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Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs) are foreign organizations that are designated by the Secretary of State in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended. FTO designations play a critical role in our fight against terrorism and are an effective means of curtailing support for terrorist activities and pressuring groups to get out of the terrorism business.

Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations

Date Designated Name
December 1, 2021 Segunda Marquetalia
December 1, 2021 Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army (FARC-EP)
March 11, 2021 ISIS-DRC
March 11, 2021 ISIS-Mozambique
January 14, 2021 Harakat Sawa’d Misr (HASM)
January 10, 2020 Asa’ib Ahl al-Haq (AAH)
April 15, 2019 Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC)
September 6, 2018 Jama’at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin (JNIM)
July 11, 2018 al-Ashtar Brigades (AAB)
May 23, 2018 ISIS-Greater Sahara
February 28, 2018 ISIS-West Africa
February 28, 2018 ISIS-Philippines
February 28, 2018 ISIS-Bangladesh
August 17, 2017 Hizbul Mujahideen (HM)
July 1, 2016 Al-Qa’ida in the Indian Subcontinent
May 20, 2016 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant’s Branch in Libya (ISIL-Libya)
January 14, 2016 Islamic State’s Khorasan Province (ISIS-K)
September 30, 2015 Jaysh Rijal al-Tariq al Naqshabandi (JRTN)
May 15, 2014 al-Nusrah Front
April 10, 2014 ISIL Sinai Province (formerly Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis)
January 13, 2014 Ansar al-Shari’a in Benghazi
January 13, 2014 Ansar al-Shari’a in Darnah
January 13, 2014 Ansar al-Shari’a in Tunisia
December 19, 2013 al-Mulathamun Battalion (AMB)
November 14, 2013 Ansaru
November 14, 2013 Boko Haram
March 22, 2013 Ansar al-Dine (AAD)
September 19, 2012 Haqqani Network (HQN)
May 30, 2012 Abdallah Azzam Brigades (AAB)
March 13, 2012 Jemaah Anshorut Tauhid (JAT)
September 19, 2011 Indian Mujahedeen (IM)
May 23, 2011 Army of Islam (AOI)
November 4, 2010 Jaysh al-Adl (formerly Jundallah)
September 1, 2010 Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP)
August 6, 2010 Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami (HUJI)
January 19, 2010 al-Qa’ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
July 2, 2009 Kata’ib Hizballah (KH)
May 18, 2009 Revolutionary Struggle (RS)
March 18, 2008 al-Shabaab
March 5, 2008 Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJI-B)
June 17, 2005 Islamic Jihad Union (IJU)
December 17, 2004 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (formerly al-Qa’ida in Iraq)
July 13, 2004 Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA)
March 22, 2004 Ansar al-Islam (AAI)
January 30, 2003 Lashkar i Jhangvi (LJ)
October 23, 2002 Jemaah Islamiya (JI)
August 9, 2002 Communist Party of the Philippines/New People’s Army (CPP/NPA)
March 27, 2002 al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)
March 27, 2002 Asbat al-Ansar (AAA)
March 27, 2002 Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade (AAMB)
December 26, 2001 Lashkar-e Tayyiba (LeT)
December 26, 2001 Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM)
May 16, 2001 Real Irish Republican Army (RIRA)
September 25, 2000 Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)
October 8, 1999 al-Qa’ida (AQ)
October 8, 1997 Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)
October 8, 1997 HAMAS
October 8, 1997 Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM)
October 8, 1997 Hizballah
October 8, 1997 Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK, aka Kongra-Gel)
October 8, 1997 Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)
October 8, 1997 National Liberation Army (ELN)
October 8, 1997 Palestine Liberation Front (PLF)
October 8, 1997 Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ)
October 8, 1997 Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)
October 8, 1997 PFLP-General Command (PFLP-GC)
October 8, 1997 Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C)
October 8, 1997 Shining Path (SL)

Delisted Foreign Terrorist Organizations

Date Removed Name Date Originally Designated
May 20, 2022 Aum Shinrikyo (AUM) October 8, 1997
May 20, 2022 Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) October 8, 1997
May 20, 2022 Gama’a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group – IG) October 8, 1997
May 20, 2022 Kahane Chai (Kach) October 8, 1997
May 20, 2022 Mujahidin Shura Council in the Environs of Jerusalem (MSC) August 20, 2014
December 1, 2021 Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) October 8, 1997
February 16, 2021 Ansarallah January 19, 2021
June 1, 2017 Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) October 8, 1997
December 9, 2015 Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) December 17, 2004
September 3, 2015 Revolutionary Organization 17 November (17N) October 8, 1997
July 15, 2014 United Self Defense Forces of Colombia September 10, 2001
May 28, 2013 Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group (GICM) October 11, 2005
September 28, 2012 Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK) October 8, 1997
October 15, 2010 Armed Islamic Group (GIA) October 8, 1997
May 18, 2009 Revolutionary Nuclei October 8, 1997
October 8, 2001 Tupac Amaru Revolution Movement October 8, 1997
October 8, 2001 Japanese Red Army October 8, 1997
October 8, 1999 Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front Dissidents October 8, 1997
October 8, 1999 Khmer Rouge October 8, 1997
October 8, 1999 Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine -Hawatmeh Faction October 8, 1997

Identification

The Bureau of Counterterrorism in the State Department (CT) continually monitors the activities of terrorist groups active around the world to identify potential targets for designation. When reviewing potential targets, CT looks not only at the actual terrorist attacks that a group has carried out, but also at whether the group has engaged in planning and preparations for possible future acts of terrorism or retains the capability and intent to carry out such acts.

Designation

Once a target is identified, CT prepares a detailed “administrative record,” which is a compilation of information, typically including both classified and open sources information, demonstrating that the statutory criteria for designation have been satisfied. If the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Attorney General and the Secretary of the Treasury, decides to make the designation, Congress is notified of the Secretary’s intent to designate the organization and given seven days to review the designation, as the INA requires. Upon the expiration of the seven-day waiting period and in the absence of Congressional action to block the designation, notice of the designation is published in the Federal Register, at which point the designation takes effect. By law an organization designated as an FTO may seek judicial review of the designation in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit not later than 30 days after the designation is published in the Federal Register.

Until recently the INA provided that FTOs must be redesignated every 2 years or the designation would lapse. Under the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA), however, the redesignation requirement was replaced by certain review and revocation procedures. IRTPA provides that an FTO may file a petition for revocation 2 years after its designation date (or in the case of redesignated FTOs, its most recent redesignation date) or 2 years after the determination date on its most recent petition for revocation. In order to provide a basis for revocation, the petitioning FTO must provide evidence that the circumstances forming the basis for the designation are sufficiently different as to warrant revocation. If no such review has been conducted during a 5 year period with respect to a designation, then the Secretary of State is required to review the designation to determine whether revocation would be appropriate. In addition, the Secretary of State may at any time revoke a designation upon a finding that the circumstances forming the basis for the designation have changed in such a manner as to warrant revocation, or that the national security of the United States warrants a revocation. The same procedural requirements apply to revocations made by the Secretary of State as apply to designations. A designation may be revoked by an Act of Congress, or set aside by a Court order.

Legal Criteria for Designation under Section 219 of the INA as amended

  1. It must be a foreign organization.
  2. The organization must engage in terrorist activity, as defined in section 212 (a)(3)(B) of the INA (8 U.S.C. § 1182(a)(3)(B)),or terrorism, as defined in section 140(d)(2) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 (22 U.S.C. § 2656f(d)(2)), or retain the capability and intent to engage in terrorist activity or terrorism.
  3. The organization’s terrorist activity or terrorism must threaten the security of U.S. nationals or the national security (national defense, foreign relations, or the economic interests) of the United States.

Legal Ramifications of Designation

  1. It is unlawful for a person in the United States or subject to the jurisdiction of the United States to knowingly provide “material support or resources” to a designated FTO. (The term “material support or resources” is defined in 18 U.S.C. § 2339A(b)(1) as ” any property, tangible or intangible, or service, including currency or monetary instruments or financial securities, financial services, lodging, training, expert advice or assistance, safehouses, false documentation or identification, communications equipment, facilities, weapons, lethal substances, explosives, personnel (1 or more individuals who maybe or include oneself), and transportation, except medicine or religious materials.” 18 U.S.C. § 2339A(b)(2) provides that for these purposes “the term ‘training’ means instruction or teaching designed to impart a specific skill, as opposed to general knowledge.” 18 U.S.C. § 2339A(b)(3) further provides that for these purposes the term ‘expert advice or assistance’ means advice or assistance derived from scientific, technical or other specialized knowledge.’’
  2. Representatives and members of a designated FTO, if they are aliens, are inadmissible to and, in certain circumstances, removable from the United States (see 8 U.S.C. §§ 1182 (a)(3)(B)(i)(IV)-(V), 1227 (a)(1)(A)).
  3. Any U.S. financial institution that becomes aware that it has possession of or control over funds in which a designated FTO or its agent has an interest must retain possession of or control over the funds and report the funds to the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

Other Effects of Designation

  1. Supports our efforts to curb terrorism financing and to encourage other nations to do the same.
  2. Stigmatizes and isolates designated terrorist organizations internationally.
  3. Deters donations or contributions to and economic transactions with named organizations.
  4. Heightens public awareness and knowledge of terrorist organizations.
  5. Signals to other governments our concern about named organizations.

Revocations of Foreign Terrorist Organizations

The Immigration and Nationality Act sets out three possible basis for revoking a Foreign Terrorist Organization designation:

  1. The Secretary of State must revoke a designation if the Secretary finds that the circumstances that were the basis of the designation have changed in such a manner as to warrant a revocation;
  2. The Secretary of State must revoke a designation if the Secretary finds that the national security of the United States warrants a revocation;
  3. The Secretary of State may revoke a designation at any time.

Any revocation shall take effect on the date specified in the revocation or upon publication in the Federal Register if no effective date is specified. The revocation of a designation shall not affect any action or proceeding based on conduct committed prior to the effective date of such revocation.

U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future