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This page provides the text equivalent to a graphic on the “Russia’s Filtration Operations and Forced Relocations” page.


Individuals are detained and taken to filtration waypoints, or stopped at filtration checkpoints. Individuals are temporarily detained and evaluated for their perceived threat.


Those deemed most threatening are probably detained and imprisoned in eastern Ukraine or Russia. Little is known about their fates.


Those deemed less threatening but still hostile are probably forcibly deported to Russia.


Those deemed nonthreatening are probably either issued documentation and permitted to remain in Ukraine or forcibly deported to Russia.

U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future