Annual Report on Assistance Related to International Terrorism Fiscal Year 2014
The United States has made significant strides over the last decade in degrading al-Qa’ida’s core leadership, but still faces enduring and dynamic terrorist threats. These threats have become more geographically dispersed than ever with the rapid rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), the decentralization of al-Qa’ida and its affiliates, the flow of foreign terrorist fighters to Iraq and Syria, and continued resonance of violent extremist ideology. In his commencement speech at West Point in May 2014, President Obama underscored that the U.S. government must strengthen the capacity and cooperation of a broad range of partners who can help disrupt and degrade these diffuse threats. The U.S. Department of State seeks to expand counterterrorism partnerships and capacity around the world to disrupt terrorist plots, degrade terrorist capabilities, and counter violent extremism.
This report includes descriptions of how the Department of State has used various programs during FY 2014 to strengthen efforts, partnerships, and capacity around the world to address evolving terrorism challenges. In addition, this report describes programs that may have other primary purposes that contribute indirectly but substantially to countering international terrorism. Examples of these programs include criminal justice assistance provided by the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement, as well as assistance related to nonproliferation and destruction of conventional weapons provided by the Bureaus of International Security and Nonproliferation, and Political and Military Affairs.
Programs and Initiatives
Antiterrorism Assistance Program (ATA)
In FY 2014, $168.058 million in Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining, and Related programs (NADR) funds supported 537 courses, workshops, and technical consultations that trained 11,293 participants from 49 countries through the ATA program. Two new courses were developed to provide our partner nations with additional law enforcement tools, and 13 courses were revised to ensure that training products remained innovative. ATA conducted a total of 15 assessments in FY 2014 that looked at the ATA program in a given country, from policy and strategy to implementation and operations.
ATA capacity building programs over the course of several years paid dividends in a number of areas in FY 2014, including through the protective services provided by ATA-trained law enforcement during the September 2014 presidential inauguration in Kabul, and through the enhanced skills displayed by ATA-trained Nigerian bomb technicians charged with countering Boko Haram improvised explosive devices attacks. In addition, ATA regional training efforts progressed as the program developed and strengthened force-multiplying partnerships with Morocco and Colombia so those countries have the capacity to train law enforcement in third countries in their regions.
Counterterrorism Engagement (CTE)
The CTE program builds political will among foreign officials and civil societies and helps multilateral organizations promote more effective policies and programs. In FY 2014, CTE implemented $12.3 million of NADR/CTE, NADR/ATA, NADR/ATA-Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO), and Emergency Support Funds- OCO. Funding supported the activities and initiatives of the Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF) and its related institutions, the United Nations, and other multilateral and regional organizations.
CTE-funded activities included: the development and implementation of workshops conducted by the UN Counter-Terrorism Centre focusing on International Good Practices on Addressing and Preventing Kidnapping for Ransom; a GCTF initiative on the development of a platform for strengthening informal judicial cooperation and coordination across the Sahel and Maghreb; funding for the International Institute on Justice and the Rule of Law in Malta, which focuses on delivering training to countries in North, West, and East Africa on such topics as criminal justice/rule of law approaches to counterterrorism; and the Global Community Engagement and Resilience Fund (GCERF), the first-ever public-private global fund to support local, grass-roots efforts to counter violent extremism.
Terrorist Interdiction Program (TIP)
Through the Terrorist Interdiction Program/Personal Identification Secure Comparison and Evaluation System (TIP/PISCES), $39.876 million in NADR funds will be used to sustain, upgrade, and expand TIP/PISCES system capabilities at 210 ports of entry (POEs) in 21 countries, including biometric equipment upgrades at 85 POEs in 16 countries. With the signing of Memorandums of Intention (MOI), Chad, Burkina Faso, and the Maldives became the newest PISCES partner countries. During the January-February 2014 initial installation in Burkina Faso, TIP/PISCES staff installed PISCES hardware at Ouagadougou International Airport and at Central headquarters, and trained 105 host nation officers, and five System Administrators. Worldwide, TIP/PISCES processed an estimated 250,000 travelers every day in 2014.
Countering Violent Extremism (CVE)
CVE programs aim to deny terrorism new recruits by reducing sympathy and support within communities for violent extremism by: (1) building resilience among those at-risk of recruitment and radicalization to violence; (2) countering violent extremist narratives and messaging; and (3) developing partner-nation and civil-society capacity and political will to counter violent extremism.
Most CVE programming uses Economic Support Funds (ESF) or NADR authorities, with $7 million implemented in FY 2014 ($5 million ESF, $2 million NADR). In FY 2014, six NADR/ATA-funded CVE Local Grant Program projects developed cooperation between local law enforcement and community leaders in order to educate youth about terrorism, create and sustain communication strategies to build mutual understanding, and implement counter-narrative campaigns against potentially conflict-inciting messages.
In FY 2014, ESF funds were used in 16 countries for community-oriented policing for CVE, media and CVE messaging, and CVE engagement and training for diaspora communities. Funds were also used to continue supporting a global network of women committed to countering violent extremism in their communities, and sensitizing women to the role they can play in developing strategies to counter terrorism.
Counterterrorist Finance (CTF) Training
In FY 2014, CTF programming funded $14.64 million in capacity-building programs. NADR/CTF-funding continued to support Resident Legal Advisors (RLAs) from the DOJ’s Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance, and Training (DOJ/OPDAT) in Algeria, Bangladesh, Kenya, Panama, Turkey, and the UAE. This funding also helped dispatch a CTF-focused RLA to Senegal. These RLAs assisted their host governments to develop the legal frameworks needed to counter terrorism and terrorist financing, to train prosecutors to effectively present those cases, and to educate judges on how best to adjudicate them. Funding supported RLAs in the Philippines and Indonesia to provide CTF programs in addition to their primary functions. DOJ’s Office of Asset Forfeiture and Money Laundering (AFMLS) with NADR CTF funds also deployed subject matter experts to countries to assist them in drafting and understanding how to implement laws and regulations on seizing, confiscating, and forfeiture of illicit proceeds and monies linked to terrorist organizations and financiers. The Department of Treasury’s Financial Enforcement Network conducted several analytical exchanges with foreign financial intelligence units; the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation conducted a series of regionally-based courses on financial regulatory management; the Internal Revenue Service taught forensic accounting and investigative techniques used to examine financial records to uncover hidden assets; the Federal Bureau of Investigation conducted international training in countering terrorist financing, money laundering, financial fraud, and complex financial crimes; and the Department of Homeland Security’s Office of Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) conducted capacity-building efforts through cross-border financial investigations training and advisor programs that provided foreign partners with the capability to effectively implement relevant Financial Action Task Force recommendations.
Regional Strategic Initiative (RSI)
RSI is critical to enabling flexible civilian responses to rapidly evolving threats, and building the regional capacity, partnerships and cooperation necessary to counter the most serious threats facing the U.S. Current efforts focus on stemming the flow of foreign fighters to Syria and Iraq, countering terrorist safe havens, counter-ISIL messaging, and countering Hizballah’s activities.
In FY 2014, through RSI, the Bureau of Counterterrorism supported a wide variety of projects focused on regional law enforcement cooperation and effectiveness against transnational threats. Examples of projects funded by RSI in FY 2014 include the standing up of an interagency counterterrorism fusion center for a partner in North Africa,; support to develop partner ability to manage sophisticated terrorism and transnational crime cases in Southeast Asia; and trainings that engaged key governments in multiple sectors (finance, security, rule of law) to ensure that al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb does not benefit from kidnapping for ransom.
Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) Threat Reduction
In FY 2014, $10 million in NADR Conventional Weapons Destruction funds were provided to secure or destroy at-risk or illicitly proliferated MANPADS, as part of a program to prevent acquisition of these and other advanced conventional weapons by terrorists, insurgents, or other non-state actors. Since the program's inception in FY 2003, these efforts have led to the reduction of over 33,800 MANPADS in 38 countries, and improved security and management systems for thousands more MANPADS.
The Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism (WMDT) Program
In FY 2014, WMDT received $5 million in NADR funding for projects that improved international capabilities to prevent, detect, and respond to radiological and nuclear terrorist attacks. Funding supported the U.S. co-chaired Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) and Counter Nuclear Smuggling activities. The WMDT program facilitated the continued operation of GICNT Working Groups in Nuclear Forensics, Nuclear Detection, and Response and Mitigation; with all three working groups developing focused best practices guidelines and encouraging collaboration between partner countries through tabletop exercises, workshops, and other activities. Counter Nuclear Smuggling engagements provided direct assistance to countries to find and fix critical vulnerabilities in at-risk states through providing long-term capacity building and fostering sustainability in: the development of national counter nuclear smuggling teams/task forces and strengthening investigative capacities; nuclear smuggling response; nuclear forensics capabilities; and the ability to successfully prosecute smugglers and associated criminals.
The Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program
In FY 2014, CTR received $71.908 million in FY 2014 NADR funding for efforts to prevent terrorists and proliferant states from acquiring WMD-related expertise, materials, technologies, and equipment. The CTR program rapidly targets funds to mitigate emerging threats and has surged to address urgent chemical, biological, and nuclear threats in Iraq, Pakistan, and the countries that border Syria. The CTR program implements the only U.S. chemical security program aimed at securing weaponizable chemicals abroad, and promotes safe and responsible scientific practices for dual-use chemical professionals. The CTR program helps strengthen laboratory bio-risk management in order to reduce the risk of bioterrorism, and implements pathogen security activities in high threat regions. Additionally, CTR seeks to reduce the risk that non-state actors or proliferant states could develop an improvised nuclear device by promoting a self-sufficient nuclear security culture.
This report is submitted to fulfill the requirement for an annual report on the assistance related to international terrorism codified at 22 U.S.C. § 2349aa-7(b). During FY 2014, the U.S. government provided assistance related to international terrorism through the Departments of State, Homeland Security, Justice, and Treasury, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. This report does not include assistance related to international terrorism provided through the Department of Defense.