Government of Ghana agreed to purchase the investments in dispute. In both cases the American investors agreed to the terms of the government purchase as an exit strategy, notwithstanding perceived inequitable terms. The other two cases are still in litigation where they have remained since December 2012.

International Commercial Arbitration and Foreign Courts

The United States has signed three bilateral agreements on trade and investment with Ghana: a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA), OPIC Investment Incentive Agreement, and the Open Skies Agreement. These agreements contain provisions for investment as well as trade dispute mechanisms.

The Commercial Conciliation Center of the American Chamber of Commerce (Ghana) provides arbitration services on trade and investment issues for disputes regarding contracts with arbitration clauses.

There is interest in alternative dispute resolution, especially as it applies to commercial cases. Several lawyers provide arbitration and/or conciliation services. Arbitration decisions are enforceable provided they are registered in the courts.

The Government of Ghana established fast-track courts to expedite action in certain cases. These fast track courts, which are automated divisions of the High Court, were intended to oversee cases which can be concluded within six months. However, they have not succeeded in consistently disposing of cases within six months. In March 2005, the government established a commercial court with exclusive jurisdiction over all commercial matters. This Court also handles disputes involving commercial arbitration and the enforcement of awards, intellectual property rights, including patents, copyrights and trademarks, commercial fraud, applications under the Companies Code, tax matters, and insurance and re-insurance cases. A distinctive feature of the commercial court is the use of mediation or other alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, which are mandatory in the pre-trial settlement conference stage. Ghana also has a Financial and Economic Crimes Court. It is a specialized division of the High Court that handles high profile corruption and economic crime cases.

Enforcement of foreign judgments in Ghana is based on the doctrine of reciprocity. On this basis, judgments from Brazil, France, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Senegal, Spain, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom are enforceable. Judgments from American courts are not currently enforceable in Ghana.

The GIPC, Free Zones, Labor, and Minerals and Mining Laws outline dispute settlement procedures and provide for arbitration when disputes cannot be settled by other means. They also provide for referral of disputes to arbitration in accordance with the rules of procedure of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), or within the framework of a bilateral agreement between Ghana and the investor's country. The 2010 Alternative Dispute Resolution Act (Act 798 of 2010) provides for the settlement of disputes by mediation and customary arbitration, in addition to regular arbitration processes.

Bankruptcy Regulations

Ghana does not have a bankruptcy statute. The Companies Code of 1963, however, provides for official closure of a company when it is unable to pay its debts.

4. Industrial PoliciesShare    

Investment Incentives

Investment incentives differ slightly depending upon the law under which an investor operates. For example, while all investors operating under the Free Zone Act are entitled to a ten-year corporate tax holiday, investors operating under the GIPC law are not automatically entitled to a tax holiday. Tax incentives vary depending upon the sector in which the investor is operating.

All investment-specific laws contain some incentives. The GIPC law allows for import and tax exemptions for plant inputs, machinery and parts that are imported for the purpose of the investment. Chapters 82, 84, 85, and 89 of the Customs Harmonized Commodity and Tariff Code zero-rate these production items. The Government of Ghana recently imposed a five percent import duty on some items that were previously zero-rated, to conform to the ECOWAS common external tariff.

The Ghanaian tax system is replete with tax concessions that considerably reduce the effective tax rate. The minimum incentives are specified in the GIPC law and are not applied in an ad hoc or arbitrary manner. Once an investor has been registered under the GIPC law, the investor is entitled to the incentives provided by law. The government has discretion to grant an investor additional customs duty exemptions and tax incentives beyond the minimum stated in the law. The GIPC website (http://www.gipcghana.com ) provides a thorough description of available incentive programs. The law also guarantees an investor all the tax incentives provided for under Ghanaian law. For example, rental income from commercial and residential property is exempt from tax for the first five years after construction. Similarly, income from a company selling or leasing out premises is income tax exempt for the first five years of operation. Rural banks and cattle ranching are exempt from income tax for ten years and pay 8 percent thereafter.

The corporate tax rate is 25 percent and this applies to all sectors except income from non-traditional exports (8 percent tax rate) and oil and gas exploration companies (35 percent tax rate). For some sectors there are temporary tax holidays. These sectors include Free Zone enterprises and developers (0 percent for the first ten years and 8 percent thereafter); real estate development and rental (0 percent for the first five years and 25 percent thereafter); agro-processing companies (0 percent for the first five years, after which the tax rate ranges from 0 percent to 25 percent depending on the location of the company in Ghana), and waste processing companies (0 percent for seven years and 25 percent thereafter). Tax rebates are also offered in the form of incentives based on location. A capital allowance in the form of accelerated depreciation is applicable in all sectors except banking, finance, commerce, insurance, mining, and petroleum. Under the new Income Tax law of 2015, all businesses can carry forward tax losses for at least three years.

The government charges a 15 percent Value Added Tax (VAT) plus a 2.5 percent Health Insurance Levy on most imports, all consumer purchases, services, accommodation in hotels and guest houses, food in restaurants, hotels and snack bars, as well as advertising, betting and entertainment. For a list of current exemptions to VAT please visit the Ghana Revenue Authority website at www.gra.gov.gh. The government also charges a 1 percent Tourism Development Levy as seed money for the country’s Tourism Development Fund. As of late 2014, petroleum products are subject to a 15 percent special petroleum tax.

Ghana has no discriminatory or excessively burdensome visa requirements. A foreign investor who invests under the GIPC law is automatically entitled to a specific number of visas/work permits based on the size of the investment. When an investment of $50,000, but not more than $250,000 or its equivalent is made in convertible currency or machinery and equipment, the enterprise can obtain a visa/work permit for one expatriate employee. An investment of $250,000, but not more than $500,000, entitles the enterprise to two automatic visas/work permits. An investment of $500,000, but not more than $700,000, allows the enterprise to bring in three expatriate employees. An investment of more than $700,000 allows an enterprise to bring in four expatriate employees. An enterprise may apply for extra visas or work permits, but the investor must justify why a foreigner must be employed rather than a Ghanaian. There are no restrictions on the issuance of work and residence permits to Free Zone investors and employees. A few American firms have recently reported to the Embassy extensive delays in receiving the work permits to which they are entitled by their investment levels. Overall, the process of issuing work permits is not very transparent.

Ghana has no import price controls. It is pursuing a liberalized import regime policy within the framework of the World Trade Organization to accelerate industrial growth. The Government of Ghana joined other ECOWAS countries by fully implementing the ECOWAS Common External Tariff (CET) in February 2016

Foreign Trade Zones/Free Ports/Trade Facilitation

Free Trade Zones were established in May 1996, with one near Tema Steelworks, Ltd., in the Greater Accra Region, and two other sites located at Mpintsin and Ashiem near Takoradi. The seaports of Tema and Takoradi, as well as the Kotoka International Airport and all the lands related to these areas, are part of the Free Zone. The law also permits the establishment of single factory zones outside or within the areas mentioned above. Under the law, a company qualifies to be a Free Zone company if it exports more than 70 percent of its products. Among the incentives for Free Zone companies are a ten-year corporate tax holiday and zero import duty.

To make it easier for Free Zone developers to acquire the various licenses and permits to operate, the Ghana Free Zones Board (www.gfzb.com.gh) provides a "one-stop approval service" to assist in the completion of all formalities. A lack of resources has limited the effectiveness of the Board, however. Foreign employees of Free Zone businesses require work and residence permits.

Performance and Data Localization Requirements

In most sectors, Ghana does not have performance requirements for establishing, maintaining, and expanding a business. Investors are not currently required to purchase from local sources or employ prescribed levels of local content, except in the upstream petroleum sector, which is subject to substantial local content requirements. Similar legislation is being drafted for the downstream petroleum and power sectors, but there is no clear timeline for its consideration.

Generally, investors are not required to export a specified percentage of their output, except for Free Zone enterprises which, in accordance with the Free Zone Act, must export 70 percent of their products. Government officials have intimated that local content requirements should be applied to sectors other than petroleum, but currently no local content regulations have been promulgated for other sectors.

As detailed earlier in this report, there are a few areas where the GOG does impose performance requirements including the mining, oil and gas, insurance, and telecommunications sectors.

Data Storage

The Government of Ghana does not follow a forced localization policy in which foreign investors must use domestic content in goods or technology. In addition, there are no requirements for foreign IT providers to turn over source code and/or provide access to surveillance (backdoors into hardware and software or turn over keys for encryption).

5. Protection of Property RightsShare    

Real Property

The legal system recognizes and enforces secured interest in property. The process to get clear title over land is difficult, complicated, and lengthy. It is important to conduct a thorough search at the Lands Commission to ascertain the identity of the true owner of any land being offered for sale. Investors should be aware that land records can be incomplete or non-existent and, therefore, clear title may be impossible to establish.

Mortgages exist, although there are only a few thousand in existence due to a variety of factors including land ownership issues and scarcity of long-term finance. Mortgages are regulated by the Home Mortgages Finance Act 770 (2008) which has enhanced the process of foreclosure. A mortgage must be registered under the Land Title Registration Law, a requirement that is mandatory for it to take effect. Registration with the Land Title Registry is a reliable system of recording the transaction.

Intellectual Property Rights

The protection of intellectual property is an evolving area of law in Ghana. Progress has been made in recent years to afford protection under both local and international law. Ghana is a party to the Universal Copyright Convention, the Berne Convention for the Prosecution of Literary and Artistic Works, the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PTC), the Singapore Trademark Law Treaty (STLT), and the Madrid Protocol Concerning the International Registration of Marks. Ghana is also a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the English-speaking African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO), and the World Trade Organization (WTO). In 2004, Ghana’s Parliament ratified the WIPO internet treaties, namely the WIPO Copyright Treaty and the WIPO Performance and Phonograms Treaty. Since December 2003, Ghana’s Parliament has passed six bills designed to bring Ghana into compliance with WTO Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) requirements. The new laws are: Copyright, Trade Marks, Patents, Layout-Designs (Topographies) of Integrated Circuits, Geographical Indications, and Industrial Designs. Except for the copyright law, implementing regulations necessary for fully effective promulgation has not been passed.

The Government of Ghana launched its National Intellectual Property Policy and strategy in January 2016. Devised to strengthen the legal and institutional framework to protect intellectual property rights, the strategy highlights and allocates resources across an initial 34 projects to be implemented over the succeeding 5 years (2016-2020). The projects include amendments of existing laws as well as automation of IP registration.

Despite Ghana’s effort to strengthen its IPR regime, enforcement remains weak and piracy of intellectual property takes place in Ghana. Although precise statistics are not available for many sectors, counterfeit computer software regularly shows up at street markets and counterfeit pharmaceuticals have found their way into public hospitals. Counterfeit products have also been discovered in such disparate sectors as industrial epoxy, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, drinking spirits, and household cleaning products. Based on cases where it has been possible to trace the origin of counterfeit goods, most have been found to have been produced outside the region, usually in Asia. Holders of intellectual property rights have access to local courts for redress of grievances, although the few trademark, patent, and copyright infringement cases that have been filed in Ghana by American companies have reportedly moved through the legal system slowly.

Resources for Rights Holders

Please contact the following at Mission Accra if you have further questions regarding IP issues:

Jimmy Mauldin
Economic Section
No. 24 Fourth Circular Road, Cantonments, Accra, Ghana
233-030-274-1000
MauldinJ@state.gov

A list of local lawyers can be found at: http://ghana.usembassy.gov/root/pdfs/attorneys.pdf

American Chamber of Commerce Ghana
5TH Crescent Street, Asylum Down
P.O. Box CT2869, Cantonments-Accra, Ghana
Tel: 233 030 2247562/233 030 7011862
Fax: 233 030 2247562
Website: http://www.amchamghana.org/

For additional information about treaty obligations and points of contact at local IP offices, please see WIPO’s country profiles at http://www.wipo.int/directory/en/

6. Financial SectorShare    

Capital Markets and Portfolio Investment

Private sector growth in Ghana has been constrained by financing challenges. Businesses continue to face difficulty raising capital on the local market. While credit to the private sector has increased, levels have remained stagnant over the last decade and high government borrowing has driven up interest rates beyond 25 percent and crowded out private investment.

Capital markets and portfolio investment are gradually evolving. For a long time, the government had become highly dependent on the domestic capital market to raise funds for its budget. Over the last several years, the domestic debt stock has shifted towards short term securities (maturities of one year or less), which now make up more than half of total marketable securities. The longest term domestic bonds are 10 years, but government plans to issue about $1 billion of 15-year domestic bonds between April to June 2017. Foreign investors are only permitted to participate in bond auctions with maturities of two years or longer. In 2016, foreign investors held about 23percent (valued at $3 billion) of the total outstanding securities. Authorities are working to expand the secondary market to improve liquidity.

The rapid accumulation of debt over the last decade has raised debt sustainability concerns. In 2007, only three years after reaching its highly indebted poor countries (HIPC) completion point, Ghana became the first sub-Saharan African country after South Africa to issue a Eurobond. The $750 million issuance was followed by additional Eurobonds in 2013 ($1 billion), 2014 ($1 billion), 2015 ($1 billion), and 2016 ($750 million) as global investors chased yields in frontier and emerging markets. Total public debt, roughly evenly split between external and domestic, now stands at nearly 73 percent of GDP. Following the government’s strategy of increasing demand for longer-dated bonds, short-term debt declined from a share of 45 percent in 2015 to 38 percent in 2016.

The Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) has 40 listed companies, 4 government bonds and 1 corporate bond. Both foreign and local companies are allowed to list on the GSE. The Securities and Exchange Commission regulates activities on the Exchange. There is an 8 percent tax on dividend income. Foreigners are permitted to trade stocks listed on the GSE without restriction. There are no capital controls on the flow of retained earnings, capital gains, dividends or interest payments. The GSE composite index (GGSECI) has exhibited mixed performance.

Money and Banking System

Banks in Ghana are relatively small with the largest in the country, Ecobank Ghana Ltd., holding assets totaling about $1.3 billion. Out of the 33 banks in Ghana, 16 are domestically controlled and the remaining 17 are foreign-controlled. In total, there are 1,342 branches distributed across the ten regions of the country. Central bank regulations require existing banks to maintain a minimum capital base of 60 million Ghana cedis (USD 16 million), while new banks entering the market are required to have 120 million Ghana cedis (USD 32 million) in capital.

Overall, the banking industry in Ghana is well-capitalized with a capital adequacy ratio of 17.8 percent as of December 2016, which is above the 10 percent prudential and statutory requirement. As of December 2016, the non-performing loans ratios had increased to 17.3 percent – up from 14.9 percent in 2015 and 11.3 percent in 2014. Lending in foreign currencies to unhedged borrowers poses a risk and widely varying standards in loan classification and provisioning may be masking weaknesses in bank balance sheets. The Bank of Ghana is commissioning a special diagnostic audit to assess industry underwriting and credit evaluation practices, and has additional plans to strengthen the financial sector framework.

Recent developments in the non-banking financial sector indicate increased diversification, including new rules and regulations governing the trading of Exchange Traded Funds. Non-banking financial institutions such as leasing companies, building societies and savings and loan associations have increased access to finance for underserved populations, as have rural and mobile banking. Currently, Ghana has no “cross-shareholding” or “stable shareholder” arrangements used by private firms to restrict foreign investment through mergers and acquisitions.

Foreign Exchange and Remittances

Foreign Exchange

Ghana operates a free-floating exchange rate regime. The Ghana cedi can be exchanged for dollars and major European currencies. Investors may convert and transfer funds associated with investments provided there is documentation of how the funds were acquired. Ghana's investment laws guarantee that investors can transfer the following transactions in convertible currency out of Ghana: dividends or net profits attributable to an investment; loan service payments where a foreign loan has been obtained; fees and charges with respect to technology transfer agreements registered under the GIPC Act; and the remittance of proceeds from the sale or liquidation of an enterprise or any interest attributable to the investment. Companies have not reported challenges or delays in remitting investment returns. For details, please consult the GIPC Act (http://www.gipcghana.com) and the Foreign Exchange Act guidelines (http://www.sec.org).

Ghana's foreign exchange reserve needs are largely met through cocoa, gold and oil exports, government securities, foreign assistance, and private remittances. Fiscal problems and the fall in commodity prices have led to a steep depreciation of foreign reserves and inflation rates reached a six year high of 19.2 percent in March 2016. The ongoing IMF program should continue to provide Ghana with stronger fiscal stability as long as the Government of Ghana adheres to the program’s guidelines and recommendations.

Remittance Policies

There is a single formal system for transferring currency out of the country through the banking system. The Parliament passed the Foreign Exchange Act in November 2006. The Act provided the legal framework for the management of foreign exchange transactions in Ghana. It fully liberalized capital account transactions, including allowing foreigners to buy certain securities in Ghana (i.e. those with tenor of 3 years and higher). It also removed the requirement for the Bank of Ghana (the central bank) to approve offshore loans. Payments or transfer of foreign currency can only be made through banks or institutions licensed to do money transfers. There is no limit on capital transfers as long as the transferee can identify the source of capital.

In February 2014, the government announced limits to foreign exchange withdrawals in an effort to stem the deterioration of the cedi and prevent the dollarization of the currency. By June, these limits were lifted, making it clear that this technique will only be used as a short term measure to deal with urgent economic concerns. However, companies have expressed concerns over a requirement to now submit all invoices valued in cedis.

Sovereign Wealth Funds

Ghana’s only sovereign wealth fund is the Petroleum Holding Fund, which is funded by oil profits and flows to the Ghana Heritage Fund and Stabilization Fund. The Petroleum Revenue Management Act (PRMA), passed in 2011, spells out how revenues from oil and gas should be spent and includes transparency provisions for reporting by government agencies, as well as an independent oversight group, the Public Interest and Accountability Committee (PIAC). Section 48 of the Petroleum Revenue Management Act, 2011 (Act 815) requires the fund to publish an audited annual report by the Ghana Audit Service. The fund’s management meets the legal obligations. Management of the Ghana Petroleum Fund is a joint responsibility between the Ministry of Finance and the Bank of Ghana. The Minister develops the investment policy for the GPF, and is responsible for the overall management of GPF funds, consults regularly with the Investment Advisory Committee and Bank of Ghana Governor before making any decisions related to investment strategy or management of GPF funds. The Minister is also in charge of establishing a management agreement with the Bank of Ghana for the oversight of the funds. The Bank of Ghana is responsible for the day-to-day operational management of the Petroleum Reserve Accounts (PRAs) under the terms of Operation Management Agreement.

http://www.mofep.gov.gh/?q=petroleum-reports/2016-annual-report-petroleum-funds

7. State-Owned EnterprisesShare    

Today only a handful of large SOEs remain, mainly in the transportation, power, extractive and airport management sectors. The largest SOEs are the Ghana Ports and Harbor Authority (GPHA), the Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG), the Volta River Authority (VRA), the Tema Oil Refinery (TOR), the Ghana Airport Company Limited (GACL), Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD), Ghana National Gas Company Limited, and GNPC. Many of these receive subsidies and assistance from the government. Ghana has started the process of increasing private sector participation in ECG under its second Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) compact, which entered into force in September, 2016. The $498.2 million grant is designed to increase the commercial viability of the utility. One of the key elements of the compact is to have a private company manage and operate ECG on a concession agreement for a period of 25 years. In turn, this will drive expanded opportunities for Independent Power Producers (IPPs) to enter the sector.

While the Government of Ghana does not actively promote adherence to the OECD Guidelines, corporate governance of SOEs is overseen by the State Enterprise Commission (SEC). The SEC encourages SOEs to be managed like Limited Liability Companies so as to be profit-making. In addition, beginning in 2014, most state-owned enterprises were required to contract and service direct and government-guaranteed loans on their own balance sheet. The government’s goal is stop adding these loans to “pure public” debt, paid by taxpayers directly through the budget.

Privatization Program

Ghana currently has no formal privatization program, however the current government is prioritizing the creation of public private partnerships (PPPs) to restructure and privatize non-performing state-owned enterprises. Procuring PPPs is allowed under the National Policy on Public Private Partnerships in Ghana which was adopted in June 2011.A draft PPP law is with parliament for approval.

8. Responsible Business ConductShare    

There is no specific responsible business conduct law in Ghana and the government has no action plan regarding OECD RBC guidelines.

Ghana has been a member of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative since 2010. The government also enrolled in the Voluntary Principles on Security Human Rights in 2014, making Ghana the only African country in the initiative.

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a growing concern among Ghanaian companies. The Ghana Club 100 is a ranking of the top performing companies, as determined by GIPC. It is based on several criteria, including a 10 percent weight assigned to corporate social responsibility, including philanthropy. Ghanaian consumers are not generally interested in the CSR activities of private companies, with the exception of the extractive industries (whose CSR efforts seem to attract consumer, government and media attention). In particular, there is a widespread expectation that extractive sector companies will involve themselves in substantial philanthropic activities in the communities in which they have operations. The relatively free Ghanaian press has often advertised CSR projects sponsored by major extractive sector companies, foreign or domestic.

9. CorruptionShare    

Corruption in Ghana is comparatively less prevalent than in other countries in the region, but remains a problem. The government has a relatively strong anti-corruption legal framework in place, but faces challenges with enforcement. A few American firms have identified corruption as the main obstacle to foreign direct investment. Ghana's 2016 score and ranking on the Transparency International Global Corruption Perceptions Index dropped to 70 out of 176 (from 56 in 2015). Corruption in government institutions is pervasive. In 2016, there were a number of corruption allegations involving government officials. Shortly before the December 7 election, media and local civil society organization OccupyGhana reported the government awarded a contract worth 35 million cedis (approximately $9 million) to a business owned by controversial businessman Alfred Woyome. In 2014, Ghana’s Supreme Court ordered Woyome to pay back 51 million cedis (approximately $13 million) for unfulfilled public works contracts awarded by the government in 2010. In June 2016, media reported that then-President Mahama accepted an SUV worth approximately $60,000 as a “gift” from a businessman in Burkina-Faso bidding on three government contracts.

Commercial fraud in the form of scams is common in Ghana. Similar to the better-known Nigerian "419" scams, Ghana’s homegrown ‘Sakawa’ fraud typically originates through unsolicited email proposals. The most common fraud scams are procurement offers tied to alleged Ghanaian government or, more frequently, ECOWAS programs. U.S. companies frequently report being contacted by an unknown Ghanaian firm claiming to be an authorized agent of an official government procurement agency. Foreign firms that express an interest in being included in potential procurements are lured into paying a series of fees to have their companies registered or products qualified for sale in Ghana or the West Africa region. U.S. companies receiving offers from West Africa from unknown sources should use extreme caution and conduct significant due-diligence prior to pursuing these offers.

There have also been a number of commercially oriented scams whose sole aim is to fraudulently obtain U.S. visas. One particularly notable criminal enterprise involved a fake U.S. Embassy that operated in Accra for more than 10 years selling fake and stolen U.S. passports and visas to unsuspecting customers. American firms can request background checks on companies with whom they wish to do business by using the United States Commercial Service's International Company Profile (ICP). Requests for ICPs should be made through the nearest United States Export Assistance Center. For more information about the United States Commercial Service, visit www.export.gov/ghana.

Offering the sale of gold or gemstones at discount prices is also a common form of fraud in Ghana. Buyers of gold and diamonds are strongly advised to deal directly with the Precious Minerals Marketing Company (PMMC) in Ghana. Gold and diamonds can be exported legally from Ghana only through the PMMC and prices are based solely on the London Exchange price on the day of export. No discounting or negotiation of prices prior to export by the PMMC is valid.

Bribery is common in the judicial system and across public services. Companies report that bribes are often exchanged in return for favorable judicial decisions. Large corruption cases are prosecuted, but proceedings are lengthy and convictions are slow. A 2015 undercover film by journalist Anas Aremeyaw Anas captured video of judges and other judicial officials extorting bribes from litigants to manipulate the justice system. Thirty-four judges were implicated, and 25 were dismissed following the revelations, though to date none have been criminally prosecuted.

The Government of Ghana has taken steps to amend laws on public financial administration and public procurement. The public procurement law, passed in January 2004, seeks to harmonize the many public procurement guidelines used in the country and also to bring public procurement into conformity with WTO standards. The law aims to improve accountability, value for money, transparency and efficiency in the use of public resources. However, some civil society observers have criticized the law as inadequate. Notwithstanding the procurement law, companies cannot expect complete transparency in locally funded contracts. There continue to be allegations of corruption in the tender process and the government has in the past set aside international tender awards in the name of national interest.

The 1992 Constitution established the Commission for Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ). Among other things, the Commission is charged with investigating alleged and suspected corruption and the misappropriation of public funds by officials. The Commission is also authorized to take appropriate steps, including providing reports to the Attorney General and the Auditor-General in response to such investigations. The Commission has a mandate to investigate alleged offenders when there is sufficient evidence to initiate legal actions. The Commission, however, is under-resourced and largely ineffective, conducting few investigations leading to prosecutions. In November 2015, President Mahama fired the CHRAJ Commissioner after she was under investigated for misappropriating public funds.

In 1998, the Government of Ghana also established an anti-corruption institution, called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO), to investigate corrupt practices involving both private and public institutions. SFO’s name was changed to Economic and Organized Crime Office (EOCO) in 2010 and its functions were expanded to include crimes such as money laundering and other organized crimes. EOCO is empowered to initiate prosecutions and to recover proceeds from criminal activities. The government passed a “Whistle Blower” law in July 2006, intended to encourage Ghanaian citizens to volunteer information on corrupt practices to appropriate government agencies. In December 2006, CHRAJ issued guidelines on conflict of interest to public sector workers. In December 2009, CHRAJ and the government issued a new Code of Conduct for Public Officers in Ghana with guidelines on conflicts of interest.

A National Anti-Corruption Action Plan was developed by the CHRAJ and approved by the Parliament in July 2014, but many of its provisions have not been implemented due to lack of resources.

President Akufo-Addo's administration has vowed to combat corruption and announced specific steps the government plans to undertake in 2017 to promote better transparency and accountability. These include: amending the 1960 Criminal Offenses Act to make corruption a felony; passing a Right to Information Bill to increase transparency; strengthening enforcement of Ghana’s Public Procurement Act to reduce sole-source contracts; and establishing an Office of Independent Prosecutor to pursue corruption cases (although questions remain about the office’s independence, the nominee - who has close personal and professional ties to the ruling party, and feasibility as creation of an office anywhere but under the control of the current Attorney General would require a constitutional change and a national referendum).

Like most other African countries, Ghana is not a signatory to the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery.

Resources to Report Corruption

Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ)
Old Parliament House, High Street, Accra
Postal Address: Box AC 489, Accra
Phone: 0302- 662150/ 664267/ 664561/ 668839
Fax: 0302- 660020/ 668840/ 680396/ 673677
Email: info@chrajghana.com
Website: http://www.chrajghana.com/

Economic and Organized Crime Office (EOCO)
Tel +233 30 266 9995
Tel +233 30 266 7485
Tel +233 30 266 4786
Website: http://mail.eoco.org.gh/aboutus.html

10. Political and Security EnvironmentShare    

Ghana offers a relatively stable and predictable political environment for American investors. Ghana has a solid democratic tradition. In December 2016, Ghana completed its seventh consecutive peaceful presidential and parliamentary elections. Opposition New Patriotic Party (NPP) candidate Nana Akufo-Addo defeated incumbent President and National Democratic Congress (NDC) candidate John Mahama by a margin of over one million votes. Mahama conceded the election and power was transferred to the NPP peacefully. There were isolated cases of politically-motivated violence but no widespread civil disturbances.

11. Labor Policies and PracticesShare    

Ghana has a large pool of unskilled labor. English is widely spoken, especially in urban areas. However, according to the United Nations, illiteracy remains high at 33 percent. Labor regulations and policies are generally favorable to business. Although labor-management relationships are generally positive, there are occasional labor disagreements stemming from wage policies in Ghana's inflationary environment. Many employers find it advantageous to maintain open lines of communication on wage calculations and incentive packages. A revised Labor Law of 2003 (Act 651) unified and modified the old labor laws to bring them into conformity with the core principles of the International Labor Convention, to which Ghana is a signatory. A number of labor-related laws, except the Children's Law (Act 560), have been repealed.

Under the Labor Law, the Chief Labor Officer issues collective bargaining agreements (CBA) in lieu of the Trade Union Congress (TUC). This change limited the TUC's influence, since the prior CBA provisions implicitly compelled all unions to be part of TUC. Also, instead of the labor court, a National Labor Commission was established to resolve labor and industrial disputes, and the Tripartite Committee that sets the minimum wage was given legal authority.

There is no legal requirement for labor participation in management. However, many businesses utilize joint consultative committees in which management and employees meet to discuss issues affecting business productivity and labor issues.

There are no statutory requirements for profit sharing, but fringe benefits in the form of year-end bonuses and retirement benefits are generally included in collective bargaining agreements. Child labor remains a problem. Children in Ghana are engaged in the worst forms of child labor in agriculture, including in cocoa, and in fishing. Fish (including tilapia) is included on the U.S. government's Executive Order 13126 List of Goods Produced by Forced and Indentured Child Labor. Additionally, cocoa, fish, gold, and tilapia are included on the U.S. government's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor. Post recommends consulting a local attorney for detailed advice regarding labor issues. The United States Embassy in Accra maintains a list of local attorneys, which is available through the Foreign Commercial Section (www.export.gov/ghana).

12. OPIC and Other Investment Insurance ProgramsShare    

Ghana has signed an agreement with the Overseas Private Investment Cooperation (OPIC). OPIC is actively launching several investment funds in Ghana, which are sources of information and financing for local investment. The African Project Development Facility (APDF) and the African investment program of the International Finance Corporation are other sources of information. OPIC has also pledged to support Power Africa by facilitating financing for large scale power projects.

13. Foreign Direct Investment and Foreign Portfolio Investment StatisticsShare    

Table 2: Key Macroeconomic Data, U.S. FDI in Host Country/Economy

 

Host Country Statistical Source

USG or International Statistical Source

USG or International Source of Data:
BEA; IMF; Eurostat; UNCTAD, Other

Economic Data

Year

Amount

Year

Amount

 

Host Country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ($M USD)

2015

$ 36,739

2015

$37,543

www.worldbank.org/en/country

Foreign Direct Investment

Host Country Statistical Source

USG or International Statistical Source

USG or International Source of Data:
BEA; IMF; Eurostat; UNCTAD, Other

U.S. FDI in partner country ($M USD, stock positions)

N/A

N/A

2013

3,140

BEA data available at http://bea.gov/international/direct_investment_
multinational_companies_comprehensive_data.htm

Host country’s FDI in the United States ($M USD, stock positions)

N/A

N/A

2015

-15

BEA data available at http://bea.gov/international/direct_investment_
multinational_companies_comprehensive_data.htm

Total inbound stock of FDI as % host GDP

N/A

N/A

2015

70

http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/wir2016_en.pdf


Table 3: Sources and Destination of FDI

Direct Investment from/in Counterpart Economy Data

From Top Five Sources/To Top Five Destinations (US Dollars, Millions)

Inward Direct Investment

Outward Direct Investment

Total Inward

7,684

100%

Total Outward

Amount

100%

Ireland

1,886

25%

N/A

N/A

N/A

Cayman Islands

1,607

21%

N/A

N/A

N/A

South Africa

1,559

20%

N/A

N/A

N/A

France

1,546

20%

N/A

N/A

N/A

Canada

700

9%

N/A

N/A

N/A

"0" reflects amounts rounded to +/- USD 500,000.

Source: IMF Coordinated Direct Investment Survey, 2014
Note: Outward direct investment information is not available.


Table 4: Sources of Portfolio Investment

Data not available.

14. Contact for More InformationShare    

Margo Siemer
Economic Section
No. 24 Fourth Circular Road, Cantonments, Accra, Ghana
233-030-274-1000
SiemerME@state.gov